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Kodex für buddhistische
Einsiedler I: Kapitel 8.3
Kodex für buddhistische Einsiedler I
Pācittiya: Das Ermunterung Chapter
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21. Should any bhikkhu, unauthorized, exhort the bhikkhunīs, it is to be confessed.
„Now at that time, elder bhikkhus exhorting the bhikkhunīs became recipients of robes, alms, lodgings, and medicines for the sick. (According to the Kommentar, if a bhikkhu gave a good exhortation to the bhikkhunīs, they would tell their supporters, who in turn would provide the exhorter with requisites.) The thought occurred to some group-of-six bhikkhus: 'At present, elder bhikkhus exhorting the bhikkhunīs have become recipients of robes, alms, lodgings, and medicines for the sick. Let's exhort the bhikkhunīs, too.' So, having approached the bhikkhunīs, they said, 'Come, sisters, go to us too, and we'll exhort you as well.'
„So the bhikkhunīs went to the group-of-six bhikkhus and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. Then the group-of-six bhikkhus, after giving just a trifling Dhamma talk and spending the day with animal talk, dismissed the bhikkhunīs: 'You may go, sisters.'
„Then the bhikkhunīs went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed to him, stood to one side. As they were standing there, the Blessed One said to them: 'I hope the exhortation was effective, bhikkhunīs.'
“'Venerable sir, from where would the exhortation be effective? The group-of-six bhikkhus, giving just a trifling Dhamma talk, dismissed us after spending the day with animal talk.'“
When Mahāpajāpatī Gotamī, the Buddha's aunt and stepmother, asked him to establish an order of bhikkhunīs, he did so on the condition that she and all future bhikkhunīs accept eight rules of respect (garu-dhamma). (This term is sometimes translated as „heavy rules“ or „important rules,“ but the Kommentar explains it as meaning vows that the bhikkhunīs are to accept with respect.) In short:
This rule deals with the biweekly exhortation mentioned in the third vow. The pattern for the exhortation was that once a bhikkhu had been chosen by the bhikkhus to exhort the bhikkhunīs, he was to sweep the place for the exhortation within the monastery where he was dwelling, set out water for drinking and washing, arrange seats for the bhikkhunīs, find a male companion, and then sit waiting for the bhikkhunīs to arrive. When they had come, he was to ask if all the bhikkhunīs were present and if the eight rules of respect were being kept up (§). (According to the Kommentar, this last question means, „Are they kept memorized so that they are fresh in the memory?“) If they weren't, he was to recite the eight rules. If they were, he was to present an exhortation.
Because the eight rules form the heart of the exhortation, the two factors for the full offense under this rule are defined as follows:
Object. A bhikkhunī had to undergo a double ordination, first in the Bhikkhunī Saṅgha and then in the Bhikkhu Saṅgha, before she was considered fully ordained. Thus only a bhikkhunī with the full double ordination is grounds for a pācittiya here. A bhikkhunī who has received only her first ordination, from the Bhikkhunī Saṅgha, is grounds for a dukkaṭa, while female trainees and female novices are not grounds for an offense.
Effort. A bhikkhu, not properly authorized, who exhorts the bhikkhunīs on any topic other than the eight rules incurs a dukkaṭa.
The authorization. When this rule was still newly formulated, some group-of-six bhikkhus simply authorized one another to continue exhorting the bhikkhunīs. This forced the Buddha to establish stringent standards for the type of bhikkhu who could properly be authorized. They were, in short:
With regard to the first of these qualifications, Cv.II.1.2 notes that a bhikkhu undergoing penance or probation for a saṅghādisesa offense should not accept an authorization to exhort the bhikkhunīs; even if authorized, he should not exhort them. The same restriction applies to bhikkhus undergoing the duties imposed by a transaction of censure, further punishment, demotion, banishment, suspension, or reconciliation. (See BMC2, Kapitel 20. For more details on the authorization procedures, see BMC2, Kapitel 23.)
As the Kommentar notes, the group-of-six bhikkhus never possessed the above eight qualities even in their dreams.
One's perception as to whether one was properly authorized is not a factor here (see Pc 4).
