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Kodex für buddhistische

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Title: Kodex für buddhistische Einsiedler I: Kapitel 12

Summary:

Kodex für buddhistische Einsiedler I

Kapitel 12

Anhänge

von

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

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Alternative Übersetzung: noch keine vorhanden

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<!– robots content='none' –> <!– the following list is brought to you in living color by GetHList() –> <ul class='hlist'>

<li class='first'><a href="bmc1.intro.html" title="Zum Einleitung">Einleitung</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch01.html" title="Zum Kapitel 1: Patimokkha">1</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch02.html" title="Zum Kapitel 2: Nissaya">2</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch03.html" title="Zum Kapitel 3: Robe ablegen">3</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch04.html" title="KAPITEL  IV: Pārājika">4</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch05.html" title="Zum KAPITEL  V: Saṅghādisesa">5</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch06.html" title="Zum KAPITEL  VI: Aniyata">6</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch07-1.html" title="Zum 1. Das Robenstoff Kapitel">7.1</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch07-2.html" title="Zum 2. Das Seiden Kapitel">7.2</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch07-3.html" title="Zum 3. Das Schalen Kapitel">7.3</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-1.html" title="Zum 1. Das Lügen Kapitel">8.1</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-2.html" title="Zum 2. Das Pflanzen Kapitel">8.2</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-3.html" title="Zum 3. Das Ermunterung Kapitel">8.3</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-4.html" title="Zum 4. Das Speisen Kapitel">8.4</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-5.html" title="Zum 5. Das nackte Asketen Kapitel">8.5</a></li>

</ul>

<br /> <!– robots content='none' –> <!– the following list is brought to you in living color by GetHList() –> <ul class='hlist'>

<li class='first'><a href="bmc1.ch08-6.html" title="Zum 6. Das alkoholische Getränke Kapitel">8.6</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-7.html" title="Zum 7. Das Tier Kapitel">8.7</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-8.html" title="Zum 8. Das Im Einklang mit der Regel Kapitel">8.8</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-9.html" title="Zum 9. Das Wertgegenstände Kapitel">8.9</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch09.html" title="Zum KAPITEL  IX: Pāṭidesanīya">9</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch10.html" title="Zum KAPITEL  X: Sekhiya">10</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch11.html" title="KAPITEL  XI: Adhikaraṇa-samatha">11</a></li>
<li><a title="Sie befinden sich gerade hier">12</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.glossary.html" title="Zur Wortliste mit Erklärungen">Glossar</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.biblio.html" title="Zum Literaturverzeichnis">Literaturverz.</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.rule-index.html" title="Zum Verzeichnis der Regeln">Regeln</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.addendum.html" title="Zum Anhang">Anhang</a></li>

</ul>

I. Controversial points: Dawn and dawnrise.

The Canon lacks a clear-cut definition of precisely when dawn and dawnrise take place. This lack is especially felt in connection with NP 2 and Pc 37, but it also affects a number of other rules as well.

The Khuddakasikkhā — a Vinaya manual written by Ven. Dhammasiri, a Sinhalese monk, in the 11th or 12th century — states that the sky lightens in four stages before sunrise (measuring in Sinhalese hours, of which there are 60 in one period of day and night): a slight reddening 4 Sinhalese hours (= 1 hour and 36 minutes) before sunrise; a slight whitening 3 Sinhalese hours (= 1 hour and 12 minutes) before sunrise; a second reddening 2 Sinhalese hours (= 48 minutes) before sunrise; and a second whitening 1 Sinhalese hour (= 24 minutes) before sunrise.

Some Communities in Burma, Sri Lanka, and Thailand follow this analysis, differing among themselves only as to which of the four stages constitutes dawnrise. Some count the first reddening, although the Vinayālaṅkāra, as mentioned in the discussion under NP 1, counts the last whitening, and there is good reason to follow its definition.

Pc 37 & 38, taken together, require that a bhikkhu not accept alms before dawn. If he did go for alms before dawn, he would not be able to eat any of the food he accepted at that time, as Pc 37 forbids him from eating before dawn, and Pc 38 forbids him from eating after dawn any food received before dawn of that day. A passage in MN 66 states specifically that once the rules were established, one of their benefits was that they prevented bhikkhus from going for alms in the dark. This suggests that in the time of the Canon, the first faint light on the horizon did not count as dawnrise. The passage runs as follows:</p>

<p>"(Ven. Udāyin — apparently the good Udāyin, not the lax Udāyin of the first five saṅghādisesas — is addressing the Buddha:) 'It used to be, venerable sir, that we ate in the evening, in the morning, and in the afternoon. Then there was the time when the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying, "Come now, bhikkhus, give up this afternoon meal." Because of that, I felt sorry and upset: "The fine staple and non-staple food that householders give us in the afternoon — the Blessed One has us give them up! The Sugata has us abandon them!" But on considering our love and respect for the Blessed One, our sense of shame and compunction, we gave up that afternoon meal and ate (only) in the evening and in the morning.

„'Then there was the time when the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying, „Come now, bhikkhus, give up this evening meal.“ Because of that, I felt sorry and upset: „The more highly regarded of our two meals — the Blessed One has us give it up! The Sugata has us abandon it!“ It has happened, venerable sir, that a man has gotten ingredients for curry during the day and has told his wife, „Come, let's put this aside and we'll all have it together in the evening.“ Almost all cooking is done at night, venerable sir, and very little during the day. But on considering our love and respect for the Blessed One, our sense of shame and compunction, we gave up that evening meal.

“'It used to be that bhikkhus going for alms in the dark gloom of night would walk into a mud hole, fall into a cesspool, stumble into a thorny hedge, stumble into a sleeping cow, encounter teenage gangs on the way to or from a theft, and be propositioned by women. Once it happened when I was going for alms in the dark gloom of night that a certain woman washing a bowl saw me by a lightning flash. As soon as she saw me, she shrieked out in terror, „I'm doomed! A demon is after me!“

„'When she said that, I said to her, „I'm not a demon, sister. I'm a bhikkhu waiting for alms.“

“'„Well then you're a bhikkhu whose mom is dead and pop is dead. It would be better for you, bhikkhu, that your belly be cut open with a sharp butcher's knife than that you go prowling around for alms for your belly's sake like this in the dark gloom of night!“

„'When I remember this, venerable sir, the thought occurs to me: „There are so many painful things the Blessed One has rid us of, and so many pleasant ones he has provided; so many unskillful things he has rid us of, and so many skillful ones he has provided!“'“</p>

<p>This shows clearly that once the rules were in effect, bhikkhus were saved from the dangers of going for alms in the dark. It further suggests that dawnrise can be no earlier than the point recognized by the Vinayālaṅkāra.

As noted under NP 1, the Vinayālaṅkāra's definition of dawnrise corresponds in modern terminology to the onset of civil twilight. Although the Khuddakasikkhā states that this period of whitening occurs 24 minutes prior to sunrise, this figure would apply only to locations that, like Sri Lanka, lie near the equator. At other latitudes, the length of time from the onset of civil twilight to sunrise would vary widely according to season, with the variations most extreme at higher latitudes.

In addition to the controversy surrounding dawnrise, there is also a minor issue surrounding the word <i>dawn.</i>

The non-offense clause to NP 2 states that there is no offense under that rule if the robe is lost, etc., <i>anto aruṇe,</i> a phrase that can be translated either as „during dawn“ or „within dawn“ (just as <i>anto māse</i> under NP 3 means „within the month“) or as „before dawn“ (just as <i>anto pātarāse</i> means „before the morning meal“). (The phrase <i>anto aruṇe</i> appears at one other point in the Canon, in the non-offense clauses to Bhikkhunīs' NP 1.) Some scholars, opting for the translation „within dawn“ and, noting the Vinayālaṅkāra's statement that <i>anto aruṇe</i> means prior to dawnrise, have argued that, in canonical usage, dawnrise is preceded by a separate period of time called dawn, apparently beginning with the first reddening of the eastern sky, although this part of the definition is nowhere clearly stated.

This assumption, however, creates a problem under two rules whose non-offense clauses contain the phrase <i>purāruṇā,</i> which clearly means „before dawn.“ Under Pc 5, the series of three nights allotted by the rule is broken if one gets up <i>purāruṇā.</i> Under Pc 49, the series is broken if one leaves the army <i>purāruṇā.</i> In the Vibhaṅga to neither rule is the word <i>dawnrise</i> mentioned at all. If we have to assume that dawn is counted as a period of time separate from dawnrise, this means that for these two rules the line dividing an offense from a non-offense follows a standard different from that in all the other rules in the Pāṭimokkha where the line between the end of night and the beginning of day is also relevant. If this were the case, the compilers of the Vibhaṅga would have offered clear definitions to distinguish one standard from the other. But in fact, the Canon contains no explicit standard for defining dawn or dawnrise at all. This indicates that the assumption of a separate „dawn“ and „dawnrise“ must be mistaken.

A reading more consistent with the Canon's casual treatment of the issue of dawn would be to translate <i>anto aruṇe</i> as „before dawn,“ and to read the term <i>dawn</i> (<i>aruṇa</i>) in both <i>anto aruṇe</i> and <i>purāruṇā</i> as idiomatically equivalent to <i>dawnrise</i> (<i>aruṇuggamana</i>). In other words, in all the rules where the line dividing the end of night from the beginning of day is the line between an offense and a non-offense, that line is marked by the onset of civil twilight, whether the Vibhaṅga refers to it as „dawnrise“ or „dawn.“</p>

II. Controversial points: Sugata measures.

The Kommentar to Sg 6 states that the Buddha's cubit — the distance from his bent elbow to the tips of his fingers — was three times that of a normal man. This puts all the sugata measures — based on the Buddha's cubit, handspan, and breadth of his fingers — at three times normal length and makes the Buddha freakishly tall.

How the Kommentar arrived at this figure is hard to say, for the Vinaya-mukha cites several passages from the Canon showing that the Buddha, though tall, was not abnormally so. The most telling passage is the one from DN 2, in which King Ajātasattu visits the Buddha while the latter is sitting in an assembly of bhikkhus, and the king is unable to identify which member of the assembly the Buddha is. This, of course, is meant to indicate the king's spiritual blindness, but if the Buddha had been remarkably tall it would have been part of his general reputation, and the king would not have had to ask.

