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Kodex für buddhistische

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Title: Kodex für buddhistische Einsiedler II: Kapitel 7

Summary:

Kodex für buddhistische Einsiedler II

Kapitel 7

Monastery Buildings & Property

von

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

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Alternative Übersetzung: noch keine vorhanden

Alternative Formate: bmc2.pdf (??pages/2.7MB) Gedruckte Ausgaben des Buches können auf Anfrage zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Für Bestellungen aus Amerika oder Afrika, schreiben Sie bitte an: Mettā Forest Monastery, P.O. Box 1409, Valley Center, CA 92082, USA. Für Bedarf in Europa, schreiben Sie bitte an: Amaravati Buddhist Monastery, St. Margarets Lane, Great Gaddesden, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire HP1 3BZ, England. Für eine Lieferung nach Asien, Australien oder den pazifischen Raum, schreiben Sie bitte an: Wat Pah Nanachat, Bahn Bung Wai, Amper Warin, Ubon 34310, Thailand.

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Einleitung | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15

16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | A1 | A2 | A3 | A4 | A5 | Glossar | Literaturverz.

Monasteries. One of the earliest allowances in the Buddha's teaching career was for accepting the donation of a monastery. The context of the allowance suggests that the monastery should be donated to the entire Saṅgha, rather than to individual Communities or bhikkhus. This point is supported by the passage from DN 2, cited in the preceding chapter, which states that a virtuous bhikkhu does not accept fields and property. However, none of the texts discuss this point in detail.

There is an allowance in Mv.VI.15.2 for monastery attendants: lay people whose job is to look after the affairs of the monastery. In feudal and pre-feudal days, these attendants would be given to a monastery by a king or other feudal lord. The origin story to the allowance suggests that in some cases the gift would encompass the inhabitants of an entire village. The tax revenues and corvée labor from the village, instead of going to the secular authorities, would go to the monastery. Again, the Pali Canon and commentaries do not discuss this arrangement in any detail. This is in sharp contrast to the Vinayas of some of the other early schools, such as the Mūlasarvāstivādins, who went to great lengths to prohibit non-Buddhist kings from later rescinding such arrangements. This point argues for the relative lateness of these rules in the other Vinayas: The Buddha was not so foolish as to try to legislate for kings.

The Canon does, however, give a detailed discussion of the buildings allowed in a monastery and of the proper use and distribution of monastic property. In some cases, the distribution of monastic property is handed over to officials chosen by the Community. As this choice involves a Community transaction, all issues related to the responsibilities of Community officials will be discussed in Chapter 18. Here we will discuss monastic buildings and the issues concerning monastic property for which Community officials are not responsible.

Buildings. In addition to dwellings, the monastery may include an uposatha hall (for the chanting of the Pāṭimokkha), an assembly hall (according to the Kommentar, this covers halls for holding meetings or for eating meals), a drinking water hall or pavilion, a fire hall (apparently used for boiling water, dyeing robes, etc.), a storehouse, a food storage place, walking meditation paths, a well, a sauna, a hall or pavilion for the kaṭhina frame, bathing and restroom facilities, and surrounding enclosures. (The hall (sāla) in each of these cases is apparently a roofed building without walls; the pavilion (maṇḍapa) is also an open building, but smaller.) The construction details allowed for these buildings resemble those allowed for dwellings. Anyone interested may check the rules at the end of this chapter. Here we will discuss details peculiar to some of these buildings.

Uposatha hall & storehouse. No construction details are given for these buildings. The only rules related to them concern communal transactions, so they will be discussed in Chapters 15 and 18.

Food storage place (kappiya-kuṭi). This is a space designated within the monastic compound where food may be stored and yet not count as „stored indoors“ under Mv.VI.17.3. The Canon allows for the „backmost“ building in the monastery to be designated as a food storage place, but the Kommentar maintains that the building may be located anywhere in the monastery. The Canon states that such a space should be authorized with a formal transaction statement, but the Kommentar says that a simple declaration to the assembled bhikkhus is sufficient. The rules concerning this space are confusing. In one passage, the Canon imposes a dukkaṭa for using such a space; and then, in the following passage, gives an allowance to use four kinds of food storage spaces, none of which it defines. Some Communities interpret the prohibition against using a food storage space as a prohibition against a bhikkhu's staying in such a place.

