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akusala {pi}


Pāḷi; √ akusala
gender:
type:
alt. sp.: IPA: əkus̪ələ, Velthuis: akusala, readable: akusala, simple: akusala
translation ~:
skr.:
khmer: អកុសល
thai: อกุสล
sinhal.: අකුසල
burm.: အကုသလ
appears:



akusala.jpg

[dic] akusala

akusala: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.

ATI Glossary

akusala: Unwholesome, unskillful, demeritorious. See its opposite, kusala.

 

Buddhist Dictionary

by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:

akusala: 'unwholesome', are all those karmic volitions (kamma-cetanā; see cetanā) and the consciousness and mental concomitants associated therewith, which are accompanied either by greed (lobha) or hate (dosa) or merely delusion (moha); and all these phenomena are causes of unfavourable kamma-results and contain the seeds of unhappy destiny or rebirth. Cf. kamma, paṭiccasamuppāda (1), Table II.

 

PTS Dictionary

by the Pali Text Society:

 

Glossary Thanissaro

— —

 

Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms

by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:

— —

Info

The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.

Content

Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |

a

agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito

Renderings
Introduction

Agārasmā anagāriyaṁ: abandonment of the household life

Agāra means house or hut, ‘usually implying the comforts of living at home,’ says PED (sv Agāra). DOP calls agāra ‘the household life,’ and anagāra ‘the homeless state; the ascetic life.’ We render agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito as ‘gone forth from the household life into the ascetic life.’ What is abandoned in going forth is not a roof over one’s head, but the property, security, and pleasures of lay people, as expressed here:

• Abandoning an inconsiderable or considerable fortune, and an inconsiderable or considerable circle of relatives, he shaves off his hair and beard, clothes himself in ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into the ascetic life.

So aparena samayena appaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya mahantaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya appaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya mahantaṁ cā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati. (MN i 179)

Illustrations

Illustration: agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito, gone forth from the household life into the ascetic life

If I who have forsaken sensuous pleasures and gone forth from the household life into the ascetic life, should pursue sensuous pleasures still worse than before, that were unseemly of me.

Ahañce'va kho pana yādisake vā kāme ohāya agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito tādisake vā kāme pariyeseyyaṁ tato vā pāpiṭṭhatare na me taṁ assa patirūpanti. (AN i 148)

Illustration: agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajitvā, go forth from the household life into the ascetic life

Those of the four castes, khattiyas, brahmans, vessas, and suddas, having gone forth from the household life into the ascetic life in the teaching and training system made known by the Perfect One, give up their former names and identities and are just called ‘ascetic disciples of the Sakyans’ Son.’

cattāro me vaṇṇā khattiyā brāhmaṇā vessā suddā te tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajitvā jahanti purimāni nāmagottāni samaṇā sakyaputtiyātveva saṅkhaṁ gacchantī. (Uda 51)

pabbājetu

pabbājetu: (main article see: agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito)

Illustration: agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajeyyan, go forth from the household life into the ascetic life; pabbājetu, let someone go forth [into the ascetic life]

Soṇa Koṭikaṇṇa said ‘It is not easy while living the household life to live the religious life, utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell.’

nayidaṁ sukaraṁ agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā ekantaparipuṇṇaṁ ekantaparisuddhaṁ saṅkhalikhitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ carituṁ

He said ‘How about if I shaved off my hair and beard, and went forth from the household life into the ascetic life?'

Yannūnāhaṁ kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajeyyan ti

Let me go forth [into the ascetic life], Master Mahākaccāna!“

Pabbājetu maṁ bhante ayyo mahākaccāyano ti.

Mahākaccāna replied, “It is hard, Soṇa, the life-long, one-meal-a-day, solitary bed, celibate life. Please, stay as a householder, apply yourself to the Buddha’s training system and, on the Observance Day, to observing one-meal-a-day, the solitary bed, and celibacy.

dukkaraṁ kho soṇa yāvajīvaṁ ekabhattaṁ ekaseyyaṁ brahmacariyaṁ iṅgha tvaṁ soṇa tattheva agārikabhuto samāno buddhānaṁ sāsanaṁ anuyuñja kālayuttaṁ ekabhattaṁ ekaseyyaṁ brahmacariyaṁ ti. (Uda 57)

pabbajitā

pabbajitā: (main article see: agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito)

Illustration: pabbajitā, gone forth [into the ascetic life]

Having abandoned the household life and gone forth [into the ascetic life], having abandoned their beloved sons and cattle, having abandoned attachment and hatred, having discarded uninsightfulness into reality, the arahants, those whose āsavas are destroyed, are those in the world no longer avid.

Hitvā agāraṁ pabbajitā hitvā puttaṁ pasuṁ piyaṁ
Hitvā rāgañca dosañca avijjañca virājiya
Khīṇāsavā arahanto te lokasmiṁ anussukā ti. (SN i 15)

Seven days after going forth [into the ascetic life] I attained the three final knowledges

sattāhaṁ pabbajitā tisso vijjā aphassayiṁ. (Thi 433)

pabbajjā

pabbajjā: (main article see: agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito)

Illustration: pabbajjā, going forth [into the ascetic life]

The going forth [into the ascetic life] of all those noble young men was not in vain or barren, but fruitful and productive.

iti kho pana sabbesaṁ yeva tesaṁ kulaputtānaṁ amoghā pabbajjā ahosi avañjhā saphalā saudrayā ti. (DN ii 251)

acakkhussa

Renderings
Introduction

Three occurrences

Acakkhussa occurs four times in the scriptures, and the occurrences at AN iii 250 and Vin.2.137 are duplicates. Therefore only three times, all in the Illustrations below.

Illustrations
acakkhussā

acakkhussā: (main article see: acakkhussa)

Illustration: acakkhussā, gloomy

Now at the time dwelling-places had no windows. They were gloomy and bad smelling.

avātapānakā honti acakkhussā duggandhā

The Buddha said: ‘I allow three kinds of window aperture’. (Vin.2.148)

acakkhusso

acakkhusso: (main article see: acakkhussa)

Illustration: acakkhusso, unsightly

Bhikkhus, there are five disadvantages in not chewing tooth-wood:

ādīnavā dantakaṭṭhassa akhādane

• [Bad mouth hygiene] is unsightly,

• The mouth stinks, etc.

mukhaṁ duggandhaṁ hoti

There are five advantages in chewing tooth-wood:

ānisaṁsā dantakaṭṭhassa khādane

• [Good mouth hygiene] is sightly,

• The mouth does not stink, etc.

mukhaṁ na duggandhaṁ hoti. (Vin.2.137; AN iii 250)

Illustration: acakkhusso, bad for the eyes

Bhikkhus, there are these five disadvantages of a campfire.

• It is bad for the eyes,

• It causes a bad complexion,

• It causes weakness

• It promotes gregariousness

• It leads to gossip

ajjhāyaka

Renderings
Introduction

Ajjhāyaka means mantajjhāyaka

Ajjhāyaka means ‘one who studies,’ but it is an abbreviation. The full term is shown at MN i 282 to be mantajjhāyaka. Therefore ajjhāyaka means ‘scholar [of the sacred texts].’ This is in accordance with PED which calls it ‘a scholar of the brahmanic texts, a studious, learned person,’ and the DOP, ‘one who studies (the Vedas)’ The Buddha in the following quote implies that it can be applied to his own bhikkhus (because Brahmanists were priests not ascetics), and the term is therefore not restricted to students of brahmanical texts:

• I do not say that the asceticism of a scholar of the sacred texts is merely due to his scholarship of sacred texts.

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave mantajjhāyakassa mantajjhāyakamattena sāmaññaṁ vadāmi. (MN i 282)

Illustrations
ajjhāyako

Illustration: ajjhāyako, scholar [of the sacred texts]

The brahman Doṇa said of himself

• I am a scholar [of the sacred texts]

• I know by heart the sacred texts

• I am a master of the three Vedas

tiṇṇaṁ vedānaṁ pāragū. (AN iii 223)

‘Even though brahmans are born into families of scholars [of the sacred texts] and have an intimate relationship with the sacred texts, they are repeatedly found involved in unvirtuous deeds.

Ajjhāyakakule jātā brāhmaṇā mantabandhavā
Te ca pāpesu kammesu abhiṇhamupadissare. (Snp 140)

ajjhupekkhati

Renderings
Illustrations

Illustration: ajjhupekkhati, passively observe

A goldsmith should focus on three methods of working, not exclusively, but from time to time: blowing, sprinkling, and passively observing.

kālena kālaṁ abhidhamati kālena kālaṁ udakena paripphoseti kālena kālaṁ ajjhupekkhati).

Because:

• Exclusively blowing means the gold will burn up

ekantaṁ abhidhameyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ jātarūpaṁ ḍaheyya

• Exclusively sprinkling with water will cool it

ekantaṁ udakena paripphoseyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ jātarūpaṁ nibbāyeyya

• Exclusively passively observing will stop the gold coming to full perfection

ekantaṁ ajjhupekkheyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ jātarūpaṁ na sammā paripākaṁ gaccheyya. (AN i 256)

Bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu does six things, he cannot become one who realises unsurpassed freedom from inward distress. What six?

abhabbo anuttaraṁ sītibhāvaṁ sacchikātuṁ

• If he checks not the mind when it should be checked

cittaṁ na niggaṇhāti

• exerts not the mind when it should be exerted

cittaṁ na paggaṇhāti

• gladdens not the mind when it should be gladdened

cittaṁ na sampahaṁseti

• does not passively observe the mind when it should be so observed

yasmiṁ samaye cittaṁ ajjhupekkhitabbaṁ tasmiṁ samaye cittaṁ na ajjhupekkhati. (AN iii 435)

ajjhupekkhitvā

ajjhupekkhitvā: (main article see: ajjhupekkhati)

Illustration: ajjhupekkhitvā, passively observe

• ’Bhikkhus, if one’s clothes or head were on fire, what should be done about it?’

• ’Bhante, if one’s clothes or head were on fire, to extinguish one’s blazing clothes or head one should arouse extraordinary eagerness, endeavour, vigour, exertion, resolution, mindfulness, and full consciousness.’

• ’Bhikkhus, one might passively observe one’s blazing clothes or head, pay them no attention (ajjhupekkhitvā amanasikaritvā), but in order to understand the four noble truths according to reality, if they are not understood, one should arouse extraordinary eagerness, endeavour, vigour, exertion, resolution, mindfulness, and full consciousness.

Ādittaṁ bhikkhave celaṁ vā sīsaṁ vā ajjhupekkhitvā amanasikaritvā anabhisametānaṁ catunnaṁ ariyasaccānaṁ yathābhūtaṁ abhisamayāya adhimatto chando ca vāyāmo ca ussāho ca ussoḷhi ca appaṭivānī ca sati ca sampajaññañca karaṇīyaṁ. (SN v 440)

ajjhupekkheyyāmā

ajjhupekkheyyāmā: (main article see: ajjhupekkhati)

Illustration: ajjhupekkheyyāmā, passively observe

A deer-catcher was frustrated in his attempts to catch a certain herd of deer. The deer were eating the bait without being caught. But he realised that if he scared away this herd of deer, all the other deer would be scared away too. So he and his companions decided:

• Suppose that we were to passively observe the fourth herd of deer?

Yannūna mayaṁ catutthe migajāte ajjhupekkheyyāmā ti

… So deer-catcher and his companions passively observed the fourth herd of deer.

ajjhupekkhiṁsu kho bhikkhave nevāpiko ca nevāpikaparisā ca catutthe migajāte. (MN i 155)

ajjhupekkhissatha

ajjhupekkhissatha: (main article see: ajjhupekkhati)

Illustration: ajjhupekkhissatha, passively observe

When Venerable Udāyī contradicted Venerable Sāriputta three times, Sāriputta was surprised that none of the bhikkhus applauded him.

• Venerable Udāyī contradicts me for up to the third time, and not a single bhikkhu applauds me.

yāva tatiyampi kho me āyasmā udāyī paṭikkosati na ca me koci bhikkhu anumodati

The Buddha rebuked Venerable Ānanda:

• ’Ānanda, would you just simply passively observe an elder bhikkhu while he is being harassed?

atthi nāma ānanda theraṁ bhikkhuṁ vihesiyamānaṁ ajjhupekkhissatha

… Truly, Ānanda, compassion does not develop in allowing an elder bhikkhu to be harassed’

Na hi nāma ānanda kāruññampi bhavissati theramhi bhikkhumhi vihesiyamānamhī ti. (AN iii 194)

ajjhupekkhitabbo

ajjhupekkhitabbo: (main article see: ajjhupekkhati)

Illustration: ajjhupekkhitabbo, passively observe

’What kind of person should be passively observed, not associated with, followed, and honoured? Someone who is ill-tempered, who when anything, however trifling, is said to him becomes upset. Why so? Because he might curse or abuse or do some injury:

• Therefore this kind of person should be passively observed, not associated with, followed, and honoured’

tasmā evarūpo puggalo ajjhupekkhitabbo na sevitabbo na bhajitabbo na payirupāsitabbo. (AN i 126-7)

A wood fire (kaṭṭhaggi) must from time to time

• be kindled

kālena kālaṁ ujjaletabbo

• passively observed

kālena kālaṁ ajjhupekkhitabbo

• quenched

kālena kālaṁ nibbāpetabbo

• discarded

kālena kālaṁ nikkhipitabboti. (AN iv 45)

ajjhupekkhato

ajjhupekkhato: (main article see: ajjhupekkhati)

Illustration: ajjhupekkhato, passively observe

He discerns thus: “When I confront the source of this suffering with effort, by confronting it with effort [the suffering] fades away.

So evaṁ pajānāti imassa kho me dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṁ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti

When the source of this suffering is passively observed, through developing detached awareness, [the suffering] fades away.

imassa pana me dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṁ bhāvayato virāgo hotī ti. (MN ii 223)

ajjhupekkhitā

ajjhupekkhitā: (main article see: ajjhupekkhati)

Illustration: ajjhupekkhitā, passively observe

At that time he abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings, fully consciously, and mindfully, having eliminated greed and dejection in regard to the world [of phenomena].

dhammesu dhammānupassī bhikkhave tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ

With the abandonment of greed and dejection, seeing [certain objects of the systematic teachings] carefully with discernment, he is one who carefully, passively observes.

so yaṁ taṁ abhijjhādomanassānaṁ pahānaṁ taṁ paññāya disvā sādhukaṁ ajjhupekkhitā hoti. (MN iii 84)

’Whenever, Ānanda, the mind becomes collected in a bhikkhu whose body is tranquil and joyful, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of inward collectedness is aroused in the bhikkhu;

Yasmiṁ samaye ānanda bhikkhuno passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati samādhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti

‘Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu carefully, passively observes his mind thus collected, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of detached awareness is aroused in the bhikkhu.