Non-offenses. Although this rule grew from a time when bhikkhus were eager to exhort the bhikkhunīs, times changed. The Cullavagga (X.9.5) deals with a period when the bhikkhus tried to avoid exhorting the bhikkhunīs, and Cv.X.9.4 tells what should be done when there is no bhikkhu qualified to exhort them. (The bhikkhus were to tell them, „Strive for completion (in the practice) in an amicable way.“)
Even in these cases, though, the bhikkhunīs were not left adrift. They could approach any bhikkhu they admired and ask him for instruction. Thus the Vibhaṅga's non-offense clauses here say, „There is no offense when, having given the exposition, having given the interrogation, and then, after being requested by the bhikkhunīs to recite, he recites.“ According to the Kommentar, „exposition“ here means a recitation of the eight rules in Pali, whereas „interrogation“ means the ancient commentary on the eight rules. This last is hardly likely. What seems more likely is that „exposition“ means establishing that the bhikkhunīs have all come; „interrogation,“ questioning them as to whether they have memorized the eight rules. At any rate, the Kommentar goes on to say that, when a bhikkhu has been invited like this, he is free to speak about the eight rules or any other Dhamma topic without offense. Again, this seems unlikely, for the Vibhaṅga is very precise in the terminology it uses for the various stages leading up to the exhortation, and recites (osāreti) is not the verb it uses for speaking about a topic. Instead, it usually means repeating a passage from memory.
However, there is a non-offense clause in the Vibhaṅga that allows for an unauthorized bhikkhu to exhort a bhikkhunī (or bhikkhunīs) on the eight rules or any other topic in the following situation: if, being asked a question by a bhikkhunī, one answers her question. There is also no offense if a bhikkhunī happens to overhear any instruction one is giving for the sake of another person.
Subsidiary rules. The Vibhaṅga to this rule includes a discussion of three subsidiary rules related to the exhortation of the bhikkhunīs:
Summary: Exhorting a bhikkhunī about the eight rules of respect — except when one has been authorized to do so by the Community or asked a question by a bhikkhunī — is a pācittiya offense.
22. Should any bhikkhu, even if authorized, exhort the bhikkhunīs after sunset, it is to be confessed.
„Now at that time it was Ven. Cūḷapanthaka's turn to exhort the bhikkhunīs. The bhikkhunīs said, 'Today the exhortation won't be effective, for Master Cūḷapanthaka will simply say the same old stanza over and over again.'
„Then the bhikkhunīs went to Ven. Cūḷapanthaka and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As they were sitting there, Ven. Cūḷapanthaka said to them, 'Are you all present, sisters?'
“'Yes, venerable sir, we are all present.'
“'Are the eight rules of respect being kept up?'
“'Yes, venerable sir, they are being kept up.'
„Having introduced (the exhortation, saying,) 'This, sisters, is the exhortation,' he said this stanza over and over again:
Heightened in mind and heedful,
the sage trained in sagacity's ways:\\ He has no sorrows, one who is Such,\\ calmed and ever mindful.
„The bhikkhunīs said (to one another), 'Didn't we say so? Today the exhortation won't be effective, for now Master Cūḷapanthaka will simply say the same old stanza over and over again.'
„Ven. Cūḷapanthaka heard the bhikkhunīs' conversation. Rising up into the air, he walked back and forth in space, in the sky, stood, sat, lay down, emitted smoke, emitted flames, and disappeared, saying the same old stanza and many other sayings of the Buddha. The bhikkhunīs said, 'Isn't it amazing? Isn't it astounding? Never before has there been an exhortation as effective as Master Cūḷapanthaka's!'
„Then Ven. Cūḷapanthaka, having exhorted the bhikkhunīs until nightfall, dismissed them: 'You may go, sisters.' So the bhikkhunīs — the gates of the city being closed — spent the night outside the city walls and entered the city only after daybreak. People criticized and complained and spread it about, 'These bhikkhunīs are unchaste. Having spent the night with the bhikkhus in the monastery, only now are they entering the city.'“
The factors for the full offense here are two.
Object. As with the preceding rule, a bhikkhunī or group of bhikkhunīs who have received the double ordination are grounds for a pācittiya here. A bhikkhunī who has received only her first ordination, from the Bhikkhunī Saṅgha, is grounds for a dukkaṭa, while female trainees and female novices are not grounds for an offense.