The Canon lists, without explanation, four types of allowable food storage places. Kommentar quotes a variety of opinions on their precise definitions, which indicates that no one by that time was absolutely sure of what they were. To summarize its discussion:

  • Ussāvanantika („limited to the proclamation“ or „conterminous with the proclamation“): According to Buddhaghosa, the ancient Sinhalese commentaries mention several ways for making a storage space of this sort, but he himself recommends this: When starting construction of the storage place, after the foundation has been laid, a group of bhikkhus should gather around and, as the first post is being put in place, say (not in unison),
  • „Kappiya-kuṭiṃ karoma (We make this allowable hut).“
  • The statement should end as the post settles in place. If the end of the statement does not coincide with the placing of the post, the statement is invalid. This is why the Mahā Paccarī recommends that several bhikkhus say this not in unison, so that the placing of the post will occur at the end of the statement made by at least one of them. If, instead of setting up a post, the walls of the storage place are built out of stone or brick, the same thing should be done when the first stone/brick is placed on the foundation.
  • Gonisādikā („where cattle can rest“): This is an unenclosed or semi-enclosed space that may be built only in an unenclosed monastery. If none of the bhikkhus' residences are enclosed, the storage space is called an ārāma-gonisādikā. If the monastery as a whole is not enclosed but some of the residences are, it's called a vihāra-gonisādikā. In either case, the important factor is that the monastery not be enclosed. (The image here is that if a place is unenclosed, cattle can enter and rest at their leisure.)
  • Gahapatika (set up by or belonging to a lay person): This sort of space is built and donated by the donors specifically to be used as a proper storage place. Buddhaghosa quotes approvingly from the Andhaka, saying that the dwelling of anyone aside from a member of a Bhikkhu Saṅgha counts as a gahapatika. Thus a novice's dwelling would come under this category, as would a lay person's dwelling in or outside a monastery.
  • Sammatikā (authorized): Any of the five allowable types of lodging (Cv.VI.1.2) authorized by a communal transaction (see Appendix I). The Kommentar says that a simple announcement to the assembled bhikkhus is sufficient to authorize such a space, but this conflicts with the principle in Mv.IX.3.3 that if a shorter format is used for a transaction requiring a longer format, the transaction is invalid.

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  • The rules concerning this last type of space are confusing. In one passage, the Canon imposes a dukkaṭa for using one; and then, in the following passage, allows its use. Some Communities interpret the first passage as a prohibition against a bhikkhu's staying in such a place, and the second as an allowance to store food there.
  • Of the four types, the ussāvanantika loses its status when all the posts or all the walls are taken down. The gonisādikā becomes an improper storage place when it is enclosed. If, however, the enclosure begins to fall down to the point where a cow could enter it, the status of proper storage place returns. As for the remaining two types, they lose their status as proper storage places when all the roofing is destroyed.

Walking meditation paths may be made either by leveling the ground or by building a path on a foundation of brick, stone, or wood. In the latter case, a stairway may be built up to the path, with a railing allowed both for the stairway and surrounding the path. The path may be roofed, the roof may be plastered and decorated with the four allowable designs, and there may be a cord or a pole for hanging up one's robes.

Wells may be lined with bricks, stones, or wood, and covered with a roofed hall. Other allowable well equipment includes a rope for drawing water, a well-sweep (a long stick on a pivot with a counter-weight at one end, to help pull a water bucket up from the well), a pulley, a water-wheel, three kinds of buckets — made of metal, wood, or strips of hide — a lid for the well, and a trough or pot/basin for keeping water.

Saunas. In addition to the usual construction details, saunas may be faced (as in Pc 19) and may be built with a projecting gable (on all sides, says the Sub-commentary). A fireplace is to be built to one side in a small sauna, and in the middle of a large one. It may be provided with a chimney. One may smear one's face with clay as protection against being scorched by the fire; if the clay smells foul, one is allowed to cure it (with perfumed substances, says the Kommentar). To protect one's body from being scorched, one may bring in water. A tank is allowed for storing it, and a dipper is allowed as well. To keep the floor from getting muddy, the sauna may be floored with bricks, stones, or wood. There is also an allowance for washing the floor and providing a water drain. In response to an incident where bhikkhus sitting on the floor of the sauna found their limbs growing numb, there is an allowance for using a chair in the sauna.