Yasmiṁ samaye ānanda bhikkhu tathā samāhitaṁ cittaṁ sādhukaṁ ajjhupekkhitā hoti upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti. (SN v 332)

ajjhosāna

Renderings
Illustrations
ajjhosānaṁ

ajjhosānaṁ: (main article see: ajjhosāna)

Illustration: ajjhosānaṁ, cleaving

Because of fondness and attachment, cleaving.

chandarāgaṁ paṭicca ajjhosānaṁ

Because of cleaving, possessiveness.

ajjhosānaṁ paṭicca pariggaho. (AN iv 401)

The fondness, clinging, attraction, and cleaving within these five grasped aggregates is the origin of suffering.

yo imesu pañcasupādānakkhandhesu chando ālayo anunayo ajjhosānaṁ so dukkhasamudayo. (MN i 191)

ajjhosāya

ajjhosāya: (main article see: ajjhosāna)

Illustration: ajjhosāya, cleaving to

Whether enjoying a sweet delicious tasteable object, or sometimes tasting what is unpalatable, eat the sweet tasteable object without cleaving, and do not show dislike for the unpalatable.

Rasañca bhotvā sāditañca sāduṁ athopi bhotvāna asādumekadā
Sāduṁ rasaṁ nājjhosāya bhuñje virodhamāsādusu nopadaṁsaye. (SN iv 71)

Whatever sense impression he experiences, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral, he takes delight in that sense impression, he welcomes it, and persists in cleaving to it. In so doing, spiritually fettering delight arises.

yaṁ kiñci vedanaṁ vedeti sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā so taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati tassa taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandī (MN i 266)

Illustration: ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato, cleaving to

In seeing a visible object with mindfulness muddled, focusing on the agreeable aspect, one experiences it with a mind of attachment and persists in cleaving to it.

Rūpaṁ disvā sati muṭṭhā piyaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto
Sārattacitto vedeti tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati. (SN iv 76)

aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti

Renderings
Introduction

Other translations: Horner and Bodhi

This phrase is intended to illustrate how the ideal bhikkhu converses with visitors. It occurs in the Mahāsuññata Sutta (MN iii 111) and the Anuruddha Sutta (AN iv 233). Horner says it is ‘a passage of great difficulty,’ and says this is because of the two meanings of uyyojeti

  • (1) to incite, instigate, inspire, persuade
  • (2) to dismiss.

For her translation she chooses the first meaning, saying the Buddha ‘speaks there as one intent only on inspiring them.’ Bodhi, however, takes the second meaning and says:

• ‘He invariably talks to them in a way concerned with dismissing them’

aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti. (Bodhi, MLDB p.972)

• ‘He gives them a talk invariably concerned with dismissing them’

aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti. (Bodhi, NDB p.1164)

Attitude uncharacteristic of Buddhism

Bodhi’s translation suggests bhikkhus should adopt an attitude that is uncharacteristic of Buddhism. For example, the scriptures are critical of the bhikkhu who is incapable of benefiting others (nālaṁ paresaṁ) by instructing, inspiring, rousing, and gladdening his companions in the religious life (no ca sandassako hoti samādapako samuttejako sampahaṁsako sabrahmacārīnaṁ (AN iv 298 ).

uyyojeti

uyyojeti: (main article see: aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti)

Uyyojeti: to dismiss

In the meaning ‘to dismiss’ uyyojeti commonly occurs at the end of religious discourses. For example:

• Then the Blessed One, having instructed, inspired, roused, and gladdened the lay-followers of Pāṭaligāma with a religious discourse until far into the night, he dismissed them (uyyojesi), saying: 'Householders, the night is nearly over. Now it is time for you to do as you think fit.'

Atha kho bhagavā pāṭaligāmiye upāsake bahudeva rattiṁ dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṁsetvā uyyojesi abhikkantā kho gahapatayo ratti yassa'dāni tumhe kālaṁ maññathā ti. (DN ii 86)

In addressing the lay-followers of Pāṭaligāma, the Buddha was clearly doing so for inspirational purposes, and the talk was eventually concluded with a dismissal. It makes little sense, therefore, to say that the Buddha’s sermons were ‘invariably concerned with dismissing’ his audience, as if that had been his abiding objective.

The ideal bhikkhu’s conversation

The Mahāsuññata Sutta, in which our passage occurs, goes on to helpfully explain the nature of the ideal bhikkhu’s conversation, as follows:

• If, Ānanda, this [ideal] bhikkhu… inclines to speaking, then he thinks: 'I will not talk that kind of talk which is low, vulgar, the way of the common man, ignoble, and unconducive to spiritual well-being, and which does not conduce to disillusionment [with originated phenomena], nor to non-attachment [to originated phenomena], nor to the ending [of originated phenomena], nor to inward peace, nor to transcendent insight, nor to enlightenment, nor to the Untroubled

Tassa ce ānanda bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato kathāya cittaṁ namati. So yāyaṁ kathā hīnā gammā pothujjanikā anariyā anatthasaṁhitā na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṁvattati (… evarūpiṁ kathaṁ na kathessāmiti).

… That is to say: talk of kings, thieves, great ministers, armies, dangers, battles, food, drink, clothes, beds, garlands, scents, relations, vehicles, villages, market towns, towns, the country, women, valiant men, streets, wells, departed spirits, tittle-tattle, legends about the world, legends about the sea, talk of honour and renown.'

Seyyathīdaṁ rājakathā corakathā mahāmattakathā senākathā bhayakathā yuddhakathā annakathā pānakathā vatthakathā sayanakathā mālākathā gandhakathā ñātikathā yānakathā gāmakathā nigamakathā nagarakathā janapadakathā itthikathā purisakathā surākathā visikhākathā kumbhaṭṭhānakathā pubbapetakathā nānatthakathā lokakkhāyikā samuddakkhāyikā itibhavābhavakathā iti vā iti evarūpiṁ kathaṁ na kathessāmiti.

… But, Ānanda, in regard to that talk which is helpful for erasing defilements, which helps free the mind from the five hindrances, and which leads to complete disillusionment [with originated phenomena], to non-attachment [to originated phenomena], to the ending [of originated phenomena], to inward peace, to transcendent insight, to enlightenment, and to the Untroubled

Yā ca kho ayaṁ ānanda kathā abhisallekhikā cetovinīvaraṇasappāyā ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṁvattati.

… That is to say: talk about fewness of needs, talk about contentment, talk about physical seclusion, talk about remaining aloof [from householders and ascetics alike], talk about the exertion of energy, talk about moral habit, talk about inward collectedness, talk about penetrative discernment, talk about liberation [from perceptually obscuring states], talk about the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states], he thinks: 'I will utter speech like this.'

Seyyathīdaṁ appicchakathā santuṭṭhikathā pavivekakathā asaṁsaggakathā viriyārambhakathā sīlakathā samādhikathā paññākathā vimuttikathā vimuttiñāṇadassanakathā iti evarūpiṁ kathaṁ kathessāmīti. (MN iii 113)

This shows that the ideal bhikkhu is, in fact, quite willing to converse for the sake of religious inspiration. We have seen, for a similar purpose, with the lay-followers of Pāṭaligāma, that the Buddha would be even willing to talk ‘far into the night.’ So, again, to say that the Buddha’s sermons were ‘invariably concerned with dismissing’ his audience is hardly justified.

Uyyojeti: other contexts

We have already noted that uyyojeti can mean ‘to incite, instigate, inspire, persuade.’ It occurs in these meanings in the following passages:

1) When the bhikkhunī Thullanandā arranged for a layman to be punished, that layman had a dwelling made for the Ājīvaka ascetics close to the nunnery, and instigated (uyyojesi) those ascetics, saying: “Denigrate these nuns.”

Atha kho so puriso daṇḍito bhikkhunūpassayassa avidūre ājīvakaseyyaṁ kārāpetvā ājīvike uyyojesi. Etā bhikkhuniyo accāvadathā ti. (Vin.4.224)

2) When a prostitute refused to visit a group of men, one of them suggested that Master Udāyī should be told about it. He would surely persuade her (ayyo udāyī uyyojessatī ti). So they told Udāyī that it would be good if he persuaded the prostitute (taṁ vesiṁ uyyojetu t). When Udāyī questioned the prostitute, she complained she did not know the men. Udāyī told her ‘Go with them. I know them’ (Gacchimesaṁ ahaṁ ime jānāmī) (Vin.3.138).

3) When a bhikkhunī refused to accept food from a man who was in love with her, because it would have been an offence for her to do so, another bhikkhunī persuaded her (uyyojeti) to accept it, saying ‘What can this man do to you, since you are not in love with him? Please accept and eat the food this man is offering’. (Vin.4.235)

According to these meanings of uyyojeti, aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti would mean a bhikkhu is one whose words are exclusively connected with inciting, instigating, inspiring, or persuading. Which is meaningless. Inciting what? Persuading what?

Brahmāyu Sutta: gladdening an audience with talk exclusively connected with the teaching

To elicit a reasonable solution to this question, we will consider the Brahmāyu Sutta (MN ii 139) which says that after eating the meal, the Buddha instructs, inspires, rouses, and gladdens the audience with talk exclusively connected with the teaching.

aññadatthu dhammiyāva kathāya taṁ parisaṁ sandasseti samādapeti samuttejeti sampahaṁseti. (MN ii 139)

Here aññadatthu is now connected to dhammiyāva kathāya sandasseti samādapeti samuttejeti sampahaṁseti. We take this phrase to be synonymous with aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti because it occurs in a similar context. In other words, if a bhikkhu instructs, inspires, rouses, and gladdens his audience with talk exclusively connected with the teaching, then he is ‘one whose words are exclusively connected with religious inspiration.’ This, then, is our rendering of the phrase in question.

Illustrations

Illustration: aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti, one whose words are exclusively connected with religious inspiration

‘This teaching is for those who live secludedly, not for those given to the enjoyment of company.’ So it was said. In reference to what was it said?

Pavivittassāyaṁ bhikkhave dhammo nāyaṁ dhammo saṅgaṇikārāmassā ti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ

In this regard, the bhikkhu living secludedly may be visited by bhikkhus, bhikkhunīs, laymen, laywomen, kings and kings’ ministers, and non-Buddhist ascetics and their disciples. In that case, the bhikkhu, mentally inclining, verging, and drifting towards seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], psychologically withdrawn [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], taking delight in the practice of unsensuousness, is one whose words are exclusively connected with religious inspiration.

idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno pavivittassa viharato bhavanti upasaṅkamitāro bhikkhū bhikkhūniyo upāsakā upāsikāyo rājāno rājamahāmattā titthiyā titthiyasāvakā. Tatra bhikkhu vivekaninnena cittena vivekapoṇena vivekapabbhārena vavakaṭṭhena nekkhammābhiratena aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti. (AN iv 233)

aññā

Renderings
Introduction

Aññā: the knowledge of an arahant

Aññā is defined in the dictionaries as follows:

  • PED: ‘knowledge, recognition, perfect knowledge, philosophic insight, knowledge par excellence, viz. Arahantship, saving knowledge, gnosis’
  • DOP: ‘knowledge, philosophic insight, perfect knowledge, i.e. arahatship.’

In fact aññā means to know that one has destroyed birth etc. This is clear in the Kaḷāra Sutta, where the Buddha asks Venerable Sāriputta:

• ’If they were to ask you: “Through what state of deliverance (kathaṁ vimokkhā) have you declared aññā thus: ‘I know that birth is destroyed; the religious life has been fulfilled; what had to be done has been done; there will be no further arising in any state of individual existence?” Being asked thus, how would you answer?’

Sace pana taṁ sāriputta evaṁ puccheyyuṁ kathaṁ vimokkhā pana tayā āvuso sāriputta aññā vyākatā khīṇā jāti vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ nāparaṁ itthattāyāti pajānāmi ti. Evaṁ puṭṭho tvaṁ sāriputta kinti vyākareyyāsī ti. (SN ii 54)

Thus, to declare aññā is to declare ‘I know that birth is destroyed etc.’ This is equivalent to declaring arahantship. Therefore, with the support of both dictionaries, this is our rendering for aññā: ‘arahantship.’

Aññā: knowledge [of things according to reality]: Quote 1

The link between aññā and yathābhūta is seen in the following passage, where our intention is to explain the parenthesis (‘[of things according to reality]’):

• On what grounds is a bhikkhu an arahant with perceptually obscuring states destroyed, one who has fulfilled [the religious life], done what had to be done, laid down the burden, achieved his objective, destroyed the ties to individual existence, and is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through the complete knowledge [of things according to reality] (sammadaññā)?

Kittāvatā pana bho gotama bhikkhu arahaṁ hoti khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṁyojano sammadaññā vimutto ti?

… In this regard, having seen any kind of bodily form… field of sensation according to reality (yathābhūtaṁ) with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood,” a bhikkhu is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through being without grasping.

Idha aggivessana bhikkhu yaṁ kiñci rūpaṁ atītānāgata paccuppannaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā yaṁ dūre sannike vā sabbaṁ rūpaṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā anupādā vimutto hoti. (MN i 235)

In this passage yathābhūta has an object (‘any kind of bodily form’ etc), and so, in accordance with our notes sv Yathābhūta, we render it as ‘according to reality.’ But aññā does not have an object, so we parenthesise with yathābhūta, which we now translate as ‘things according to reality.’ We discuss these two ways of rendering yathābhūta, sv Yathābhūta.

Aññā: knowledge [of things according to reality]: Quote 2

The link between aññā and yathātathaṁ is seen in the following passage, where our intention is again to explain the parenthesis (‘[of things according to reality]’):

• Recognising this danger, that suffering arises dependent on karmically consequential deeds, with the quelling of karmically consequential deeds, and the ending of mental images, in this way is there the destruction of suffering. Knowing this in accordance with truth (yathātathaṁ), those who see rightly, who are blessed with profound knowledge, and who are wise through the complete knowledge [of things according to reality], having overcome Māra’s tie [that ties one to renewed states of individual existence], they do not come to renewed states of individual existence.

