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Brahmanavagga

<docinfo_head>

Title: Brahmanavagga

Summary:

Dhp XXVI

Brahmanavagga

übersetzt aus dem Pali von

Daw Mya Tin

bearbeitet vom

Editorial Committee, Burma Tipitaka Association

Übersetzung ins Deutsche von:

noch keine vorhanden, möchten Sie ihre teilen? letter.jpg

Alternative Übersetzung: noch keine vorhanden

Alternative Übersetzung: Thanissaro | Buddharakkhita

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Pasadabahulabrahmana Vatthu

Chinda sotaṃ parakkamma, kāme panuda brāhmaṇa; Saṅkhārānaṃ khayaṃ ñatvā, akataññūsi brāhmaṇa.

VERSE 383: O Brahmana, cut off the stream of craving with diligence, and abandon sense desires. O Brahmana, perceiving the cessation of the conditioned, be an arahat who realizes Nibbana, the Unconditioned. Story to Dhp 383

Sambahulabhikkhu Vatthu

Yadā dvayesu dhammesu, pāragū hoti brāhmaṇo; Athassa sabbe saṃyogā, atthaṃ gacchanti jānato.

VERSE 384: When the brahmana is well-established in the two dhammas (i.e., the practice of Tranquillity and Insight Meditation), then, in that knowing one, all fetters are destroyed. Story to Dhp 384

Mara Vatthu

Yassa pāraṃ apāraṃ vā, pārāpāraṃ na vijjati; Vītaddaraṃ visaṃyuttaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 385: Him I call a brahmana who has for him neither this shore (i.e., the sense-bases) nor the other shore (i.e., the sense objects), and who is undistressed and free from moral defilements(1). Story to Dhp 385

Annatarabrahmana Vatthu

Jhāyiṃ virajamāsīnaṃ, katakiccamanāsavaṃ; Uttamatthamanuppattaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 386: Him I call a brahmana, who dwells in seclusion practising Tranquility and Insight Meditation and is free from taints (of moral defilements); who has performed his duties, and is free from moral intoxicants (asavas) and has reached the highest goal (arahatship). Story to Dhp 386

Anandatthera Vatthu

Divā tapati ādicco, rattimābhāti candimā; Sannaddho khattiyo tapati, jhāyī tapati brāhmaṇo; Atha sabbamahorattiṃ, buddho tapati tejasā.

VERSE 387: By day shines the sun; by night shines the moon; in regalia shines the king; in meditation shines the arahat; but the Buddha in his glory shines at all times, by day and by night. Story to Dhp 387

Annatarabrahmana Pabbajita Vatthu

Bāhitapāpoti brāhmaṇo, samacariyā(2) samaṇoti vuccati; Pabbājayamattano malaṃ, tasmā ‘‘pabbajito(3)’’ti vuccati.

VERSE 388: Because he has discarded evil he is called a 'brahmana'; because he lives calmly he is called a 'samana'; and because he gets rid of his impurities he is called a 'pabbajita'. Story to Dhp 388

Sariputtatthera Vatthu

Na brāhmaṇassa pahareyya, nāssa muñcetha brāhmaṇo; Dhī brāhmaṇassa hantāraṃ, tato dhī yassa muñcati.

VERSE 389: One should not strike a brahmana; a brahmana should not get angry with his assailant; it is shameful to strike a brahmana; it is more shameful to get angry with one's assailant. Story to Dhp 389-390

Sariputtatthera Vatthu

Na brāhmaṇassetadakiñci seyyo, yadā nisedho manaso piyehi; Yato yato hiṃsamano nivattati, tato tato sammatimeva dukkhaṃ.

VERSE 390: For a brahmana there is no benefit at all if he does not restrain from anger to which his mind is prone. Inasmuch as one desists from the intention to harm, to that extent dukkha ceases. Story to Dhp 389-390

Mahapajapatigotami Vatthu

Yassa kāyena vācāya, manasā natthi dukkaṭaṃ; Saṃvutaṃ tīhi ṭhānehi, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 391: Him I call a brahmana who does no evil in deed or word or thought, who is restrained in these three respects. Story to Dhp 391

Sariputtatthera Vatthu

Yamhā dhammaṃ vijāneyya, sammāsambuddhadesitaṃ; Sakkaccaṃ taṃ namasseyya, aggihuttaṃva brāhmaṇo.

VERSE 392: If from somebody one should learn the Teaching of the Buddha, he should respectfully pay homage to that teacher, as a brahmin worships the sacrificial fire. Story to Dhp 392

Jatilabrahmana Vatthu

Na jaṭāhi na gottena, na jaccā hoti brāhmaṇo; Yamhi saccañca(4) dhammo(5) ca, so sucī so ca brāhmaṇo.

VERSE 393: Not by wearing matted hair, nor by lineage, nor by caste, does one become a brahmana; only he who realizes the Truth and the Dhamma is pure; he is a brahmana. Story to Dhp 393

Kuhakabrahmana Vatthu

Kiṃ te jaṭāhi dummedha, kiṃ te ajinasāṭiyā; Abbhantaraṃ te gahanaṃ, bāhiraṃ parimajjasi.

VERSE 394: O foolish one! What is the use of wearing matted hair? What is the use of your wearing a garment made of antelope skin? In you, there is a forest (of moral defilements); you clean yourself only externally. Story to Dhp 394

Kisagotami Vatthu

Paṃsukūladharaṃ jantuṃ, kisaṃ dhamanisanthataṃ; Ekaṃ vanasmiṃ jhāyantaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 395: Him I call a brahmana who wears robes made from rags (picked up from a dust heap), who is lean with veins standing out, who meditates alone in the forest. Story to Dhp 395

Eka Brahmana Vatthu

Na cāhaṃ brāhmaṇaṃ brūmi, yonijaṃ mattisambhavaṃ; Bhovādi(6) nāma so hoti, sace hoti sakiñcano; Akiñcanaṃ anādānaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 396: I do not call him a brahmana just because he is born from the womb of a brahmana mother. He is just a bhovadi brahmin if he is not free from moral defilements. Him I call a brahmana, who is free from moral defilements and from attachment. Story to Dhp 396

Uggasenasetthiputta Vatthu

Sabbasaṃyojanaṃ chetvā, yo ve na paritassati; Saṅgātigaṃ visaṃyuttaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 397: Him I call a brahmana, who has cut off all fetters and is fearless, who is beyond attachment and is free from moral defilements. Story to Dhp 397

Dve Brahmana Vatthu

Chetvā naddhiṃ varattañca, sandānaṃ sahanukkamaṃ; Ukkhittapalighaṃ buddhaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 398: Him I call a brahmana, who has cut the strap (of ill will), the thong (of craving) and the cord (of wrong views together with latent defilements), who has lifted the bar that fastens the door (of ignorance), and who knows the Truth. Story to Dhp 398

Akkosakabharadvaja Vatthu

Akkosaṃ vadhabandhañca, aduṭṭho yo titikkhati; Khantībalaṃ balānīkaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 399: Him I call a brahmana, who, without anger endures abuse, beating and being bound, and to whom the strength of patience is like the strength of an army. Story to Dhp 399

Sariputtatthera Vatthu

Akkodhanaṃ vatavantaṃ, sīlavantaṃ anussadaṃ; Dantaṃ antimasārīraṃ(7), tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 400: Him I call a brahmana, who is free from anger, who practises austerity, who is virtuous and free from craving, who is controlled in his senses and for whom this body (i.e., existence) is the very last. Story to Dhp 400

Uppalavanna Theri Vatthu

Vāri pokkharapatteva, āraggeriva sāsapo; Yo na limpati kāmesu, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 401: Him I call a brahmana, who does not cling to sensual pleasures, just as water does not cling to a lotus leaf, or the mustard seed to the tip of an awl. Story to Dhp 401

Annatarabrahmana Vatthu

Yo dukkhassa pajānāti, idheva khayamattano; Pannabhāraṃ visaṃyuttaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 402: Him I call a brahmana, who even in this existence realizes the end of dukkha (i.e., Nibbana), who has laid down the burden (of the khandhas) and who is free from moral defilements. Story to Dhp 402

Khemabhikkhuni Vatthu

Gambhīrapaññaṃ medhāviṃ, maggāmaggassa kovidaṃ(8); Uttamatthamanuppattaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 403: Him I call a brahmana, who is wise and is profound in his knowledge, who knows the right way from the wrong way, and who has attained the highest goal (i.e., arahatship). Story to Dhp 403

Pabbharavasitissatthera Vatthu

Asaṃsaṭṭhaṃ gahaṭṭhehi, anāgārehi cūbhayaṃ; Anokasārimappicchaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 404: Him I call a brahmana, who associates not with the householder or with the homeless one, or with both, who is free from sensual desire and has few wants. Story to Dhp 404

Annatarabhikkhu Vatthu

Nidhāya daṇḍaṃ bhūtesu(9), tasesu thāvaresu(10) ca; Yo na hanti na ghāteti, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 405: Him I call a brahmana, who has laid aside the use of force towards all beings, the perturbed as well as the unperturbed (i.e., arahats), and who does not kill or cause others to kill. Story to Dhp 405