Effort. One exhorts the bhikkhunī(s) about the eight rules or any other Dhamma after the sun has set. Perception as to whether the sun has actually set is not a mitigating factor here (see Pc 4).
Non-offenses. Although the origin story suggests that it is unwise in any case to teach bhikkhunīs after sunset — because of the suspicions that such an action may provoke — the non-offense clauses give more respect to the bhikkhunīs' desire for instruction than to the fear of gossiping lay people. As under the preceding rule, a bhikkhu may recite for the bhikkhunīs after sunset if, after he has given them the exposition and interrogation, they request that he recite. He also incurs no offense if he teaches any topic of Dhamma after sunset in response to a bhikkhunī's question, or if a bhikkhunī after sunset happens to overhear any instruction he is giving for the sake of another person.
Summary: Exhorting bhikkhunīs on any topic at all after sunset — except when they request it — is a pācittiya offense.
23. Should any bhikkhu, having gone to the bhikkhunīs' quarters, exhort the bhikkhunīs — except at the proper occasion — it is to be confessed. Here the proper occasion is this: A bhikkhunī is ill. This is the proper occasion here.
Here again there are two factors for the full offense:
Object: a bhikkhunī who is not ill. Ill means that she is unable to go to an exhortation or to an „affiliation“ (saṃvāsa), which the New K/Sub-commentary defines as a Community meeting such as the uposatha.
As with the preceding rule, a bhikkhunī or group of bhikkhunīs who have received the double ordination are grounds for a pācittiya here. A bhikkhunī who has received only her first ordination, from the Bhikkhunī Saṅgha, is grounds for a dukkaṭa, while female trainees and female novices are not grounds for an offense.
Effort. One goes to her residence — any place where a bhikkhunī has spent at least one night — and exhorts her concerning the eight rules of respect. Exhorting her about any other topic is grounds for a dukkaṭa. Perception with regard to her status as ordained is not a mitigating factor here (see Pc 4).
Non-offenses. As the rule states, there is no offense for the bhikkhu who goes to the bhikkhunīs' quarters to exhort an ill bhikkhunī. Otherwise, the non-offense clauses are identical with those for the preceding rule. Here again, a bhikkhunī's desire for instruction is considered more important than the suspicions of the laity.
Summary: Going to the bhikkhunīs' quarters and exhorting a bhikkhunī about the eight rules of respect — except when she is ill or has requested the instruction — is a pācittiya offense.
24. Should any bhikkhu say that the bhikkhus exhort the bhikkhunīs for the sake of worldly gain, it is to be confessed.
Here the factors for the full offense are three.
Object: a bhikkhu who has been properly authorized to teach the bhikkhunīs and who is not teaching for the sake of worldly gain: either material (robes, almsfood, lodgings, or medicine) or immaterial (honor, respect, reverence, homage, or veneration).
A bhikkhu who has not been properly authorized is grounds for a dukkaṭa, as is a non-ordained person, properly authorized or not. (The PTS edition of the Canon contains a wheel in which a person not properly authorized and perceived as not properly authorized is not grounds for an offense, but this contradicts the passages earlier in the Vibhaṅga which make the above points. The same wheel in the Thai, Burmese, and Sri Lankan editions is thus more correct in saying that a person not properly authorized and perceived as such is grounds for a dukkaṭa.)
Perception as to the validity of the bhikkhu's authorization is not a mitigating factor here. If it was valid, he is grounds for a pācittiya whether one perceives it as valid, invalid, or doubtful. If it was invalid, he is grounds for a dukkaṭa whether one perceives it as valid, invalid, or doubtful. This is another case where the pattern set out under Pc 4 does not hold.
Intention. One's motive is to make him lose face, lose status, or feel abashed (the same intention as under Pc 13).
Effort. One accuses him of teaching for the sake of worldly gain, as defined above.
Non-offenses. If the bhikkhu does actually teach for the sake of worldly gain, there is no offense in stating the facts of the case. However, as we noted in the similar case under Pc 13, this exemption does not apply in cases where one's perception that he teaches for the sake of worldly gain is mistaken, so one must be careful that one's perception is accurate.
Summary: Saying that a properly authorized bhikkhu exhorts the bhikkhunīs for the sake of worldly gain — when in fact that is not the case — is a pācittiya offense.