Etamādīnavaṁ ñatvā dukkhaṁ saṅkhārapaccayā
Sabbasaṅkhārasamathā saññānaṁ uparodhanā
Evaṁ dukkhakkhayo hoti etaṁ ñatvā yathātathaṁ
Sammaddasā vedaguno sammadaññāya paṇḍitā
Abhibhuyya mārasaṁyogaṁ nāgacchanti punabbhavan ti. (Snp 732-3)

Other meanings of aññā

Aññā can also mean:

  • understanding (of something)
  • realisation (of something)

For examples, see Illustrations.

Illustrations

Illustration: aññā, arahantship

If anyone practises the four satipaṭṭhāna for seven days, one of two fruits can be expected. Either [the attainment of] arahantship in this very lifetime, or if there is a remnant of grasping, non-returnership.

dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ diṭṭheva dhamme aññā sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā ti. (MN i 62)

Illustration: aññā, knowledge [of things according to reality]

Let Subhadda see me. Whatever he asks will be from desire for knowledge [of things according to reality], not from wanting to trouble me.

sabbantaṁ aññāpekkho'va pucchissati no vihesāpekkho. (DN ii 150)

Māra does not find the path of those who, through the complete knowledge [of things according to reality], are liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

Sammadaññā vimuttānaṁ māro maggaṁ na vindati. (Dhp 57)

The purpose of the wise person’s counsel is to convey knowledge [of things according to reality] and to inspire people’s faith.

aññātatthaṁ pasādatthaṁ sataṁ ve hoti mantanā. (AN i 199)

Illustration: aññā, to understand [them]

When those discourses spoken by the Perfect One… are being recited, we will really listen, lend an ear, and apply our minds to understand [them].

ye te suttantā tathāgatabhāsitā… bhaññamānesu sussusissāma sotaṁ odahissāma aññācittaṁ upaṭṭhāpessāma. (SN ii 267)

aññāya

aññāya: (main article see: aññā)

Illustration: aññāya, knowledge [of things according to reality]

Those enlightened ones, through complete knowledge [of things according to reality], fare virtuously amidst the unvirtuous.

Sambuddhā sammadaññāya caranti visame samanti. (SN i 4)

Then the group of [the first] five bhikkhus listened to the Blessed One, gave ear to him, and applied their minds to the knowledge [of things according to reality].

Atha kho pañcavaggiyā bhikkhu bhagavantaṁ sussūsiṁsu. Sotaṁ odahiṁsu. Aññāya cittaṁ upaṭṭhāpesuṁ. (Vin.1.10)

Illustration: aññāya, understand [what one says]

Also, one’s children, wives, slaves, servants, and workers, listen to one, lend an ear, and apply their minds to understand [what one says].

Yepissa te honti puttāti vā dārāti vā dāsāti vā pessāti vā kammakarāti vā tepi sussūsanti sotaṁ odahanti aññāya cittaṁ upaṭṭhapenti. (AN iv 393)

Illustration: aññāya, realising

Apart from the Noble Ones, who is worthy to fully realise the [Untroubled] State? Through completely realising the [Untroubled] State, being free of perceptually obscuring states, they realise the Untroubled.

Ko nu aññatramariyehi padaṁ sambuddhumarahati
Yaṁ padaṁ sammadaññāya parinibbanti anāsavā ti. (Snp 765)

Comment:

We take padaṁ as nibbānapadaṁ, as in Snp 365.

Illustration: aññāya, realisation of

By the complete realisation of spiritual health through the destruction of perceptually obscuring states, the one who is blessed with profound knowledge, being established in righteousness, though he makes use of conception he is beyond the limits of conception.

Ārogyaṁ sammadaññāya āsavānaṁ parikkhayā
Saṅkhāya sevī dhammaṭṭho saṅkhaṁ nopeti vedagū ti. (Snp 749)

Illustration: aññāya, understanding of

The greed on account of which greedy beings are reborn in the plane of misery,

Yena lobhena luddhāse sattā gacchanti duggatiṁ

through the complete understanding of that greed, those with insight abandon it.

Taṁ lobhaṁ sammadaññāya pajahanti vipassino. (Iti 1)

aññāya

Renderings
Introduction

Aññāya: ‘absolutive’

Aññāya is the absolutive of ājānāti (and also the instrumental of aññā, not covered here). Collins says absolutives have also been called gerunds or indeclinable participles, but says that none of these terms are entirely appropriate (Pāli Grammar for Students). PED uses the term ‘gerund.’ But ‘absolutive’ is now the term of choice by the Pāli Text Society. Calling it ‘gerund’ was always inexplicable.

We deal with ājānāti separately, sv Ājānāti.

The absolutive: Duroiselle

Duroiselle says:

• the absolutive always denotes an action completed before another, and may be translated:

  • 1) by the word 'having' followed by a past participle, as gantvā, having gone; or
  • 2) by the past tense followed by the conjunction 'and': gantvā, he went and…’:

For example:

• He lifted it up, took it home, divided it into four parts and, practising almsgiving and other good deeds, went according to his deeds.

So taṁ ukkhipitvā gharaṁ netvā catudhā vibhajitvā dānādīni puññāni katvā yathākammaṁ gato.. (PGPL, para 618)

Duroiselle translates katvā as a present participle (‘practising’) but stays true to the rule that ‘the absolutive always denotes an action completed before another.’ But he should have said ‘usually denotes’ because he then admits that idha āgantvā ahaṁ coraṁ passiṁ can be rendered ‘Coming here I saw the thief’ (PGPL, para 618 (vi).

Illustrations

Illustration: aññāya, having understood

It seems as if he is planing [the wood] having understood my mind with his mind.

hadayā hadayaṁ maññe aññāya tacchatī ti. (MN i 32)

Having understood all objects of attachment, and not desiring any of them, that sage, free of greed, greedless, does not strain himself, for he has reached the Far Shore.

Aññāya sabbāni nivesanāni anikāmayaṁ aññatarampi tesaṁ
Sa ve muni vītagedho agiddho nāyūhatī pāragato hi hoti. (Snp 210)

Having understood the world [of phenomena]

Illustration: aññāya, having realised

Having realised the [Untroubled] State, having understood the teaching

Aññāya padaṁ samecca dhammaṁ. (Snp 374)

Comment:

We take padaṁ as nibbānapada, as in Snp 365.

Illustration: aññāya, having learned

I learned the teaching of the ascetic disciples of the Sakyans’ Son. Having learned the teaching of the ascetic disciples of the Sakyans’ Son I left that teaching and training system.

aññāto mayā samaṇānaṁ sakyaputtiyānaṁ dhammo. Aññāya ca panā'haṁ samaṇānaṁ sakyaputtiyānaṁ dhammaṁ evāhaṁ tasmā dhammavinayā apakkanto ti. (AN i 185)

Whatever bhikkhunī without having obtained permission from the community of bhikkhunīs which carried out the proceedings in accordance with the rule, the discipline, the Teacher’s word, not having learned the group’s desire (anaññāya gaṇassa chandaṁ), should restore a bhikkhunī suspended by a complete assembly of bhikkhunīs, that bhikkhunī has fallen into a matter that is a foremost offence entailing a formal meeting of the community of bhikkhunīs involving being sent away. (Vin.4.231)

Illustration: aññāya, have realised

Those who have realised the Unoriginated State… have attained the heart of the teaching.

Ye etadaññāya padaṁ asaṅkhataṁ… te dhammasārādhigamā. (Iti 39)

Illustration: aññāya, realising

A bhikkhu investigates the meaning of the teachings he has retained in mind.

dhatānañca dhammānaṁ atthūpaparikkhitā hoti

Realising their meaning and significance, he practises in accordance with the teaching.

atthamaññāya dhammamaññāya dhammānudhammapaṭipanno ca hoti. (AN iv 298)

Illustration: aññāya, knowing

Knowing my reflection, the Teacher, unsurpassed in the world, through his psychic power approached me with a mind-made body.

Mama saṅkappamaññāya satthā loke anuttaro
Manomayena kāyena iddhiyā upasaṅkami. (AN iv 235)

Illustration: aññāya, understanding

Then, understanding this teaching, scrutinising it, a bhikkhu should train himself in it ever mindfully

Etañca dhammamaññāya vicinaṁ bhikkhu sadā sato sikkhe. (Snp 933)

aṇḍabhūta

Renderings
Introduction

Aṇḍabhūta: occurrences

Aṇḍabhūta occurs five times in the scriptures in just two phrases. Firstly, in relation to the manyfolk who are void of insight into reality (avijjāgatā bhikkhave pajā aṇḍabhūtā pariyonaddhā (AN ii 131) and secondly in relation to bodily illness (āturohāyaṁ gahapati kāyo aṇḍabhūto pariyonaddho, SN iii 1). In both senses it occurs with pariyonaddho, smothered (pp. of pariyonandhati).

Aṇḍabhūto: born of eggs

Although aṇḍabhūto means being enveloped [in uninsightfulness into reality] or enveloped [in ailments], like a chick within an eggshell, it could be unhelpfully taken as ‘become of an egg.’ But that would lead to the unpleasant prospect of explaining how the body or the manyfolk could be legitimately be called egg-born, as more than one translator has said: the Buddha pierced the shell of ignorance ‘for the sake of creatures going in ignorance, born of eggs.’

Aṇḍabhūto: explanations

Bodhi says it could be a misspelling of addabhūto (‘weighed down’), and says the commentary suggests ‘become weak like an egg’ (CDB.1043 n.3). But its association with pariyonaddho (smothered) counts against this, and supports our calling aṇḍabhūto ‘enveloped in or by.’

Illustrations
aṇḍabhūtāya

aṇḍabhūtāya: (main article see: aṇḍabhūta)

Illustration: aṇḍabhūtāya, enveloped [in uninsightfulness into reality]

Amongst the manyfolk who are void of insight into reality (avijjāgatāya pajāya), enveloped and smothered [in uninsightfulness into reality] (aṇḍabhūtāya pariyonaddhāya), having broken through the eggshell of uninsightfulness into reality (avijjaṇḍakosaṁ padāletvā), I alone in the world have fully awakened to unsurpassed, complete enlightenment.

Evameva kho ahaṁ brāhmaṇa avijjāgatāya pajāya aṇḍabhūtāya pariyonaddhāya avijjaṇḍakosaṁ padāletvā eko'va loke anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho. (AN iv 176; Vin.3.3)

aṇḍabhūtā

aṇḍabhūtā: (main article see: aṇḍabhūta)

Illustration: aṇḍabhūtā, enveloped [in uninsightfulness into reality]

The manyfolk who are void of insight into reality are enveloped and smothered [in uninsightfulness into reality]. But they really listen to the teaching on the elimination of uninsightfulness into reality taught to them by the Perfect One, they lend an ear, they apply their minds to understand [it]

Avijjāgatā bhikkhave pajā aṇḍabhūtā pariyonaddhā sā tathāgatena avijjāvinaye dhamme desiyamāne sussūsati. Sotaṁ odahati. Aññācittaṁ upaṭṭhapeti. (AN ii 131)

aṇḍabhūto

aṇḍabhūto: (main article see: aṇḍabhūta)

Illustration: aṇḍabhūto, enveloped [in ailments]

Nakulapitā complained that he was aged, burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage, ailing in body, often unwell. The Buddha agreed, saying:

‘So it is, householder, so it is. This [wretched human] body of yours is ailing, enveloped and smothered [in ailments]. If anyone carrying around [such a wretched] body were to claim to be healthy even for a moment, that would only be folly. Therefore, householder, you should train yourself [with this reflection]: ‘Though my body is ailing, my mind will not be ailing.’

Evametaṁ gahapati evametaṁ gahapati. Āturohāyaṁ gahapati kāyo aṇḍabhūto pariyonaddho. Yo hi gahapati imaṁ kāyaṁ pariharanto muhuttampi ārogyaṁ paṭijāneyya kimaññatra bālyā. Tasmātiha te gahapati evaṁ sikkhitabbaṁ: āturakāyassa me sato cittaṁ anāturaṁ bhavissatī ti. (SN iii 1)

aṭṭhikatvā

Renderings
Introduction

Aṭṭhikatvā: occurrences

Aṭṭhikatvā occurs 39 times in the scriptures, in 38 times followed by either manasikatvā or manasikaroti. In one case it is linked to paṭipajjamāno.

Aṭṭhikatvā: not sluggishly

DOP says it means ‘making something one’s aim or object; paying attention.’ But the Upavāna Sutta (SN v 76) does not support this because it occurs in the phrase aṭṭhikatvā manasikaromi no ca līnan ti. Here aṭṭhikatvā is opposed to no ca līnaṁ, which Bodhi translates as ‘I attend as a matter of vital concern, not sluggishly.’

Aṭṭhikatvā equals nisamma

Bodhi’s rendering ‘as a matter of vital concern’ is supported by Snp 317 where aṭṭhikatvā is a synonym of nisamma (‘carefully, considerately, observing’: PED). Here again aṭṭhikatvā seems well rendered as ‘as a matter of vital concern.’ The verse is as follows:

• The wise and diligent man who associates with such a person (described in the preceding verse), carefully (nisamma) practising in accordance with the teaching as a matter of vital concern (tadaṭṭhikatvāna), becomes knowledgeable, astute, and intelligent.

Tadaṭṭhikatvāna nisamma dhīro dhammānudhammaṁ paṭipajjamāno
Viññū vibhāvī nipuṇo ca hoti yo tādisaṁ bhajati appamatto. (Sn.v. 317)

Illustrations

Illustration: aṭṭhikatvā, as a matter of vital concern

It is to your loss, friend, it is to your detriment, that when the Pātimokkha is being recited you do not pay it proper attention as a matter of vital concern.

tassa te āvuso alābhā tassa te dulladdhaṁ yaṁ tvaṁ pātimokkhe uddissamāne na sādhukaṁ aṭṭhikatvā manasikarosī ti. (Vin.4.144)

When I am explaining the teaching, this worthless man does listen to it with eager ears, paying attention to it as a matter of vital concern, applying his whole mind to it.

Nacāyaṁ moghapuriso mayā dhammaṁ desiyamāne aṭṭhikatvā manasikatvā sabbacetaso samannāharitvā ohitasoto dhammaṁ suṇātī ti. (MN i 445)

I will recite the Pātimokkha with one and all of us present.

Pātimokkhaṁ uddisissāmi taṁ sabbeva santā

Listen carefully. Pay attention.

sādhukaṁ suṇoma manasikaroma

Listen carefully [means]: pay attention as a matter of vital concern, apply one’s whole mind to it.

sādhukaṁ suṇomā ti aṭṭhikatvā manasikatvā sabbacetasā samannāharāma. (Vin.1.103)

Those bhikkhus were listening to the teaching with eager ears, paying attention to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their whole minds to it.

