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Dhp XI PTS: Dhp 146-156
übersetzt aus dem Pali von
VERSE 146: Why is there laughter? Why is there joy although (the world) is always burning? Shrouded in darkness why not seek the light? Story to Dhp 146
Passa cittakataṃ bimbaṃ, arukāyaṃ samussitaṃ; Āturaṃ bahusaṅkappaṃ(4), yassa natthi dhuvaṃ ṭhiti.
VERSE 147: Look at this dressed up body, a mass of sores, supported (by bones), sickly, a subject of many thoughts (of sensual desire). Indeed, that body is neither permanent nor enduring. Story to Dhp 147
Parijiṇṇamidaṃ rūpaṃ, roganīḷaṃ pabhaṅguraṃ; Bhijjati pūtisandeho, maraṇantañhi jīvitaṃ.
VERSE 148: This body is worn out-with age, it is the seat of sickness, it is subject to decay. This putrid body disintegrates; life, indeed, ends in death. Story to Dhp 148
Yānimāni apatthāni, alābūneva sārade; Kāpotakāni aṭṭhīni, tāni disvāna kā rati.
VERSE 149: Like gourds thrown away in autumn are these dove-grey bones; what pleasure is there in seeing them? Story to Dhp 149
Aṭṭhīnaṃ nagaraṃ kataṃ, maṃsalohitalepanaṃ; Yattha jarā ca maccu ca, māno makkho ca ohito.
VERSE 150: This body (lit., the city) is built up with bones which are covered with flesh and blood; within this dwell (lit., are deposited) decay and death, pride and detraction (of others' virtues and reputation). Story to Dhp 150
Jīranti ve rājarathā sucittā, atho sarīrampi jaraṃ upeti; Satañca dhammo(5) na jaraṃ upeti, santo have sabbhi pavedayanti.
VERSE 151: The much ornamented royal carriages do wear out, the body also grows old, but the Dhamma of the Virtuous does not decay. Thus, indeed, say the Virtuous among themselves. Story to Dhp 151
Appassutāyaṃ puriso, balibaddhova jīrati; Maṃsāni tassa vaḍḍhanti, paññā tassa na vaḍḍhati.
VERSE 152: This man of little learning grows old like an ox; only his flesh grows but not his wisdom. Story to Dhp 152
VERSE 153: I, who have been seeking the builder of this house (body), failing to attain Enlightenment (Bodhi nana or Sabbannuta nana) which would enable me to find him, have wandered through innumerable births in samsara. To be born again and again is, indeed, dukkha! Story to Dhp 153-154
VERSE 154: Oh house-builder! You are seen, you shall build no house (for me) again. All your rafters are broken, your roof-tree is destroyed. My mind has reached the unconditioned (i.e., Nibbana); the end of craving (Arahatta Phala) has been attained. Story to Dhp 153-154
Acaritvā brahmacariyaṃ, aladdhā yobbane dhanaṃ; Jiṇṇakoñcāva jhāyanti, khīṇamaccheva pallale.
VERSE 155: Jene, die in der Jugend weder ein Leben der Reinheit führten, noch Wohlstand angehäuft haben, vergehen in Verdruß dahin wie altersschwache Reiher an trockenem Weiher ohne Fische. Geschichte zu Dhp 155-156
Acaritvā brahmacariyaṃ, aladdhā yobbane dhanaṃ; Senti cāpātikhīṇāva, purāṇāni anutthunaṃ.
VERSE 156: Jene, die in der Jugend weder ein Leben der Reinheit führten, noch Wohlstand angehäuft haben, liegen hilflos wie Pfeile, ihren Schwing verloren, raunzen und sehnen nach alter Zeit. Geschichte zu Dhp 155-156
While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (146) of this book, with reference to companions of Visakha.
Five hundred men from Savatthi, wishing to make their wives to be generous, kind-hearted and virtuous like Visakha, sent them to Visakha to be her constant companions. During a bacchanalian festival which lasted for seven days, the wives of those men took all the drinks left by their husbands and got drunk in the absence of Visakha. For this misbehaviour they were beaten by their husbands. On another occasion, saying that they wished to listen to the Buddha's discourse, they asked Visakha to take them to the Buddha and secretly took small bottles of liquor hidden in their clothes.