Bathing facilities. Separate places for showering and bathing are allowed. The showering place (udaka-candanika) may be enclosed and floored with any of three kinds of material — brick, stone, or wood — and provided with a water drain. A bathing tank may be lined with any of the same sorts of materials and, if necessary, built up high off the ground.

Restroom facilities. Separate places are allowed for urinating, defecating, and rinsing oneself with water after defecating. The urinal in use at the Buddha's time consisted of a pot with footrests on either side. The restroom (outhouse) for defecating was built over a cesspool lined with brick, stones, or wood. The cesspool had a cover with a hole in the middle and footrests on either side. (The cover was allowed after bhikkhus „defecating as they sat on the edge (of the cesspool) fell in.“) In both cases, the Kommentar says, the footrests could be made of brick/tile, stone, or wood. A lid was allowed for the cesspool opening, as was a urine trough. The construction details allowed for the restroom built over the cesspool are similar to those for a dwelling. A sling was also allowed so that old or sick bhikkhus could pull themselves up from the squatting position after defecating. Wood sticks were used for wiping — a receptacle was allowed for placing used sticks — and the job was finished by rinsing with water. A separate place was set aside for rinsing, with its own lidded water pot, ladle, and footrests. Further details concerning the etiquette in using the restroom facilities may be found in Kapitel 9.

Enclosures. Three kinds of enclosures are allowed. Because there is a separate allowance for fences around dwellings, this list is apparently meant for the enclosures around the monastery as a whole: a hedge of bamboo, a hedge of thorns, and a moat. None of the texts explain why the three materials allowed for fences around a dwelling — bricks, stones, or wood — are not mentioned here as well. Two possible explanations come to mind: Perhaps bricks, stones, and wood were considered too expensive in the time of the Buddha for such a large enclosure; or perhaps the allowance for fences was meant to apply here as well. Since the medieval period, Communities have apparently assumed the second explanation, as there is evidence for brick enclosures around monastic ruins dating from that time, and brick and concrete block enclosures are still common around monasteries in Theravāda countries today.

The enclosure may have a roofed gatehouse, and the entrance may be provided with a gate of thorns and brambles, a double door, an archway, and a bar connected to a pulley. To keep the area within the enclosure from getting muddy, it may be strewn with gravel, laid with flagstones, and provided with a water drain.

Monastery property. If the Community is given fancy items of value — examples mentioned in the Canon include costly woolen blankets and costly woven cloths — they may be traded „for something profitable.“ This, the Kommentar says, means that they may be traded for objects of equal or higher value. If the Community receives bear hide, rags, and similar items that cannot be made into robes, they may be made into foot-wiping mats. (The allowance for bear hide here is unusual; it is apparently the only hide that can be used in this way, and there is no telling why.) Cloth that can be made into robes, when given to the Community, falls under the aegis of the Community official responsible for accepting, keeping, and distributing cloth (see Chapter 18).

Furnishings given for use in a particular dwelling are not to be moved elsewhere. However, they may be borrowed temporarily and also moved „to protect them“ (e.g., if the roof of the dwelling in which they are located starts to leak). The Kommentar adds here that if, when taking them to protect them, one uses them as Community property and they wear out with normal use, there is no need to make reimbursement. When the original dwelling is repaired and able to protect furnishings, one should return them if they are in shape to return. If one has used them as one's own personal property and they wear out, one must reimburse the Community. The Kommentar's notion of reimbursement, however, comes under the idea of bhaṇḍhadeyya, which — as we saw under Pr 2 — has no basis in the Canon.