Te ca bhikkhū aṭṭhikatvā manasikatvā sabbacetasā samannāharitvā ohitasotā dhammaṁ suṇanti. (SN i 112)

atandita

Renderings
Introduction

Synonyms

Atandita is close in meaning to appamatto, and we parenthesise it equally:

• Sīha, dwell diligently applied [to the practice]. Dwell tirelessly applied [to the practice] night and day. Develop spiritually wholesome factors. Quickly give up [attachment to] the body.

Sīhappamatto vihara rattindivamatandito
Bhāvehi kusalaṁ dhammaṁ jaha sīghaṁ samussayan ti. (Tha 83)

Illustrations
atanditā

atanditā: (main article see: atandita)

Illustration: atanditā, being tirelessly applied [to the practice]

Viewing it in this way, being tirelessly applied [to the practice] night and day, then, having profoundly understood it through my own penetrative discernment, I saw it [according to reality].

Evametaṁ avekkhantī rattindivamatanditā
Tato sakāya paññāya abhinibbijjha dakkhisaṁ. (Thi 84)

atandite

atandite: (main article see: atandita)

Illustration: atandite, tirelessly applied [to the practice]

Having renounced [the household life] in faith, a novice bhikkhu newly gone forth [into the ascetic life] should associate with virtuous friends whose means of livelihood is pure, who are tirelessly applied [to the practice].

Saddhāya abhinikkhamma navapabbajito navo
Mitte bhajeyya kalyāṇe suddhājīve atandite (Tha 249)

Associate with virtuous friends who are of pure livelihood, and who are tirelessly applied [to the practice].

Mitte bhajassu kalyāṇe suddhājīve atandite. (Dhp 376)

atandito

atandito: (main article see: atandita)

Illustration: atandito, tirelessly applied [to the practice]

‘Being resolutely applied to inward striving, and tirelessly applied [to the practice] night and day, urged on by my mother, I realised supreme inward peace.

Sohaṁ padhānapahitatto rattindivamatandito
Mātarā codito santo aphusiṁ santimuttamaṁ. (Thi 212)

‘Recollecting the Perfectly Enlightened One, the best [of Buddhas], who is inwardly tamed and inwardly collected, being tirelessly applied [to the practice] night and day, I will abide in the woods.’

Anussaranto sambuddhaṁ aggaṁ dantaṁ samāhitaṁ
Atandito rattindivaṁ viharissāmi kānane ti. (Tha 354)

Dwelling alone in the woods, tirelessly applied [to the practice], I followed the Teacher’s advice. I did just as the Conqueror instructed me [to do].

Sohaṁ eko araññasmiṁ viharanto atandito
Akāsiṁ satthu vacanaṁ yathā maṁ ovadi jino. (Tha 626)

Sitting alone, sleeping alone, living alone, tirelessly applied [to the practice], taming oneself in solitude, one would be [thereby] delighted in the woods.

Ekāsanaṁ ekaseyyaṁ eko caramatandito
Eko damayamattānaṁ vanante ramito siyā. (Dhp 305)

Illustration: atandito, tirelessly applied [to benefiting]

Tirelessly applied [to benefiting] his mother, father, and ancestors, night and day

Mātaraṁ pitaraṁ pubbe rattindivamatandito. (AN iv 245)

Illustration: atandito, unwearied man

Therefore, I will make you as supple as an unwearied man makes a catskin bag.

Tathā tu kassāmi yathā pi issaro yaṁ labbhati tena pi hotu me alaṁ
Taṁ t’ahaṁ kassāmi yathā atandito biḷārabhastaṁ va tathā sumadditaṁ. (Tha 1138)

atanditaṁ

atanditaṁ: (main article see: atandita)

Illustration: atanditaṁ, tirelessly applied [to the practice]

If, though he receives but little, a bhikkhu does not despise his gains, even the devas praise him, one of pure livelihood who is tirelessly applied [to the practice].

Appalābho pi ce bhikkhu salābhaṁv nātimaññati
Taṁ ve devā pasaṁsanti suddhājīviṁ atanditaṁ. (Dhp 366)

mayo

mayo: see atammayo.

atammayo

Renderings
Introduction

Maya: meaning

Maya means

  • 1) Made of
  • 2) Comprised of
  • 3) Created by
  • 4) Brought about by
  • 5) Aroused by

Maya: examples

1) Made of:

• Ointment-boxes made of bone

aṭṭhimayaṁ. (Vin.1.203)

• With hammers made of iron

2) Comprised of:

• There are three bases for the generating of merit: the basis for the generating of merit comprised of generosity, or of virtue, or of spiritual cultivation

3) Created by:

• Mind-created material body

• Perceptions (saññā) created by the mind

4) Aroused by

• Wisdom aroused by reflection, or by learning, or by spiritual development

cintāmayā paññā sutamayā paññā bhāvanāmayā paññā. (DN iii 219)

There are two forms of maya that cannot be rendered by this scheme: atammayo and sīlamayo.

Atammayo

Atammayo means literally ‘not made of or produced by that.’ Its actual meaning is uncertain. Horner calls atammayataṁ lack of desire (MLSN iii 92). Bodhi calls it non-identification (MLDB.911). The suttas show it means freedom from ego.

Atammayo and the perception of the voidness of personal qualities in all originated phenomena: Ukkhittāsika Sutta

The Ukkhittāsika Sutta (AN iii 444) (quoted next) says being atammayo regarding the whole world [of phenomena] (sabbaloke ca atammayo) is one of the benefits of establishing without limit the perception of the voidness of personal qualities in all originated phenomena.

• When a bhikkhu sees six advantages it should be enough to inspire him to establish [in himself] without limit the perception of the voidness of personal qualities in all originated phenomena. What six?

Cha bhikkhave ānisaṁse sampassamānena alameva bhikkhunā sabbasaṅkhāresu anodhiṁ karitvā anattasaññaṁ upaṭṭhāpetuṁ katame cha:

1) I will be free of the perception that “It is endowed with personal qualities” regarding the whole world [of phenomena].

Sabbaloke ca atammayo bhavissāmi. (AN iii 444)

Thus atammayo is linked to the perception of the voidness of personal qualities in all originated phenomena.

Atammayo and egotistical thought: Sappurisa Sutta

The Sappurisa Sutta (MN iii 42) says when the common person (asappuriso) gains first jhāna, he thinks ‘I am an attainer of the first jhāna; these other bhikkhus are not.’ But when a spiritually outstanding person (sappuriso) gains jhāna, he thinks ‘atammayatā even concerning the attainment of the first jhāna has been spoken of by the Blessed One (paṭhamajjhānasamāpattiyāpi kho atammayatā vuttā bhagavatā). Here atammayatā is the opposite of the egotistical thought ‘I am an attainer of the first jhāna.’

That atammayatā is a queller of the ego is confirmed in this same passage because the sutta continues: yena yena hi maññati tato taṁ hoti aññathā. Horner renders this: ‘for whatever they imagine it to be, it is otherwise.’ Bodhi says: ‘for in whatever way they conceive, the fact is ever other than that.’

But we have shown in this Glossary that maññati is not just ‘to think,’ but ‘to think of in personal terms.’ Even the passage in hand already suggests this, where the thoughts of the asappuriso, dominated by the word ahaṁ are so obviously egotistical.

Therefore, in context, the words mean:

  • atammayo: one who perceives that “It is void of personal qualities.”
  • atammayataṁ: the perception that “It is void of personal qualities.”

Sīlamayo: ‘comprised of virtue’

Sīlamayo can mean ‘comprised of virtue.’ For example, there are three bases for the generating of merit (tīṇi puññakiriyavatthūni DN iii 218. Iti 51).

1) The basis for the generating of merit comprised of generosity

2) The basis for the generating of merit comprised of virtue

3) The basis for the generating of merit comprised of spiritual cultivation

No sīlamayo: ‘one who does not regard virtue as endowed with personal qualities’

However, the Samaṇamaṇḍikā Sutta gives sīlamayo a different meaning. It proclaims a bhikkhu for being virtuous (sīlavā hoti) and adds that he should also no ca sīlamayo (i.e. idha thapati bhikkhu sīlavā hoti no ca sīlamayo). Bodhi renders this ‘a bhikkhu is virtuous but he does not identify with his virtue (MLDB p.651). Horner says ‘a monk is of moral habit and has no addition to make to moral habit’ (MLSN ii 226). Let us consider it in four steps:

1) if atammayo means ‘one who perceives that “It is void of personal qualities,”’ then

2) tammayo means ‘one who perceives that “It is endowed with personal qualities”’ and

3) sīlamayo means ‘one who regards virtue as endowed with personal qualities,’ and therefore

4) no sīlamayo means ‘one who does not regard virtue as endowed with personal qualities.’

Illustrations

Illustration: atammayo, free of the perception that “It is endowed with personal qualities”

Such a person as him, one who knows the world [of phenomena] [according to reality], one of great wisdom, is free of the perception that “It is endowed with personal qualities” regarding all things, a sage.

Sa tādiso lokavidū sumedho sabbesu dhammesu atammayo munī ti. (AN i 150)

atammayataṁ

atammayataṁ: (main article see: atammayo)

Illustration: atammayataṁ, the perception that “It is void of personal qualities”

When the common person (asappuriso) gains first jhāna, he thinks ‘I am an attainer of the first jhāna; these other bhikkhus are not,’ thereby glorifying himself and disparaging others (attānukkaṁseti paraṁ vambheti). When a spiritually outstanding person (sappuriso) gains jhāna, he thinks:

• The perception that “It is void of personal qualities” even concerning the attainment of the first jhāna has been declared by the Blessed One.

paṭhamajjhānasamāpattiyāpi kho atammayatā vuttā bhagavatā

… Whatsoever one thinks of in personal terms, it is different than [how one thinks of it].’

yena yena hi maññanti tato taṁ hoti aññathā ti

… Therefore having prioritised the perception that “It is void of personal qualities,” he neither glorifies himself nor disparages others concerning the attainment of first jhāna. This is the character of a spiritually outstanding person.

so atammayataṁyeva antaraṁ karitvā tāya paṭhamajjhānasamāpattiyā neva attānukkaṁseti na paraṁ vambheti. Ayampi bhikkhave sappurisadhammo. (MN iii 42-3)

Bhikkhus, with the help of and by means of the perception that “It is void of personal qualities” abandon and transcend the neutral attitude that is undiversified, associated with undiversity.

Atammayataṁ bhikkhave nissāya atammayataṁ āgamma yā'yaṁ upekkhā ekattā ekattasitā taṁ pajahatha taṁ samatikkamatha. (MN iii 220)

tammayo

tammayo: (main article see: atammayo)

Illustration: tammayo, regard as endowed with personal qualities

Purified states known through the eye or ear are found in the Perfect One. They are my path [of practice], my sphere of personal application, but I do not regard them as endowed with personal qualities.

ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā saṁvijjanti te tathāgatassa etapathohamasmi etagocaro no ca tena tammayo ti. (MN i 319)

sīlamayo

sīlamayo: (main article see: atammayo)

Illustration: sīlamayo, one who regards virtue as endowed with personal qualities

A bhikkhu is virtuous but does not regard virtue as endowed with personal qualities

bhikkhu sīlavā hoti no ca sīlamayo. (MN ii 27)

atimaññati

Renderings
Illustrations

Illustration: atimaññati, despised

Venerable Vaṅgīsa despised other well-behaved bhikkhus on account of his own impromptu reflectiveness

āyasmā vaṅgīso attano paṭibhānena aññe pesale bhikkhū atimaññati. (SN i 187)

atimaññanti

atimaññanti: (main article see: atimaññati)

Illustration: atimaññanti, despised

Those that were beautiful despised those that were ugly, thinking: We are more beautiful than them; they are more ugly than us.

Tattha ye te sattā vaṇṇavanto te dubbaṇṇe satte atimaññanti mayametehi vaṇṇavantatarā amhehete dubbaṇṇatarā ti. (DN iii 87)

atimaññeti

atimaññeti: (main article see: atimaññati)

Illustration: atimaññeti, despises

If any man being puffed up because of ancestry, wealth, or clan despises his own relatives, that is the cause of spiritual ruination.

Jātitthaddho dhanatthaddho gottatthaddho ca yo naro
Saññātiṁ atimaññeti taṁ parābhavato mukhaṁ. (Snp 104)

atimaññe

atimaññe: (main article see: atimaññati)

Illustration: atimaññe, despise

He should not despise others for their lowly way of life, or wisdom, or observances and practices.

Atha jivitena paññāya silabbatena nāññamatimaññe. (Snp 931)

atimaññetha

atimaññetha: (main article see: atimaññati)

Illustration: atimaññetha, despise

One should not despise anyone in any way

nātimaññetha katthaci naṁ kañci. (Snp 148)

atimaññissatī

atimaññissatī: (main article see: atimaññati)

Illustration: atimaññissatī, spurn

In future days men will spurn meaty boiled rice and gruel

Pacchimā janatā sālimaṁsodanaṁ atimaññissatī ti. (Vin.3.7)

atimaññamāno

atimaññamāno: (main article see: atimaññati)

Illustration: atimaññamāno, spurn

A brahman who spurns his own wealth (i.e. walking on almsround) fails in his duty.

Bhikkhācariyañca pana brāhmaṇo sandhanaṁ atimaññamāno akiccakārī hoti. (MN ii 180)

Faring wholly on alms, spurning not the beggar’s bowl

kevalaṁ bhikkhācariyāya kapālaṁ anatimaññamāno. (AN iii 225)

atimaññitabbā

atimaññitabbā: (main article see: atimaññati)

Illustration: atimaññitabbā, spurn

If one thinks ‘I am not able to make that person emerge from what is spiritually unwholesome and establish him in what is spiritually wholesome,’ for such a person, detached awareness should not be spurned.

Na cāhaṁ sakkomi etaṁ puggalaṁ akusalā vuṭṭhāpetvā kusale patiṭṭhāpetun ti. Evarūpe bhikkhave puggale upekkhā nātimaññitabbā. (MN ii 242)

atimaññasi

atimaññasi: (main article see: atimaññati)

Illustration: atimaññasi, disdain

There is no hiding place for the doer of unvirtuous deeds

Natthi loke raho nāma pāpakammaṁ pakubbato.

You yourself, man, know what is true or false.

Attā te purisa jānāti saccaṁ vā yadi vā musā.

Indeed, sir, you disdain the virtuous aspect of yourself which witnesses [all that you do]

Kalyāṇaṁ vata bho sakkhi attānaṁ atimaññasi.