The Vinaya-mukha then goes on to suggest a variety of ways of calculating the Buddha's measurements, the most useful being to assume the Buddha's cubit to be 50 cm. This, at least roughly, fits a number of passages from the Canon, as follows:

According to DN 30, the spread of the Buddha's arms, outstretched, was equal to his height. Because a person's cubit is one-fourth the spread of his outstretched arms, this would put the Buddha's height at 2 meters, or approximately 6 feet 7 inches. The origin story to Pc 92 states that his half-brother, Nanda, was four fingerbreadths shorter than he, and that when bhikkhus saw him coming from afar, they would mistake him for the Buddha, partly on the basis of his tall height. One fingerbreadth is said to be 1/24 cubit, or a little more than 2 cm. by this reckoning, which would put Nanda at 1.92 meters, or approximately 6 feet 4 inches tall.

These figures would seem to fit the information in the Canon fairly well, in that they allow for both Nanda and the Buddha to be tall but not outlandishly so.

Another pair of passages supporting these measurements is the ruling under Pc 87 that the legs of a bhikkhu's bed not be more than eight sugata fingerbreadths tall, taken together with the recommendation at Cv.VIII.1.5 that one should grope under the bed with one's hand to make sure that nothing is there before placing one's bowl there. Our measurements would put the maximum height for the bed legs at 18 cm. If they were much taller than that, there would be no need to grope, for one could easily see under the bed with a glance. If they were much shorter than that, even a small bowl wouldn't fit.

Although there is no way of determining the sugata measures with 100% accuracy, the above considerations suggest that the following estimates are reasonable:</p>

<ul>
<li>The sugata cubit = 50 cm.</li>
<li>The sugata span = 25 cm.</li>
<li>The sugata fingerbreadth = 2.08 cm.</li>
</ul>

<p>Applied to the various rules, this would give us a hut 3 x 1.75 meters — small, but adequate; a rains-bathing cloth 1.5 x .625 meters — enough to cover one from the waist to the knees; and an skin-eruption covering cloth 1 x .5 meters — enough to cover one from the waist to just above the knees. All of these figures seem appropriate and so have been accepted for the purposes of this book.</p>

III. Controversial points: Meals.

Cv.VI.21.1 allows bhikkhus to accept seven kinds of specially arranged meals in addition to the meals they receive on alms round. The context for this allowance is as follows:</p>

<p>"Now at that time Rājagaha was short of food. People were not able to provide a meal for the Community, but they wanted to provide a designated meal, an invitational meal, a lottery meal, a meal on a day of the waxing or waning of the moon, on uposatha days, and on the day after each uposatha day. They told this matter to the Blessed One. He said, 'I allow, bhikkhus, a Community meal, a designated meal, an invitational meal, a lottery meal, a meal on a day of the waxing or waning of the moon, on an uposatha day, and on the day after an uposatha day.'"</p>

<p>Unfortunately, the Canon provides no detailed explanation of these terms. The Kommentar explains Community meals as meals for the entire Community, and the other terms as follows:</p>

<p>"(Having said,) 'Give one, two...ten bhikkhus designated from the Community,' they wanted to provide a meal for the bhikkhus they got through that designation. Later, having decided on bhikkhus in the same way (i.e., one, two...ten bhikkhus), and having invited them, they wanted to provide a meal for them. Later, they wanted to provide a meal having decided on a lottery. Later, having fixed a date — the waxing or waning moons, the uposatha day, or the day after — they wanted to provide a meal for one, two...ten bhikkhus. This is the extent of the meals that fall under the terms 'designated meals, invitational meals (the Sub-commentary adds an "etc." here.)'"</p>

<p>These definitions seem fairly clear: a <i>designated meal</i> is one in which the donors do not specify which bhikkhus are to receive it, but simply ask for <i>x</i> number of bhikkhus from the Community, leaving it up to the meal designator — the Community official responsible for managing these various meals (see BMC2, Chapter 18) — to designate who the recipients will be. An <i>invitational meal</i> is one in which the donors decide on the recipients themselves. A <i>lottery meal</i> is one in which the recipients are chosen by drawing lots, while the remaining meals — <i>periodic meals</i> — are given regularly to a rotating roster of <i>x</i> number of bhikkhus every time the specified date comes around.

However, the Kommentar's discussion of how the meal designator should manage these meals blurs the lines between the first three categories. It gives no detailed discussion of Community meals, but divides designated meals into the following two types:</p>

<ul>
<li>1a) Meals for which the number of bhikkhus to be designated is equal to the total number of bhikkhus in the Community.</li>
<li>1b) Meals for which the number of bhikkhus to be designated is less than the total number of bhikkhus in the Community.</li>
</ul>

<p>Invitational meals come in four types:</p>

<ul>
<li>2a) Meals to which the entire Community is invited.</li>
<li>2b) Meals to which specific individuals or types of bhikkhus (e.g., no one but senior bhikkhus) are invited.</li>
<li>2c) Meals to which one bhikkhu is invited and asked to bring <i>x</i> number of his friends.</li>
<li>2d) Meals for which the donor simply asks for <i>x</i> number of bhikkhus, without specifying in any way who they should be.</li>
</ul>

<p>This typology raises two questions. First, why aren't types 1a and 2a grouped under Community meals? Is it because the donor uses the words <i>designated</i> and <i>invited</i> when announcing his/her plans for the meal? If so, how does one arrange for a Community meal that would not fall into these two types, in line with the fact that a Community meal is said to be a separate category?

The second question is how type 2d differs from a designated meal. Is it, again, because the donor does not use the word <i>designated</i> in announcing the meal? If so, the difference is only formal, for the Kommentar itself states that the meal designator is to treat such a meal as he would a designated meal, which shows that in essence it is the same thing.

As we reasoned in the discussion of Pc 32, that rule applies only to invitational meals. If we follow the Kommentar's original definitions of the various categories of special meal — eliminating types 1a, 2a and 2d as redundant — it is easy enough to determine in essence which types of meals fall into this category and which don't. If we follow the detailed typologies, though, the distinctions become more a matter of formality and technicalities. For example, if the donor asks the meal designator to „designate nine bhikkhus from the Community,“ the meal would not violate Pc 32, but if he simply asked for nine bhikkhus — even if he did not specify who they were to be — the meal would be a group meal, and any bhikkhus who ate it would be committing an offense. Or again, if he asked that the entire Community be „designated“ to come to his meal, they would not incur a penalty in going, but if he simply invited the entire Community to a meal, they would.

Because the Kommentar is a compendium of the opinions of many generations of teachers, the definitions of the categories of meals may have been agreed on by one generation of teachers, and the typologies by another. This would explain the discrepancies between the two. Or the entire discussion — definitions and typologies — may have been the product of one generation, who did mean the distinctions among the categories to depend on formalities and technicalities.

At any rate, as with many other areas where the Canon gives no definite guidance, this is an area where the wise policy for each bhikkhu is to follow the standards of the Community to which he belongs.</p>

IV. Pali formulae: Determination.

The articles a bhikkhu must determine for his use have already been mentioned under NP 1, 21, & 24.

Determination, according to the Kommentar, may be done in either of two ways: by body or by word. <i>To determine by body</i> means to grasp or touch the object in question with any part of the body and to determine in the mind that the object is for one's own particular use, in line with the formula given below. <i>To determine by word</i> means to speak the formula out loud. In this case, if the object is within the reach of the hand, use the same formula as for determination with the body. If it is beyond the reach of the hand, alter the formula, changing <i>imaṃ,</i> „this,“ to <i>etaṃ,</i> „that.“ Articles to be worn — i.e., robes, the rains-bathing cloth — must first be dyed the proper color and properly marked in accordance with Pc 58.

The Canon and commentaries make no mention of any formula to repeat while marking, but the tradition in Thailand is to repeat:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ bindu-kappaṃ karomi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „I make this properly marked.“

The words for determination, taking the bowl as an example, are:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ <b><i>pattaṃ</i></b> adhiṭṭhāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „I determine this bowl“ or „I determine this as a bowl.“

To determine other requisites, replace the word <b><i>pattaṃ,</i></b> bowl, with the appropriate name, as follows:</p>

<ul>
<li>for the outer robe: <b><i>saṅghāṭiṃ</i></b></li>
<li>for the upper robe: <b><i>uttarāsaṅgaṃ</i></b></li>
<li>for the lower robe: <b><i>antaravāsakaṃ</i></b></li>
<li>for the sitting cloth: <b><i>nisīdanaṃ</i></b></li>
<li>for the skin-eruption cloth: <b><i>kaṇḍu-paṭicchādiṃ</i></b></li>
<li>for the rains-bathing cloth: <b><i>vassikasāṭikaṃ</i></b></li>
<li>for the sleeping cloth: <b><i>paccattharaṇaṃ</i></b></li>
<li>for the handkerchief: <b><i>mukha-puñchana-colaṃ</i></b></li>
<li>for other cloth requisites: <b><i>parikkhāra-colaṃ</i></b></li>
</ul>

<p>To determine many cloths of the same sort at the same time, use the plural forms: Change <i>imaṃ</i> to <i>imāni; etaṃ</i> to <i>etāni;</i> and the <i>—aṃ</i> ending for the name of the article to <i>-āni.</i> For example, to determine many miscellaneous cloth requisites within reach of the hand, the formula is:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imāni parikkhāra-colāni adhiṭṭhāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>A bhikkhu may determine only one of each of the following five items for use at any one time: the bowl, the basic set of three robes, and the sitting cloth. If he wishes to replace an old item with a new one, he must first withdraw the determination of the old item before determining the new one. The formula for withdrawal, again taking the bowl as an example, is:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ pattaṃ paccuddharāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „I relinquish this bowl.“ To withdraw the determination of other items, replace the word <i>pattaṃ</i> with the appropriate name, as above.