This arrangement — of giving furniture and other „lodging“ items specifically for use in a particular dwelling — is the closest reference in the Canon to an arrangement that looms large in the Kommentar and in the Vinayas of the other early schools: a dwelling given by a donor who continues to take a proprietary interest in the dwelling, its furnishings, and its inhabitants. This practice may have grown out of the arrangement mentioned in Sg 7, in which a donor sponsors the construction of a dwelling, but aside from the above rule the Canon does not recognize it.

Apparently, one of the possible duties for monastery attendants was to farm for the monastery. Thus there is a ruling in the Canon that when seed of the Community has been planted in the land of an individual, or if the seed of an individual has been planted in the land of the Community, it may be consumed by the bhikkhus after having given the individual a portion.

The Canon lists five classes of Community belongings that cannot be given out to any individual or divided up among the bhikkhus, even by a Community transaction or through the agency of a Community official. Any bhikkhu who does give out or divide up these belongings incurs a thullaccaya — and even then the belongings do not count as given out or divided up. They are still the property of the Community. The five classes are:

  • 1) A monastery, the site of/for a monastery.
  • 2) A dwelling, the site of/for a dwelling.
  • 3) A bed, bench, mattress, pillow.
  • 4) A metal pot, a metal basin, a metal jar/bottle, a metal vessel/frying pan (wok), a knife/machete, an axe, an adze, a hoe, a drill/chisel.
  • 5) Vines, bamboo, coarse grass, reeds, tiṇa-grass, clay (all of these can be used as building materials), wooden goods, clay goods.

The Kommentar has a fair amount to say about these items. The site of a monastery it interprets as land intended for a monastery or the site of an abandoned monastery; it gives a similar definition for the site of a dwelling. Under the fourth category, it says that knife means large knives (such as machetes) and large shears; chisel/drill means those with handles, while other metal tools of carpenters, lathe-workers, jewelers, and leather-workers would also come under this sub-category. However, small metal vessels of the sort designed to be carried on one's person are all right to distribute.

Under the fifth category, it interprets vines as those at least a half-arm's length. Vines, grass, and reeds that have already been used and are left over from construction work are all right to distribute. The word bamboo is meant to cover bamboo to be used for construction. Small bamboo items such as canes, small oil containers, or umbrella parts are all right to distribute. Buddhaghosa reports a disagreement between the Kurundī and the Mahā Aṭṭhakathā on what is included under wooden goods here. According to the Kurundī, this sub-category includes all leather goods and any wooden goods larger than an 8„ needle. According to the Mahā Aṭṭhakathā, it includes all furniture and wooden articles (although furniture would seem to come under category (3)), with the exception of a water flask — whether made of real wood, bamboo, goat leather, or leaves. Allowable leather goods (such as sandals) are not included here. Also not included are: unfinished furniture parts, canes/staffs, shoes, fire-generating sticks, filters, water jugs/flasks, small horn flasks, ointment boxes, and buttons. As for clay goods, the Kommentar says that this sub-category covers dishes, pottery, bricks, tiles, chimney tiles, and water or drain pipes. Alms bowls and small clay vessels of the sort designed to be carried on one's person are not included here, and so are all right to distribute.

Reasoning from the Great Standards, we can say that all construction materials donated to the Community would come under category (5).

For purposes of generalization, the Kommentar divides these five categories into two major classes:

  • thāvara-vatthu (permanent items), categories (1) and (2); and
  • garubhaṇḍa (heavy or expensive goods), categories (3), (4), and (5).

Although none of the items in either of these two classes may be given away, they may be exchanged for other items in the same class. Thus, a dwelling may be exchanged for the site of a monastery. Taking a loss in the trade is permissible if a good reason justifies it (although this would seem to contradict the Kommentar's own interpretation of Cv.VI.19). If the trade will turn a profit for the Community, the bhikkhus making the trade must point this out to the other side. If the other side still wants to go ahead with the trade, fine and good. It is also permissible to trade one expensive item for a larger number of inexpensive items in the same class; and to trade items inappropriate for the bhikkhus' use — such as goods made of gold, silver, gold alloys, or crystal — for appropriate items.

The Sub-commentary gives permission to exchange garubhaṇḍa for thāvara-vatthu.