You are [trying to] conceal from yourself unvirtuousness existing within yourself

Yo santaṁ attani pāpaṁ attānaṁ parigūhasi. (AN i 149)

attaniya

Renderings
Introduction

Attaniya: DOP vs. PED

Our renderings are close to DOP’s ‘belonging to’, and far from PED’s ‘nature of.’

1) DOP:

  • attaniya (adj): belonging to one's self, one's own; belonging to an (enduring) self or soul.
  • attaniya (noun): what belongs to one's self; what belongs to an (enduring) self or soul;
  • anattaniya (adj): not belonging to a self; not concerned with oneself.

2) PED:

  • attaniya (adj): ‘of the nature of soul, soul-like’
  • attaniya (noun): ‘anything of the nature of the soul’

You and yours are interchangeable

The Buddha compared the five aggregates to the sticks and grass of Jeta’s Grove which people carried off, burned, and made good use of (jano hareyya vā ḍaheyya vā yathāpaccayaṁ vā kareyya). The Buddha asked the bhikkhus why they did not think ‘People are carrying us off, burning us, making good use of us’ (amhe jano harati vā ḍahati vā yathāpaccayaṁ vā karotī ti). The bhikkhus said this was because with sticks and grass there was ‘neither ourselves nor what belongs to ourselves’ (na hi no etaṁ bhante attā vā attaniyaṁ vā ti). The Buddha concluded that each of the five aggregates ‘is not [in reality] yours. Abandon it’ (rūpaṁ… viññāṇaṁ bhikkhave na tumhākaṁ. Taṁ pajahatha).

So, whereas the question concerned people carrying ‘us’ off, the conclusion was that the aggregates are ‘not yours.’ Thus ‘you’ and ‘yours’ are interchangeable (MN i 141; SN iii 34).

‘Could,’ not ‘would’

Horner’s translation of MN i 138 reads:

• “If, monks, there were a Self, could it be said: ‘It belongs to my self’?”

attani vā bhikkhave sati attaniyaṁ me ti assā ti? (Horner, MN i 138)

Bodhi’s translation reads:

• “Bhikkhus, there being a self, would there be for me what belongs to a self? Or, there being what belongs to a self, would there be for me a self?”

attani vā bhikkhave sati attaniyaṁ me ti assā ti? attaniye vā bhikkhave sati attā me ti assā ti? (Bodhi, MN i 138)

He justifies this by saying there is a “mutual dependence” between the “twin notions ‘I’ and ‘mine’” (Bodhi, MLDB n.264).

But the first of his ‘would’s is not easily justified, and here we follow Horner’s ‘could.’ Our translation therefore reads:

• Bhikkhus, if there were an [absolute] Selfhood, could there be for me what belongs to an [absolute] Selfhood?

attani vā bhikkhave sati attaniyaṁ me ti assā ti?

• Yes, bhante.

• If there were what belongs to an [absolute] Selfhood, would there be for me an [absolute] Selfhood?

attaniye vā bhikkhave sati attā me ti assā ti?

• Yes, bhante.

• Bhikkhus, since neither an [absolute] Selfhood, nor what could belong to an [absolute] Selfhood are apprehended as real and actual,

attani ca bhikkhave attaniye ca saccato thetato anupalabbhamāne

… then this view: ‘The world [of phenomena] is my [absolute] Selfhood. Having passed on, that I will be―everlasting, enduring, eternal, of an unchangeable nature; I will endure like unto eternity itself’:

yampidaṁ diṭṭhiṭṭhānaṁ so loko so attā so pecca bhavissāmi nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassāmī ti

… is it not an utterly and completely foolish teaching?

nanāya bhikkhave kevalo paripūro bāladhammo ti?. (MN i 138)

Illustrations
attanīyaṁ

attanīyaṁ: (main article see: attaniya)

Illustration: attanīyaṁ, [in reality] mine

Among these five grasped aggregates, I do not consider anything as [in reality] myself or as [in reality] mine

imesu khohaṁ āvuso pañcasupādānakkhandhesu na kiñci attānaṁ vā attanīyaṁ vā samanupassāmīti. (SN iii 128)

anattaniyaṁ

anattaniyaṁ: (main article see: attaniya)

Illustration: anattaniyaṁ, which is not [in reality] yours

You should abandon fondness

• for that which is void of personal qualities

Yo kho bhikkhu anattā tatra te chando pahātabbo ti.

• for that which is not [in reality] yours

Yaṁ kho bhikkhu anattaniyaṁ tatra te chando pahātabbo ti. (SN iii 77-78)

nāttaniyaṁ

nāttaniyaṁ: (main article see: attaniya)

Illustration: nāttaniyaṁ, [in reality] his own

Suppose, friend, a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, would take a sharp axe and enter a forest. There he would see the trunk of a large banana tree, standing erect, young, without a fruit-bud core. He would chop it down at the root, sever the crown, and unroll the coil. As he unrolls the coil, he would not find even softwood, let alone heartwood.

So tattha pheggumpi nādhigaccheyya kuto sāraṁ.

Likewise, a bhikkhu does not consider the six senses to be either [in reality] himself or [in reality] his own.

Evameva kho āvuso bhikkhu chasu phassāyatanesu neva attānaṁ nāttaniyaṁ samanupassati. (SN iv 167-8)

attaniyena

attaniyena: (main article see: attaniya)

Illustration: attaniyena, what could belong to an [absolute] Selfhood

‘Void [of personal qualities] is the world [of phenomena]’: on what grounds, bhante, is this said?

suñño loko suñño loko ti bhante vuccati kittāvatā nu kho bhante suñño loko ti vuccatī ti?

Because, Ānanda, it is void of an [absolute] Selfhood and of what could belong to an [absolute] Selfhood, therefore it is said that the world [of phenomena] is void [of personal qualities].

Yasmā ca kho ānanda suññaṁ attena vā attaniyena vā tasmā suñño loko ti vuccati. (SN iv 54)

Comment:

The subject of this reflection is the world [of phenomena] (loko), namely the eighteen elements of sensation.

attabhāva

Renderings
Introduction

The -paṭilābho suffix

Often attabhāva is suffixed to become attabhāvapaṭilābho, which means:

  • ‘Assumption of an existence, becoming reborn as an individual’ (PED sv Attan).
  • ‘Obtaining a reincarnation, coming into existence’ (PED sv Paṭilābha).
  • ‘The becoming reborn as an individual; reincarnation; type of body or existence’ (DOP sv Attan).

But -paṭilābho is sometimes better treated as a past participle:

1) ‘Acquired’:

One of Venerable MahāMoggallāna’s supporters was reborn in a mind-made body (aññataraṁ manomayaṁ kāyaṁ upapanno), and his [newly] acquired bodily form (tassa evarūpo attabhāvapaṭilābho hoti) was such that he filled two or three Magadhan village fields, yet that [newly] acquired bodily form harmed neither himself nor another (so tena attabhāvapaṭilābhena nevattānaṁ no paraṁ vyābādheti). (AN iii 122)

2) ‘Assumed’:

Bhikkhu, there is not even this amount of one’s assumed individuality that is everlasting

ettakopi kho bhikkhu attabhāvapaṭilābho natthi nicco. (SN iii 144)

Illustrations

Illustration: attabhāva, personal disposition

In one yearning for sensuous pleasure a corresponding personal disposition is manifested, either meritorious or demeritorious.

yaṁ kho bhikkhave kāmayamāno tajjaṁ tajjaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinibbatteti puññabhāgiyaṁ vā apuññabhāgiyaṁ vā. (AN iii 411)

In one experiencing [a sense impression] a corresponding personal disposition is manifested, either meritorious or demeritorious.

yaṁ bhikkhave vediyamāno tajjaṁ tajjaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinibbatteti puññabhāgiyaṁ vā apuññabhāgiyaṁ vā. (AN iii 411)

In one who has acquiesced in uninsightfulness into reality a corresponding personal disposition is manifested (tajjaṁ tajjaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinibbatteti), either meritorious or demeritorious.

yaṁ kho bhikkhave avijjāgato tajjaṁ tajjaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinibbatteti puññabhāgiyaṁ vā apuññabhāgiyaṁ vā. (AN iii 414)

attabhāvaṁ

attabhāvaṁ: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāvaṁ, bodily forms

In an instant I can fashion the bodily forms of ten billion [people].

Koṭisatasahassassa attabhāvaṁ khaṇena nimmine. (Tha 1183)

Hatthaka, the young deva, approached the Blessed One, thinking, ‘I will stand in the presence of the Blessed One,’ but he sank down and collapsed like butter or oil when poured on sand sinks down, sinks in, cannot abide. Then the Blessed One told him ‘Create a less subtle bodily form, Hatthaka’ (oḷārikaṁ hatthaka attabhāvaṁ abhinimmināhī ti). ‘I will, bhante’ he replied, and doing as he was bid, venerated the Blessed One, and stood at a respectful distance. (AN i 279)

When Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra appears to the Tāvatiṁsā devas, he appears having created [for himself] a less subtle bodily form (oḷārikaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinimminitvā) because his natural appearance (pakativaṇṇo) is not perceptible to the eye (anabhisambhavanīyo so devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ cakkhupathasmiṁ). (DN ii 210)

attabhāvena

attabhāvena: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāvena, bodily form

Nanda’s mother said that when her husband died, he ‘revealed himself to me in his former bodily form’ (purimena attabhāvena uddassesi); but she did not recall any inward disquiet on that account (AN iv 66).

Illustration: attabhāvena, state of individuality

Bhante, given that I cannot even recall with their aspects and particulars what I have experienced in this present state of individuality, how should I recall my manifold past lives?

iminā attabhāvena paccanubhūtaṁ tampi nappahomi sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anussarituṁ kuto panāhaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarissāmi. (MN ii 32)

attabhāvo

attabhāvo: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāvo, bodily form

A bull elephant might plunge into a large pool of water and amuse himself squirting water into his ears or over his back. Then he drinks and leaves. How does he manage it? The greatness of his bodily form, Upāli, finds a footing in deep water (mahāhupāli attabhāvo gambhīre gādhaṁ vindati).

But suppose a hare or a cat tries the same thing, he will either sink to the bottom or float on the surface. Why so? The smallness of his bodily form, Upāli, finds no footing in deep water (paritto hupāli attabhāvo gambhīre gādhaṁ na vindati) (AN v 202).

Illustration: attabhāvo, individuality

Karmically consequential conduct produced from greed, born of greed, due to greed, originated by greed bears fruit wherever the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs.

Yaṁ bhikkhave lobhapakataṁ kammaṁ lobhajaṁ lobhanidānaṁ lobhasamudayaṁ yatthassa attabhāvo nibbattati tattha taṁ kammaṁ vipaccati.

Wherever that karmically consequential conduct bears fruit, there one experiences the karmic consequences of one’s conduct, either in this life, or on rebirth, or in some other subsequent [existence].

Yattha taṁ kammaṁ vipaccati tattha tassa kammassa vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti diṭṭhe vā dhamme upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye. (AN i 134)

attabhāvassa

attabhāvassa: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāvassa, bodily form

The small beings in the ocean that could not easily be impaled on stakes would be even more numerous than this.

• For what reason? Because of the minuteness of their bodily forms.

Taṁ kissa hetu: sukhumattā bhikkhave attabhāvassa. (SN v 442)

Illustration: attabhāvassa, individuality

One is reckoned according to wherever the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs (yattha yattheva attabhāvassa abhinibbatti hoti tena teneva saṅkhaṁ gacchati).

• If the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs in a clan of khattiyas (khattiyakule ce attabhāvassa abhinibbatti hoti), one is reckoned as a khattiya (khattiyotveva saṅkhaṁ gacchati).

• If the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs in a clan of brahmans (brāhmaṇakule ce attabhāvassa abhinibbatti hoti), one is reckoned as a brahman (brāhmaṇotveva saṅkhaṁ gacchati).

• If the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs in a clan of vessas (vessakule ce attabhāvassa abhinibbatti hoti), one is reckoned as a vessa (vessotveva saṅkhaṁ gacchati).

• If the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs in a clan of suddas (suddakule ce attabhāvassa abhinibbatti hoti), one is reckoned as a sudda (suddotveva saṅkhaṁ gacchati). (MN ii 181)

attabhāvīnaṁ

attabhāvīnaṁ: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāvīnaṁ, bodily form

Chief of those of bodily form is Rāhu, Lord of the Asuras.

Etadaggaṁ bhikkhave attabhāvīnaṁ yadidaṁ rāhu asurindo. (AN ii 17)

Comment:

Rāhu is able to grasp the sun and the moon in his mouth (SN i 50-1), and can stop rain falling by gathering it into his hand (AN iii 243). Therefore we take attabhāvīnaṁ as referring to the size of his body.

attabhāvā

attabhāvā: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāvā, bodily forms

Bhante, the mighty ocean is the home of vast beings (mahataṁ bhūtānaṁ). There are the fabulous fishy monsters, the timis, the timiṅgalas, and the timirapiṅgalas; there are the asuras, the magical serpents, and the heavenly musicians. There are in the mighty ocean bodily forms a hundred leagues long (yojanasatikāpi attabhāvā), two hundred (dviyojanasatikāpi attabhāvā), three (tiyojanasatikāpi attabhāvā), four (catuyojanasatikāpi attabhāvā) and five hundred leagues long (pañcayojanasatikāpi attabhāvā). (AN iv 200)

attabhāve

attabhāve: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāve, state of individuality

There are devas whose lifespan is not to be reckoned by counting or computation, yet whatever state of individuality they formerly experienced, whether amongst beings in the refined material plane of existence or immaterial plane of existence, whether amongst beings who are perceptive, unperceptive, or neither perceptive nor unperceptive, they recall the details of those past lives.

Santi bhante devā yesaṁ na sakkā gaṇanāya vā saṅkhānena vā āyuṁ saṅkhātuṁ api ca yasmiṁ yasmiṁ attabhāve abhinivutthapubbo hoti yadi vā rūpīsu yadi vā arūpīsu yadi vā saññīsu yadi vā asaññisu yadi vā nevasaññināsaññisu. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. (DN iii 111)

attabhāvapaṭilābho

attabhāvapaṭilābho: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāvapaṭilābho, assumed individuality

Bhikkhu, there is nothing in the five aggregates which is everlasting, enduring, eternal, of an unchangeable nature, that will endure like unto eternity itself.

Natthi kho bhikkhu kiñci rūpaṁ… vedanā… saññā… saṅkhārā… viññāṇaṁ yaṁ viññāṇaṁ niccaṁ dhuvaṁ sassataṁ aviparināmadhammaṁ sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassati?