On arrival at the monastery, they drank all the liquor they had brought and threw away the bottles. Visakha requested the Buddha to teach them the Dhamma. By that time, the women were getting intoxicated and felt like singing and dancing. Mara, taking this opportunity made them bold and shameless, and soon they were boisterously singing, dancing, clapping and jumping about in the monastery. The Buddha saw the hand of Mara in the shameless behaviour of these women and said to himself, „Mara must not be given the opportunity.“ So, the Buddha sent forth dark-blue rays from his body and the whole room was darkened; the women were frightened and began to get sober. Then, the Buddha vanished from his seat and stood on top of Mount Meru, and from there he sent forth white rays and the sky was lit up as if by a thousand moons. After thus manifesting his powers, the Buddha said to those five hundred women, „You ladies should not have come to my monastery in this unmindful state. Because you have been negligent Mara has had the opportunity to make you behave shamelessly, laughing and singing loudly, in my monastery. Now, strive to put out the fire of passion (raga) which is in you“.
Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Verse 146 Why is there laughter? Why is there joy although (the world) is always burning? Shrouded in darkness why not seek the light?
At the end of the discourse those five hundred women attained Sotapatti Fruition.
While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (147) of this book, with reference to Sirima the courtesan.
Once, there lived in Rajagaha, a very beautiful courtesan by the name of Sirima. Every day Sirima offered alms-food to eight bhikkhus. One of these bhikkhus happened to mention to other bhikkhus how beautiful Sirima was and also that she offered very delicious food to the bhikkhus every day. On hearing this, a young bhikkhu fell in love with Sirima even without seeing her. The next day, the young bhikkhu went with the other bhikkhus to the house of Sirima. Sirima was not well on that day, but since she wanted to pay obeisance to the bhikkhus, she was carried to their presence. The young bhikkhu, seeing Sirima, thought to himself, „Even though she is sick, she is very beautiful !“ And he felt a strong desire for her.
That very night, Sirima died. King Bimbisara went to the Buddha and reported to him that Sirima, the sister of Jivaka, had died. The Buddha told King Bimbisara to take the dead body to the cemetery and keep it there for three days without burying it, but to have it protected from crows and vultures. The king did as he was told. On the fourth day, the dead body of the beautiful Sirima was no longer beautiful or desirable; it got bloated and maggots came out from the nine orifices. On that day, the Buddha took his bhikkhus to the cemetery to observe the body of Sirima. The king also came with his men. The young bhikkhu, who was so desperately in love with Sirima, did not know that Sirima had died. When he learnt that the Buddha and the bhikkhus were going to see Sirima, he joined them. At the cemetery, the corpse of Sirima was surrounded by the bhikkhus headed by the Buddha, and also by the king and his men.
The Buddha then asked the king to get a town crier announce that Sirima would be available on payment of one thousand in cash per night. But no body would take her for one thousand, or for five hundred, or for two hundred and fifty, or even if she were to be given free of charge. Then the Buddha said to the audience, „Bhikkhus! Look at Sirima. When she was living, there were many who were willing to give one thousand to spend one night with her; but now none would take her even if given without any payment. The body of a person is subject to deterioration and decay.“
Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Verse 147 Look at this dressed up body, a mass of sores, supported (by bones), sickly, a subject of many thoughts (of sensual desire). Indeed, that body is neither permanent nor enduring.
At the end of the discourse, the young bhikkhu attained Sotapatti Fruition.
While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (148) of this book, with reference to Theri Uttara.
Theri Uttara, who was one hundred and twenty years old, was one day returning from her alms-round when she met a bhikkhu and requested him to accept her offering of alms-food. The inconsiderate bhikkhu accepted all her alms-food; so she had to go without food for that day. The same thing happened on the next two days. Thus Theri Uttara was without food for three successive days and she was feeling weak. On the fourth day, while she was on her alms-round, she met the Buddha on the road where it was narrow. Respectfully, she paid obeisance to the Buddha and stepped back. While doing so, she accidentally stepped on her own robe and fell on the ground, injuring her head. The Buddha went up to her and said, „Your body is getting very old and infirm, it is ready to crumble, it will soon perish.“
Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Verse 148 This body is worn out-with age, it is the seat of sickness, it is subject to decay. This putrid body disintegrates; life, indeed, ends in death.