The Kommentar adds that during a famine, the bhikkhus in a monastery may sell off garubhaṇḍa for food, so that enough bhikkhus will be able to stay there to look after the remaining property, but there is nothing in the Canon to support this.

Cetiya property. The Kommentar to Pr 2 makes a clear distinction between belongings of the Community and belongings given to a cetiya. Under no circumstances should items given to a cetiya — this includes stūpas and Buddha images — be treated as Community property.

Regeln

„Bhikkhus, I allow a park (monastery).“ — Mv.I.22.18

„I allow a monastery attendant.“ — Mv.VI.15.2

Assembly Hall

“ I allow an assembly hall.„ … „I allow that it be made high off the ground.“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing.“ … „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre (§) — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs (§), a pole for hanging up robes, a cord for hanging up robes.“ … „I allow a pole for hanging up robes, a cord for hanging up robes in the open air.“ — Cv.VI.3.6

Drinking Water Hall

„I allow a hall for drinking water, a pavilion for drinking water.“ … „I allow that it be made high off the ground.“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing.“ … „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs, a pole for hanging up robes, a cord for hanging up robes.“ … „I allow a conch-shell cup for drinking water [C: this includes a ladle and a tumbler or bowl], a small dipper for drinking water.“ — Cv.VI.3.7

Fire Hall

„I allow a fire-hall off to one side (of the monastery)“… „I allow that it be made high off the ground“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood“… „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing“… „I allow a door, a door post and lintel, a hollow like a mortar (for the door to revolve in), a small upper dowel (on the door), a post for the bolt, a 'monkey's head (a hole to receive the bolt?),' a pin (to secure the bolt), a bolt, a keyhole, a hole for pulling (a cord) through, a cord for pulling through“… „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs, a pole for hanging up robes, a cord for hanging up robes.“ — Cv.VI.3.9

Storage for Food

„In that case, Ānanda, the Community, having authorized the backmost building as a proper (storage) place, let it (food) be kept there — wherever the Community desires: a dwelling, a barrel-vaulted building, a multi-storied building, a gabled building, a cell.“ Transaction statement — Mv.VI.33.2

„One should not make use of an authorized proper storage place. Whoever makes use of one: an offense of wrong doing. I allow three types of proper storage places: conterminous with the proclamation, a cattle-resting (place), a lay-person's (place).“ — Mv.VI.33.4

„I allow that an authorized proper storage place be used. I allow four types of proper storage places: conterminous with the proclamation, a cattle-resting (place), a lay-person's (place), and authorized.“ — Mv.VI.33.5

Walking Meditation Path

„I allow a walking meditation path.“ — Cv.V.14.1

„I allow that it (the walking meditation path) be made level.“ … „I allow that it be made high off the ground.“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing.“ … (Bhikkhus fell off the high path) „I allow a railing around the walking meditation path.“ … (Bhikkhus were bothered by the cold and heat while doing walking meditation ) „I allow a walking meditation hall“ … „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs, a pole for hanging up robe material, a cord for hanging up robe material.“ — Cv.V.14.2

Well

„I allow a well.“ … „I allow that it be lined with three kinds of lining: a lining of bricks, a lining of stones, a lining of wood.“ … (Too low) „I allow that it be made high off the ground.“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing.“ … „I allow a rope for drawing water.“ …“ I allow a well-sweep … a pulley … a water-wheel.„ … „I allow three kinds of buckets: metal, wooden, and made from strips of hide.“ … „I allow a hall for the well.“ … „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs, a pole for hanging up robes, a cord for hanging up robes.“ … „I allow a lid (for the well).“ … „I allow a trough for keeping water, a basin for keeping water.“ — Cv.V.16.2

Sauna

„I allow a sauna (§).“ — Cv.V.14.1

„I allow that the sauna be made high off the ground.“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing.“ … „I allow a door, a door post and lintel, a hollow like a mortar (for the door to revolve in), a small upper dowel (on the door), a post for the bolt (crossbar), a 'monkey's head,' a pin (to secure the bolt), a bolt, a keyhole, a hole for pulling (a cord) through, a cord for pulling through“…