If an item has been snatched away, burnt, destroyed, lost, given away, or taken away on trust, its determination automatically lapses, and there is no need to withdraw the determination before determining a new item to replace it. The Kommentar explains <i>destroyed</i> as meaning that the bowl or any of the three robes develops a hole of a certain size: for a clay bowl, a hole large enough for a millet grain to pass through; for an iron bowl, a hole large enough to let liquid pass through; for the robes, a complete break at least the size of the fingernail of the small finger, located at least one handspan in from the long edge of the robe, and four fingerbreadths from the short edge of the lower robe, or eight fingerbreadths from the short edge of the upper and outer robes.

Once the robe or bowl develops a hole of this sort, it reverts to the status of an extra robe or bowl. If the owner still wishes to use it, the hole must be mended and the article redetermined before ten days elapse. Otherwise, he is subject to the penalties imposed by NP 1 or 21.</p>

V. Pali formulae: Shared ownership.

The topic of shared ownership, together with the various controversies connected with it, are discussed in detail under Pc 59. Here we will simply give the formulae.

There are two formulae for sharing ownership in the presence of the second owner. The first — taking as an example a piece of robe-cloth within reach of the hand — is this:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ cīvaraṃ tuyhaṃ vikappemi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>meaning, „I share ownership of this robe-cloth with you (plural).“

To place a bowl under shared ownership, change <i>cīvaraṃ</i> to <i>pattaṃ.</i> For more than one piece of cloth, change <i>imaṃ cīvaraṃ</i> to <i>imāni cīvarāni.</i> For more than one bowl, change <i>imaṃ pattaṃ</i> to <i>ime patte.</i> For articles beyond the reach of the hand, change <i>imaṃ</i> to <i>etaṃ;</i> <i>imāni</i> to <i>etāni;</i> and <i>ime</i> to <i>ete.</i>

The second formula — less formal than the first — is:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ civaraṃ Itthannāmassa vikappemi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „I share ownership of this robe-cloth with so-and-so.<i>“</i> Suppose, for example, that the person's name is Nando. If he is one's senior, change <i>Itthannāmassa</i> to <i>Āyasmato Nandassa;</i> if he is one's junior, change it to <i>Nandassa Bhikkhuno;</i> if he is a novice, change it to <i>Nandassa Sāmaṇerassa.</i> If he is very much one's senior, use the first formula, above. (Mv.I.74.1 shows that the tradition in the Buddha's time was not to use a very senior or respected person's name when referring to him.)

To share a bowl in this way, change <i>cīvaraṃ</i> to <i>pattaṃ.</i> Other changes, as called for, may be inferred from the previous formulae.

To place a piece of robe-cloth under shared ownership with two people who are absent, say to a witness:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ cīvaraṃ vikappan'atthāya tuyhaṃ dammi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „I give this robe-cloth to you to share.“ The witness should ask the original owner the names of two bhikkhus or novices who are his friends or acquaintances. In Pali, this is:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Ko te mitto vā sandiṭṭho vā.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>After the original owner tells the names, the witness says:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Ahaṃ tesaṃ dammi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „I give it to them.“

To rescind the shared ownership, the Vibhaṅga says that the witness in the last case should say,</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Tesaṃ santakaṃ paribhuñja vā vissajjehi vā yathā-paccayaṃ vā karohi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „Use what is theirs, give it away, or do as you like with it.“

As for cases in which the article is placed under shared ownership in the presence of the second owner, the Vibhaṅga gives no formula for rescinding the arrangement. The K/Kommentar suggests that the second owner should say,</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Mayhaṃ santakaṃ paribhuñja vā vissajjehi vā yathā-paccayaṃ vā karohi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „Use what is mine, give it away, or do as you like with it.“

The Pubbasikkhā-vaṇṇanā, though, suggests the following formula (for robe-cloth within reach, rescinded by a bhikkhu who is senior to the original owner):</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ cīvaraṃ mayhaṃ santakaṃ paribhuñja vā vissajjehi vā yathā-paccayaṃ vā karohi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „Use this robe-cloth of mine, give it away, etc.“ If the bhikkhu rescinding the shared ownership is junior to the original owner, the verb endings are more formal:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ cīvaraṃ mayhaṃ santakaṃ paribhuñjatha vā vissajjetha vā yathā-paccayaṃ vā karotha.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>For a bowl, change <i>cīvaraṃ</i> to <i>pattaṃ.</i> If more than one piece of cloth is involved, the formula begins, <i>Imāni cīvarāni mayhaṃ santakāni…</i> If more than one bowl, <i>Ime patte mayhaṃ santake…</i> Changes for articles outside the reach of the hand may be inferred from those for the earlier formulae.</p>

VI. Pali formulae: Forfeiture.

As noted in the conclusion to the chapter on nissaggiya pācittiya rules, articles received in defiance of NP 18, 19, & 22 must be forfeited to a Community. The words of forfeiture in these cases are:

<b>NP 18.</b> For receiving gold and silver (money):</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Ahaṃ bhante rūpiyaṃ paṭiggahesiṃ. Idaṃ me nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ saṅghassa nissajjāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>This means, „Venerable sirs, I have received money. This of mine is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to the Community.“

<b>NP 19.</b> For engaging in monetary exchange:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Ahaṃ bhante nānappakārakaṃ rūpiya-saṃvohāraṃ samāpajjiṃ. Idaṃ me nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ saṅghassa nissajjāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>This means, „Venerable sirs, I have engaged in various types of monetary exchange. This of mine is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to the Community.“

<b>NP 22.</b> For asking for a new bowl when one's original bowl is still usable:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Ayaṃ me bhante patto ūna-pañca-bandhanena pattena cetāpito nissaggiyo. Imāhaṃ saṅghassa nissajjāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>This means, „This bowl of mine, venerable sirs, asked for when the (previous) bowl had less than five mends, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to the Community.“

In each case, after the item has been forfeited, the offender must confess his offense, with an experienced and competent bhikkhu to acknowledge his confession, using the following formula:</p>

<ul>
<li>Confessant: <i>Ahaṃ bhante nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ āpattiṃ āpanno. Taṃ paṭidesemi.</i></li>
<li>Acknowledger: <i>Passasi āvuso?</i></li>
<li>C: <i>Āma bhante, passāmi.</i></li>
<li>A: <i>Āyatiṃ āvuso saṃvareyyāsi.</i></li>
<li>C: <i>Sādhu suṭṭhu bhante saṃvarissāmi.</i> (<i>Three times.</i>)</li>
</ul>

<p>An alternative version of the last exhange, found in MN 104, is:</p>

<ul>
<li>A: <i>Āyatiṃ saṃvaraṃ āpajjeyyāsi.</i></li>
<li>C: <i>Saṃvaraṃ āpajjissāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>This is the formula to use when the bhikkhu making the confession is junior to the bhikkhu acknowledging it. For translations and instructions on how to change the formula to use when the bhikkhu making the confession is senior to the bhikkhu acknowledging it, see Appendix VII.

If, after money has been forfeited under NP 18 or 19 and the offense has been confessed, the Community needs to authorize a money-disposer, they must first choose a member of the group who is free of the four kinds of bias — based on desire, based on aversion, based on delusion, based on fear — and who knows what counts as disposed and not disposed. Then they must ask him to perform this duty. When he has agreed, one of the bhikkhus recites the transaction statement, as follows:</p>

<ul>
<li>Suṇātu me bhante saṅgho. Yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṃ, saṅgho Itthannāmaṃ bhikkhuṃ rūpiya-chaḍḍakaṃ sammanneyya. Esā ñatti.</li>
<li>Suṇātu me bhante saṅgho. Saṅgho Itthannāmaṃ bhikkhuṃ rūpiya-chaḍḍakaṃ sammannati. Yass'āyasmato khamati, Itthannāmassa bhikkhuno rūpiya-chaḍḍakassa sammati, so tuṇhassa. Yassa nakkhamati, so bhāseyya.</li>
<li>Sammato saṅghena Itthannāmo bhikkhu rūpiya-chaḍḍako. Khamati saṅghassa, tasmā tuṇhī. Evam-etaṃ dhārayāmi.</li>
</ul>

<p>This means, <i>Venerable sirs, may the Community listen to me. If the Community is ready, it should authorize Bhikkhu (name) as the money-disposer. This is the motion.</i>

<i>Venerable sirs, may the Community listen to me. The Community authorizes</i> <i>Bhikkhu (name) as the money-disposer. He to whom the authorization of</i> <i>Bhikkhu (name) as the money-disposer is agreeable should remain silent. He to whom it is not agreeable should speak.</i>

<i>Bhikkhu (name) has been authorized by the Community as the money-disposer. This is agreeable to the Community, therefore it is silent. Thus do I hold it.</i>

If the bhikkhu being authorized is senior to the bhikkhu reciting the authorization, <i>Itthannāmo bhikkhu</i> should be replaced as follows (supposing that his name is Dhammadharo):</p>

<ul>
<li>Itthannāmo bhikkhu āyasmā Dhammadharo</li>
<li>Itthannāmaṃ bhikkhuṃ āyasmantaṃ Dhammadharaṃ</li>
<li>Itthannāmassa bhikkhuno āyasmato Dhammadharassa</li>
</ul>

<p>For the patterns to use when the bhikkhu's name has a different stem-form (-i, -u, etc.), see the introduction to Appendix II in BMC2.

To authorize a bowl-exchanger under NP 22, the same procedure is followed, except that — in addition to being free from the four forms of bias — the bhikkhu to be chosen must know what is (properly) exchanged and what is not. The same form for the transaction statement is used, replacing <i>rūpiya-chaḍḍakaṃ/ rūpiya-chaḍḍakassa/ rūpiya-chaḍḍako</i> with <i>patta-gāhāpakaṃ/ patta-gāhāpakassa/ patta-gāhāpako.</i>

Articles used or received in violation of the remaining NP rules may be forfeited to the Community, to a group, or to an individual. Here, only the formulae for forfeiting to an individual will be given. Formulae for rules rarely broken — e.g., involving bhikkhunīs or felt rugs — are not listed.