Samaneranam Vatthu

Aviruddhaṃ viruddhesu, attadaṇḍesu nibbutaṃ; Sādānesu anādānaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 406: Him I call a brahmana, who is not hostile to those who are hostile, who is peaceful (i.e., has laid aside the use of force) to those with weapons, and who is without attachment to objects of attachment. Story to Dhp 406

Mahapanthakatthera Vatthu

Yassa rāgo ca doso ca, māno makkho ca pātito; Sāsaporiva āraggā, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 407: Him I call a brahmana, from whom passion, ill will, pride and detraction have fallen off like a mustard seed from the tip of an awl. Story to Dhp 407

Pilindavacchatthera Vatthu

Akakkasaṃ viññāpaniṃ, giraṃ saccamudīraye; Yāya nābhisaje kañci, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 408: Him I call a brahmana, who speaks gentle, instructive and true words, and who does not offend anyone by speech. Story to Dhp 408

Annataratthera Vatthu

Yodha dīghaṃ va rassaṃ vā, aṇuṃ thūlaṃ subhāsubhaṃ; Loke adinnaṃ nādiyati, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 409: Him I call a Brahmana, who, in this world takes nothing that is not given him, be it long or short, big or small, good or bad. Story to Dhp 409

Sariputtatthera Vatthu

Āsā yassa na vijjanti, asmiṃ loke paramhi ca; Nirāsāsaṃ visaṃyuttaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 410: Him I call a brahmana, who has no desire either for this world or for the next, who is free from craving and from moral defilements. Story to Dhp 410

Mahamoggallanatthera Vatthu

Yassālayā na vijjanti, aññāya akathaṃkathī; Amatogadhamanuppattaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 411: Him I called a brahmana, who has no craving, who through knowledge of the Four Noble Truths is free from doubt, and has realized Nibbana the Deathless. Story to Dhp 411

Revatatthera Vatthu

Yodha puññañca pāpañca, ubho saṅgamupaccagā; Asokaṃ virajaṃ suddhaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 412: Him I call a brahmana, who, in this world, has transcended both ties good and evil; who is sorrowless and, being free from the taints of moral defilements, is pure. Story to Dhp 412

Candabhatthera Vatthu

Candaṃva vimalaṃ suddhaṃ, vippasannamanāvilaṃ; Nandībhavaparikkhīṇaṃ(11), tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 413: Him I call a brahmana, who, like the moon (in a cloudless sky), is pure, clear and serene, and in whom craving for existence is extinct. Story to Dhp 413

Sivalitthera Vatthu

Yomaṃ palipathaṃ duggaṃ, saṃsāraṃ mohamaccagā; Tiṇṇo pāragato jhāyī, anejo akathaṃkathī; Anupādāya nibbuto, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 414: Him I call a brahmana, who, having traversed this dangerous swamp (of passion), this difficult road (of moral defilements), the ocean of life (samsara) and the darkness of ignorance (moha), and having crossed the fourfold Flood, has reached the other shore (Nibbana); who practises Tranquility and Insight Meditation, who is free from craving and from doubt, who clings to nothing and remains in perfect peace. Story to Dhp 414

Sundarasamuddatthera Vatthu

Yodha kāme pahantvāna, anāgāro paribbaje; Kāmabhavaparikkhīṇaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 415: Him I call a brahmana, who, in this world, has given up sensual pleasures, and leaving the home-life has become a bhikkhu; who has eradicated sensual desires and has come to the end of existence. Story to Dhp 415

Jatilatthera Vatthu

Yodha taṇhaṃ pahantvāna, anāgāro paribbaje; Taṇhābhavaparikkhīṇaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 416: Him I call a brahmana, who, in this world, has given up craving, and leaving the home-life has become a bhikkhu; who has eradicated craving and has come to the end of existence. Story to Dhp 416

Nataputtakatthera Vatthu

Hitvā mānusakaṃ yogaṃ, dibbaṃ yogaṃ upaccagā; Sabbayogavisaṃyuttaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 417: Him I call a brahmana, who has given up attachment to (sensual pleasures of) human life, has transcended attachment to (sensual pleasures of) deva life and is completely free from all attachment. Story to Dhp 417

Nataputtakatthera Vatthu

Hitvā ratiñca aratiñca, sītibhūtaṃ nirūpadhiṃ(12); Sabbalokābhibhuṃ(13) vīraṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 418: Him I call a brahmana, who has given up taking delight (in sensual pleasures) and not taking delight (in solitude); who has attained perfect peace and is free from moral defilements; who has overcome all the five khandhas (lit., the world) and is diligent. Story to Dhp 418

Vangisatthera Vatthu

Cutiṃ yo vedi sattānaṃ, upapattiñca sabbaso; Asattaṃ sugataṃ buddhaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 419: Him I call a brahmana, who knows the death and rebirth of beings in every detail, who is detached, who follows the good practice and knows the Four Noble Truths. Story to Dhp 419-420

Vangisatthera Vatthu

Yassa gatiṃ na jānanti, devā gandhabbamānusā; Khīṇāsavaṃ arahantaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 420: Him I call a brahmana, whose destination the devas or gandhabbas or men do not know who has eradicated moral intoxicants and is an arahat. Story to Dhp 419-420

Dhammadinna Theri Vatthu

Yassa pure ca pacchā ca, majjhe ca natthi kiñcanaṃ; Akiñcanaṃ anādānaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 421: Him I call a brahmana, who does not cling to the past, future and present khandha aggregates and who is free from moral defilements and attachment. Story to Dhp 421

Angulimatthera Vatthu

Usabhaṃ pavaraṃ vīraṃ, mahesiṃ vijitāvinaṃ; Anejaṃ nhātakaṃ(14) buddhaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 422: Him I call a brahmana, who is fearless like a bull, who is noble and diligent, who is a seeker of high moral virtues and a conqueror (of three Maras), who is free from craving, who has been cleansed of moral defilements and knows the Four Noble Truths. Story to Dhp 422

Devahitabrahmana Vatthu

Pubbenivāsaṃ yo vedi, saggāpāyañca passati, Atho jātikkhayaṃ patto, abhiññāvosito muni; Sabbavositavosānaṃ, tamahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

VERSE 423: Him I call a brahmana, who knows past existences, who sees the celestial as well as the lower worlds, who has reached the end of rebirths, who, with Magga Insight, has become an arahat and has accomplished all that is to be accomplished for the eradication of moral defilements. Story to Dhp 423

The Story of a Brahmin Who Had Great Faith

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (383) of this book, with reference to a brahmin, who showed extreme devotion to some bhikkhus.

Once, in Savatthi, there lived a brahmin who became extremely devoted to the Buddha and his Teaching, after hearing a discourse given by the Buddha. Every day, he invited the bhikkhus to his house for alms-food. When the bhikkhus arrived at his house, he addressed them as „arahats“ and respectfully requested them to enter his house. When thus addressed, the puthujjana bhikkhus and the arahats felt embarrassed and they decided not to go to the brahmin's house the next day.

When the brahmin found that the bhikkhus did not come to his house again he felt unhappy. He went to the Buddha and told him about the bhikkhus not coming to his house. The Buddha sent for those bhikkhus and asked for explanation. The bhikkhus told the Buddha about the brahmin addressing all of them as arahats. The Buddha then asked them whether they felt any false pride and undue elation when they were thus addressed. The bhikkhus answered in the negative. To them the Buddha said, „Bhikkhus, if you don't feel any false pride and undue elation when addressed as arahats, you are not guilty of breaking any of the rules of discipline of the bhikkhus. The fact is that the brahmin addressed you so because he was extremely devoted to the arahats. So. my sons, you should strive hard to get rid of craving and attain arahatship.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 383 O Brahmana, cut off the stream of craving with diligence, and abandon sense desires. O Brahmana, perceiving the cessation of the conditioned, be an arahat who realizes Nibbana, the Unconditioned.

The Story of Thirty Bhikkhus

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (384) of this book, with reference to thirty bhikkhus.

On one occasion, thirty bhikkhus came to pay homage to the Buddha. The Venerable Sariputta, seeing that time was ripe and proper for those bhikkhus to attain arahatship, approached the Buddha and asked a question, solely for the benefit of those bhikkhus. The question was this: „What are the two dhammas?“ To this the Buddha replied, „Sariputta! Tranquillity and Insight Meditation are the two dhammas.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 384 When the brahmana is well-established in the two dhammas (i.e., the practice of Tranquillity and Insight Meditation), then, in that knowing one, all fetters are destroyed.

At the end of the discourse all the thirty bhikkhus attained arahatship.

The Story of Mara

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (385) of this book, with reference to Mara.

On one occasion, Mara came to the Buddha disguised as a man and asked him, „Venerable Sir, You often say the word 'param'. What is the meaning of that word?“ The Buddha, knowing that it was Mara who was asking that question, chided him, „O wicked Mara! The words 'param' and 'aparam' have nothing to do with you. 'Param' which means 'the other shore' can be reached only by the arahats who are free from moral defilements.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 385 Him I call a brahmana who has for him neither this shore (i.e., the sense-bases) nor the other shore (i.e., the sense objects ), and who is undistressed and free from moral defilements.

The Story of a Certain Brahmin

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (386) of this book, with reference to a brahmin.