„I allow a facing (see Pc 19).“ … „I allow a chimney (§).“ … „I allow that a fireplace be built to one side in a small sauna, and in the middle of a large one.“ … (Fire scorched the face) „I allow clay for the face.“ … „I allow a small trough for the clay.“ … (The clay smelled foul) „I allow that it be cured [C: with perfumed substances].“ … (Fire scorched their bodies) „I allow that water be brought in.“ … „I allow a tank for the water, a dipper (without a handle) for the water.“ … (A sauna with a grass roof didn't make them sweat) „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out.“ … (It became muddy) I allow it to be floored with three kinds of flooring: a flooring of bricks, a flooring of stones, a flooring of wood.“ … „I allow that it be washed.“ … „I allow a water drain.“ … (Sitting down on the floor, bhikkhus got numb in their limbs) „I allow a chair for the sauna.“ … „I allow it to be fenced in with three kinds of fence: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.“ — Cv.V.14.3

„I allow a sauna with a projecting gable (§).“ — Cv.V.17.2

„I allow a porch.“ … „I allow that the porch be made high off the ground.“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing.“ … „I allow a door, a door post and lintel, a hollow like a mortar (for the door to revolve in), a small upper dowel (on the door), a post for the bolt, a 'monkey's head,' a pin (to secure the bolt), a bolt, a keyhole, a hole for pulling (a cord) through, a cord for pulling through“… „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs.“ — Cv.V.14.4

(The area (§) around the sauna became muddy) „I allow that it be strewn with gravel.“ … „I allow that flagstones be laid down.“ … „I allow a water drain.“ — Cv.V.14.5

(In the sauna): „I allow in the sauna a pole for hanging up robes, a cord for hanging up robes.“ … (Robes got wet in rain) „I allow a sauna-hall.“ … „I allow that it be made high off the ground.“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing.“ … „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof) it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs, a pole for hanging up robes, a cord for hanging up robes.“ — Cv.V.16.1

Kaṭhina Hall

„I allow a hall for the kaṭhina-frame, a pavilion for the kaṭhina-frame.“ … „I allow that it be made high off the ground.“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing.“ … „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs, a pole for hanging up robes/robe-cloth, a cord for hanging up robes/robe-cloth.“ — Cv.V.11.6

Bathing & Restroom Facilities (see also: Protocols, Kapitel 9)

(Querverweis: Kapitel 9)

„I allow a showering place (§).“ … „I allow it to be fenced in with three kinds of fence: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.“ … „I allow it to be floored with three kinds of flooring: a flooring of bricks, a flooring of stones, a flooring of wood.“ … „I allow a water drain.“ — Cv.V.17.1

„I allow a bathing tank.“ … „I allow that it be lined with three kinds of lining: a lining of bricks, a lining of stones, a lining of wood.“ … (Too low) „I allow that it be made high off the ground“… „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing“… (The water became stale) „I allow an aqueduct, I allow a water drain.“ — Cv.V.17.2

„I allow that you urinate off to one side (of the monastery).“ … (The place smelled foul) „I allow a urine pot.“ … „I allow urinal footrests (see Mv.V.8.3).“ … „I allow it to be fenced in with three kinds of fence: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.“ … „I allow a lid (for the pot).“ — Cv.V.35.1 (see Cv.VII.9-10)

„I allow that you defecate off to one side (of the monastery).“ … (The place smelled foul) „I allow a cesspool.“ … (The wall of the cesspool caved in) „I allow that it be lined with three kinds of lining: a lining of bricks, a lining of stones, a lining of wood.“ … (Too low) „I allow that it be made high off the ground.“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood.“ … „I allow a stair railing.“ (Defecating as they sat on the edge (§) (of the cesspool), they fell in) … „I allow that you defecate having covered (the cesspool) and put a hole in the middle.“ … „I allow restroom footrests.“ — Cv.V.35.2