<b>NP 1.</b> For an extra robe (or robe-cloth) kept beyond ten days:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ dasāhātikkantaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>This means, „This robe (robe-cloth) of mine, venerable sir, kept beyond ten days, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“ If the speaker is senior to the listener, change <i>bhante</i> to <i>āvuso.</i> If many pieces of cloth are to be forfeited at once, the forms should be changed to plural:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imāni me bhante cīvarāni dasāhātikkantāni nissaggiyāni. Imānāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>For robes beyond the reach of the hand, change <i>idaṃ</i> to <i>etaṃ;</i> <i>imāhaṃ</i> to <i>etāhaṃ; imāni</i> to <i>etāni;</i> and <i>imānāhaṃ</i> to <i>etānāhaṃ.</i> For example, for one robe, one would say:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Etaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ dasāhātikkantaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Etāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>For more than one robe beyond the reach of the hand, one would say:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Etāni me bhante cīvarāni dasāhātikkantāni nissaggiyāni. Etānāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>Once the offense has been confessed, the robe (robe-cloth) is to be returned to the original owner, using this formula:</p>

<ul>
<li>Imaṃ cīvaraṃ āyasmato dammi,</li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „I give this robe (robe-cloth) to you.“

For more than one piece:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imāni cīvarāni āyasmato dammi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>Changes in the formula for robe-cloth beyond the reach of the hand may be inferred from the preceding example. These two formulae for returning robe-cloth are used in every case involving robes or robe-cloth and will not be repeated below.

<b>NP 2.</b> For a robe separated from one for a night or more:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ ratti-vippavutthaṃ aññatra bhikkhu-sammatiyā nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This robe of mine, venerable sir, separated (from me) for a night without authorization of the bhikkhus, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“ Change <i>cīvaraṃ</i> to <i>dvi-cīvaraṃ</i> for two robes, and to <i>ti-cīvaraṃ</i> for three. Other changes, as necessary, may be inferred from the formulae for NP 1, above. The formulae for returning the robe(s) are also given there.

<b>NP 3.</b> For out-of-season robe-cloth kept more than a month:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante akāla-cīvaraṃ māsātikkantaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This out-of-season robe-cloth of mine, venerable sir, kept beyond a month, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“ For more than one piece of cloth:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imāni me bhante akāla-cīvarāni māsātikkantāni nissaggiyāni. Imānāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>Other changes, as necessary, may be inferred from the formulae for NP 1.

<b>NP 6.</b> For a robe (robe-cloth) requested from an unrelated householder:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ aññātakaṃ gahapatikaṃ aññatra samayā viññāpitaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This robe (robe-cloth) of mine, venerable sir, requested from an unrelated householder at other than the proper occasion, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“

For more than one robe:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imāni me bhante cīvarāni aññātakaṃ gahapatikaṃ aññatra samayā viññāpitāni nissaggiyāni. Imānāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p><b>NP 7.</b> For a robe (robe-cloth) requested from an unrelated householder during an allowable occasion, but beyond the allowable limit:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ aññātakaṃ gahapatikaṃ tad'uttariṃ viññāpitaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This robe (robe-cloth) of mine, venerable sir, requested beyond that (allowable) from an unrelated householder, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“

For more than one robe:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imāni me bhante cīvarāni aññātakaṃ gahapatikaṃ tad'uttariṃ viññāpitāni nissaggiyāni. Imānāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p><b>NP 8.</b> For a robe received after making a stipulation to an unrelated householder:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ pubbe appavārito aññātakaṃ gahapatikaṃ upasaṅkamitvā cīvare vikappaṃ āpannaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This robe, venerable sir — mine after, without having been invited beforehand, I approached an unrelated householder and made stipulations about a robe — is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“

<b>NP 9.</b> For a robe received after making stipulations to two or more unrelated householders, use the same formula as for the preceding rule, changing <i>aññātakaṃ gahapatikaṃ</i> to <i>aññātake gahapatike.</i>

<b>NP 10.</b> For a robe (robe-cloth) received after reminding one's steward too many times:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ atireka-tikkhattuṃ codanāya atireka-chakkhattuṃ ṭhānena abhinipphāditaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This robe (robe-cloth) of mine, venerable sir, produced after more than three reminders, after more than six standings, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“

<b>NP 18 & 19.</b> The formulae for these rules are given at the beginning of this appendix.

<b>NP 20.</b> For an article received in trade:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Ahaṃ bhante nānappakārakaṃ kaya-vikkayaṃ samāpajjiṃ. Idaṃ me nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „Venerable sir, I have engaged in various types of trade. This of mine is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“

To return the article:</p>

<ul>
<li>Imaṃ āyasmato dammi,</li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „I give this to you.“

<b>NP 21.</b> For an extra bowl kept beyond ten days:</p>

<ul>
<li>Ayaṃ me bhante patto dasāhātikkanto nissaggiyo. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This bowl of mine, venerable sir, kept beyond ten days, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“

To return the bowl:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ pattaṃ āyasmato dammi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p><b>NP 22.</b> The formula for this rule is given at the beginning of this appendix.

<b>NP 23.</b> For any of the five tonics kept beyond seven days:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante bhesajjaṃ sattāhātikkantaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This medicine of mine, venerable sir, kept beyond seven days, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“

To return the medicine:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ bhesajjaṃ āyasmato dammi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p><b>NP 25.</b> For a robe (robe-cloth) snatched back in anger:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ bhikkhussa sāmaṃ datvā acchinnaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This robe (robe-cloth) of mine, venerable sir, snatched back after I myself gave it to a bhikkhu, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“

<b>NP 28.</b> For a robe (robe-cloth) offered in urgency kept beyond the robe season:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante acceka-cīvaraṃ cīvara-kāla-samayaṃ atikkāmitaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This robe-cloth-offered-in-urgency of mine, venerable sir, kept beyond the robe season, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“

<b>NP 29.</b> For a robe separated from one for more than six nights: </p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ atireka-chā-rattaṃ vippavutthaṃ aññatra bhikkhu-sammatiyā nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This robe of mine, venerable sir, separated (from me) for more than six nights without authorization of the bhikkhus, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“ Change <i>cīvaraṃ</i> to <i>dvi-cīvaraṃ</i> for two robes, and to <i>ti-cīvaraṃ</i> for three.

<b>NP 30.</b> For gains intended for the Community that one has diverted to oneself:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Idaṃ me bhante jānaṃ saṅghikaṃ lābhaṃ pariṇataṃ attano pariṇāmitaṃ nissaggiyaṃ. Imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „This gift, venerable sir, which I knew was intended for the Community and diverted for myself, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to you.“

To return the article:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Imaṃ āyasmato dammi.</i></li>
</ul>

VII. Pali formulae: Confession.

Six types of offense may be absolved through confession: thullaccaya, nissaggiya pācittiya, pācittiya, pāṭidesanīya, dukkaṭa, and dubbhāsita.

The formula for confessing a pāṭidesanīya is given in the training rules themselves:</p>

<ul>
<li>Gārayhaṃ āvuso dhammaṃ āpajjiṃ asappāyaṃ pāṭidesanīyaṃ. Taṃ paṭidesemi,</li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „Friend, I have committed a blameworthy, unsuitable act that ought to be acknowledged. I acknowledge it.“

The five remaining types of offenses are confessed as follows: One arranges one's upper robe over the left shoulder, approaches another bhikkhu, kneels down and, with hands raised palm-to-palm in respect, repeats the formula of confession. The bhikkhu to whom the offense is to be confessed must be part of the Community — i.e., he does not belong to a schismatic faction and has not been suspended — and he must not be guilty, without having made confession, of the same offense that one is confessing.

If all the bhikkhus in a particular residence are guilty of the same offense, one of them must go to another residence to confess the offense and then return to let the remaining bhikkhus confess their offenses in his presence, or one after another in the presence of those who have already confessed. If this cannot be arranged, then on the day of the Pāṭimokkha recitation one of the bhikkhus should announce the fact of their common offense in the midst of the gathering. Only then may they go ahead with the recitation.

As bhikkhus are supposed to be pure of unconfessed offenses before listening to the Pāṭimokkha, a bhikkhu who listens to the Pāṭimokkha knowing that he has an unconfessed offense must tell one of his neighboring bhikkhus of the offense when the recitation comes to the relevant rule. At the same time, he must promise that he will confess it when the recitation is over. Otherwise, if he tells no one, he incurs a dukkaṭa (Mv.II.3.7).

The Cullavagga (IV.14.30) gives a formula for confessing an offense in the presence of another bhikkhu:</p>

<ul>
<li>Ahaṃ āvuso itthannāmaṃ āpattiṃ āpanno. Taṃ paṭidesemi,</li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „Friend, I have fallen into an offense of such-and-such a name. I confess it.“

The bhikkhu acknowledging the confession says,</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Passasi?</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „Do you see (the offense)?“

The bhikkhu confessing the offense says,</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Āma, passāmi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „Yes, I see it.“

The bhikkhu acknowledging the confession then says,</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Āyatiṃ saṃvareyyāsi,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „You should restrain yourself in the future.“

MN 104 gives some variations on this formula. To begin with, it notes that if the bhikkhu confessing the offense is junior to the one acknowledging his confession, he should first arrange his upper robe over one shoulder, bow down to the senior bhikkhu, sit in a kneeling position with his hands palm-to-palm over his heart, and state his confession. At the conclusion of the formula, the senior bhikkhu should advise restraint by saying,</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Āyatiṃ saṃvaraṃ āpajjeyyāsi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „You should achieve restraint in the future.“

The bhikkhu confessing the offense then replies,</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Saṃvaraṃ āpajjissāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>which means, „I will achieve restraint.“

The formula most generally used at present in Thailand is expanded from these patterns. Following MN 104, the confessant vows to exercise restraint at the end of the formula, but the vow is worded to follow the pattern set in Cv IV.14.30. Also, in his original confession, he includes the words „many“ and „of various sorts“ to qualify the word, „offenses.“ This latter change is meant to streamline the confession. Rather than confessing each offense of a particular class separately, one gathers them into a single statement. As one is allowed to confess more offenses than one has actually committed, and as it is possible in some cases to commit offenses unknowingly, the current formula has been adopted to cover such unwitting offenses. In this context, the phrase, „I see,“ in the confession means, „I see that I may have committed an offense unknowingly.“ Thus it is not a lie.