25. Should any bhikkhu give robe-cloth to a bhikkhunī unrelated to him, except in exchange, it is to be confessed.
This rule is the counterpart to NP 5. The full offense is composed of two factors: object and effort.
Object: any piece of robe-cloth of the six suitable kinds, measuring at least four by eight fingerbreadths. Other requisites are not grounds for an offense.
Effort. The bhikkhu gives the cloth to an unrelated bhikkhunī and does not receive anything from her in exchange.
Unrelated bhikkhunī here is defined in the same terms as under NP 4: a bhikkhunī who has received the double ordination and is not related to the bhikkhu back through their great x 7 grandfathers. An unrelated bhikkhunī who has received only her first ordination, from the bhikkhunīs, is grounds for a dukkaṭa. Female trainees and female novices are not grounds for an offense.
Perception as to whether the bhikkhunī is actually one's relative is not a mitigating factor here (see Pc 4).
The Kommentar states that the giving need not be hand-to-hand. If a bhikkhu simply places the cloth near a bhikkhunī as his way of giving it to her, and she accepts it as given, this factor is fulfilled.
As for the item given in exchange for the cloth, the Vibhaṅga states that it can be worth much more than the cloth or much less. Buddhaghosa quotes the Mahā Paccarī, one of the ancient commentaries, as saying that even if, in return for the cloth, the bhikkhunī gives the bhikkhu a piece of yellow myrobalan — a medicinal fruit, one of the cheapest things imaginable in India — he escapes the penalty under this rule.
Non-offenses. There is no offense if:
- the bhikkhunī is a relation;
- she is not related, but she gives one something in exchange;
- she takes the cloth on trust;
- she borrows the cloth;
- one gives her a non-cloth requisite; or
- one gives robe-cloth to a female trainee or female novice.
Summary: Giving robe-cloth to an unrelated bhikkhunī without receiving anything in exchange is a pācittiya offense.
26. Should any bhikkhu sew robe-cloth or have it sewn for a bhikkhunī unrelated to him, it is to be confessed.
„Now at that time Ven. Udāyin had become accomplished in making robes. A certain bhikkhunī went to him and on arrival said, 'It would be good, venerable sir, if you sewed me a robe.' So Ven. Udāyin, having sewed a robe for the bhikkhunī, having dyed it well and stitched it nicely, having embroidered an obscene design in the middle (a man and woman in mid-intercourse, done in full color, says the Kommentar), and having folded it up, placed it to one side. Then the bhikkhunī went to him and on arrival said, 'Where is the robe, venerable sir?'
“'Here you are, sister. Take this robe as it is folded and place it aside. When the Community of bhikkhunīs comes for exhortation, put it on and come behind them.'
„So the bhikkhunī took the robe as it was folded and placed it aside. When the Community of bhikkhunīs came for exhortation, she put it on and came behind them. People criticized and complained and spread it about, 'How brazen these bhikkhunīs are, how mischievous and shameless, in that they embroider an obscene design on a robe!'
„The bhikkhunīs said, 'Whose work is this?'
“'Master Udāyin's,' the bhikkhunī answered.
“'A thing like this wouldn't be attractive even from those who are brazen, mischievous, and shameless, much less from Master Udāyin (§).'“
The full offense here has three factors.
- 1) Effort: One sews — or gets someone else to sew —
- 2) Object: a robe
- 3) Intention: for the sake of a bhikkhunī unrelated to oneself.
Effort. The Vibhaṅga says that there is a pācittiya for every stitch one makes in the robe-cloth. If one gets someone else to sew it, there is a pācittiya in giving the command or making the request, and another pācittiya when the other person does as commanded/requested, no matter how many stitches he/she makes.
Object. The Vibhaṅga defines robe here as meaning any of the six kinds of robe-cloth, even a piece measuring at least four by eight fingerbreadths. This would seem to suggest that cloth being sewn into any object would come under this rule, but the non-offense clauses give an exemption for sewing „any requisite aside from a robe,“ so only cloth being sewn into a robe would fulfill the factor of effort here.
Intention. This factor is fulfilled only if the robe-cloth being sewn is intended for an unrelated bhikkhunī, as under the preceding rule: a bhikkhunī who has received the double ordination and is not related to the bhikkhu back through their great x 7 grandfathers. An unrelated bhikkhunī who has received only her first ordination, from the bhikkhunīs, is grounds for a dukkaṭa. Related bhikkhunīs are not grounds for an offense, nor are female trainees or female novices.