„I allow a urine trough (in the restroom (§)).“ … „I allow wood for wiping.“ … „I allow a receptacle for wiping wood.“ … „I allow a lid (for the cesspool opening).“ … „I allow a restroom hut.“ … „I allow a door, a door post and lintel, a hollow like a mortar (for the door to revolve in), a small upper dowel (on the door), a post for the bolt, a 'monkey's head,' a pin (to secure the bolt), a bolt, a keyhole, a hole for pulling (a cord) through, a cord for pulling through“… „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs, a pole for hanging up robes, a cord for hanging up robes.“ … „I allow a sling (to pull oneself up with) (§)“… „I allow it to be fenced in with three kinds of fence: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.“ — Cv.V.35.3

„I allow a porch“ … „I allow that the porch be made high off the ground.“ … „I allow three kinds of pilings to be put up: made of brick, made of stone, made of wood“… „I allow three kinds of staircases: a staircase made of brick, made of stone, made of wood“… „I allow a stair railing“… „I allow a door, a door post and lintel, a hollow like a mortar (for the door to revolve in), a small upper dowel (on the door), a post for the bolt, a 'monkey's head,' a pin (to secure the bolt), a bolt, a keyhole, a hole for pulling (a cord) through, a cord for pulling through“… „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs“… (The area (§) around the restroom hut became muddy) „I allow that it be strewn with gravel.“ … „I allow that flagstones be laid down.“ … „I allow a water drain.“ … „I allow a pot for rinsing water“… „I allow a dipper for rinsing water“… „I allow rinsing footrests“… „I allow it to be fenced in with three kinds of fence: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.“ „I allow a lid for the pot for rinsing water.“ — Cv.V.35.4

Enclosures

„I allow three kinds of enclosures: an enclosure (hedge) of bamboo, an enclosure (hedge) of thorns, a moat (§).“ … „I allow a gatehouse, a gate of thorns and brambles, a double door (§), an archway, a bar connected to a pulley.“ … „I allow that, having lashed on (a roof), it be plastered inside and out with plaster — white, black, or ochre — with garland designs, creeper designs, dragon-teeth designs, five-petaled designs.“ … (The area (§) around the monastery became muddy) „I allow that it be strewn with gravel.“ … „I allow that flagstones be laid down.“ … „I allow a water drain.“ — Cv.VI.3.10

Communal Belongings

„The furnishings of one place are not to be used in another place. Whoever should do so: an offense of wrong doing“… „I allow that things be taken temporarily“… „I allow that they be taken for the sake of protecting (them).“ — Cv.VI.18

(A costly woolen blanket, the appurtenance of a lodging, accrued to the Community … a costly woven cloth) „I allow that it be traded for something profitable“… (A bear hide … a wheel-like foot wiper covered with wool (§) … a rag accrued to the Community) „I allow that it be made into a foot mat.“ — Cv.VI.19

„When seed of the Community has been planted in the land of an individual, it may be consumed after having given (the individual) a portion. When seed of an individual has been planted in the land of the Community, it may be consumed after having given (the individual) a portion.“ — Mv.VI.39

„These five things not-to-be-given-out should not be given out by a Community, a group, or an individual. Even when they have been given out, they are not (to be considered as) given out. Whoever should give them out: a grave offense. Which five?

  • 1) A monastery, the land of a monastery (a site for a monastery). This is the first thing not to be given out…
  • 2) A dwelling, the land of a dwelling (a site for a dwelling). This is the second thing not to be given out…
  • 3) A bed, bench, mattress, pillow. This is the third thing not to be given out…
  • 4) A metal pot, a metal vessel, a metal jar/bottle, a metal frying pan/wok, a knife/machete, an axe, an adze, a hoe, a drill/chisel. This is the fourth thing not to be given out…
  • 5) Vines, bamboo, coarse grass, reeds, tiṇa-grass, clay (all of which can be used as building materials), wooden goods, clay goods. This is the fifth thing not to be given out…

These are the five things not-to-be-given-out that should not be given out by a Community, a group, or an individual. Even when they have been given out, they are not (to be considered as) given out. Whoever should give them out: a grave offense.“ — Cv.VI.15.2

„These five things not-to-be-divided-up (not-to-be-distributed) (as above).“ — Cv.VI.16.2

Einleitung | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15

16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | A1 | A2 | A3 | A4 | A5 | Glossar | Literaturverz.

de/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2.ch07.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2019/08/14 09:11 von Johann