Because the formula is repeated by every bhikkhu before the recitation of the Pāṭimokkha, the procedure has become little more than a formality. The Vinaya-mukha thus recommends that a bhikkhu conscious of having committed a particular offense should mention it to the other bhikkhu in their own language before making use of the Pali formula.

If the bhikkhu making confession is junior to the one acknowledging him, the exchange is as follows (taking dukkaṭa offenses as an example):</p>

<ul>
<li>Confessant: <i>Ahaṃ bhante sambahulā nānā-vatthukāyo dukkaṭāyo āpattiyo āpanno. Tā paṭidesemi.</i></li>
<li>Acknowledger: <i>Passasi āvuso?</i></li>
<li>C: <i>Āma bhante, passāmi.</i></li>
<li>A: <i>Āyatim āvuso saṃvareyyāsi.</i></li>
<li>C: <i>Sādhu suṭṭhu bhante saṃvarissāmi.</i> (<i>Three times.</i>)</li>
</ul>

<p>This last sentence means, <i>„Very well, venerable sir, I will be restrained,“</i> and is taken from the Kommentar.

If the bhikkhu making confession is senior to the other bhikkhu, the exchange is as follows:</p>

<ul>
<li>C: <i>Ahaṃ āvuso sambahulā nānā-vatthukāyo dukkaṭāyo āpattiyo āpanno. Tā paṭidesemi.</i></li>
<li>A: <i>Passatha bhante?</i></li>
<li>C: <i>Āma āvuso, passāmi.</i></li>
<li>A: <i>Āyatiṃ bhante saṃvareyyātha.</i></li>
<li>C: <i>Sādhu suṭṭhu āvuso saṃvarissāmi.</i> (<i>Three times.</i>)</li>
</ul>

<p>For other categories of offenses, change <i>dukkaṭāyo</i> to</p>

<ul>
<li><i>thullaccayāyo,</i></li>
<li><i>nissaggiyāyo pācittiyāyo,</i></li>
<li><i>pācittiyāyo,</i> or</li>
<li><i>dubbhāsitāyo,</i></li>
</ul>

<p>as the case may be. In confessing dubbhāsita offenses, drop the word <i>nānā-vatthukāyo,</i> as there is only one rule in this class.</p>

VIII. Pali formulae: Verdicts

<i>A. A verdict of mindfulness.</i> To request this verdict, a bhikkhu should arrange his robe over one shoulder, approach the Community, bow down to the feet of the senior bhikkhus and, while kneeling with his hands palm-to-palm over his heart, say:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Maṃ bhante bhikkhū amūlikāya sīla-vipattiyā anuddhaṃsenti. So'haṃ bhante sati-vepullappatto saṅghaṃ sati-vinayaṃ yācāmi.</i></li>
<li><i>Maṃ bhante bhikkhū amūlikāya sīla-vipattiyā anuddhaṃsenti. So'haṃ sati-vepullappatto dutiyam-pi bhante saṅghaṃ sati-vinayaṃ yācāmi.</i></li>
<li><i>Maṃ bhante bhikkhū amūlikāya sīla-vipattiyā anuddhaṃsenti. So'haṃ sati-vepullappatto tatiyam-pi bhante saṅghaṃ sati-vinayaṃ yācāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>This means, <i>Venerable sirs, bhikkhus have charged me groundlessly with a corruption of virtue. I, having reached fullness of mindfulness, ask the Community for a verdict of mindfulness.</i>

<i>Venerable sirs, bhikkhus have charged me groundlessly with a corruption of virtue. I, having reached fullness of mindfulness, ask the Community a second time… a third time for a verdict of mindfulness.</i>

To give this verdict, an experienced and competent bhikkhu should inform the Community:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Suṇātu me bhante saṅgho. Bhikkhū Itthannāmaṃ bhikkhuṃ amūlikāya sīla-vipattiyā anuddaṃsenti. So sati-vepullappatto saṅghaṃ sati-vinayaṃ yācati. Yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṃ, saṅgho Itthannāmassa bhikkhuno sati-vepullappattassa sati-vinayaṃ dadeyya. Esā ñatti.</i></li>
<li><i>Suṇātu me bhante saṅgho. Bhikkhū Itthannāmaṃ bhikkhuṃ amūlikāya sīla-vipattiyā anuddaṃsenti. So sati-vepullappatto saṅghaṃ sati-vinayaṃ yācati. Saṅgho Itthannāmassa bhikkhuno sati-vepullappattassa sati-vinayaṃ deti. Yass'āyasmato khamati, Itthannāmassa bhikkhuno sati-vepullappattassa sati-vinayassa dānaṃ, so tuṇh'assa. Yassa nakkhamati, so bhāseyya.</i></li>
<li><i>Dutiyam-pi etam-atthaṃ vadāmi. Suṇātu me bhante saṅgho... Yassa nakkhamati, so bhāseyya.</i></li>
<li><i>Tatiyam-pi etam-atthaṃ vadāmi. Suṇātu me bhante saṅgho... Yassa nakkhamati, so bhāseyya</i>.</li>
<li><i>Dinno saṅghena Itthannāmassa bhikkhuno sati-vepullappattassa sati-vinayo. Khamati saṅghassa, tasmā tuṇhī. Evam-etaṃ dhārayāmi. (Cv.IV.4.10; Cv.IV.14.27)</i></li>
</ul>

<p>This means, <i>Venerable sirs, may the Community listen to me. Bhikkhus have charged Bhikkhu (name) groundlessly with a corruption of virtue. He, having reached fullness of mindfulness, asks the Community for a verdict of mindfulness. If the Community is ready, it should grant Bhikkhu (name), who has reached fullness of mindfulness, a verdict of mindfulness. This is the motion.</i>

<i>Venerable sirs, may the Community listen to me. Bhikkhus have charged Bhikkhu (name) groundlessly with a corruption of virtue. He, having reached fullness of mindfulness, asks the Community for a verdict of mindfulness. The Community grants Bhikkhu (name), who has reached fullness of mindfulness, a verdict of mindfulness. He to whom the granting of a verdict of mindfulness to Bhikkhu (name), who has reached fullness of mindfulness, is agreeable should remain silent. He to whom it is not agreeable should speak.</i>

<i>A second time… A third time I speak about this matter. Venerable sirs, may the Community listen to me… He to whom it is not agreeable should speak.</i>

<i>Bhikkhu (name), who has reached fullness of mindfulness, has been granted a verdict of mindfulness by the Community. This is agreeable to the Community, therefore it is silent. Thus do I hold it.</i>

<i>B. A verdict of past insanity.</i> To request this verdict, a bhikkhu should arrange his robe over one shoulder, approach the Community, bow down to the feet of the senior bhikkhus and, while kneeling with his hands palm-to-palm over his heart, say:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Ahaṃ bhante ummattako ahosiṃ citta-vipariyāsakato. Tena me ummattakena citta-vipariyāsakatena bahuṃ assāmaṇakaṃ ajjhāciṇṇaṃ bhāsita-parikkantaṃ. Maṃ bhikkhū ummattakena citta-vipariyāsakatena ajjhāciṇṇena āpattiyā codenti, "Sarat'āyasmā evarūpiṃ āpattiṃ āpajjitāti." Ty'āhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi, "Ahaṃ kho āvuso ummattako ahosiṃ citta-vipariyāsakato. Tena me ummattakena citta-vipariyāsakatena bahuṃ assāmaṇakaṃ ajjhāciṇṇaṃ bhāsita-parikkantaṃ. Nāhan'taṃ sarāmi. Mūḷhena me etaṃ katanti." Evam-pi maṃ vuccamānā codent'eva, "Sarat'āyasmā evarūpiṃ āpattiṃ āpajjitāti." So'haṃ bhante amūḷho saṅghaṃ amūḷha-vinayaṃ yācāmi.</i></li>
<li><i>Ahaṃ bhante ummattako ahosiṃ... So'haṃ amūḷho dutiyam-pi bhante saṅghaṃ amūḷha-vinayaṃ yācāmi.</i></li>
<li><i>Ahaṃ bhante ummattako ahosiṃ... So'haṃ bhante amūḷho tatiyam-pi bhante saṅghaṃ amūḷha-vinayaṃ yācāmi.</i></li>
</ul>

<p>This means, <i>Venerable sirs, I have been mad, out of my mind. While I was mad, out of my mind, I committed much and prevaricated about much in a way that was unworthy of a contemplative. Bhikkhus reprimand me with an offense committed while I was mad, out of my mind: „Let the venerable one recall (§) having fallen into an offense of this sort.“ I say to them, „Friends, I have been mad, out of my mind. While I was mad, out of my mind, I committed much and prevaricated about much in a way that was unworthy of a contemplative. I don't recall that. It was done by me through insanity.“ But even though I have told them this, they reprimand me as before: „Let the venerable one recall having fallen into an offense of this sort.“ I, no longer insane, ask the Community for a verdict of past insanity.</i>

<i>Venerable sirs I have been mad, out of my mind… I, no longer insane, ask the Community a second time… a third time for a verdict of past insanity.</i>