At the end of the discourse, Theri Uttara attained Sotapatti Fruition.
While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (149) of this book, with reference to some bhikkhus who over-estimated themselves.
Five hundred bhikkhus, after taking a subject of meditation from the Buddha, went into the woods. There, they practised meditation ardently and diligently and soon attained deep mental absorption (jhana) and they thought that they were free from sensual desires and, therefore, had attained arahatship. Actually, they were only over-estimating themselves. Then, they went to the Buddha, with the intention of informing the Buddha about what they thought was their attainment of arahatship.
When they arrived at the outer gate of the monastery, the Buddha said to the Venerable Ananda, „Those bhikkhus will not benefit much by coming to see me now; let them go to the cemetery first and come to see me only afterwards.“ The Venerable Ananda then delivered the message of the Buddha to those bhikkhus, and they reflected, „The Enlightened One knows everything; he must have some reason in making us go to the cemetery first.“ So they went to the cemetery.
There, when they saw the putrid corpses they could look at them as just skeletons, and bones, but when they saw some fresh dead bodies they realized, with horror, that they still had some sensual desires awakening in them. The Buddha saw them from his perfumed chamber and sent forth the radiance; then he appeared to them and said, „Bhikkhus! Seeing these bleached bones, is it proper for you to have any sensual desire in you?“
Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Verse 149 Like gourds thrown away in autumn are these dove-grey bones; what pleasure is there in seeing them?
At the end of the discourse, those five hundred bhikkhus attained arahatship.
While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (150) of this book, with reference to Janapadakalyani.
Princess Janapadakalyani was the daughter of Gotami, the step-mother of Gotama the Buddha; because she was very beautiful she was also known as Rupananda. She was married to Nanda, a cousin of the Buddha. One day she pondered, „My elder brother who could have become a Universal Monarch has renounced the world to become a bhikkhu; he is now a Buddha. Rahula, the son of my elder brother, and my own husband Prince Nanda have also become bhikkhus. My mother Gotami has also become a bhikkhuni, and I am all alone here!“ So saying, she went to the monastery of some bhikkhunis and became a bhikkhuni herself. Thus, she had become a bhikkhuni not out of faith but only in imitation of others and because she felt lonely.
Rupananda had heard from others that the Buddha often taught about the impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and insubstantiality of the khandhas. So she thought he would talk deprecatingly about her good looks if he should see her; and thus thinking, she kept away from the Buddha. But other bhikkhunis coming back from the monastery, kept talking in praise of the Buddha; so, one day, she decided to accompany other bhikkhunis to the monastery.
The Buddha saw her and reflected, „A thorn can only be taken out with a thorn; Rupananda being very attached to her body and being very proud of her beauty, I must take the pride and attachment out of her through beauty.“ So, with his supernormal power, he caused an image of a very beautiful lady of about sixteen years of age to be seated near him, fanning him. This young girl was visible only to Rupananda and the Buddha. When Rupananda saw the girl, she realized that compared to that girl, she herself was just like an old, ugly crow compared to a beautiful white swan. Rupananda had a good look at the girl and she felt that she liked her very much. Then, she looked again and was surprised to find that the girl had grown to the age of about twenty. Again and again, she looked at the figure beside the Buddha and every time she noticed that the girl had grown older and older. Thus, the girl turned into a grown-up lady, then into a middle-aged lady, an old lady, a decrepit and a very old lady successively. Rupananda also noticed that with the arising of a new image, the old image disappeared, and she came to realize that there was a continuous process of change and decay in the body. With the coming of this realization, her attachment to the body diminished. Meanwhile, the figure near the Buddha had turned into an old, decrepit lady, who could no longer control her bodily functions, and was rolling in her own excreta. Finally, she died, her body got bloated, pus and maggots came out of the nine openings and crows and vultures were trying to snatch at the dead body.