One day, a brahmin thought to himself, „Gotama Buddha calls his disciples 'brahmana'. I also am a brahmin by caste. Shouldn't I also be called a brahmana?“ So thinking, he went to the Buddha and posed this question. To him the Buddha replied, „I do not call one a brahmana simply because of his caste; I only call him a brahmana, who has attained arahatship.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 386 Him I call a brahmana, who dwells in seclusion practising Tranquility and Insight Meditation and is free from taints (of moral defilements); who has performed his duties, and is free from moral intoxicants (asavas) and has reached the highest goal (arahatship).

At the end of the discourse the brahmin attained Sotapatti Fruition.

The Story of Thera Ananda

While residing at the Pubbarama monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (387) of this book, with reference to the Venerable Ananda.

It was the full moon day of the seventh month (Assayuja) when King Pasenadi of Kosala came to visit the Buddha. The king was then resplendent in his full royal regalia. At that time, Thera Kaludayi was also present in the same room sitting at the edge of the congregation. He was in deep mental absorption (jhana), his body bright and golden. In the sky, the Venerable Ananda noticed that the sun was setting and the moon was just coming out, both the sun and the moon radiating rays of light.

The Venerable Ananda looked at the shining splendour of the king, of the thera, and of the sun and the moon. Finally, the Venerable Ananda looked at the Buddha and he suddenly perceived that the light that was then radiating from the Buddha far surpassed the light shining from the others. Seeing the Buddha in his glory and splendour, the Venerable Ananda immediately approached the Buddha and burst forth, „O Venerable Sir! The light that shines forth from your noble body far surpasses the light from the king, the light from the thera, the light from the sun and the light from the moon.“

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 387 By day shines the sun; by night shines the moon; in regalia shines the king; in meditation shines the arahat; but the Buddha in his glory shines at all times, by day and by night.

The Story of a Brahmin Recluse

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (388) of this book, with reference to a brahmin ascetic.

Once there was a brahmin ascetic in Savatthi. One day, it occurred to him that the Buddha called his disciples pabbajita bhikkhus and since he also was a recluse, he should also be called a pabbajita. So he went to the Buddha and posed the question why he should not be called a pabbajita. The Buddha's answer to him was this: „Just because one is a recluse one does not automatically become a pabbajita; a pabbajita must have other qualifications also.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 388 Because he has discarded evil he is called a 'brahmana'; because he lives calmly he is called a 'samana'; and because he gets rid of his impurities he is called a 'pabbajita'.

At the end of the discourse the brahmin attained Sotapatti Fruition.

The Story of Thera Sariputta

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verses (389) and (390) of this book, with reference to the Venerable Sariputta.

The Venerable Sariputta was often praised by many people for his patience and forbearance. His pupils usually said of him thus: „Our teacher is a man of great patience and extreme endurance. If he is abused or even beaten by others, he does not lose his temper but remains calm and composed.“ As this was often said of the Venerable Sariputta, a brahmin holding wrong views declared to the admirers of Sariputta that he would provoke the Venerable Sariputta into anger. At that moment, the Venerable Sariputta, who was on his alms-round, appeared on the scene; the brahmin went after him and hit him hard on his back with his hand. The thera did not even look round to see who was the person that attacked him, but proceeded on his way as if nothing had happened. Seeing the magnanimity and great fortitude of the noble thera, the brahmin was very much shaken. He got down on his knees at the feet of the Venerable Sariputta, admitted that he had wrongfully hit the thera, and asked for pardon. The brahmin then continued, „Venerable Sir, should you forgive me, kindly come to my house for alms-food.“

In the evening, other bhikkhus reported to the Buddha that the Venerable Sariputta had gone for alms-food to the house of a brahmin who had beaten him. Further, they observed that the brahmin was sure to get bolder and he would soon be assaulting other bhikkhus also. To those bhikkhus, the Buddha replied, „Bhikkhus, a true brahmana does not beat another true brahmana; only an ordinary man or an ordinary brahmin would beat an arahat in anger and ill will. This ill will should be eradicated by Anagami Magga.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 389 One should not strike a brahmana; a brahmana should not get angry with his assailant; it is shameful to strike a brahmana; it is more shameful to get angry with one's assailant.

Verse 389 For a brahmana there is no benefit at all if he does not restrain from anger to which his mind is prone. Inasmuch as one desists from the intention to harm, to that extent dukkha ceases.

The Story of Theri Mahapajapati Gotami

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (391) of this book, with reference to Theri Mahapajapati Gotami.

Mahapajapati Gotami was the stepmother of Gotama Buddha. On the death of Queen, seven days after the birth of Prince Siddhattha, Mahapajapati Gotami became the chief queen of King Suddhodana. At that time, her own son Nanda was only five days old. She let her own son be fed by a wet-nurse, and herself fed Prince Siddhattha, the future Buddha. Thus, Mahapajapati Gotami was a great benefactor to Prince Siddhattha.

When Prince Siddhattha returned to Kapilavatthu after the attainment of Buddhahood, Mahapajapati Gotami went to see the Buddha and requested that women should also be allowed to enter the Buddhist Order as bhikkhunis; but the Buddha refused permission. Later, King Suddhodana died after attaining arahatship. Then, while the Buddha was sojourning at the Mahavana forest near Vesali, Mahapajapati, accompanied by five hundred ladies, came on foot from Kapilavatthu to Vasali. They had already shaven their heads and had put on the dyed robes. There, for a second time, Mahapajapati requested the Buddha to accept women in the Buddhist Order. The Venerable Ananda also interceded on her behalf. So, the Buddha complied, with the proviso that Mahapajapati abides by eight special conditions (garudhammas). Mahapajapati undertook to observe the garudhammas as required, and the Buddha admitted her into the Order. Thus, Mahapajapati was the first to be admitted to the Order of the Bhikkhunis. The other women were admitted to the Order after her by the bhikkhus as instructed by the Buddha.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

In course of time, it came to the minds of some bhikkhunis that Mahapajapati Gotami had not been properly admitted as a bhikkhuni because she did not have a preceptor; therefore, Mahapajapati Gotami was not a true bhikkhuni. With this thought in their mind, they stopped doing sabbath (uposatha) ceremonies and vassa (pavarana) ceremonies with her. They went to the Buddha and posed the problem of Mahapajapati Gotami not having been properly admitted to the Order of bhikkhunis as she had no preceptor. To them the Buddha replied, „Why do you say so? I myself gave the eight garudhammas to Mahapajapati and she had learnt and practised the garudhammas as required by me. I myself am her preceptor and it is quite wrong for you to say that she has no preceptor. You should harbour no doubt whatsoever about an arahat.

Verse 391 Him I call a brahmana who does no evil in deed or word or thought, who is restrained in these three respects.

The Story of Thera Sariputta

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (392) of this book, with reference to the Venerable Sariputta.

The Venerable Sariputta was born of brahmin parents of Upatissa village; that was why he was named Upatissa. His mother was Sari. His very close friend was Kolita, another brahmin youth, son of Moggali. Both the youths were searching for the right doctrine, which would lead them to liberation from the round of rebirths, and both of them had a great desire to enter a religious Order. First, they went to Sancaya, but they were not satisfied with his teaching. Then they wandered all over Jambudipa looking for a teacher who would show them the way to the Deathless, but their search was fruitless. After some time, they parted company but with the understanding that the one who found the true dhamma first should inform the other.

About that time, the Buddha arrived at Rajagaha with a company of bhikkhus, including Thera Assaji, one of the group of the first Five Bhikkhus (Pancavaggis). While Thera Assaji was on an alms-round, Upatissa saw the thera and was very much impressed by his noble countenance. So Upatissa respectfully approached the thera and asked who his teacher was, what doctrine his teacher taught, and also briefly to explain the doctrine to him. Thera Assaji then told Upatissa about the arising of the Buddha and about his sojourn at the Veluvana monastery in Rajagaha. The thera also quoted a short stanza connected with the Four Noble Truths.

The verse runs thus:

Ye dhamma hetuppa bhava tesam hetum tathagato aha tesanca yo nirodho evam vadi maha samano.

It means:

The Tathagata has declared the cause and also the cessation of all phenomena which arise from a cause. This is the doctrine held by the Great Samana.

When the verse was only half-way through, Upatissa attained Sotapatti Fruition.

As promised, Upatissa went to his friend Kolita to inform him that he had found the true dhamma. Then the two friends, accompanied by two hundred and fifty followers, went to the Buddha who was then at Rajagaha. When they arrived at the Veluvana monastery, they asked permission to enter the Buddhist Order, and both Upatissa and Kolita, together with their two hundred and fifty followers, were admitted as bhikkhus. Upatissa, son of Sari, and Kolita, son of Moggali, then came to be known as Sariputta and Moggallana. Soon after their admission to the Order, the Buddha expounded to them a dhamma and the two hundred and fifty bhikkhus attained arahatship; but Moggallana and Sariputta attained arahatship only at the end of seven days and fifteen days respectively. The reason for the delay in their attainment of arahatship was that they had made a wish for Chief Discipleship, which required much more striving to achieve perfection.