Perception as to whether the bhikkhunī is actually one's relative is not a mitigating factor here (see Pc 4).
The Kommentar states that if Bhikkhu X is sewing robe-cloth for a bhikkhunī related to him, and Bhikkhu Y — who is not related to her — helps him sew it, Bhikkhu Y incurs a pācittiya for every stitch he sews in the cloth. The Sub-commentary adds, though, that if Bhikkhu Y does not know that the cloth is for the bhikkhunī, he is exempt from the offense.
Non-offenses. There is no offense in sewing a cloth requisite other than a robe for an unrelated bhikkhunī, in sewing anything for a bhikkhunī who is a relation, or in sewing anything for a female trainee or female novice, related or not.
Summary: Sewing a robe — or having it sewn — for an unrelated bhikkhunī is a pācittiya offense.
27. Should any bhikkhu, by arrangement, travel together with a bhikkhunī even for the interval between one village and the next, except at the proper occasion, it is to be confessed. Here the proper occasion is this: The road is to be traveled by caravan (§) and is considered dubious and risky. This is the proper occasion here.
Here the full offense has two factors.
- 1) Object a bhikkhunī
- 2) Effort: (a) One makes an arrangement together with her to travel together; (b) one actually travels together with her as arranged (c) from one village to another (d) except on the allowable occasions.
Object. A bhikkhunī who has received the double ordination is grounds for a pācittiya here. Any other woman would come under Pc 67.
Making an arrangement. According to the Vibhaṅga, both the bhikkhu and the bhikkhunī must give their verbal assent to the arrangement for this part of the factor to be fulfilled. If the bhikkhu proposes the arrangement but the bhikkhunī does not give her verbal assent, then even if they later travel together as he proposed, he incurs a dukkaṭa. If she proposes the arrangement but he does not give his verbal assent, then even if they later travel together as she proposed, he incurs no penalty.
Perception as to whether the factors for making an arrangement are actually fulfilled is not a mitigating factor here (see Pc 4).
The texts do not address the case in which another person makes the arrangements for a bhikkhu and bhikkhunī to travel together, say, as part of a larger group. However, the wording of the Vibhaṅga's definition of arrangement — in which the bhikkhu and bhikkhunī are addressing each other — and the non-offense clause allowing the two to travel together if they have not made an arrangement, suggest that as long as the bhikkhu and bhikkhunī do not address each other — directly or through an intermediary — about making the trip, there is no offense in joining the group.
Going as arranged. If a specific time frame was part of the arrangement, then the two parties must begin traveling together within that time frame for this factor to be fulfilled. If they happen to start out earlier or later than arranged, again the bhikkhu incurs no penalty. The examples in the Kommentar suggest that „earlier“ or „later“ here involve fairly substantial amounts of time, i.e., going one day later than arranged, or going before the meal when the arrangement was to go after the meal. The Kommentar also adds that if a specific place to meet or route to travel were part of the arrangement, any change in those factors would be irrelevant to the offense. For example, if they agreed to go by train but ended up going by car, the factor of „going as arranged“ would still be fulfilled.
From one village to another. There is some controversy as to whether this phrase — gāmantara — means „from one village to another“ or „from one house to another.“ According to Buddhaghosa, the ancient commentaries opted for „village,“ while he opts for „house.“ The ancient commentaries have the support of the Canon here, in that the term in question also occurs in Bhikkhunīs' Sg 3 & Pc 37, where it definitely means the area outside a village and not the interval from one house to another within a village.
There is a pācittiya for every village-to-village interval one passes. In an area where there are no villages — i.e., says the Sub-commentary, where villages are further than half a league (8 km. or 5 miles) apart — there is a pācittiya for every half-league one travels together as arranged.
The allowable occasions. A road to be traveled by caravan (§) is one too dubious or risky to travel alone. (BD translates this as a „road to be traveled with a weapon,“ but because bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs are not allowed even to touch weapons, it's a doubtful translation at best.)
Dubious means that the eating, sleeping, sitting, or standing places of thieves have been seen along the road; risky, that people are known to have been beaten, plundered, or robbed by thieves there.