Then the Blessed One took up a little piece of cowdung in his hand and said to that bhikkhu:

Bhikkhu, there is not even this amount of one’s assumed individuality that is everlasting, enduring, eternal, of an unchangeable nature, that will endure like unto eternity itself.

ettakopi kho bhikkhu attabhāvapaṭilābho natthi nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo. (SN iii 144)

Illustration: attabhāvapaṭilābho, acquired state of individuality

Venerable MahāMoggallāna saw a skeleton flying through the air with vultures, crows, and hawks following in hot pursuit, tearing it apart, while it uttered cries of pain. He thought:

• How astounding! How extraordinary!

acchariyaṁ vata bho abbhutaṁ vata bho

• that there could be such a being

evarūpo pi nāma satto bhavissati

• that there could be such a specter

evarūpo pi nāma yakkho bhavissati

• that there could be such an acquired state of individuality

evarūpo pi nāma attabhāvapaṭilābho bhavissatī ti

The Buddha said that the being (satto) used to be a cattle butcher, because of which he was first roasted in hell for thousands of years, and was now experiencing such an acquired state of individuality (evarūpaṁ attabhāvapaṭilābhaṁ paṭisaṁvedayatī ti) (SN ii 255).

“Life in the world [of beings] is of such a nature, and the acquiring of states of individuality is of such a nature, that eight worldly conditions whirl around the world [of beings], and the world [of beings] whirls around eight worldly conditions, namely: acquisition and loss, imprestige and prestige, criticism and praise, pleasure and pain.

tathābhūto kho ayaṁ lokasannivāso tathābhūto attabhāvapaṭilābho yathābhūte lokasannivāse yathābhūte attabhāvapaṭilābhe aṭṭha lokadhammā lokaṁ anuparivattanti loko ca aṭṭha lokadhamme anuparivattati lābho ca alābho ca ayaso ca yaso ca nindā ca pasaṁsā ca sukhañca dukkhañcā ti. (AN ii 188)

attabhāvapaṭilābha

attabhāvapaṭilābha: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāvapaṭilābha, assumed individuality

Assumed individuality is of two kinds, I declare: to be fostered and not to be fostered. And one’s assumed individuality is either the one or the other. So it was said by the Blessed One. And in reference to what was it said?

Attabhāvapaṭilābhampahaṁ bhikkhave duvidhena vadāmi sevitabbampi asevitabbampi. Tañca aññamaññaṁ attabhāvapaṭilābhan ti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ bhagavatā kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.

Bhante, such an assumed individuality as causes spiritually unwholesome factors to flourish and spiritually wholesome factors to fade in one who fosters it should not be fostered

yathārūpaṁ bhante attabhāvapaṭilābhaṁ sevato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti kusalā dhammā parihāyanti evarūpo attabhāvapaṭilābho na sevitabbo).

But such an assumed individuality as causes spiritually unwholesome factors to fade and spiritually wholesome factors to flourish in one who fosters it should be fostered.

Yathārūpañca kho bhante attabhāvapaṭilābhaṁ sevato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti. Kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti evarūpo attabhāvapaṭilābho sevitabbo.

And what assumed individuality causes spiritually unwholesome factors to flourish and spiritually wholesome factors to fade in one who fosters it?

Kathaṁrūpaṁ bhante attabhāvapaṭilābhaṁ sevato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti kusalā dhammā parihāyanti:

If, bhante, an assumed individuality that is hostile is brought into being, unconducive to inner perfection, spiritually unwholesome factors flourish and spiritually wholesome factors fade in him.

savyāpajjhaṁ bhante attabhāvapaṭilābhaṁ abhinibbattayato apariniṭṭhitabhāvāya akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti kusalā dhammā parihāyanti.

And what assumed individuality causes spiritually unwholesome factors to fade and spiritually wholesome factors to flourish in one who fosters it?

Kathaṁrūpaṁ bhante attabhāvapaṭilābhaṁ sevato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti.

If, bhante, an assumed individuality that is not hostile is brought into being, conducive to inner perfection, spiritually unwholesome factors fade and spiritually wholesome factors flourish in him.

Avyāpajjhaṁ bhante attabhāvapaṭilābhaṁ abhinibbattayato pariniṭṭhitabhāvāya akusalā dhammā parihāyanti kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti. (MN iii 52)

attabhāvapaṭilābhesu

attabhāvapaṭilābhesu: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāvapaṭilābhesu, acquired state of individuality

And how, Elder, is dwelling alone fulfilled in detail? In this regard, Elder:

• what lies in the past has been abandoned

yaṁ atītaṁ taṁ pahīnaṁ

• what lies in the future has been relinquished

yaṁ anāgataṁ taṁ paṭinissaṭṭhaṁ

• and fondness and attachment regarding one’s presently acquired state of individuality have been thoroughly eliminated

paccuppannesu ca attabhāvapaṭilābhesu chandarāgo suppaṭivinīto

It is in such a way, Elder, that dwelling alone is fulfilled in detail. (SN ii 283)

attabhāvapaṭilābhā

attabhāvapaṭilābhā: (main article see: attabhāva)

Illustration: attabhāvapaṭilābhā, acquiring a [particular] state of individuality

Four ways of acquiring a [particular] state of individuality.

Cattārome bhikkhave attabhāvapaṭilābhā. Katame cattāro?

There is the acquiring of a [particular] state of individuality (attabhāvapaṭilābho) in which one’s own intentional effort has effect not another person’s (attasañcetanā kamati no parasañcetanā). Or another person’s, not one’s own. Or both one’s own and another person’s. Or neither one’s own striving nor another person’s (which is the case for devas of the realm neither having nor lacking perception).

Atthi bhikkhave attabhāvapaṭilābho yasmiṁ attabhāvapaṭilābhe attasañcetanā kamati no parasañcetanā… parasañcetanā kamati no attasañcetanā… attasañcetanā ca kamati parasañcetanā ca…. neva attasañcetanā kamati no parasañcetanā.

Venerable Sāriputta said this meant that where there is the acquiring of a [particular] state of individuality in which one’s own intentional effort has effect, not another person’s, there is a passing away of beings from that group on account of their own intentional effort (attasañcetanāhetu tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhā kāyā cuti hoti). And corresponding statements for the other groups (AN ii 159).

anattā

attā

Renderings
  • (noun): ego
  • (noun): aspect of yourself
  • (noun): [absolute] Selfhood
  • (adjective): endowed with personal qualities
  • (pronoun): myself; yourself; himself; themselves; oneself
  • (stressed pronoun): he himself; you yourself
Introduction

Explaining unconditionality: Chachakka Sutta

The Chachakka Sutta (MN iii 282) says that the arising and disappearance of the six senses are discernable (uppādo pi vayo pi paññāyati), and that he for whom arising and disappearance is discernable in something they regard as endowed with personal qualities would be forced to the conclusion that ‘My [absolute] Selfhood arises and disappears’ (attā me uppajjati ca veti cā ti). Thus the six senses are void of personal qualities.

The arguments used in this and the two following paragraphs are only meaningful if Selfhood is understood to be unconditional. Though attā is commonly rendered as ‘Self’ or ‘soul’ these renderings obscure the important connotations of anattā: ungovernability, unlastingness and inherent unsatisfactoriness. Hence our term ‘[absolute] Selfhood.’

Explaining unconditionality: Pañcavaggiya Sutta

The Pañcavaggiya Sutta (SN iii 66-7) says that if the five aggregates were endowed with personal qualities they would not lead to affliction (ābādhāya saṁvatteyya) and one could command them: ‘Be thus! Be not thus!’ One could have them unconditionally according to one’s will. The Buddha compared this to a claim a king might make concerning ‘his own realm’ (sakasmiṁ vijite) where he has the power to punish criminals as he wishes, but outside his realm he has no such power (MN i 230). Likewise the five aggregates are outside one’s realm. They are ours conditionally not unconditionally. They cannot be regarded as endowed with personal qualities because they do not accord unconditionally with one’s will.

Explaining unconditionality: Udāyī Sutta

In the Udāyī Sutta, Venerable Ānanda explained that viññāṇa cannot be regarded as endowed with personal qualities because it arises dependent on conditions. If the indispensible and necessary conditions for viññāṇa were to cease completely and totally without remainder (so ca hetu so ca paccayo sabbena sabbaṁ sabbathā sabbaṁ aparisesaṁ nirujjheyya) viññāṇa would not be discerned. Thus viññāṇa is conditional, not unconditional. Therefore it is void of personal qualities (viññāṇaṁ anattā ti SN iv 166).

Anattā (adjective): ‘void of personal qualities’

As an adjective, attā is rendered in this Glossary as ‘endowed with personal qualities,’ and anattā as ‘void of personal qualities’ because it is part of the argument yadanattā taṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti (SN iv 1). This argument shows that yadanattā has a meaning broad enough to cover n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti. It covers all terms: “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood.” Thus we say: What is void of personal qualities should be seen according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood.”

Parenthesis: [in reality]

The parenthesis ‘[in reality]’ is justified because of attā‘s link to yathābhūtaṁ:

• What is void of personal qualities should be seen according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood”

yadanattā taṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ. (SN iv 1)

Another example is this:

• He does not discern bodily form which is void of personal qualities according to reality, thus: ‘Bodily form is void of personal qualities.’

anattaṁ rūpaṁ anattā rūpan ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. (SN iii 114)

Inevitable link between the adjective and noun

The scriptures confirm the inevitable link between the adjective and noun:

1) For example, if something is anattā (void of personal qualities, adjective), it should be seen as not my attā ([absolute] Selfhood, noun: yadanattā taṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ SN iv 1).

2) To say that the senses are attā (endowed with personal qualities, adjective) is untenable because their arising and disappearance are discernable and one would be forced to the conclusion that ‘My attā ([absolute] Selfhood, noun) arises and disappears (MN iii 282-4).

Distinguishing adjectives and nouns

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish adjectives and nouns in the scriptures; indeed, so difficult that DOP fails to recognise attā as an adjective at all. This is surprising. Not only does its predecessor, the PED, recognise the adjective, but also the DOP itself (under attan) translates the term attatthaṁ (SN ii 29) as ‘one’s own interest or profit’ where ‘one’s own’ is adjectival. Bodhi also recognises that attā in attatthaṁ is an adjective and translates it ‘your own good.’ However, at MN iii 282 both he and Horner do not recognise the adjective in the sentence cakkhuṁ attā ti yo vadeyya taṁ na upapajjati. This would be naturally rendered as ‘endowed with personal qualities’ but Bodhi and Horner render it as ‘self’:

  • Bodhi: If anyone says, ‘The eye is self,’ that is not tenable.
  • Horner: If anyone should say, 'Eye is self,' that is not fitting.

Although Ñāṇamoli agrees that attā can be adjectival (in Anattā According to the Theravāda) in the section on Derivation and Usage he overlooks the adjective form, and in his translations in the same essay he consistently calls it ‘not self.’ For example, he renders rūpaṁ anattā as ‘materiality is not self’ where we would say ‘is void of personal qualities.’ Therefore, it seems he considered the adjective form to be negligible.

Attā: paradoxical useage

Occasionally the Buddha used attā in a paradoxical way.

• He used it to indicate Ultimate Reality, one’s [absolute] Selfhood, but in conversation with young brahmans for whom this expression would be appropriate and meaningful (Vin.1.23): ‘What do you think, young men: which is better for you: that you seek for a woman, or that you seek for your [absolute] Selfhood?

katamaṁ nu kho tumhākaṁ varaṁ yaṁ vā tumhe itthiṁ gaveseyyātha yaṁ vā attānaṁ gaveseyyāthā ti

  • He used it as a manner of speech, saying that bhikkhus should abide spiritually self-reliant, and as refuges unto themselves (attadīpo viharati attasaraṇo DN ii 100), which he explained meant practising satipaṭṭhānā and said that this was equivalent to abiding with the teaching as one’s island and refuge (dhammadīpo dhammasaraṇo).
  • He said ‘a bhikkhu does not let his unmastered self be mastered by suffering (bhikkhu na heva anaddhabhūtaṁ attānaṁ dukkhena addhabhāveti MN ii 223). It is consonant with the scriptures to take the advice as meaning that ‘the mind is intrinsically radiant: it is defiled by extrinsic defilements (pabhassaramidaṁ bhikkhave cittaṁ tañca kho āgantukehi upakkilesehi upakkiliṭṭhanti (AN i 10). ‘Unmastered self’ is a manner of speech.

Suffix -atta: redundant

The suffix -atta is usually redundant. For example, in pahitatto (‘resolutely applied’) and sukhitattā (‘happy’) in these passages:

1) Enthusiastically applying himself [to the teaching], he scrutinises [it].

… Having scrutinised [it], he strives [to practise it].

… Being resolutely applied [to the practice] he realises with his very being the supreme truth, and he sees [the nature of reality] having penetrated it with discernment.

pahitatto samāno kāyena ceva paramaṁ saccaṁ sacchikaroti paññāya ca naṁ paṭivijjha passati. (MN i 480)

Comment: Here padahati is directly linked to its suffixed past participle, where the suffix is clearly shown to be redundant.

2) May they be happy.

Comment: PED (sv Sukhita) likewise calls sukhitattā ‘happy, easy.’ Norman says ‘happy-minded.’

Atta’s role as a suffix is not noted in the Pāli grammar books, nor in the dictionaries sv Atta, though Duroiselle says pahitatto means ‘resolute, whose mind is bent upon, literally directed towards,’ and ṭhitatto means ‘of firm mind’ (PGPL, para 555). Neither DOP nor PED mention ‘mind’ as a meaning of atta, but for anavositatta DOP says ‘whose mind has no firm convictions,’ and for susamāhitatto (sv su) PED says ‘of steadfast mind.’ PED adds ‘will,’ sv Pahita, saying pahitatta means ‘of resolute will’. PED also sometimes considers -atta redundant, for example in rendering ṭhitatto as ‘self-controlled, composed, steadfast,’ and sukhitatta as noted above. But if -atta means ‘mind’, then it is still redundant. What, after all, is the difference between ‘happy’ and ‘happy-minded’?