The Venerable Sariputta always remembered that he had been able to meet the Buddha and attain the Deathless through the Venerable Assaji. So, he always paid obeisance in the direction where his teacher was and he always went to bed with his head lying in the same direction. Other bhikkhus who were staying with him at the Jetavana monastery misinterpreted his actions and said to the Buddha, „Venerable Sir! The Venerable Sariputta still worships the various directions, viz., the East, the South, the West, the North, the Nadir and the Zenith, as he has done before as a brahmin youth; it seems as if he has not yet given up his old beliefs.“ The Buddha sent for the Venerable Sariputta and Sariputta explained to the Buddha that he was only paying obeisance to his teacher, the Venerable Assaji, and that he was not worshipping the various directions. The Buddha was satisfied with the explanation given by the Venerable Sariputta and said to the other bhikkhus, „Bhikkhus! The Venerable Sariputta was not worshipping the various directions; he was only paying obeisance to his teacher and benefactor, through whom he had attained the Deathless. It is quite right and proper for him to pay homage to such a teacher.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 392 If from somebody one should learn the Teaching of the Buddha, he should respectfully pay homage to that teacher, as a brahmin worships the sacrificial fire.

The Story of Jatila, the Brahmin

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (393) of this book, with reference to Jatila, a brahmin ascetic who wore matted hair.

Once, a brahmin ascetic thought to himself that the Buddha called his disciples 'brahmanas' and that he being a brahmin by birth should also be called a 'brahmana'. Thinking thus, he went to see the Buddha and put forward his view. But the Buddha rejected his view and said, „O brahmin, I do not call one a brahmana because he keeps his hair matted or simply because of his birth; I call one a brahmana only if he fully comprehends the Four Noble Truths.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 393 Not by wearing matted hair, nor by lineage, nor by caste, does one become a brahmana; only he who realizes the Truth and the Dhamma is pure; he is a brahmana.

The Story of a Deceitful Brahmin

While residing at the Kutagara monastery in Vesali, the Buddha uttered Verse (394) of this book, with reference to a deceitful brahmin.

Once, a deceitful brahmin climbed up a tree near the city-gate of Vesali and kept himself hanging upside down like a bat from one of the branches of the tree. From this very awkward position, he kept on muttering, „O people! Bring me a hundred heads of cattle, many pieces of silver and a number of slaves. If you do not bring these to me, and if I were to fall down from this tree and die, this city of yours will surely come to ruin.“ The people of the town, fearing that their city night be destroyed if the brahmin were to fall down and die, brought all the things he demanded and pleaded with him to come down.

The bhikkhus hearing about this incident reported to the Buddha and the Buddha replied that the deceitful one could only cheat the ignorant people but not the wise ones.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 394 O foolish one! What is the use of wearing matted hair? What is the use of your wearing a garment made of antelope skin? In you, there is a forest (of moral defilements); you clean yourself only externally.

The Story of Kisagotami

While residing at the Gijjhakuta hill, the Buddha uttered Verse (395) of this book, with reference to Kisagotami.

On one occasion, Sakka, king of the devas, came with his followers to pay homage to the Buddha. At the same lime, Theri Kisagotami, by her supernormal power came through the sky to pay homage to the Buddha. But when she saw Sakka and his entourage paying homage to the Buddha, she retreated. Sakka seeing her, asked the Buddha who the lady was, and the Buddha replied, „O Sakka! She is my daughter Kisagotami. Once, she came to me in sorrow and distress through the loss of her son and I made her see the impermanent, the unsatisfactory and the non-self nature of all conditioned things. As a consequence of that she attained Sotapatti Fruition, joined the Order, and became an arahat. She is one of my eminent female disciples and is matchless in the ascetic practice of wearing robes made from rags collected from a dust heap.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 395 Him I call a brahmana who wears robes made from rags (picked up from a dust heap), who is lean with veins standing out, who meditates alone in the forest.

The Story of a Brahmin

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (396) of this book, with reference to a brahmin.

Once, a brahmin from Savatthi thought that since the Buddha called his disciples 'brahmanas', he should also be called a 'brahmana' because he was born of brahmin parents. When he told the Buddha about this, the Buddha replied to him, „O brahmin! I do not call him a brahmana just because he is born of brahmin parents. I call him a brahmana only if he is free from moral defilements and cut off all clinging to existence.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 396 I do not call him a brahmana just because he is born from the womb of a brahmana mother. He is just a bhovadi brahmin if he is not free from moral defilements. Him I call a brahmana, who is free from moral defilements and from attachment.

At the end of the discourse that brahmin attained Sotapatti Fruition.

The Story of Uggasena, the Son of a Rich Man

(15)

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (397) of this book, with reference to Uggasena, son of a rich man.

After marrying a dancer from a theatrical troupe, Uggasena was trained by his father-in-law who was an acrobat, and became very skilful in acrobatics. One day while he was demonstrating his skill, the Buddha came on the scene. After hearing the Buddha's teaching, Uggasena attained arahatship while he was still performing his feats on top of a long bamboo pole. After that, he climbed down from the pole and pleaded with the Buddha to accept him as a bhikkhu and was accordingly admitted into the Order.

One day, when other bhikkhus asked him whether he did not have any feeling of fear while climbing down from such a great height (i.e., about ninety feet), he answered in the negative. The bhikkhus took that to mean that Uggasena was claiming to have attained arahatship even then. So, they went to the Buddha and said, „Venerable Sir! Uggasena claims himself to be an arahat; he must be telling lies.“ To them the Buddha replied, „Bhikkhus, one who has cut off all fetters, like my son Uggasena, has no fear.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 397 Him I call a brahmana, who has cut off all fetters and is fearless, who is beyond attachment and is free from moral defilements.

The Story of Two Brahmins

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (398) of this book, with reference to two brahmins.

Once there lived in Savatthi two brahmins, each of whom owned a bullock. Each claimed that his bullock was better and stronger. At last, they agreed to put their animals to a test. So they went to the bank of the Aciravati River and there they filled up a cart with sand. One after the other, the bullocks pulled the cart, but they only pulled in vain, because the cart, did not move and only the ropes broke off. The bhikkhus seeing this reported to the Buddha and the Buddha said to them, „Bhikkhus! It is easy to break off the straps which you can see with your eyes; anyone can break them or cut them. But my sons, a bhikkhu should cut the strap of ill will and the thong of craving which are within you and which bind you.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 398 Him I call a brahmana, who has cut the strap (of ill will), the thong (of craving) and the cord (of wrong views together with latent defilements), who has lifted the bar that fastens the door (of ignorance), and who knows the Truth.

At the end of the discourse five hundred bhikkhus attained arahatship.

The Story of the Abusive Brahmin Brothers

While residing at the Veluvana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (399) of this book, with reference to the abusive Bharadvaja brothers.

Once there was a brahmin, whose wife was in the habit of blurting out a string of words whenever she sneezed or when something or someone touched her unawares. One day, the brahmin invited some of his friends to a meal and suddenly she blurted out some words. Since she was a Sotapanna, the words „Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammsambhuddassa“ automatically came out of her mouth. These words of veneration to the Buddha were very much disliked by her husband, the brahmin. So, in anger, he went to the Buddha hoping to put some challenging questions to the Buddha. His first question was, „What do we have to kill to be able to live happily and peacefully?“ and his second question was, „Killing of what dhamma do you approve of?“ To these questions, the Buddha replied, „O brahmin, to be able to live happily and peacefully, one will have to kill ill will (dosa). Killing one's ill will is liked and praised by the Buddhas and the arahats.“ After hearing the Buddha, the brahmin was so impressed and satisfied with the answer that he asked to be permitted to enter the Order. Accordingly, he entered the Order and later became an arahat.

This brahmin had a brother who was very notorious for his abusive words and was known as Akkosaka Bharadvaja, the abusive Bharadvaja. When Akkosaka Bharadvaja heard that his brother had joined the Order of the bhikkhus, he was furious. He went straight away to the monastery and abused the Buddha. The Buddha in his turn asked, „O brahmin, let us suppose you offered some food to some guests and they left the house without taking the food. Since the guests did not accept your food, to whom would that food belong?“ To this question the brahmin answered that the food would be his. On receiving that answer, the Buddha said, „In the same way, O brahmin, since I do not accept your abuse, the abuse would only go back to you.“ Akkosaka Bharadvaja instantly realized the sagacity of those words and he felt a great respect for the Buddha. He also entered the Order and in due course became an arahat.

After Akkosaka Bharadvaja had entered the Order, his two younger brothers also came to see the Buddha with the same intention of abusing the Buddha. They too were made to see the light by the Buddha and they also, in their turn, entered the Order. Eventually, both of them became arahats.

One evening, at the congregation of the bhikkhus, the bhikkhus said to the Buddha, „O how wonderful and how great are the virtues of the Buddha! The four brahmin brothers came here to abuse the Buddha; instead of arguing with them, he made them see the light, and as a result, the Buddha has become a refuge to them.“ To them, the Buddha replied, „Bhikkhus! Because I am patient and forbearing, and do no wrong to those who do me wrong, I have become a refuge to many.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 399 Him I call a brahmana, who, without anger endures abuse, beating and being bound, and to whom the strength of patience is like the strength of an army.

The Story of Thera Sariputta

While residing at the Veluvana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (400) of this book, with reference to the Venerable Sariputta.