Having seen all these, Rupananda pondered, „This young girl has grown old and decrepit and died in this very place under my own eyes. In the same way, my body will also grow old and wear out; it will be subject to disease and I will also die.“ Thus, she came to perceive the true nature of the khandhas. At this point, the Buddha talked about the impermanence, the unsatisfactoriness and the insubstantiality of the khandhas, and Rupananda attained Sotapatti Fruition.
Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Verse 150 This body (lit., the city) is built up with bones which are covered with flesh and blood; within this dwell (lit., are deposited) decay and death, pride and detraction (of others' virtues and reputation).
At the end of the discourse, Rupananda attained arahatship.
While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (151) of this book, with reference to Mallika, queen of King Pasenadi of Kosala.
One day, Mallika went into the bathroom to wash her face, hands and feet. Her pet dog also came in; as she was bending to wash her feet, the dog tried to have sex with her, and the queen appeared to be amused and somewhat pleased. The king saw this strange incident through the window from his bedroom. When the queen came in, he said angrily to the queen, „Oh, you wicked woman! What were you doing with that dog in the bathroom? Do not deny what I saw with my own eyes.“ The queen replied that she was only washing her face, her hands and her feet, and so was doing nothing wrong. Then she continued, „But, that room is very strange. If anyone went into that room, to one looking from this window there would appear to be two. If you do not believe me, O King, please go into that room and I will look through this window.“
So, the king went into the bathroom. When he came out, Mallika asked the king why he misbehaved with a she-goat in that room. The king denied it, but the queen insisted that she saw them with her own eyes. The king was puzzled, but being dim-witted, he accepted the queen's explanation, and concluded that the bath room was, indeed, very strange
From that time, the queen was full of remorse for having lied to the king and for having brazenly accused him of misbehaving with a she-goat. Thus, even when she was approaching death, she forgot to think about the great unrivalled charities she had shared with her husband and only remembered that she had been unfair to him. As a result of this, when she died she was reborn in niraya. After her burial, the king intended to ask the Buddha where she was reborn. The Buddha wished to spare his feelings, and also did not want him to lose faith in the Dhamma. So he willed that this question should not be put to him, and King Pasenadi forgot to ask the Buddha.
However, after seven days in niraya, the queen was reborn in the Tusita deva world. On that day, the Buddha went to King Pasenadi's palace for alms-food; he indicated that he wished to rest in the coach-shed where the royal carriages were kept. After offering alms-food, the king asked the Buddha where queen Mallika was reborn and the Buddha replied, „Mallika has been reborn in the Tusita deva world.“ Hearing this the king was very pleased, and said, 'Where else could she have been reborn? She was always thinking of doing good deeds, always thinking what to offer to the Buddha on the next day. Venerable Sir! Now that she is gone, I, your humble disciple, hardly know what to do.„ To him the Buddha said, “Look at these carriages of your father and your grandfather; these are all worn down and lying useless; so also is your body, which is subject to death and decay. Only the Dhamma of the Virtuous is not subject to decay.„
Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Verse 151 The much ornamented royal carriages do wear out, the body also grows old, but the Dhamma of the Virtuous does not decay. Thus, indeed, say the Virtuous among themselves.
While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (152) of this book, with reference to Laludayi, a thera with little intelligence.
Laludayi was a bhikkhu who was dim-witted and very absent-minded. He could never say things which were appropriate to the occasion, although he tried hard. Thus, on joyful and auspicious occasions he would talk about sorrow, and on sorrowful occasions he would talk about joy and gladness. Besides, he never realized that he had been saying things which were inappropriate to the occasion. When told about this, the Buddha said, “One like Laludayi who has little knowledge is just like an ox.„
Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Verse 152 This man of little learning grows old like an ox; only his flesh grows but not his wisdom.
These two verses (153 and 154) are expressions of intense and sublime joy felt by the Buddha at the moment of attainment of Supreme Enlightenment (Bodhi nana or Sabbannuta nana). These verses were repeated at the Jetavana monastery at the request of the Venerable Ananda.