PED’s collection of -atta words is this:

ubbilāvitatta: rejoicing, exultancy, elation of mind

katatta: self-possessed, disciplined

khematta: one who is at peace

gatatta: self-perfected, perfect

ṭhitatto: self-controlled, composed, steadfast

pahitatta: of resolute will

yatatta: selfcontrolled, one whose heart is kept down

rakkhitatta: one who guards his character

vadhatta: self-destruction

vimuttatta: having an emancipated self

saṁyatattaṁ: having one's self restrained, self-controlled

saṁvutatta: self-controlled

sukhitatta: happy, easy

susamāhitatto: of steadfast mind

Parenthesising anattā

Anattā usually has an object associated with it:

• He abides contemplating the voidness of personal qualities in all things.

sabbadhammesu anattānupassī viharati. (AN iv 14)

• He abides contemplating the voidness of personal qualities in the six senses and their objects.

imesu chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu anattānupassī viharati. (AN v 109)

• the perception of the voidness of personal qualities in all originated phenomena.

Where anattā occurs without an object, the context sometimes shows what should be parenthesised, sometimes not:

• And what, Ānanda, is the perception of the voidness of personal qualities [in the six senses and their objects]. In this regard, Ānanda, a bhikkhu… reflects that the six senses and their objects are void of personal qualities.

katamācānanda anattasaññā? Idhānanda bhikkhuiti paṭisaṁcikkhati cakkhuṁ anattā rūpā anattā… mano anattā dhammā anattā ti) . (AN v 109)

• In one who perceives the voidness of personal qualities [in all things], self-centredness is uprooted. He realises the Untroubled in this very lifetime

anattasaññi asmimānasamugghātaṁ pāpuṇāti diṭṭheva dhamme nibbānaṁ ti. (Uda 37)

Illustrations

Illustration: attā, ego

Those who roam the world who are truly liberated [from individual existence], liberated from the perception of existence, spiritually perfected, with egos restrained.

Ye ve asattā vicaranti loke akiñcanā kevalino yatattā. (Snp 490)

Walk on almsround through the streets with ego well-restrained.

Susaṁvutatto visikhantare caraṁ. (Snp 1119)

Illustration: attā, themselves

Those bhikkhus, either now or after my passing, who abide spiritually self-reliant, with themselves as their refuge, with no other refuge; relying completely on the teaching, with the teaching as their refuge, with no other refuge; it is these bhikkhus, Ānanda, who will be for me foremost amongst those desirous of the training.

Ye hi keci ānanda etarahi vā mamaccaye vā attadīpā viharissanti attasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā dhammasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā tamatagge me te ānanda bhikkhu bhavissanti ye keci sikkhākāmāti. (SN v 154)

Thus do noble young men declare their [attainment of] arahantship: the matter is spoken of without any reference to themselves.

attho ca vutto attā ca anupanīto. (AN iii 359)

Illustration: attā, you yourself; attānaṁ, yourself

There is no hiding place for the doer of unvirtuous deeds

Natthi loke raho nāma pāpakammaṁ pakubbato.

You yourself, man, know what is true or false.

Attā te purisa jānāti saccaṁ vā yadi vā musā.

Indeed, sir, you disdain the virtuous aspect of yourself which witnesses [all that you do].

Kalyāṇaṁ vata bho sakkhi attānaṁ atimaññasi.

You are [trying to] conceal from yourself unvirtuousness existing within yourself

Yo santaṁ attani pāpaṁ attānaṁ parigūhasi. (AN i 149)

Illustration: attā, he himself; attānaṁ, himself

If a bhikkhu does not fulfil the training in virtue, the Buddha said the Teacher criticises him, his discerning wise companions in the religious life criticise him, the devas criticise him, and he himself even criticises himself.

attā pi attānaṁ upavadati. (MN i 440)

Illustration: attā, endowed with personal qualities

If bodily form was endowed with personal qualities (rūpañca hidaṁ bhikkhave attā abhavissa) it would not lead to affliction (ābādhāya saṁvatteyya) and it would be possible to demand of bodily form (labbhetha ca rūpe): ‘My bodily form: be thus! My bodily form: be not thus!’ (evaṁ me rūpaṁ hotu evaṁ me rūpaṁ mā ahosī ti). But because bodily form is void of personal qualities it leads to affliction (rūpaṁ anattā tasmā rūpaṁ ābādhāya saṁvattati) and it is not possible to demand of bodily form: ‘My bodily form: be thus! My bodily form: be not thus!’. (SN iii 66-7)

Illustration: attā, himself; [absolute] Selfhood

Saccaka claimed that a person has the five aggregates as himself (rūpattāyaṁ purisapuggalo… viññāṇattāyaṁ… ). The Buddha asked if Saccaka was claiming the khandhas were “my [absolute] Selfhood” (rūpaṁ me attā… viññāṇaṁ me attā ti) and compared this to a claim a king might make concerning his own realm (sakasmiṁ vijite), where he has the power to punish criminals as he wishes. The Buddha asked whether Saccaka exercised any such power over the five aggregates so as to command them ‘Let them be thus, or not thus’ (vattati te tasmiṁ rūpe… viññāṇe vaso evaṁ me rūpaṁ… viññāṇaṁ hotu evaṁ me rūpaṁ… viññāṇaṁ mā ahosī ti). Saccaka agreed he did not (MN i 230).

Illustration: attā, endowed with personal qualities; [absolute] Selfhood

To say that the visual sense is endowed with personal qualities is untenable (cakkhuṁ attā ti yo vadeyya taṁ na upapajjati) because the arising and disappearance of the visual sense is discernable (cakkhussa uppādo pi vayo pi paññāyati) and he for whom arising and disappearance is discernable, would be forced to the conclusion that ‘My [absolute] Selfhood arises and disappears’ (attā me uppajjati ca veti cā ti). Thus the visual sense is void of personal qualities (iti cakkhuṁ anattā) (MN iii 282; SN ii 95).

Illustration: attā, [absolute] Selfhood

A disciple of mine… perceives all bodily form according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood.”

Idha aggivessana mama sāvako… sabbaṁ rūpaṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passati. (MN i 234-5)

• Is what (rūpaṁ… viññāṇaṁ) is unlasting (aniccaṁ), intrinsically unsatisfactory (dukkhaṁ), and destined to change fit to be regarded thus:

this is “[in reality] mine”

this is “[in reality] what I am”

eso’hamasmi

this is “my [absolute] Selfhood”?

eso me attā ti

• No, bhante (SN iii 66-7).

The Buddha said there are three types of sense impression: pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral (sukhaṁ vedanaṁ… dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ… adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ). If anyone experiences these sense impressions considering them to be “my [absolute] Selfhood” (eso me attā ti), then when they cease he would have to hold that ‘my [absolute] Selfhood has been shattered’ (vyaggo me attā ti). Therefore it is not suitable to hold sense impression is “my [absolute] Selfhood” (nakkhamati vedanā me attā ti samanupassituṁ) (DN ii 67).

• If there were no sense impression in any way, would there be the thought “I am this”?

yattha panāvuso sabbaso vedayitaṁ natthi api nu kho tattha ayamahamasmī ti siyā ti

• No, bhante.

• Therefore this argument is invalid: Sense impression is not my [absolute] Selfhood. My [absolute] Selfhood is without sense impression.

Tasmātihānanda etenapetaṁ nakkhamati na heva kho me vedanā attā appaṭisaṁvedano me attā ti samanupassituṁ. (DN ii 67)

Comment:

Claiming that “my [absolute] Selfhood is without sense impression” is to claim knowledge of something one is simultaneously claiming to be unaware of.

There was once a number of non-Buddhist ascetics living around Sāvatthī. And they were of various dogmatic views, as follows:

• Eternal are the [absolute] Selfhood and the world [of beings]

sassato attā ca loko ca

• Not eternal

asassato attā ca loko ca

• Both eternal and not eternal

sassato asassato attā ca loko ca

• Neither eternal nor not eternal

neva sassato nāsassato attā ca loko ca

• Produced by oneself are the [absolute] Selfhood and the world [of beings]

sayaṁ kato attā ca loko ca

• Produced by another

paraṁ kato attā ca loko ca

• Produced by oneself and another

sayaṁ kato paraṅkato attā ca loko ca

• Produced by neither oneself nor another. They have arisen spontaneously

asayaṁ kāro aparaṅkāro adhiccasamuppanno attā ca loko ca

And they lived quarrelsome, cantankerous, contentious, stabbing each other with verbal daggers. (Uda 70)

The ignorant Everyman improperly contemplates

  • Was I in the past?
  • Was I not in the past?
  • What was I in the past?
  • How was I in the past?
  • Having been what, what did I become in the past?
  • Shall I be in the future?
  • Shall I not be in the future?
  • What shall I be in the future?
  • How shall I be in the future?
  • Having been what, what shall I become in the future?'

Or else he is uncertain about the present in regard to himself

ajjhattaṁ kathaṅkathī hoti

  • Am I?
  • Am I not?
  • What am I?
  • How am I?
  • Where has this being come from?
  • Where will it go?

As he improperly contemplates in this way, one of six dogmatic views arise in him as real and actual:

channaṁ diṭṭhīnaṁ aññatarā diṭṭhi uppajjati

• I have an [absolute] Selfhood

atthi me attā ti vā'ssa saccato thetato diṭṭhi uppajjati

• I do not have an [absolute] Selfhood

natthi me attā ti vā'ssa saccato thetato diṭṭhi uppajjati

• I perceive an [absolute] Selfhood with an [absolute] Selfhood

attanā’va attānaṁ sañjānāmī ti vā'ssa saccato thetato diṭṭhi uppajjati

• I perceive what is not an [absolute] Selfhood with an [absolute] Selfhood

attanā'va anattānaṁ sañjānāmī ti vā'ssa saccato thetato diṭṭhi uppajjati

• I perceive an [absolute] Selfhood with what is not an [absolute] Selfhood

anattanā'va attānaṁ sañjānāmī ti vā'ssa saccato thetato diṭṭhi uppajjati

or else he has a view like this:

Atha vā pana'ssa evaṁ diṭṭhi hoti

• It is this [absolute] Selfhood of mine that speaks and experiences and feels here and there the karmic consequences of meritorious and demeritorious deeds; and this [absolute] Selfhood of mine is everlasting, enduring, eternal, of an unchangeable nature, and will endure like unto eternity itself.

yo me ayaṁ attā vado vedeyyo tatra tatra kalyāṇapāpakānaṁ kammānaṁ vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti. So kho pana me ayaṁ attā nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassatī ti. (MN i 8)

From the time Ānanda when a bhikkhu

yato kho panānanda bhikkhu

no longer regards sense impression to be the [absolute] Selfhood,

neva vedanaṁ attānaṁ samanupassati

or considers that “my [absolute] Selfhood is without sense impression,”

no pi appaṭisaṁvedanaṁ attānaṁ samanupassati

or considers “my [absolute] Selfhood experiences”

no pi attā me vediyati

or considers “my [absolute] Selfhood is subject to sense impression,”

vedanādhammo hi me attā ti samanupassati

by not so regarding he does not grasp anything in the world [of phenomena].

so evaṁ asamanupassanto na ca kiñci loke upādiyati

Thus he is not agitated.

anupādiyaṁ na paritassati

Being not agitated, he realises the Untroubled for himself.

aparitassaṁ paccattaṁ yeva parinibbāyissati. (DN ii 68)

Illustration: attā; anattā, void of personal qualities

When the ascetic Vacchagotta asked whether or not there is an [absolute] Selfhood (atthattā ti… natthattā ti) the Buddha refused to answer, because, as he later explained, if he had answered that:

• There is an [absolute] Selfhood, this would have been siding with those ascetics and Brahmanists who are eternalists.

ye te ānanda samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā tesametaṁ laddhi abhavissa.

• There is no [absolute] Selfhood, this would have been siding with those ascetics and Brahmanists who are annihilationists.

ye te ānanda samaṇabrāhmaṇā ucchedavādā tesametaṁ laddhi abhavissa.

• There is an [absolute] Selfhood, “would this have been consistent on my part with the arising of the knowledge that ‘all things are void of personal qualities’?”

apinu me taṁ ānanda anulomaṁ abhavissa ñāṇassa uppādāya. Sabbe dhammā anattā ti no hetaṁ bhante.

• ‘There is no [absolute] Selfhood, “the ascetic Vacchagotta, already bewildered, would have become even more bewildered, thinking, ‘It seems that the [absolute] Selfhood I formerly had does not exist now.’”

sammūḷhassa ānanda vacchagottassa paribbājakassa bhiyyo sammohāya abhavissa ahu vā me nūna pubbe attā so etarahi natthī ti. (SN iv 400)

atto

atto: (main article see: attā)

Illustration: atto, ego

Clad in robes, I live the religious life without a home, with shaven head, with ego completely extinguished.

saṅghāṭivāsī agaho carāmi nivuttakeso abhinibbutatto. (Snp 456)

The seers of old had egos restrained.

Isayo pubbakā āsuṁ saṁyatattā. (Snp 284)

attano

attano: (main article see: attā)

Illustration: attano, ego

Having heard my word, train yourself in the quenching of the ego.

Ito sutvāna nigghosaṁ sikkhe nibbānamattano. (Snp 1062)

attanā

attanā: (main article see: attā)

Illustration: attanā, yourself; myself; oneself; attā, himself

• Is there, Mallikā, anyone more beloved to you than yourself?

atthi nu kho te mallike ko cañño attanā piyataro ti?

• There is no one, great king, more beloved to me than myself. But is there anyone, great king, more beloved to you than yourself?

Natthi kho me mahārāja ko cañño attanā piyataro. Tuyhaṁ pana mahārāja atthañño koci attanā piyataro ti?

• For me too, Mallikā, there is no one more beloved to me than myself.

Mayhampi kho mallike natthañño koci attanā piyataroti.

Then the Blessed One… recited this verse:

Having traversed all quarters with the mind,

Sabbā disā anuparigamma cetasā

One finds nowhere anyone more beloved to oneself than oneself.

Nevajjhagā piyataramattanā kvaci

Others hold themselves likewise beloved;

Evaṁ piyo puthu attā paresaṁ

Hence one who loves himself should not harm others.

Tasmā na hiṁse paraṁ attakāmo ti. (SN i 75)

attānaṁ

attānaṁ: (main article see: attā)

Illustration: attānaṁ, himself

The Buddha said a bhikkhu should be straightforward and aboveboard presenting himself according to reality to his teachers and to his knowledgeable companions in the religious life (yathābhūtaṁ attānaṁ āvīkattā satthari vā viññūsu vā sabrahmacārīsu). (MN ii 128)

atta

atta: (main article see: attā)

Illustration: atta, [absolute] Selfhood

• Bhikkhus, you might well grasp a theory of an [absolute] Selfhood which would not arouse grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation, but do you see any such theory?