While the Buddha was in residence at the Veluvana monastery, the Venerable Sariputta, accompanied by five hundred bhikkhus, entered Nalaka Village and stood at the door of the house of his own mother for alms-food. His mother invited them into the house. But while she was offering food to her son she said, „O you consumer of left-overs, you who have abandoned eighty crores to become a bhikkhu, you have ruined us.“ Then, she offered alms-food to the other bhikkhus and said to them rudely, „You all have used my son as your attendant; now eat your food.“ The Venerable Sariputta said nothing in reply but he just meekly took his bowl and came back to the monastery. Back at the monastery, the bhikkhus told the Buddha how the Venerable Sariputta had patiently borne the scolding and abuses of his mother. To them, the Buddha said that arahats never get angry, they never lose their temper.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 400 Him I call a brahmana, who is free from anger, who practises austerity, who is virtuous and free from craving, who is controlled in his senses and for whom this body (i.e., existence) is the very last.

The Story of Theri Uppalavanna

(16)

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (401) of this book, with reference to Theri Uppalavanna.

Once, some bhikkhus were talking about the arahat Theri Uppalavanna being molested by the young Nanda who was then swallowed up by the earth. In this connection, they asked the Buddha whether arahats do not enjoy sensual pleasures as they have the same physical make-up like any other people. To them the Buddha replied, „Bhikkhus! Arahats do not enjoy sensual pleasures; they do not indulge in sensual pleasures, for they do not cling to objects of sense and to sensual pleasures, just as water does not cling to the lotus leaf or the mustard seed to the tip of an awl.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 401 Him I call a brahmana, who does not cling to sensual pleasures, just as water does not cling to a lotus leaf, or the mustard seed to the tip of an awl.

The Story of a Certain Brahmin

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (402) of this book, with reference to a certain brahmin, whose slave became an arahat.

Once, there was a young slave of a brahmin. One day, fleeing from the house of his master he joined the Order of the bhikkhus, and in due course, he attained arahatship. On one occasion, while he went on an alms-round with the Buddha, his former master, the brahmin, saw him and grabbed him firmly by the robe. When the Buddha asked what the matter was, the brahmin explained that the young bhikkhu was his slave at one time. To him the Buddha said, „This bhikkhu has laid down the burden (of the khandhas).“ The brahmin took that to mean that his slave had become an arahat. So to make sure, he asked the Buddha whether it was true that the young bhikkhu had become an arahat, and the Buddha confirmed his statement.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 402 Him I call a brahmana, who even in this existence realizes the end of dukkha (i.e., Nibbana), who has laid down the burden (of the khandhas) and who is free from moral defilements.

At the end of the discourse the brahmin attained Sotapatti Fruition.

The Story of Theri Khema

(17)

While residing at the Gijjhakuta hill, the Buddha uttered Verse (403) of this book, with reference to Theri Khema.

One night, Sakka, king of the devas, came with his followers to pay homage to the Buddha. While they were with the Buddha, Theri Khema, by her supernormal power, also came through the sky to pay homage to the Buddha. But because Sakka and his company were there with the Buddha, she just paid obeisance to the Buddha, and soon left him. Sakka asked the Buddha who that bhikkhuni was and the Buddha replied, „She is one of my pre-eminent disciples; she is known as Theri Khema. She is matchless amongst the bhikkhunis in wisdom and she knows how to differentiate the right way from the wrong way.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 403 Him I call a brahmana, who is wise and is profound in his knowledge, who knows the right way from the wrong way, and who has attained the highest goal (i.e., arahatship).

The Story of Thera Tissa

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (404) of this book with reference to Thera Tissa.

Thera Tissa, after taking a subject of meditation from the Buddha, went to a mountain side. There, he found a cave which suited him and he decided to spend the three months of the rainy season (vassa) in that cave. So he stayed in the cave and went to the village for alms-food every morning. In the village, there was a certain elderly woman who regularly offered him alms-food. In the cave, there also lived the guardian spirit of the cave. As the thera was one whose practice of morality was pure, the cave-spirit dared not live in the same cave with the noble thera; at the same time, he did not have the courage to ask the thera to leave the place. So he thought of a plan that would enable him to find fault with the thera and thus cause him to leave the cave.

The cave-spirit possessed the son of the elderly woman from the house where the thera usually went for his alms-food. He caused the boy to behave in a very peculiar way, turning his head backwards, and rolling his wide open eyes. His mother got alarmed and was in tears. The cave-spirit, who possessed the boy, then said „Let your teacher, the thera, wash his feet with water and pour that water on the head of your son.“ The next day when the thera came to her house for alms-food, she did as she was advised by the cave-spirit and the boy was left in peace. The cave-spirit went back to the cave and waited at the entrance for the return of the thera. When the thera returned from his alms-round, the cave-spirit revealed himself and said, „I am the spirit guarding this cave. O you physician, do not enter this cave.“ The thera knew that he had lived a clean life from the day he had become a thera, so he replied that he did not remember practising medicine. Then the cave-spirit accused him that in that very morning he had cured a young boy possessed by an ogre at the house of the elderly woman. But the thera reflected that it was not, in fact, practising medicine and he realized that even the cave spirit could find no other fault with him. That gave him a delightful satisfaction (piti) with himself, and abandoning piti and concentrating hard on Insight Meditation he attained arahatship then and there, while still standing at the entrance to the cave.

As the thera had now become an arahat, he advised the cave-spirit to leave the cave. The thera continued to stay there till the end of the vassa, and then he returned to the Buddha. When he told the other bhikkhus about his encounter with the cave-spirit, they asked him whether he did not get angry with the cave-spirit when he was forbidden to enter the cave. The thera answered in the negative but they did not believe him. So they went to the Buddha and said, „Thera Tissa claims himself to be an arahat ; he is not speaking the truth.“ To them the Buddha replied, „Bhikkhus, my son Tissa was speaking the truth when he said he did not get angry. He has indeed become an arahat he is no longer attached to anyone; he has no occasion to get angry with anyone nor any need to associate with others.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 404 Him I call a brahmana, who associates not with the householder or with the homeless one, or with both, who is free from sensual desire and has few wants.

The Story of a Certain Bhikkhu

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (405) of this book, with reference to a certain bhikkhu.

Once, a bhikkhu after taking a subject of meditation from the Buddha went to a forest to practise meditation. After he had attained arahatship he came back to the Buddha to offer his deep and profound gratitude to the Buddha. On his way, he passed through a village. Just as he was going through the village, a woman having quarreled with her husband came out of her house and followed the bhikkhu. The husband coming after his wife, seeing her behind the bhikkhu, thought that the bhikkhu was taking his wife away. So he shouted at the bhikkhu and threatened to beat him. His wife entreated him not to beat the bhikkhu, but that made him more furious. As a result, the thera was beaten black and blue by the husband. After beating the bhikkhu to his heart's content, he took away his wife along with him and the bhikkhu continued on his way.

On arrival at the Jetavana monastery, other bhikkhus saw the bruises over the whole body of the bhikkhu and they attended to his bruises. When they asked him if he did not get angry with the man who had beaten him so sorely, he answered in the negative. So the other bhikkhus went to the Buddha and reported that the bhikkhu had falsely claimed to have attained arahatship. To them the Buddha replied, „Bhikkhus! Arahats have laid aside the stick and the sword. They do not get angry even if they are beaten.“ Thus, the Buddha confirmed that the bhikkhu had, indeed, become an arahat.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 405 Him I call a brahmana, who has laid aside the use of force towards all beings, the perturbed as well as the unperturbed (i.e., arahats), and who does not kill or cause others to kill.

The Story of Four Samaneras

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (406) of this book, with reference to four samaneras who were arahats.

Once, the wife of a brahmin sent her husband the brahmin to the Jetavana monastery to invite four bhikkhus to an alms-meal at their house. She told him to specifically request for senior bhikkhus who were also true brahmanas. But four seven year old arahat samaneras, viz., Samkicca, Pandita, Sopaka and Revata were sent along with him. When his wife saw the young samaneras she was very much dissatisfied and blamed the brahmin for bringing such young samaneras who were even younger than her grandson. She was, in fact, furious with her husband, and so she sent him back to the monastery to get older bhikkhus. In the meantime she refused to give the young samaneras the higher seats reserved for the bhikkhus; they were given lower seats and she did not offer them alms-food.

When the brahmin arrived at the monastery, he met the Venerable Sariputta and invited him to his house. When the Venerable Sariputta arrived at the house of the brahmin, he saw the four young arahat samaneras and asked them if they had been offered alms-food yet. On learning that the arahat samaneras had not been given alms-food yet and also that food had been prepared only for four persons the Venerable Sariputta returned to the monastery without accepting alms-food from the house of the brahmin. So his wife sent the brahmin back again to the monastery to get another senior bhikkhu. This time, the Venerable Maha Moggallana came along with the brahmin, but he also returned to the monastery without accepting alms-food when he learned that the young samaneras had not been offered alms-food and also that food had been prepared only for four persons.