The Vibhaṅga adds that if the road was believed to be dubious or risky but is later found to be safe, the exemption no longer holds, and the bhikkhus are to dismiss the bhikkhunīs from their company.
Non-offenses. There is no offense:
- if the bhikkhu and bhikkhunī happen to travel together without having made an arrangement;
- if the bhikkhunī proposes an arrangement, while the bhikkhu does not give his verbal assent;
- if they travel on a dubious and risky road; or
- if there are other dangers. The Kommentar illustrates this last contingency with a stock phrase whose meaning admits two interpretations. It starts, „Savage tribes are attacking the countryside,“ and then comes the ambiguous part, either, „People mount their wheels (their carriages, says the Sub-commentary),“ or, alternatively, „The tribes seize power (another meaning for 'wheel').“
Summary: Traveling by arrangement with a bhikkhunī from one village to another — except when the road is risky or there are other dangers — is a pācittiya offense.
28. Should any bhikkhu, by arrangement, get in the same boat with a bhikkhunī going upstream or downstream — except to cross over to the other bank — it is to be confessed.
„Now at that time, some group-of-six bhikkhus, having made an arrangement with some bhikkhunīs, got in the same boat with them. People criticized and complained and spread it about: 'Just as we sport with our wives in a boat, so too these Sakyan-son monks, having made an arrangement with bhikkhunīs, sport with them in a boat…'“
(The Buddha then formulated the first version of this rule, without the exception for crossing over to the other bank.)
„Then at that time a number of bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs were traveling on the road from Sāketa to Sāvatthī. Along the way, they had to cross over a river. The bhikkhunīs said to the bhikkhus, 'We'll cross over with the masters.'
“'Sisters, it isn't proper for bhikkhus, having made an arrangement, to get in the same boat with bhikkhunīs. Either you cross over first or we will.'
“'The masters are the foremost men. Let the masters cross over first.'
„Then as the bhikkhunīs were crossing over afterward, thieves robbed them and raped them.“
The factors for the full offense here are similar to those for the preceding rule.
- 1) Object a bhikkhunī.
- 2) Effort: (a) One makes an arrangement together with her to get in a boat together; (b) one actually travels together with her as arranged, going upstream or downstream along a river (c) from one village to another.
Object. A bhikkhunī who has received the double ordination is grounds for a pācittiya here. Unlike the case with many other rules in this section, the Vibhaṅga here does not state that a bhikkhunī who has received only her first ordination is grounds for a dukkaṭa, nor that a female trainee or a female novice would be grounds for no offense. This may have been an oversight. The Vibhaṅga here closely follows the Vibhaṅga to the preceding rule, which omits mentioning these three classes of women because they are covered by a parallel rule, Pc 67. This rule, however, has no such parallel rule to cover these three classes, and so the omission here leaves them neither allowed nor forbidden by any rule.
Effort. The conditions for making an arrangement here, as well as those concerning the issue of perception about the arrangement, are identical with those under the preceding rule.
The next part of the factor — going as arranged — is fulfilled only if they get in the boat together within the time frame they had agreed on. If they get in earlier or later, there is no offense.
Once they get in the boat as arranged, the bhikkhu incurs a pācittiya for every village-to-village interval they pass along the riverbank while going upstream or downstream. If the villages are further than 8 km. apart, he incurs a pācittiya for every 8 km. they travel together.
The commentaries add „intention“ as an additional factor here — the bhikkhu's purpose in traveling with the bhikkhunī(s) is for amusement — but there is no basis for this in the Vibhaṅga.
Non-offenses. As the rule says, there is no offense in making an arrangement and crossing over a river with a bhikkhunī. The Kommentar adds that this applies not only to rivers but also to oceans: If one travels from one seaport to another by arrangement with a bhikkhunī, no penalty is entailed.
The K/Kommentar goes even further and says that this rule applies only to rivers, and that a bhikkhu seeking some amusement with a bhikkhunī may make a date with her and travel around the ocean as much as he likes with no offense. The Sub-commentary disagrees with both the Kommentar and K/Kommentar here, saying that a bhikkhu traveling by arrangement with a bhikkhunī in a boat on the ocean incurs a dukkaṭa for every 8 km. they travel. The Sub-commentary's position here is more in keeping with the Great Standards and so carries more weight.