To give this verdict, an experienced and competent bhikkhu should inform the Community:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Suṇātu me bhante saṅgho. Ayaṃ Itthannāmo bhikkhu ummattako ahosi citta-vipariyāsakato. Tena ummattakena citta-vipariyāsakatena bahuṃ assāmaṇakaṃ ajjhāciṇṇaṃ bhāsita-parikkantaṃ. Taṃ bhikkhū ummattakena citta-vipariyāsakatena ajjhāciṇṇena āpattiyā codenti, "Sarat'āyasmā evarūpiṃ āpattiṃ āpajjitāti." So evaṃ vadeti, "Ahaṃ kho āvuso ummattako ahosiṃ citta-vipariyāsakato. Tena me ummattakena citta-vipariyāsakatena bahuṃ assāmaṇakaṃ ajjhāciṇṇaṃ bhāsita-parikkantaṃ. Nāhan'taṃ sarāmi, mūḷhena me etaṃ katanti." Evam-pi naṃ vuccamānā codent'eva, "Sarat'āyasmā evarūpiṃ āpattiṃ āpajjitāti." So amūḷho saṅghaṃ amūḷha-vinayaṃ yācati. Yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṃ, saṅgho Itthannāmassa bhikkhuno amūḷha-vinayaṃ dadeyya. Esā ñatti.</i></li>
<li><i>Suṇātu me bhante saṅgho. Ayaṃ Itthannāmo bhikkhu ummattako ahosi citta-vipariyāsakato, tena ummattakena citta-vipariyāsakatena bahuṃ assāmaṇakaṃ ajjhāciṇṇaṃ bhāsita-parikkantaṃ. Taṃ bhikkhū ummattakena citta-vipariyāsakatena ajjhāciṇṇena āpattiyā codenti, "Sarat'āyasmā evarūpiṃ āpattiṃ āpajjitāti." So evaṃ vadeti, "Ahaṃ kho āvuso ummattako ahosiṃ citta-vipariyāsakato. Tena me ummattakena citta-vipariyāsakatena bahuṃ assāmaṇakaṃ ajjhāciṇṇaṃ bhāsita-parikkantaṃ. Nāhan'taṃ sarāmi. Mūḷhena me etaṃ katanti." Evam-pi naṃ vuccamānā codent'eva, "Sarat'āyasmā evarūpiṃ āpattiṃ āpajjitāti." So amūḷho saṅghaṃ amūḷha-vinayaṃ yācati. Saṅgho Itthannāmassa bhikkhuno amūḷhassa amūḷha-vinayaṃ deti. Yass'āyasmato khamati, Itthannāmassa bhikkhuno amūḷhassa amūḷha-vinayassa dānaṃ, so tuṇh'assa. Yassa nakkhamati, so bhāseyya.</i></li>
<li><i>Dutiyam-pi etam-atthaṃ vadāmi. Suṇātu me bhante saṅgho... Yassa nakkhamati, so bhāseyya.</i></li>
<li><i>Tatiyam-pi etam-atthaṃ vadāmi. Suṇātu me bhante saṅgho... Yassa nakkhamati, so bhāseyya.</i></li>
<li><i>Dinno saṅghena Itthannāmassa bhikkhuno amūḷhassa amūḷha-vinayo. Khamati saṅghassa, tasmā tuṇhī. Evam-etaṃ dhārayāmi.</i> (Cv. IV.5.2; Cv.IV.14.28)</li>
</ul>

<p>This means, <i>Venerable sirs, may the Community listen to me. This Bhikkhu (name) has been mad, out of his mind. While he was mad, out of his mind, he committed much and prevaricated about much in a way that was unworthy of a contemplative. Bhikkhus reprimand him with an offense committed while he was mad, out of his mind: „Let the venerable one recall having fallen into an offense of this sort.“ He says to them, „Friends, I have been mad, out of my mind. While I was mad, out of my mind, I committed much and prevaricated about much in a way that was unworthy of a contemplative. I don't recall that. It was done by me through insanity.“ But even though he has told them this, they reprimand him as before: „Let the venerable one recall having fallen into an offense of this sort.“ He, no longer insane, asks the Community for a verdict of past insanity. If the Community is ready, it should grant Bhikkhu (name), who is no longer insane, a verdict of past insanity. This is the motion.</i>

<i>Venerable sirs, may the Community listen to me. This Bhikkhu (name) has been mad, out of his mind. While he was mad, out of his mind, he committed much and prevaricated about much in a way that was unworthy of a contemplative… He, no longer insane, asks the Community for a verdict of past insanity. The Community grants Bhikkhu (name), who is no longer insane, a verdict of past insanity. He to whom the granting of a verdict of past insanity to Bhikkhu (name), who is no longer insane, is agreeable should remain silent. He to whom it is not agreeable should speak.</i>

<i>A second time… A third time I speak about this matter. Venerable sirs, may the Community listen to me… He to whom it is not agreeable should speak.</i>

<i>Bhikkhu (name), who is no longer insane, has been granted a verdict of past insanity by the Community. This is agreeable to the Community, therefore it is silent. Thus do I hold it.</i></p>

IX. Thullaccaya offenses.

Rules entailing thullaccaya offenses are found in the Sutta Vibhaṅga as derivatives from pārājika and saṅghādisesa rules; in the Khandhakas, as stand-alone rules. The fact that they are scattered throughout the Canon with no special arrangement or section of their own makes it difficult to determine whether one has committed an offense of this class. To lessen this difficulty, they are gathered here. For thullaccayas in the Sutta Vibhaṅga, I have provided summaries in my own words. For those in the Khandhakas, I have given the rules in their original form, arranging them in the order in which they are found in BMC2.</p>

<h4>Thullaccayas in the Sutta Vibhaṅga</h4>

<p><b>Under Pr 1:</b>

A bhikkhu engages in mouth-to-mouth penetration with another human being or animal: a thullaccaya offense.

A bhikkhu attempts intercourse with the decomposed mouth, anus, or genitals of a corpse: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Pr 2:</b>

A bhikkhu steals an article worth more than one māsaka but less than five: a thullaccaya offense.

A bhikkhu gets an accomplice to agree to steal an article worth at least five māsakas: a thullaccaya offense.

A bhikkhu performs any of the following steps in stealing an article worth at least five māsakas, defined by what constitutes moving the article:</p>

<ul>
<li><i>Moving the object from its place:</i> Making the object budge without fully moving it from its place: a thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>"Cutting off" a fistful:</i> Making the object budge without fully cutting off a fistful: a thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>Sticking a vessel into a pool of liquid or pile of objects and causing some of the pool or pile to enter the vessel:</i> Making the pool or pile budge without fully getting five māsakas worth separated from the pool or pile and inside the vessel: a thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>Removing entirely from the mouth of a container:</i> Lifting the object: a thullaccaya offense. Bringing it up to the level of the mouth of the container: another thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>Drinking liquid from a container:</i> Drinking between one and five māsakas' worth of liquid: a thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>Moving the object from one part of one's body to another or dropping it:</i> Moving it but not to the point of putting it on another part of the body or dropping it: a thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>Causing a boat to move a hair-breadth upstream, downstream, or across a body of water:</i> Making the boat rock without causing it to move a hair-breadth upstream, downstream, or across a body of water: a thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>Breaking an embankment so that water flows out:</i> Letting between one and five māsakas' worth of water flow out: a thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>Causing an animal to move all its feet:</i> Getting it to move any of its feet prior to its moving its last foot: a thullaccaya offense for each step.</li>
<li><i>Cutting down:</i> The next-to-last chop needed to cut the plant through: a thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>Causing the owner to give up efforts to regain possession of objects handed to one for safe keeping:</i> Inducing doubt in the owner's mind as to whether he/she will get the object back: a thullaccaya offense. If the case goes to court and the bhikkhu loses: another thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>Causing the owner to give up efforts to regain possession of land:</i> Inducing doubt in the owner's mind as to whether he/she will lose the land: a thullaccaya offense. Again, if the case goes to court and the bhikkhu loses: another thullaccaya offense.</li>
<li><i>Shifting a boundary marker:</i> Any steps between removing the boundary marker from its original place and putting it in a new place: a thullaccaya offense for each step.</li>
<li><i>Taking a dutiable item through a customs area without paying duty:</i> Making the object move without fully moving it from the customs area: a thullaccaya offense.</li>
</ul>

<p><b>Under Pr 3:</b>

A bhikkhu kills a „non-human being“ — a yakkha, nāga, or peta: a thullaccaya offense.

A bhikkhu causes a human being to experience pain or injury as a result of his efforts to kill him/her: a thullaccaya offense.

A bhikkhu gets an accomplice to agree to kill a human being: a thullaccaya offense.

A bhikkhu tests a poison on a human being: a thullaccaya offense regardless of whether the human being dies.

<b>Under Pr 4:</b>

A bhikkhu means to lay false claim to one superior human state but actually lays false claim to another, while not being alert to what he is saying: a thullaccaya offense.

A bhikkhu lays false claim to a superior human state, explicitly mentioning the state but without explicitly mentioning himself, fully aware that he is making such a claim: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 1:</b>

A bhikkhu makes an intentional effort to emit semen, but without reaching an emission: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 2:</b>

Impelled by lust, a bhikkhu makes bodily contact with a <i>paṇḍaka,</i> a female yakkha, or a dead woman, perceiving his object correctly: a thullaccaya offense.

Impelled by lust, a bhikkhu makes bodily contact with a woman while under the impression that she is something else — a paṇḍaka, a man, or an animal: a thullaccaya offense.

Impelled by lust, a bhikkhu uses his body to make lustful contact with an article connected to a woman's body: a thullaccaya offense.

Impelled by lust, a bhikkhu uses an item connected with his body to make lustful contact with a woman's body: a thullaccaya offense.

A woman whom a bhikkhu perceives to be a woman makes an effort at a bhikkhu's body using something connected to her body. The bhikkhu desires contact, makes an effort, and detects contact: a thullaccaya offense.

A woman whom a bhikkhu perceives to be a woman makes an effort at something connected to the bhikkhu's body using her body. The bhikkhu desires contact, makes an effort, and detects contact: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 3:</b>

Impelled by lust, a bhikkhu speaks to a woman he perceives to be a woman and refers to parts of her body — aside from her private parts — below her collarbone and above her knees: a thullaccaya offense.

Impelled by lust, a bhikkhu speaks to a paṇḍaka he perceives to be a paṇḍaka and refers lustfully to his (the paṇḍaka's) private parts or performing sexual intercourse: a thullaccaya offense.

Impelled by lust, a bhikkhu speaking to a woman whom he perceives to be a paṇḍaka, a man, or an animal, refers to her genitals, anus, or performing sexual intercourse: a thullaccaya offense.

Impelled by lust, a bhikkhu speaking to a woman makes direct reference to her genitals or anus, but the woman doesn't immediately understand that he is referring to those things: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 4:</b>

Impelled by lust, a bhikkhu speaks to a paṇḍaka he perceives to be a paṇḍaka in praise of the paṇḍaka's ministering to his (the bhikkhu's) sensual needs, referring to sexual intercourse as a meritorious gift: a thullaccaya offense.