Prince Siddhattha, of the family of Gotama, son of King Suddhodana and Queen Maya of the kingdom of the Sakyans, renounced the world at the age of twenty-nine and became an ascetic in search of the Dhamma (Truth). For six years, he wandered about the valley of the Ganges, approaching famous religious leaders, studying their doctrines and methods. He lived austerely and submitted himself strictly to rigorous ascetic discipline; but he found all these traditional practices to be unsound. He was determined to find the Truth in his own way, and by avoiding the two extremes of excessive sensual indulgence and self-mortification*, he found the Middle Path which would lead to Perfect Peace, Nibbana. This Middle Path (Majjhimapatipada) is the Noble Path of Eight Constituents, viz., Right view, Right thought, Right speech, Right action, Right livelihood, Right effort, Right mindfulness and Right concentration.
Thus, one evening, seated under a Bo tree on the bank of the Neranjara river, Prince Siddhattha Gotama attained Supreme Enlightenment (Bodhi nana or Sabbannuta nana) at the age of thirty-five. During the first watch of the night, the prince attained the power of recollection of past existences (Pubbenivasanussati-nana) and during the second watch he attained the divine power of sight (Dibbacakkhu nana). Then, during the third watch of the night he contemplated the Doctrine of Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppada) in the order of arising (anuloma) as well as in the order of cessation (patiloma). At the crack of dawn, Prince Siddhattha Gotama by his own intellect and insight fully and completely comprehended the Four Noble Truths. The Four Noble Truths are: The Noble Truth of Dukkha (Dukkha Ariya Sacca), the Noble Truth of the Cause of Dukkha (Dukkha Samudaya Ariya Sacca), the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha (Dukkha Nirodha Ariya Sacca), and The Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Dukkha (Dukkha Nirodha Gamini Patipada Ariya Sacca). There also appeared in him, in all their purity. The knowledge of the nature of each Noble Truth (Sacca nana), knowledge of the performance required for each Noble Truth (Kicca nana), and the knowledge of the completion of the performance required for each Noble Truth (Kata nana); and thus, he attained the Sabbannuta nana (also called Bodhi nana) of a Buddha. From that time, he was known as Gotama the Buddha.
In this connection, it should be noted that only when the Four Noble Truths, under their three aspects (therefore, the twelve modes), had become perfectly clear to him that the Buddha acknowledged in the world of Men, the world of Devas and that of Brahmas that he had attained the Supreme Enlightenment and therefore had become a Buddha.
At the moment of the attainment of Buddhahood, the Buddha uttered the following two verses:
Verse 153: I, who have been seeking the builder of this house (body), failing to attain Enlightenment (Bodhi nana or Sabbannuta nana) which would enable me to find him, have wandered through innumerable births in samsara. To be born again and again is, indeed, dukkha!
Verse 154: Oh house-builder! You are seen, you shall build no house (for me) again. All your rafters are broken, your roof-tree is destroyed. My mind has reached the unconditioned (i.e., Nibbana); the end of craving (Arahatta Phala) has been attained.
Der Sohn von Mahadhana studierte nicht, während er noch jung war. Als er in heiratsfähige Alter kam, heiratete er die Tochter eines reichen Mannes, die, so wie er, auch keine Ausbildung hatte. Als die Eltern beider Seiten verstorben waren, erbten sie achtzig Millionen von jeder Seite und waren sehr reich. Doch beide waren sehr dumm und wußten bloß wie man Geld verbraucht und nicht wie man es hält oder mehrt. Sie aßen und tranken bloß, hatten eine gut Zeit und verschwendeten deren Geld. Nachdem sie alles aufgebracht hatten verkauften sie deren Felder, Gärten und letzlich deren Haus. Sie wurden sehr arm und hilflos, und weil sie nicht wußten wie man Geld verdient mußten sie betteln gehen. Eines Tages sah der Buddha den Sohn des reichen Mannes an der Klostermauer lehnen, das Übriggelassene, von den Samaneras gegeben, entgegen nehmend. Ihn sehend schmunzelte der Buddha.