Finally, there is no offense if:
- the bhikkhu and bhikkhunī happen to travel together in the same boat without having made an arrangement;
- the bhikkhunī proposes an arrangement, while the bhikkhu does not give his verbal assent; or
- there are dangers.
Summary: Traveling by arrangement with a bhikkhunī upriver or downriver in the same boat — except when crossing a river — is a pācittiya offense.
29. Should any bhikkhu knowingly eat almsfood donated through the prompting of a bhikkhunī, except for food that householders had already intended for him prior (to her prompting), it is to be confessed.
„Now at that time Bhikkhunī Thullanandā regularly took her meals with a certain family. Then one day the head of the household invited some senior bhikkhus to a meal. Bhikkhunī Thullanandā, dressing early in the morning, taking her bowl and (outer) robe, went to the family's place and on arrival said to the head of the household, 'Why has so much of this staple and non-staple food been prepared?'
“'I've invited some senior bhikkhus for a meal.'
“'But who, to you, are senior bhikkhus?'
„'Master Sāriputta, Master Mahā Moggallāna, Master Mahā Kaccāna, Master Mahā Koṭṭhita, Master Mahā Kappina, Master Mahā Cunda, Master Anuruddha, Master Revata, Master Upāli, Master Ānanda, Master Rāhula.'
“'But why have you invited these scoundrels when great heroes are available? (§)'
„'And who, to you, are great heroes?'
“'Master Devadatta, Master Kokālika, Master Kaṭamoraka Tissaka, Master Khaṇḍadeviyāputta, Master Samuddadatta…' At that point, Bhikkhunī Thullanandā was interrupted in mid-sentence when the senior bhikkhus entered. 'It's true! You've invited great heroes!'
„'Just now you made them out to be scoundrels, and now great heroes.' So he threw her out of the house and put an end to her regular meals.“
The factors for the full offense here are three.
- 1) Object any of the five staple foods (see the preface to the Food Chapter, below) offered by a lay person at the instigation of a bhikkhunī.
- 2) Perception: One knows that it was offered at her instigation.
- 3) Effort: One eats the food.
Object. Any of the five staple foods is grounds for a pācittiya. Any edible aside from them is not grounds for an offense.
Bhikkhunī here refers to one who has received the double ordination. The Vibhaṅga notes that one who has received only her first ordination — from the Bhikkhunī Saṅgha — is grounds for a dukkaṭa, while female trainees and female novices are not grounds for an offense.
Instigating means that the bhikkhunī speaking to a lay person who is not already planning to give food to Bhikkhu X, praises X or suggests that food should be presented to him. If the lay person was already planning to give food to X, this factor is not fulfilled. The Vibhaṅga defines already planning to give food in the following terms: Either X and the lay person are related, the lay person has previously invited X to ask for food, or the lay person has already prepared the food in question for X of his/her own accord prior to the bhikkhunī's instigation.
Perception. If one is in doubt as to whether the food was offered at a bhikkhunī's instigation, the penalty for eating it is a dukkaṭa regardless of whether it was. If one thinks that it was offered at her instigation when it actually wasn't, the penalty for eating it is again a dukkaṭa. If one does not perceive it as offered at her instigation, then whether it was or wasn't, there is no offense.
Effort. There is a dukkaṭa for accepting food with the purpose of eating it, and a pācittiya for every mouthful one eats.
- Non-offenses. There is no offense if:
- one does not know,
- the food offered is not one of the five staples,
- the lay person was instigated by a female trainee or female novice, or
- the lay person was already planning to present one with the food before the bhikkhunī's instigation. As we noted above, one's relatives, people who have invited one to ask for food, and people who ordinarily provide one with food also fit under this allowance.
Summary: Eating any of the five staple foods that a lay person has offered as the result of a bhikkhunī's prompting — unless the lay person was already planning to offer the food before her prompting — is a pācittiya offense.
30. Should any bhikkhu sit in private, alone with a bhikkhunī, it is to be confessed.
Except for one rare case — a bhikkhunī who does not know what is lewd and not lewd — this rule is completely subsumed under Pc 45. For explanations, see the discussion under that rule.
Summary: When aiming at privacy, sitting or lying down alone with a bhikkhunī in an unsecluded but private place with no one else present is a pācittiya offense.