Impelled by lust, a bhikkhu makes such remarks to a woman he perceives to be a paṇḍaka, a man, or an animal: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 5:</b>

A bhikkhu performs any two of the three steps in a go-between's role — accepting, inquiring, reporting — or gets someone else to perform any two of the three: a thullaccaya offense.

A bhikkhu performs all three steps in a go-between's role for a paṇḍaka (reading <i>paṇḍake</i> as the locative singular, which is called for in the grammatical context of the sentence): a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 6:</b>

A bhikkhu performs the next-to-last act in building a hut for his own use — its materials acquired through begging — that is oversized or located on an unauthorized site: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 7:</b>

A bhikkhu performs the next-to-last act in building a hut for his own use — financed by a sponsor — that is located on an unauthorized site: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 10:</b>

A bhikkhu persists in his intention to form a schismatic group or to take up a position that can lead to schism, up through the end of the second announcement of a formal rebuke in a meeting of the Community: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 11:</b>

A bhikkhu persists in his intention to support a potential schismatic, up through the end of the second announcement of a formal rebuke in a meeting of the Community: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 12:</b>

A bhikkhu persists in being difficult to admonish, up through the end of the second announcement of a formal rebuke in a meeting of the Community: a thullaccaya offense.

<b>Under Sg 13:</b>

A bhikkhu persists in criticizing an act of banishment performed against him, up through the end of the second announcement of a formal rebuke in a meeting of the Community: a thullaccaya offense.</p>

<h4>Thullaccayas in the Khandhakas</h4>

<p>„Nakedness, a sectarian observance, should not be followed. Whoever should follow it: a thullaccaya offense.“ — Mv.VIII.28.1

„A kusa-grass garment… a bark-fiber garment… a garment of bark pieces… a human hair blanket… a horse tail-hair blanket… owls' wings… black antelope hide, (each of which is) a sectarian uniform, should not be worn. Whoever should wear one: a thullaccaya offense.“ — Mv.VIII.28.2

„One should not consume human flesh. Whoever should do so: a thullaccaya offense.“ — Mv.VI.23.9

„One should not, with lustful thoughts, touch the sexual organs (of cattle). Whoever should touch (one): a thullaccaya offense.“ — Mv.V.9.3

„One's own penis/genitals should not be cut off. Whoever should cut them off: a thullaccaya offense.“ — Cv.V.7

„Surgery should not be done in the crotch. Whoever should do it (have it done): a thullaccaya offense.“ — Mv.VI.22.3

„Surgery and hemorrhoid removal (§) should not be done within the area two inches around the crotch. Whoever should do it (have it done): a thullaccaya offense.“ — Mv.VI.22.4

„These five things not-to-be-given-out should not be given out by a Community, a group, or an individual. Even when they have been given out, they are not (to be considered as) given out. Whoever should give them out: a thullaccaya offense. Which five?</p>

<ul>
<li>1) A monastery, the land of a monastery (a site for a monastery). This is the first thing not to be given out...</li>
<li>2) A dwelling, the land of a dwelling (a site for a dwelling). This is the second thing not to be given out...</li>
<li>3) A bed, bench, mattress, pillow. This is the third thing not to be given out...</li>
<li>4) A metal pot, a metal vessel, a metal jar/bottle, a metal frying pan/wok, a knife/machete, an axe, an adze, a hoe, a drill/chisel. This is the fourth thing not to be given out...</li>
<li>5) Vines, bamboo, coarse grass, reeds, tiṇa-grass, clay (all of which can be used as building materials), wooden goods, clay goods. This is the fifth thing not to be given out...</li>
</ul>

<p>„These are the five things not-to-be-given-out that should not be given out by a Community, a group, or an individual. Even when they have been given out, they are not (to be considered as) given out. Whoever should give them out: a thullaccaya offense.“ — Cv.VI.15.2

„These five things not-to-be-divided-up (not-to-be-distributed) (as above).“ — Cv.VI.16.2

„There is the case where on the uposatha day in a certain residence, many resident bhikkhus gather, four or more. They know, 'There are other resident bhikkhus who have not come yet.' (Thinking,) 'They are expelled. They are destroyed. Who has need of them? (§)' they recite the Pāṭimokkha… : a thullaccaya offense — Mv.II.32

“(Incoming bhikkhus on the uposatha day,) being doubtful, search for resident bhikkhus. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, (thinking,) 'They are expelled. They are destroyed. Who has need of them? (§)' they perform the uposatha separately, aiming at schism: a thullaccaya offense.“ — Mv.II.34.5-6

(With reference to the newly-ordained bhikkhus who had ignorantly followed Devadatta in a schism): „In that case, you should have the followers of the schismatic confess a thullaccaya offense.“ — Cv.VII.4.4</p>

X. A pupil's duties as attendant to his mentor.

As mentioned in Kapitel 2, one is required to act as one's mentor's personal attendant if he does not already have one. There I sketched out these duties in general terms. What follows is a translation from Mv.I.25.8-19, which lays them out in very specific terms. Some Communities have their members follow these duties to the letter; others have adapted them to fit in with what they see as changes in culture and technology (e.g., bathing practices now differ from what they were then). Even in the latter cases, though, it is useful to have the original standards down in writing as practical guides to mindful action in daily life and sensitivity to one's mentor's needs, for the role of attendant is an excellent opportunity for learning the Dhamma and Vinaya in action on a day-to-day basis. A bhikkhu who approaches this role with the proper attitude will benefit greatly from it, much as Ven. Ānanda benefited from the care and attention he brought to bear in attending to the Buddha.

In the following passages, statements in brackets are from the Kommentar; statements in braces from the Sub-commentary; statements in parentheses are my own.

„Having gotten up early, having taken off his sandals, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, the pupil should provide tooth wood (see Pc 40) and water for washing the face/rinsing the mouth. [C: On the first three days when one is performing these services, one should provide the preceptor with three lengths of tooth wood — long, medium, and short — and notice which one he takes. If he takes the same length on all three days, provide him only with that length from then on. If he is not particular about the length, provide him with whatever length is available. A similar principle holds for the water: On the first three days, provide him with both warm and cold water. If he consistently takes either the warm or the cold, provide him only with that kind of water from then on. If not, provide him with whatever water is available.] (The Kommentar suggests that in „providing“ these things, one need only set them out, rather than hand them to the preceptor. Once they have been set out, one should proceed to sweep out the restroom and its surrounding area while the preceptor is using the tooth wood and water. Then, while the preceptor is using the restroom, one should proceed to the next step.)

„Arrange a seat. If there is conjey, then having washed a shallow bowl, offer the conjey to the preceptor. When he has drunk the conjey, then having given him water, having received the bowl, having lowered it (so as not to let the washing water wet one's robes), wash it carefully without scraping it [C: knocking it against the floor] and then put it away. When the preceptor has gotten up, take up the seat. If the place is dirty, sweep it.

„If the preceptor wishes to enter the village for alms, give him his lower robe, receiving the spare lower robe (he is wearing) from him in return. (This is one of the few passages showing that the practice of having spare robes was already current when the Canon was being compiled.) Give him his waistband; give him his upper and outer robe, arranged so that the upper robe forms a lining for the outer one (§). Having rinsed out the bowl, give it to him while it is still wet (i.e., pour out as much of the rinsing water as possible, but don't wipe it dry).

„If the preceptor desires an attendant, one should put on one's lower robe so as to cover the three circles all around (see Sk 1 & 2). Having put on the waistband, having arranged the upper robe as a lining for the outer one and having put them on, having fastened the (lower) fastener, having washed and taken a bowl, be the preceptor's attendant. Do not walk too far behind him; do not walk too close. [C: One to two steps behind him is appropriate.] Receive the contents of the preceptor's bowl. [C: If the preceptor's bowl is heavy or hot to the touch, take his bowl and give him one's own bowl (which is presumably lighter or cooler to the touch) in return.] (In a Community where the bowls are carried in their bowl bags during alms round, one may receive the preceptor's bowl.)

„Do not interrupt the preceptor when he is speaking. If he is bordering on an offense [C: e.g., Pc 4 or Sg 3], one should stop him. [C: Speak in an indirect way so as to call him to his senses. These two protocols apply everywhere, not only on alms round.] {SC: Unlike the other protocols toward one's preceptor, these must also be observed even when one is ill.}

„Returning ahead of the preceptor, one should arrange a seat. Put out washing water for the feet, a foot stand, and a pebble foot wiper. Having gone to meet him, receive his bowl and robe. Give him his spare lower robe; receive the lower robe [C: that he has been wearing] in return. If the upper and outer robes are damp with perspiration, dry them for a short time in the sun's warmth, but do not leave them in the sun's warmth for long. Fold up the robes {SC: separately}, keeping the edges four fingerbreadths apart so that neither robe becomes creased in the middle. (This, the Vinaya-mukha notes, helps extend the life of the cloth.) Place the waistband in the fold of the robe. (From these statements it would appear that when bhikkhus were in their dwelling places they wore only their lower robes, even while eating.)

„If there is almsfood, and the preceptor wishes to eat, give him water and offer the almsfood to him. Ask if he wants drinking water. [C: If there is enough time before noon, one should wait by the preceptor while he is eating, in order to offer him drinking water, and eat one's own meal only when he is finished. If there is not enough time for this, one should simply set out the water and proceed to one's own meal.]

„When he has finished his meal, then having given him water, receive the bowl, lower it, and wash it carefully without scraping it. Then, having dried it, set it out for a short time in the sun's warmth, but do not leave in the sun's warmth for long.

„Put away his bowl and robes. When putting away the bowl, one should take the bowl in one hand, run one's hand under the bed or bench with the other hand (to check for things on the floor that would harm the bowl), and put away the bowl (there), but should not put it away on the bare ground [C: any place where it will get soiled]. When putting away the robe, one should take the robe with one hand, stroke the other hand along the rod or cord for the robes [C: to check for any rough spots or splinters on the cord or rod that will rip the cloth], and put away the robe (over the cord or rod) with the edges away from one and the fold toward one. [C: The fold shouldn't be placed on the side of the wall, for if there is a splinter in the wall, it may rip the robe in the middle (making its determination lapse).]