By this time, the samaneras were feeling hungry. Sakka, king of the devas, seeing the state of things took the form of an old brahmin and came to the house. The brahmin and his wife paid respect to the old brahmin and offered him a seat of honour, but Sakka just sat on the ground and paid respect to the four samaneras. Then he revealed that he was Sakka. Seeing that Sakka himself was paying respect to the young samaneras, the brahmin couple offered alms-food to all the five. After the meal, Sakka and the samaneras manifested their supernormal power by going right up into the sky through the roof. Sakka went back to his celestial abode, the samaneras returned to the monastery.

When other bhikkhus asked the samaneras whether they did net get angry when the brahmin couple refused to offer alms-food to them, they answered in the negative. The bhikkhus not believing them reported to the Buddha that the four young samaneras were falsely claiming to be arahats. To them the Buddha said, „Bhikkhus, arahats bear no ill will towards those who are hostile to them.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 406 Him I call a brahmana, who is not hostile to those who are hostile, who is peaceful (i.e., has laid aside the use of force) to those with weapons, and who is without attachment to objects of attachment.

The Story of Thera Mahapanthaka

While residing at the Veluvana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse…. (407) of this book, with reference to Thera Mahapanthaka, elder brother of Culapanthaka(18).

Thera Mahapanthaka was already an arahat when his younger brother Culapanthaka joined the Order. Culapanthaka was born a dullard because he had made fun of a very dull bhikkhu in one of his past existences. Culapanthaka could not even memorize one verse in four months' time. Mahapanthaka was disappointed with his younger brother and asked him to leave the monastery as he was not worthy of the Order.

It was in this connection that, on one occasion, the bhikkhus asked the Buddha why Mahapanthaka, even though he was an arahat, turned his younger brother Culapanthaka out of the monastery. They also added „Do the arahats still lose their temper? Do they still have moral defilements like ill will in them?“ To them the Buddha replied, „Bhikkhus! Arahats have no moral defilements like passion and ill will in them. My son Mahapanthaka acted as he did with a view to benefiting his brother and not out of ill will.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 407 Him I call a brahmana, from whom passion, ill will, pride and detraction have fallen off like a mustard seed from the tip of an awl.

The Story of Thera Pilindavaccha

While residing at the Veluvana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (408) of this book, with reference to Thera Vaccha, who was also known as Thera Pilindavaccha, due to his offensive ways.

Thera Pilindavaceha had a very offensive way of addressing people: he would often say, „Come here, you wretch“, or „Go there, you wretch“ and such other things. Other bhikkhus reported about him to the Buddha. The Buddha sent for him, and spoke to him on the matter. Then, on reflection the Buddha found that for the past five hundred existences, the thera had been born only in the families of the brahmins, who regarded themselves as being superior to other people. So the Buddha said to the bhikkhus, „Bhikkhus! Thera Vaccha addresses others as 'wretch' only by force of habit acquired in the course of his five hundred existences as a brahmin, and not out of malice. He has no intention of hurting others, for an arahat does not harm others.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 408 Him I call a brahmana, who speaks gentle, instructive and true words, and who does not offend anyone by speech.

The Story of a Certain Thera

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (409) of this book, with reference to a certain thera.

One day, a brahmin from Savatthi put his upper garment outside his house to air it. A thera found that garment as he was going back to the monastery. Thinking that it was a piece of cloth thrown away by someone and therefore ownerless, the thera picked it up. The brahmin looking out of his window saw the thera picking up the piece of clothing and came after the thera, abusing and accusing him. „You shaven head! You are stealing my clothing“, he said; the thera promptly returned the piece of clothing to the brahmin.

Back at the monastery, the thera related the above Incident to other bhikkhus, and they made fun of him and jokingly asked him whether the cloth was long or short, coarse or fine. To this question the thera answered, „Whether the clothing is long or short, coarse or fine matters not to me; I am not at all attached to it.“ Other bhikkhus then reported to the Buddha that the thera was falsely claiming himself to be an arahat. To them the Buddha replied, „Bhikkhus! The thera speaks the truth; an arahat does not take anything that is not given him.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 409 Him I call a Brahmana, who, in this world takes nothing that is not given him, be it long or short, big or small, good or bad.

The Story of Thera Sariputta

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (410) of this book, with reference to Thera Sariputta.

On one occasion, Thera Sariputta accompanied by five hundred bhikkhus went to a monastery near a small village to spend the vassa. At the end of the vassa, Thera Sariputta wanted robes for young bhikkhus and samaneras. So he said to the bhikkhus, „If people come to offer robes, send them to me or inform me“; and then he left for the Jetavana monastery to pay homage to the Buddha. Other bhikkhus misunderstood Thera Sariputta's instructions, and said to the Buddha, „Venerable Sir! Thera Sariputta is still attached to material things like robes and other requisites of a bhikkhu.“ To them the Buddha replied, „Bhikkhus! My son Sariputta has no more craving in him. He told you to bring the robes to him, so that the chances to perform meritorious deeds may not decrease for lay-disciples, and the chances to accept whatever they may properly receive may not be reduced for young bhikkhus and samaneras.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 410 Him I call a brahmana, who has no desire either for this world or for the next, who is free from craving and from moral defilements.

The Story of Thera Maha Moggallana

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (411) of this book, with reference to Thera Maha Moggallana.

On one occasion, the bhikkhus told the Buddha about Thera Maha Moggallana the same thing they had said of Thera Sariputta that he still had attachment to worldly things. To them the Buddha said that Thera Maha Moggallana had discarded all craving.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 411 Him I called a brahmana, who has no craving, who through knowledge of the Four Noble Truths is free from doubt, and has realized Nibbana the Deathless.

The Story of Samanera Revata

While residing at the Pubbarama monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (412) of this book, with reference to Samanera Revata.

One day, the bhikkhus said to the Buddha, „Revata is getting many offerings from people, he is gaining fame and fortune. Even though he lives alone in the forest, through supernormal power he has now built five hundred pinnacled monasteries for five hundred bhikkhus.“ To them the Buddha said, „Bhikkhus, my son Revata has discarded all craving; he has transcended both good and evil.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 412 Him I call a brahmana, who, in this world, has transcended both ties good and evil; who is sorrowless and, being free from the taints of moral defilements, is pure.

The Story of Thera Candabha

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (413) of this book, with reference to Thera Candabha.

Candabha had, in a previous existence, made offerings of sandalwood to a stupa where the relics of Kassapa Buddha were enshrined. For this good deed, he was reborn in a brahmin family in Savatthi. He was born with a distinguishing mark, viz., a circle of light radiating from around his navel. As this circle of light resembled the moon he came to be known as Candabha. Some brahmins, taking advantage of this unusual feature, put him on a cart and took him round the town for exhibition and only those who paid a hundred or a thousand were allowed to touch him. On one occasion, they stopped at a place between the town and the Jetavana monastery. To ariyas going to the Jetavana monastery, they said, 'What is the use of your going to the Buddha and listening to his discourses? There is no one who is as powerful as Candabha. One who touches him will get rich; why don't you come and see ?„ The ariyas then said to them, „Only our teacher is powerful; he is unrivalled and matchless.“

Then the brahmins took Candabha to the Jetavana monastery to compete with the Buddha. But when Candabha was in the presence of the Buddha, the ring of light went out by itself. When Candabha was taken out of sight of the Buddha, the ring of light returned automatically; it again disappeared when taken back to the presence of the Buddha. Candabha then asked the Buddha to give him the mantra (words of incantation) that would make the ring of light disappear from around his navel. The Buddha told him that the mantra could be given only to a member of his Order. Candabha told the brahmins that he was getting a mantra from the Buddha and that after mastering the mantra he would be the greatest person in the whole of Jambudipa. So the brahmins waited outside the monastery.

Meanwhile, Candabha became a bhikkhu. He was instructed to contemplate the body, i.e., to reflect on the repulsiveness and impurity of the thirty-two constituents of the body. Within a few days, Candabha attained arahatship. When the brahmins who were waiting outside the monastery came to enquire whether he had acquired the mantra, Candabha replied. „You people had better go back now; as for me I am no longer in a position to go along with you.“ Other bhikkhus, hearing him, went to the Buddha and said, „Candabha is falsely claiming that he has become an arahat.“ To them the Buddha replied, “Candabha speaks the truth; he has eradicated all moral intoxicants.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 413 Him I call a brahmana, who, like the moon (in a cloudless sky), is pure, clear and serene, and in whom craving for existence is extinct.

The Story of Thera Sivali

While residing in the Kundadhana forest near the city of Kundakoliya, the Buddha uttered Verse (414) of this book, with reference to Thera Sivali.

Princess Suppavasa of Kundakoliya was in pregnancy for seven years and then for seven days she was in labour pains. She kept contemplating the unique qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha and in the end she sent her husband to the Buddha to pay obeisance to him on her behalf and to inform him of her condition. When informed of the condition of the princess, the Buddha said, “May Suppavasa be free from danger and from sorrow; may she give birth to a healthy noble son in safety.„ As these words were being spoken, Suppavasa gave birth to her son at her house. On that very day, soon after the birth of the child, the Buddha and some bhikkhus were invited to the house. Alms-food was offered there and the newly born child offered filtered water to the Buddha and the bhikkhus. To celebrate the birth of the child, the parents invited the Buddha and the bhikkhus to their house to offer food for seven days.