Der Ehrwürdige Ananda fragte den Buddha warum er schmunzelte und der Buddha antwortete: “Ananda, seht Euch diesen Sohn eines sehr reichen Mannes an. Er hat ein wertloses Leben gelebt, ein zielloses der Sinnesvergrügen. Wenn er im ersten Lebensabschnitt gelernt hätte sich seines Wohlstands richtig anzunehmen währe er ein erstrangiger reicher Mann gewesen. Oder wenn er Bhikkhu geworden wäre, hätte er ein Arahat sein können, und seine Frau eine Anagami. Wenn er im zweiten Lebensabschnitt gelernt hätte sich seines Wohlstands richtig anzunehmen währe er ein zweitrangiger reicher Mann gewesen. Oder wenn er Bhikkhu geworden wäre, hätte er ein Anagami sein können, und seine Frau eine Sakadagami. Wenn er im dritten Lebensabschnitt gelernt hätte sich seines Wohlstands richtig anzunehmen währe er ein drittrangiger reicher Mann gewesen. Oder wenn er Bhikkhu geworden wäre, hätte er ein Sakadagami sein können, und seine Frau eine Sotapanna. Doch weil er nichts in den drei Stadien seines Lebens vollbracht hat, hat er all seinen weltlichen Wohlstand verloren, und auch alle Möglichkeiten für jeden Magga und Phala.„.“
Dann, in Folge, sprach der Buddha jenes in Versen:
Vers 155 Jene, die in der Jugend weder ein Leben der Reinheit führten, noch Wohlstand angehäuft haben, vergehen in Verdruß dahin wie altersschwache Reiher an trockenem Weiher ohne Fische.
Verse 156 Jene, die in der Jugend weder ein Leben der Reinheit führten, noch Wohlstand angehäuft haben, liegen hilflos wie Pfeile, ihren Schwing verloren, raunzen und sehnen nach alter Zeit.
pajjalite: burning, in this context, it means burning with fires of passion, etc. (The Commentary)
andhakarena: darkness, in this context, ignorance of the Four Noble Truths. (The Commentary)
padipam: light, in this context, wisdom. (The Commentary)
bahusankappam: the body, which is the subject of many thoughts of sensual desire and admiration.
dhammo/dhamma: The nine Transcendentals, viz, the four Maggas, the four Phalas and Nibbana. (The Commentary)
Footnotes to Verses 153 and 154: These two verses are expressions of intense and sublime joy the Buddha felt at the very moment of his attainment of Enlightenment; as such, they are replete with a wealth of sublime meaning and deep feeling.
gahakaram gavesanto: lit., „I who have tried to find the builder of the house“ The house is the body, the builder is Craving (Tanha). The meaning of Verse (153) as given in the Commentary is as follows:
I who have been seeking the builder of this house, knowing that he could be seen only with a certain wisdom, have been trying to attain such wisdom (Bodhi nana) ever since Dipankara Buddha prophesied that I would, one day, become a Buddha like him. But failing to attain Bodhi nana, I have wandered through this course of hundreds of thousands of existences in the endless round of rebirths.
dukkha jati punappunam: To be born again and again is dukkha. This is the reason for trying to find the builder of this house, the Carpenter Craving.
Birth which comes together with aging, disease and death is dukkha; that is why I have been incessantly looking for the Householder Craving.
ditthosi: You are seen: I have seen you now that I have attained Enlightenment or Bodhi nana, the all comprehending wisdom, with my own Insight.
puna geham na kahasi: No house shall be built again: You shall not build another house (for me) in this round of rebirths.
sabba te phasuka bhagga: All your rafters are broken: I have destroyed all the remaining defilements.
gahakutam visankhatam: The roof-tree has been destroyed: I have dispelled Ignorance.
visankharagatam cittam: lit., my mind has reached the Unconditioned, having Nibbana as its object, my mind has realized Nibbana.
tanhanam khayamajjhaga: The end of craving has been attained. I have attained Arahatta Fruition.