„When the preceptor has gotten up, take up the seat. Put away the washing water for the feet, the foot-stand, and the foot wiper. If the place is dirty, sweep it.

„If the preceptor wishes to bathe, prepare a bath. Prepare a cold bath if he wants a cold one, a hot bath if he wants a hot one.

„If the preceptor wishes to enter the sauna, knead the powder for bathing, moisten the bathing clay, take a sauna-bench, and follow closely behind him. Give him the bench, receive his robe in return, and lay it to one side [C: where there is no soot or smoke]. Give him the (moistened) powder for bathing and clay. If one is able to, enter the sauna. When entering the sauna, one should do so having smeared one's face with the bathing clay and covering oneself front and back (i.e., one shouldn't expose oneself, but there is no need to cover the three „circles“).

„Sit so as not to encroach on the senior bhikkhus, at the same time not preempting the junior bhikkhus from a seat. Perform services for the preceptor [C: stoking the fire, providing him with clay and hot water]. When leaving the sauna, one should do so taking the sauna-bench and having covered oneself front and back. Perform a service for the preceptor even in the bathing water. Having bathed, the pupil should come out of the water first, dry himself, and put on his lower robe. Then he should rub the water off his preceptor, give him his lower robe and then his outer robe.

„Taking the sauna-bench, the pupil should return first, arrange a seat, put out washing water for the feet, a foot stand, and a pebble foot wiper. When the preceptor has sat down, ask him if he wants drinking water.

„If the preceptor wants one to recite [C: memorize passages of Dhamma or Vinaya], one should recite. If he wants to interrogate one [C: on the meaning of the passages], one should answer his interrogation.

„If the place where the preceptor is staying is dirty, the pupil should clean it if he is able to. First taking out the bowl and robes he should lay them to one side. Taking out the sitting cloth and sheet, he should lay them to one side. Having lowered the bed, he should take it out carefully, without scraping it [C: along the floor] or knocking it against the door or doorposts, and then lay it to one side. Having lowered the bench, he should take it out carefully, without scraping it [C: along the floor] or knocking it against the door or doorposts, and then lay it to one side. Taking out the spittoon… the leaning board, he should lay them to one side.

„If there are cobwebs in the dwelling, he should remove them, starting first with the ceiling covering-cloth (§) (and working down). He should wipe areas around the window frames and the corners (of the room) (§). If the wall has been treated with ochre and has become moldy (§), he should moisten a rag, wring it out, and wipe it clean. If the floor of the room is treated with blackening (polished), he should moisten a rag, wring it out, and wipe it clean. If the floor is bare ground, he should sprinkle it all over with water before sweeping it, (with the thought,) 'May the dust not fly up and soil the room.' He should look for any rubbish and throw it away to one side.

„Having dried the ground-covering in the sun, he should clean it, shake it out, bring it back in, and arrange it in its proper place. Having dried the supports for the bed in the sun, he should wipe them, bring them back in, and set them in their proper places. Having dried the bed…the bench in the sun, he should clean them, shake them out, lower them, bring them back in carefully without scraping them [along the floor] or knocking them against the door or doorposts, and arrange them in their proper places. Having dried the mattress and pillow…the sitting cloth and sheet in the sun, he should clean them, shake them out, bring them back in, and arrange them in their proper places. Having dried the spittoon in the sun, he should wipe it, bring it back in, and set it in its proper place. Having dried the leaning board in the sun, he should wipe it, bring it back in, and set it in its proper place.

„If dusty winds blow from the east, he should close the eastern windows. If from the west, he should close the western windows. If from the north, he should close the northern windows. If from the south, he should close the southern windows. If the weather is cool, he should open the windows by day and close them at night. If the weather is hot, he should close them by day and open them at night.

„If the surrounding area (§) is dirty, he should sweep it. If the porch… assembly hall… fire hall… restroom is dirty, he should sweep it. If there is no drinking water, he should set it out. If there is no washing water, he should set it out. If there is no water in the pot for rinsing (in the restroom), he should pour it into the pot.

„If dissatisfaction (with the holy life) arises in the preceptor, one should allay it or get someone else to allay it or one should give him a Dhamma talk. If anxiety (over his conduct with regard to the rules) arises in the preceptor, one should dispel it or get someone else to dispel it or one should give him a Dhamma talk. If a viewpoint (<i>diṭṭhigata,</i> usually a fixed opinion with regard to a question not worth asking — see MN 72) arises in the preceptor, one should pry it away or get someone else to pry it away or one should give him a Dhamma talk.

„If the preceptor has committed an offense against a heavy (saṅghādisesa) rule and deserves probation, the pupil should make an effort, (thinking,) „How can the Community grant my preceptor probation?“ If the preceptor deserves to be sent back to the beginning… deserves penance… deserves rehabilitation, the pupil should make an effort, (thinking,) „How can the Community grant my preceptor rehabilitation?“

„If the Community wants to carry out a transaction against the preceptor — censure, demotion, banishment, reconciliation, or suspension — the pupil should make an effort, (thinking,) 'How can the Community not carry out that transaction against my preceptor or else change it to a lighter one?' But if the transaction — censure… suspension — is carried out against him, the pupil should make an effort, (thinking,) 'How can my preceptor behave properly, lower his hackles, mend his ways, so that the Community will rescind that transaction?'

„If the preceptor's robe should be washed, the pupil should wash it or make an effort, (thinking,) 'How can my preceptor's robe be washed?' If the preceptor's robe should be made, the pupil should make it or make an effort, (thinking,) 'How can my preceptor's robe be made?' If the preceptor's dye should be boiled, the pupil should boil it or make an effort, (thinking,) 'How can my preceptor's dye be boiled?' If the preceptor's robe should be dyed, the pupil should dye it or make an effort, (thinking,) 'How can my preceptor's robe be dyed?' While dyeing the robe, he should carefully let it take the dye properly (while drying), turning it back and forth (on the line), and shouldn't go away until the drips have become discontinuous (§).

„Without having taken the preceptor's leave, the pupil should not give an alms bowl to anyone [C: on bad terms with the preceptor] nor should he receive an alms bowl from that person. He shouldn't give robe-cloth to that person or receive robe-cloth from that person, shouldn't give a requisite to that person or receive a requisite from that person. He shouldn't cut that person's hair or have his own hair cut by that person. He shouldn't perform a service for that person or have that person perform a service for him. He shouldn't act as that person's steward or have that person act as his own steward. He shouldn't be that person's attendant or take that person as his own attendant. He shouldn't bring back almsfood for that person or have that person bring back almsfood for him.

„Without having taken the preceptor's leave, he shouldn't enter a town, shouldn't go to a cemetery, shouldn't leave the district. (Mv.II.21.1 adds (translating from the Burmese edition): „There is the case where a number of inexperienced, incompetent bhikkhus, travelling to distant locations, ask leave of their teachers and preceptors. They should be asked by their teachers and preceptors, 'Where will you go? With whom will you go?' If those inexperienced, incompetent bhikkhus name other inexperienced, incompetent bhikkhus, the teachers and preceptors should not give them permission. If they give permission: an offense of wrong doing. And if those inexperienced, incompetent bhikkhus, not having received permission, go anyway: an offense of wrong doing (for them).)

„If the preceptor is ill, he (the pupil) should tend to him as long as life lasts; he should stay with him until he recovers.“</p>

<p>As noted in Kapitel 2, a pupil who is not ill is expected to perform these services for his mentor unless the mentor tells him that he already has another pupil acting as his attendant or the other pupil says that he will accept responsibility for them. On the other hand, if the pupil is ill, the mentor is expected to perform these services for the pupil until the latter recovers. This reflects the Buddha's statement that the pupil should regard the mentor as his father; and the mentor, the pupil as his son. If both bear this relationship in mind, they are sure to prosper in the practice of the Dhamma-Vinaya.</p>

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<li class='first'><a href="bmc1.intro.html" title="Zum Einleitung">Einleitung</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch01.html" title="Zum Kapitel 1: Patimokkha">1</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch02.html" title="Zum Kapitel 2: Nissaya">2</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch03.html" title="Zum Kapitel 3: Robe ablegen">3</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch04.html" title="KAPITEL  IV: Pārājika">4</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch05.html" title="Zum KAPITEL  V: Saṅghādisesa">5</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch06.html" title="Zum KAPITEL  VI: Aniyata">6</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch07-1.html" title="Zum 1. Das Robenstoff Kapitel">7.1</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch07-2.html" title="Zum 2. Das Seiden Kapitel">7.2</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch07-3.html" title="Zum 3. Das Schalen Kapitel">7.3</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-1.html" title="Zum 1. Das Lügen Kapitel">8.1</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-2.html" title="Zum 2. Das Pflanzen Kapitel">8.2</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-3.html" title="Zum 3. Das Ermunterung Kapitel">8.3</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-4.html" title="Zum 4. Das Speisen Kapitel">8.4</a></li>
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<li class='first'><a href="bmc1.ch08-6.html" title="Zum 6. Das alkoholische Getränke Kapitel">8.6</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-7.html" title="Zum 7. Das Tier Kapitel">8.7</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-8.html" title="Zum 8. Das Im Einklang mit der Regel Kapitel">8.8</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch08-9.html" title="Zum 9. Das Wertgegenstände Kapitel">8.9</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch09.html" title="Zum KAPITEL  IX: Pāṭidesanīya">9</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch10.html" title="Zum KAPITEL  X: Sekhiya">10</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.ch11.html" title="KAPITEL  XI: Adhikaraṇa-samatha">11</a></li>
<li><a title="Sie befinden sich gerade hier">12</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.glossary.html" title="Zur Wortliste mit Erklärungen">Glossar</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.biblio.html" title="Zum Literaturverzeichnis">Literaturverz.</a></li>
<li><a href="bmc1.rule-index.html" title="Zum Verzeichnis der Regeln">Regeln</a></li>
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de/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc1/bmc1.ch12_old.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2018/10/30 19:17 von Johann