When the child grew up he was admitted to the Order and as a bhikkhu he was known as Sivali. He attained arahatship as soon as his head was shaved off. Later, he became famous as the bhikkhu who received the largest amount of offerings. As a recipient of offerings he was unsurpassed.

On one occasion, the bhikkhus asked the Buddha why Sivali, with the qualifications to become an arahat, was confined in his mother's womb for seven years. To them the Buddha replied, “Bhikkhus! In a previous existence, Sivali was the son of a king who lost his kingdom to another king. In trying to regain their kingdom he had besieged the city on the advice of his mother. As a result, the people in the city were without food or water for seven days. It was for this evil deed that Sivali was imprisoned in his mother's womb for seven years. But now, Sivali has come to the end of all dukkha; he has realized Nibbana.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 414 Him I call a brahmana, who, having traversed this dangerous swamp (of passion), this difficult road (of moral defilements), the ocean of life (samsara) and the darkness of ignorance (moha), and having crossed the fourfold Flood, has reached the other shore (Nibbana); who practises Tranquility and Insight Meditation, who is free from craving and from doubt, who clings to nothing and remains in perfect peace.

The Story of Thera Sundarasamudda

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (415) of this book, with reference to Thera Sundarasamudda.

Sundarasamudda was the son of a rich man from Savatthi. After he had entered the Order, he left for Rajagaha, which was forty-five yojanas away from Savatthi, to practise meditation. One day, while some festivities were going on in Savatthi, the parents of Sundarasamudda missed him very much; they also felt sorry for their son who was missing all the enjoyment and they wept. As they were weeping, a courtesan came to them and asked what the matter was. On hearing about their son, the courtesan said, „If I could make your son leave the Order and return to the life of a lay man how would you reward me?“ The parents answered that they would make her rich. The courtesan then asked for a large sum of money and left for Rajagaha with a number of followers.

At Rajagaha, she rented a house with seven-tiered pinnacles on the route where Thera Sundarasamudda would come on his alms-round. She prepared good food and waited for him. On the first few days, she offered alms-food to the thera at the door of her house. Later, she invited him to come inside. Meanwhile, she paid money to some children to come and play just outside the house about the time the thera usually came on his alms-round. This gave her the excuse that it was very dusty and noisy on the ground floor; with this excuse she invited the thera to the top floor to have his alms-food. The thera consented and went up and as soon as he had entered the room, the courtesan closed the door. Then she started seducing the thera. She said to the thera, „Venerable Sir! Please be my youthful and energetic husband, and I will be your dearly beloved wife. After our long and happy wedded life we can both leave it to enter the Order and strive our very best to attain Nibbana.“ When he heard these words the thera suddenly realized his mistake and got alarmed. Then he said to himself, „Indeed, by being negligent and unmindful I have made a great mistake.“

At that instant, the Buddha saw from his Perfumed Chamber what was happening to Thera Sundarasamudda at Rajagaha. He called the Venerable Ananda and said to him, “Ananda! On an upper storey of a pinnacled building in Rajagaha, there now goes on a struggle between Sundarasamudda and a courtesan; but in the end the thera will be the winner.„ After saying this to Ananda, the Buddha sent forth his radiance to the thera, made him feel his presence, and said, „My son! Be resolute and get rid of love of wealth and sensual pleasures.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 415 Him I call a brahmana, who, in this world, has given up sensual pleasures, and leaving the home-life has become a bhikkhu; who has eradicated sensual desires and has come to the end of existence.

At the end of the discourse the thera attained arahatship, and by supernormal power passed through the roof into the sky and went to the Buddha.

The Story of Thera Jatila

(19)

While residing at the Veluvana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (416) of this book, with reference to Thera Jatila.

Soon after the passing away (Parinibbana) of Kassapa Buddha, an arahat thera went round for donations to build a gold stupa where the relics of Kassapa Buddha were to be enshrined. The thera came to the house of a goldsmith while he and his wife were engaged in a heated quarrel. The goldsmith shouted at the thera and said, „You had better thrown your stupa into the water and go away.“ His wife then said to the goldsmith, „If you are angry with me you should abuse me only; you can even beat me if you like; but why do you have to abuse the Buddha and the thera? Surely, you have done a grievous wrong!“ Hearing her words, the goldsmith realized the enormity of the wrong he had done and wanted to make atonement for it. So, he made some gold flowers, put them into three gold pots and offered them to be put into the relic chamber of the stupa of Kassapa Buddha.

In his present existence he was conceived in the womb of a rich man's daughter who had had an illicit love affair. When the child was born, she put it into a pot and floated it down the stream. A young woman who was bathing in the stream saw the child in the pot and took it with her. She adopted him and named him Jatila. Later, on the advice of a thera the woman sent Jatila to Taxila where he had his education. While at Taxila the thera arranged for him to stay at the house of a merchant who was a disciple of his. In due course, Jatila married the daughter of the merchant. Soon after the marriage, a large mound of gold appeared in the backyard of the house which was newly built for the couple. Three sons were born out of this marriage. After that, Jatila joined the Order and attained arahatship within a few days.

On one occasion, as the Buddha went on an alms-round with five hundred bhikkhus including Jatila, they came to the house of the sons of Jatila. His sons offered alms-food to the Buddha and his disciples for fifteen days. Some time afterwards, the bhikkhus asked Jatila whether he was still attached to his mound of gold and his sons, and he answered that he had no more attachment to them. The bhikkhus then said to the Buddha that Jatila was falsely claiming to have attained arahatship. To them the Buddha said, “Bhikkhus! Jatila has got rid of craving and pride; he has indeed attained arahatship.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 416 Him I call a brahmana, who, in this world, has given up craving, and leaving the home-life has become a bhikkhu; who has eradicated craving and has come to the end of existence.

The Story of Thera Nataputtaka

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (417) of this book, with reference to Thera Nataputtaka, who was the son of a dancer.

Once, the son of a dancer was going round the streets singing and dancing when he had a chance to listen to a discourse given by the Buddha. After listening to the discourse, he entered the Order and attained arahatship soon afterwards. One day, while the Buddha and the bhikkhus including Nataputtaka were going on an alms-round, they came across the son of another dancer dancing in the street. Seeing the young man dancing, the other bhikkhus asked Nataputtaka whether he still liked dancing. And Nataputtaka answered, „No, I do not.“ The bhikkhus then went to the Buddha and told him that Thera Nataputtaka was falsely claiming to have attained arahatship. Thereby, the Buddha said, “Bhikkhus! Nataputtaka has gone beyond all bonds of attachment; he has become an arahat.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 417 Him I call a brahmana, who has given up attachment to (sensual pleasures of) human life, has transcended attachment to (sensual pleasures of) deva life and is completely free from all attachment.

The Story of Thera Nataputtaka

While residing at the Veluvana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (418) of this book, with reference to another Thera Nataputtaka, son of another dancer.

As in the previous story, the son of a dancer had entered the Order and had attained arahatship. Other bhikkhus went to the Buddha and told him about Thera Nataputtaka claiming to have attained arahatship. To them the Buddha said, “Bhikkhus! Nataputtaka has given up taking delight in all things.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 418 Him I call a brahmana, who has given up taking delight (in sensual pleasures) and not taking delight (in solitude); who has attained perfect peace and is free from moral defilements; who has overcome all the five khandhas (lit., the world) and is diligent.

The Story of Thera Vangisa

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verses (419) and (420) of this book, with reference to Thera Vangisa.

Once, in Rajagaha, there was a brahmin by the name of Vangisa who by simply tapping on the skull of a dead person could tell whether that person was reborn in the world of the devas, or of the human beings, or in one of the four lower worlds (apayas). The brahmins took Vangisa to many villages and people flocked to him and paid him ten, twenty or a hundred to find out from him where their various dead relatives were reborn.

On one occasion, Vangisa and his party came to a place not far from the Jetavana monastery. Seeing those people who were going to the Buddha, the brahmins invited them to come to Vangisa who could tell where their relatives had been reborn. But the Buddha's disciples said to them, „Our teacher is one without a rival, he only is the Enlightened One.“ The brahmins took that statement as a challenge and took Vangisa along with them to the Jetavana monastery to compete with the Buddha. The Buddha, knowing their intention, instructed the bhikkhus to bring the skulls of a person reborn in niraya, of a person reborn in the animal world, of a person reborn in the human world, of a person reborn in the deva world and also of an arahat. The five were then placed in a row. When Vangisa was shown those skulls he could tell where the owners of the first four skulls were reborn but when he came to the skull of the arahat he was at a loss. Then the Buddha said, “Vangisa, don't you know? I do know where the owner of that skull is.„ Vangisa then asked the Buddha to let him have the magical incantation (mantra) by which he could thus know; but the Buddha told him that the mantra could be given only to a bhikkhu. Vangisa then told the brahmins to wait outside the monastery while he was being taught the mantra. Thus, Vangisa became a bhikkhu and as a bhikkhu, he was instructed by the Buddha to contemplate the thirty-two constituents of the body. Vangisa diligently practised meditation as instructed by the Buddha and attained arahatship within a short time.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

When the brahmins who were waiting outside the monastery came to ask Vangisa whether he had acquired the mantra, Vangisa said, „You all had better go now; as for me, I should no longer go along with you.“ Other bhikkhus hearing him thought he was telling lies, so they went to the Buddha and said, „Venerable Sir! Vangisa is falsely claiming to have attained arahatship.“ To them the Buddha said, “Bhikkhus! Vangisa really knows the death and rebirth of beings.

Verse 419 Him I call a brahmana, who knows the death and rebirth of beings in every detail, who is detached, who follows the good practice and knows the Four Noble Truths.

Verse 420 Him I call a brahmana, whose destination the devas or gandhabbas or men do not know who has eradicated moral intoxicants and is an arahat.

The Story of Theri Dhammadinna

While residing at the Veluvana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (421) of this book, with reference to Theri Dhammadinna.

Once, there was a lay-disciple of the Buddha named Visakha in Rajagaha. After hearing the Buddha's discourses again and again Visakha attained Anagami Fruition and he said to his wife, „Please accept all my property; from today, I'm not going to take part in any of the affairs of the house.“ His wife Dhammadinna retorted, „Who would swallow the spittle you have thrown up?“ Then she asked permission from him to enter the Order and became a bhikkhuni. After becoming a bhikkhuni she went to a monastery in a small village in the company of other bhikkhunis to practise meditation. Within a short time, she attained arahatship and returned to Rajagaha.

Visakha, hearing that Dhammadinna had returned, went to see her and asked her some questions. When he asked her about the first three maggas she answered him; but when he asked her questions on the arahatta magga and phala she said, „O lay-disciple! This matter is out of your depth; if you want, you may go and ask the Buddha.“ When Visakha asked the Buddha, the Buddha said, “Dhammadinna has already answered your question. If you ask me I shall have to give the same answer.„ Saying this the Buddha confirmed the fact that Dhammadinna had attained arahatship.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 421 Him I call a brahmana, who does not cling to the past, future and present khandha aggregates and who is free from moral defilements and attachment.

The Story of Angulimala

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (422) of this book, with reference to Thera Angulimala.

On one occasion, King Pasenadi and Queen Mallika made an alms-offering to the Buddha and his bhikkhus numbering five hundred in all, on a scale which could not be surpassed by anyone else. At that ceremony, each bhikkhu was to have an elephant holding a white umbrella over his head as a sunshade. However, they could get only four hundred and ninety-nine trained elephants and so they had to put in an untrained elephant and it was allotted to hold the umbrella over Thera Angulimala. Every one was afraid that the untrained elephant might give trouble, but when brought near Thera Angulimala it was quite docile.

It was with reference to this incident that the bhikkhus later asked Angulimala whether he did not get frightened or not. To this question Angulimala answered that he was not frightened. The bhikkhus then went to the Buddha and said that Thera Angulimala claimed to have attained arahatship. To them the Buddha said, “Bhikkhus! It is quite true that Angulimala was not afraid; those who are like him are also not afraid.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 422 Him I call a brahmana, who is fearless like a bull, who is noble and diligent, who is a seeker of high moral virtues and a conqueror (of three Maras), who is free from craving, who has been cleansed of moral defilements and knows the Four Noble Truths.

The Story of Devahita the Brahmin

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (423) of this book, with reference to Devahita, a brahmin.

On one occasion, the Buddha suffered from a gastric ailment and he sent Thera Upavana to get some hot water from Devahita the brahmin. The brahmin was very pleased to have this rare opportunity to offer something to the Buddha. So, in addition to hot water he also gave the thera some molasses for the Buddha. At the monastery Thera Upavana gave a warm bath to the Buddha; after the bath he offered the Buddha a mixture of molasses and hot water. After drinking the mixture there was instant relief. The brahmin then came and asked the Buddha, „Venerable Sir! An offering made to whom gives one the greatest benefit?“ To him the Buddha said, “Brahmin! An offering made to one who has given up all evil is the most beneficial.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 423 Him I call a brahmana, who knows past existences, who sees the celestial as well as the lower worlds, who has reached the end of rebirths, who, with Magga Insight, has become an arahat and has accomplished all that is to be accomplished for the eradication of moral defilements.

The Story of Thera Jotika

While residing at the Veluvana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (416) of this book, with reference to Thera Jotika.

Jotika was a famous rich man from Rajagaha. He lived in a stately mansion with seven tiered pinnacles. There were seven walls around his mansion, each of which had an entrance guarded by celestial demons. The fame of his wealth spread far and wide, and many people came to see his mansion. On one occasion, King Bimbisara came to visit Jotika; he also brought his son Ajatasattu with him. Ajatasattu seeing the grandeur of Jotika's mansion vowed that he would not allow Jotika to live in such a magnificent mansion when he became king. On the king's departure from his house Jotika presented the king with a large priceless ruby. It was the custom of Jotika to give presents to all visitors who came to see him.

When Ajatasattu ascended the throne, after killing his father, he came with his soldiers to take the mansion of Jotika by force. But as all the gates were well guarded by celestial demons, Ajatasattu and his soldiers had to retreat. Ajatasattu fled to the Veluvana monastery and he found Jotika listening to a discourse given by the Buddha. Seeing Jotika at the feet of the Buddha, Ajatasattu exclaimed, „After making your guards fight me, you are now pretending to be listening to a discourse!“ Jotika realized that the king had gone to take his place by force and that he had been compelled to retreat.

In a past existence, Jotika had made a solemn wish that his property might not be taken away from him against his wish, and this wish had been fulfilled. So Jotika said to King Ajatasattu, „O king! My property cannot be taken away against my wish.“ Saying this, he stretched out his ten fingers and asked the king to take off the twenty rings he was wearing on his fingers. The king tried hard to take them off but did not succeed. Jotika then asked the king to spread out a piece of cloth and as Jotika put his fingers on to the cloth, all his rings easily slipped off. After he had given all his rings to King Ajatasattu, Jotika asked the Buddha that he might be permitted into the Order. Soon after entering the Order, Jotika attained arahatship.

One day, when other bhikkhus asked him whether he had any more craving left in him for his mansion his wealth and his wife, he answered that he did not have any more craving for them. The bhikkhus then went to the Buddha and said, „Venerable Sir! Thera Jotika claims to have attained arahatship; he is telling lies.“ To them the Buddha said, “Bhikkhus! Jotika speaks the truth; he does not have any more craving in him. He is now an arahat.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 416b Him I call a brahmana, who, in this world, has given up craving, and leaving the home-life has become a bhikkhu; who has eradicated craving and has come to the end of existence.

Notes

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1.

'This shore' and 'the other shore' are used in the sense of the internal and the external ayatanas. The internal ayatanas are the sense bases, viz, the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body and the mind; the external ayatanas are the sense objects, viz., visible object, sound, odour, taste, touch and mind-object.

For a true Brahmana (i.e., arahat) there is neither 'this shore' nor 'the other shore' which means that the senses of the arahat are calmed, and his passions extinguished.

2.

samacariya: lit., living calmly, i.e., practising for eradication of moral defilements.

3.

pabbajita: one who leaves the household life for the homeless life of a recluse; in Buddhism it means one who has given up the impurities of the household life to become a bhikkhu.

4.

sacca: the Four Noble Truths.

5.

dhamma: the nine Transcendentals, viz., the four Maggas, the four Phalas and Nibbana.

6.

bhovadi: 'Bho' is a familiar term of address used to inferiors and equals. The epithet 'bhovadi', therefore, implies arrogance. Brahmins usually addressed the Buddha as 'Bho Gotama!' The term 'bhovadi' is applied reproachfully by the Buddhists to the brahmins.

7.

antimasariram: lit., one who has the last body. This is his last body because he will not be reborn; he is an arahat.

8.

maggamaggassa kovidam: skilful in differentiating the right way from the wrong way, i.e., knowledge of what does and what does not lead to the realization of Nibbana.

9.

Nidhaya dandati bhutesu: has laid aside the use of the stick towards all beings.

10.

tasesu thavaresu: the perturbed and the unperturbed. The perturbed are those who still have craving and are therefore easily shaken. The unperturbed are those who have given up craving and are therefore firm and tranquil; they are the arahats.

11.

nandibhavaparikkhinam: one in whom craving far continued existence either in the current sensual existence or in a better and higher plane of existence in the rupa (fine material) or arupa (non-material) brahma realms, is extinct.

12.

nirupadhim: according to the Commentary, “nirupadhim ti nirupakkilesam„, i.e., free from substratum or free from moral defilements (kilesa).

13.

sabbalokabhihhum: lit., one who has conquered all the world, i.e., one who has put an end to rebirths, or the arising of the khandhas.

14.

nhatakam: made clean (of moral defilements); an allusion to the ceremonial bathing of the brahmin after finishing his course of studies.

15.
16.

This story is the continuation of the story given in Verse 69: The Story of Theri Uppalavanna, Chapter V.

17.

See also Verse 347: The Story of Theri Khema, Chapter XXIV.

18.

See also Verse 25: The Story of Culapanthaka, Chapter II.

19.

Verse 416 have two stories. Read the Story of Thera Jotika.

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de/tipitaka/sut/kn/dhp/dhp.26.bpit.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2019/09/03 09:42 von Johann