Taṁ bhikkhave attavādūpādānaṁ upādiyetha yaṁsa attavādūpādānaṁ upādiyato na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā.

• No, bhante.

• Good, bhikkhus. I also see no such theory. (-MN i 137)

anatta

anatta: (main article see: attā)

Illustration: anatta, the voidness of personal qualities [in the six senses and their objects]; anattā, void of personal qualities

And what, Ānanda, is the perception of the voidness of personal qualities [in the six senses and their objects]

In this regard, Ānanda, a bhikkhu… reflects that the six senses and their objects are void of personal qualities

iti paṭisaṁcikkhati cakkhuṁ anattā rūpā anattā… mano anattā dhammā anattā ti) . (AN v 109)

anattā

anattā: (main article see: attā)

Illustration: anattā, void of personal qualities

Bhikkhus, the visual sense is unlasting. What is unlasting is intrinsically unsatisfactory. What is intrinsically unsatisfactory is void of personal qualities.

Cakkhuṁ bhikkhave aniccaṁ. Yadaniccaṁ taṁ dukkhaṁ; yaṁ dukkhaṁ tadanattā. (SN iv 1)

attha

Renderings
Introduction

30+ meanings

The many meanings of attha are confounding. In DOP the word entry takes over six columns. The PED gives it six major headings, each with alternatives, and extracts nearly thirty possible meanings. This Glossary offers a comprehensible solution. We render it in over thirty ways.

Artha/attha: via Illustrations and notes

Attha has two different roots, artha and asta.

1) Asta / attha occurs as a prefix in terms such as atthaṁ paleti, abbhatthaṁ gacchanti (=abhi+atthaṁ gacchanti) and atthaṅgamo all of which can be rendered as ‘vanish’ or ‘vanishing.’ But these are covered under Atthaṅgama, not here.

2) Artha/attha is so complicated that we will explain it primarily by way of illustrations and accompanying notes.

Attha: the problem of ‘goal’

Although ‘goal’ is nowadays often used for attha, it is a newcomer. PED does not mention it. DOP mentions it thirteen times but is unsettled about it, because it always offers an alternative. For example:

  • ‘intent on the goal or meaning’
  • ‘expressing the meaning or goal’
  • ‘connected with the goal, or with what is beneficial,’ and so on.

Norman, too, often uses ‘goal,’ but it is problematic. For example, consider these two passages:

1) ‘Quenching is not hard to attain for him who sees the goal, even though it is very fine and subtle’

Susukhumanipuṇatthadassinā… nibbānaṁ na hi tena dullabhanti. (Norman, Tha 210)

But quenching (nibbāna) surely is the goal. So here we prefer to say that the attha he sees is not ‘the goal’ but ‘the meaning of the teaching.’ We would therefore say:

Nibbāna is not hard to attain to for one who sees the very fine and subtle meaning of the teaching.

2) ‘There is no one who sees the subtle goal as well as you [the Buddha] do’

Na c’atthi tulyo nipuṇatthadassī. (Norman, Snp 377)

But this curiously suggests that the Buddha saw nibbāna better than other arahants. The solution, again, is that attha means not ‘goal’ but ‘meaning of the teaching,’ so the passage reads:

• There is no one who sees the subtle meaning of the teaching as well as you do.

Attho: supreme goal

When attho means goal it always means nibbāna, which we call ‘supreme goal,’ and indeed it is often called uttamatthaṁ (Dhp 386; Iti 10; Snp 324) or paramaṁ atthaṁ (Thi 93).

Atthavasaṁ: ‘good reason’

The etymology of atthavasaṁ is perplexing, but the dictionaries call it:

  • DOP: ‘reason, motive’
  • PED: ‘reasonableness, reason, consequence, cause.’

Bodhi likewise says ‘reason,’ for example:

• Bhikkhus, it is for these two reasons that the Tathāgata has established the training rules for his disciples.

dveme bhikkhave atthavase paṭicca tathāgatena sāvakānaṁ sikkhāpadaṁ paññattaṁ. (Bodhi, AN i 98)

Horner prefers ‘good purpose’:

• For what good purpose should a monk live constantly overcoming gain?

Kiñca bhikkhave bhikkhu atthavasaṁ paṭicca uppannaṁ lābhaṁ abhibhuyya abhibhuyya vihareyya. (Horner, Vin.2.202)

We call it ‘good reason.’

Atthavasi: ‘intent on [the development of] spiritual well-being’

Atthavasi means:

  • DOP: ‘pursuing an aim’
  • PED: ‘bent on (one's) aim or purpose’

Bodhi says ‘intent on the good’:

• Clansmen intent on the good take up that way of life for a valid reason

tañca kho evaṁ bhikkhave kulaputtā upenti atthavasikā atthavasaṁ paṭicca. (Bodhi, SN iii 93)

Norman says ‘pursuing my aim’:

• Alone, pursuing my aim, I shall quickly enter the woods

Eko atthavasī khippaṁ pavisissāmi kānanaṁ. (Norman, Tha 539)

We say ‘intent on [the development of] spiritual well-being.’

Illustrations

Illustration: attha, meaning

When a teacher explains the Buddha’s teaching (dhammaṁ deseti) the bhikkhu accordingly realises the meaning and significance of the teaching (dhamme atthappaṭisaṁvedī ca hoti dhammapaṭisaṁvedī ca). (DN iii 242)

A bhikkhu investigates the meaning of the teachings he has retained in mind.

dhatānañca dhammānaṁ atthūpaparikkhitā hoti

Realising their meaning and significance, he practises in accordance with the teaching.

atthamaññāya dhammamaññāya dhammānudhammapaṭipanno ca hoti. (AN iv 298)

Illustration: attha, beneficial

Four bases for winning over a following (cattāri saṅgahavatthūni): generosity, agreeable speech, beneficial conduct, and impartiality.

dānaṁ peyyavajjaṁ atthacariyaṁ samānattatā. (DN iii 232)

Concerning things past, future, and present the Perfect One is one who speaks… what is beneficial… Therefore he is called the Perfect One.

atītānāgatapaccuppannesu dhammesu tathāgato… atthavādī .. tasmā tathāgato ti vuccati. (DN iii 134-5)

Illustration: attha, spiritual well-being

Bhikkhus, some might speak to you with speech that is: timely or untimely; true or untrue; gentle or harsh; conducive or unconducive to your spiritual well-being; spoken with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill or with inner hatred.

Kālena vā bhikkhave pare vadamānā vadeyyuṁ akālena vā. Bhūtena vā… abhūtena vā. Saṇhena vā… pharusena vā. Atthasaṁhitena vā… anatthasaṁhitena vā. Mettacittā vā… dosantarā vā. (MN i 126)

Therefore one desiring [the development of] spiritual well-being, aspiring for inward greatness, should revere the true teaching, remembering the Buddhas’ training system.

Tasmā hi atthakāmena mahattamabhikaṅkhatā
Saddhammo garu kātabbo saraṁ buddhānaṁ sāsanaṁ. (SN i 140)

Then the deva inhabiting that woodland grove, being tenderly concerned for that bhikkhu, desiring his spiritual well-being (anukampikā atthakāmā) desiring to stir up in him an earnest attitude [to the practice] (saṁvejetukāmā), approached him and addressed him in verses. (SN i 203)

Illustration: attha, spirit (=real meaning)

If the community of bhikkhus, not having investigated that case, not having got to the root of it, achieves concord, that concord is unrighteous, Upāli (adhammikā sā upāli saṅghasāmaggī ti). This is called concord that has arrived at the letter but not the spirit (atthāpetā vyañjanupetā).

If the community of bhikkhus, having investigated the case, having got to the root of it, achieves concord in the community of bhikkhus, that concord is righteous (dhammikā sā upāli saṅghasāmaggī ti). This is called concord that has arrived both at the letter and the spirit (atthupetā ca vyañjanupetā ca) (Vin.1.358).

Illustration: attha, well-being

My parents were killed by a king. But if I were to deprive the king of life, those who desired the king's well-being (ye devassa atthakāmā) would deprive me of life, and those who desired my well-being (ye me atthakāmā) would deprive these of life (Vin.1.347).

Illustration: attha, meaning of expressions

How is a bhikkhu one who knows the meaning of expressions? In this regard a bhikkhu knows the meaning of this and that expressions thus: ‘This is the meaning of this expression.

Atthaññū ca kathaṁ hoti. Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu tassa tasseva bhāsitassa atthaṁ jānāti ayaṁ imassa bhāsitassa attho. (AN iv 113)

Whatever contentious brahmans there are, and even elderly brahmans, and others, too, who thought they were [good] arguers, all become obliged to you for [explaining] the meaning of expressions.

Ye kecime brāhmaṇā vādasīlā vuddhā cā pi brāhmaṇā santi keci
Sabbe tayi atthabaddhā bhavanti ye cā pi aññe vādino maññamānā. (Snp 382)

Illustration: attha, meaning of the teaching

One who sees the subtle meaning of the teaching

nipuṇatthadassiṁ. (Snp 177; SN i 33)

For one who sees the very fine and subtle meaning of the teaching… the Untroubled is not hard to attain to.

Susukhumanipuṇatthadassinā… Nibbānaṁ na hi tena dullabhanti. (Tha 210)

There is no one who sees the subtle meaning of the teaching as well as you do

na c’atthi tulyo nipuṇatthadassī. (Snp 377)

anatthaṁ

anatthaṁ: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: anatthaṁ, harm; atthaṁ, benefit

Ten bases of resentment

Dasa imāni bhikkhave āghātavatthūni:

• He has harmed, is harming, or will harm me. Thinking thus, one arouses resentment.

anatthamme acarīti… caratīti… carissatīti āghātaṁ bandhati

• He has harmed, is harming, or will harm someone beloved and dear to me. Thinking thus, one arouses resentment.

Piyassa me manāpassa anatthaṁ acarīti… caratīti… carissatīti āghātaṁ bandhati

• He has benefited, is benefiting, or will benefit someone who is unbeloved or loathsome to me. Thinking thus, one arouses resentment.

Appiyassa me amanāpassa atthaṁ acari… carati… carissatīti āghātaṁ bandhati

• And tenthly, one is groundlessly irritated.

aṭṭhāne ca kuppati. (AN v 150; DN iii 263)

anatthāya

anatthāya: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: anatthāya, harm

If unarisen unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors arise in me, this would lead to my harm’:

anuppannā me pāpakā akusalā dhammā uppajjamānā anatthāya saṁvatteyyunti

If unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors that have arisen in me are not abandoned, this would lead to my harm’;

Uppannā me pāpakā akusalā dhammā appahīyamānā anatthāya saṁvatteyyunti

If unarisen spiritually wholesome factors do not arise in me, this would lead to my harm;

Anuppannā me kusalā dhammā nūppajjamānā anatthāya saṁvatteyyunti

If spiritually wholesome factors that have arisen in me cease, this would lead to my harm.

Uppannā me kusalā dhammā nirujjhamānā anatthāya saṁvatteyyunti. (SN ii 195-6)

atthaṁ

atthaṁ: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthaṁ, benefit

The Buddha said that being diligent in performing meritorious deeds leads to benefits in this lifetime and in the hereafter (diṭṭhadhammikañceva atthaṁ samparāyikañcā ti), for example, long life, health, beauty, heaven, and noble birth. He concluded:

‘The wise person who is diligent [in performing meritorious deeds] secures both benefits: benefit in this lifetime, and benefit in the hereafter.

Appamatto ubho atthe adhigaṇhāti paṇḍito
Diṭṭhe dhamme ca yo attho yo cattho samparāyiko. (SN i 86)

Bodhi says ‘good’ and ‘kinds of good’: .’.. secures both kinds of good: the good visible in this very life… ’ (CDB p.180).

Illustration: atthaṁ, meaning

He listens but does not understand [the teaching], he looks but does not see [the nature of reality]. Though the teaching is being spoken, the fool does not understand the meaning.

Suṇāti na vijānāti āloketi na passati
Dhammasmiṁ bhaññamānasmiṁ atthaṁ bālo na bujjhati. (SN i 198)

Venerable Mahākaccāna is capable of explaining the meaning in detail of the brief synopsis recited by the Blessed One, where the meaning was not explained in detail.

Pahoti cāyasmā mahākaccāno imassa bhagavatā saṅkhittena uddesassa uddiṭṭhassa vitthārena atthaṁ avibhattassa vitthārena atthaṁ vibhajituṁ. (MN iii 195)

Hearing the teaching, he bears it in mind.

sutvā dhammaṁ dhāreti

Bearing it in mind, he examines the meaning [of what he has memorised].

Doing so, the teaching receives his considered approval.

dhammā nijjhānaṁ khamanti. (MN i 480)

Illustration: atthaṁ, what is beneficial

A greedy person does not know what is beneficial, nor see what is righteous,

Luddho atthaṁ na jānāti luddho dhammaṁ na passati. (Iti 84)

Illustration: atthaṁ, well-being

If someone destroyed my well-being by lying to me it would not be agreeable and pleasing to me.

yo kho me musāvādena atthaṁ bhañjeyya na me taṁ assa piyaṁ manāpaṁ. (SN v 354)

Illustration: atthaṁ, spirit (=real meaning)

Those teachings which are excellent in the beginning, the middle, and the end, whose spirit and letter proclaim the utterly complete and pure religious life: teachings like this are much heard by him.

ye te dhammā ādikalyāṇā majjhekalyāṇā pariyosānakalyāṇā sātthaṁ savyañjanaṁ kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ abhivadanti tathārūpāssa dhammā bahussutā honti. (Vin.2.96)

Illustration: atthaṁ, meaning = suttavibhaṅgo

If the bhikkhu knows neither the rule nor the rule analysis (neva suttaṁ āgataṁ hoti no suttavibhaṅgo), not knowing the meaning (of the rule) (atthaṁ asallakkhento), he may conceal the meaning under the wording (vyañjanacchāyāya atthaṁ paṭibāhati) (Vin.2.97).

Comment:

The bhikkhu conceals the meaning (atthaṁ) under the wording because he is ignorant of the rule analysis (suttavibhaṅgo). Thus ‘rule analysis’ (suttavibhaṅgo) equals ‘the meaning of the rule’ (atthaṁ).

Illustration: atthaṁ, matter

When Nigaṇṭho Nātaputto died at Pāvā, there was much trouble amongst his disciples. Venerable Ānanda and the sāmaṇera Cunda approached the Blessed One and told him about this matter (etamatthaṁ ārocessāmā ti). (DN iii 118)

Having heard the well-spoken explanation, the utterance connected with what is righteous and with spiritual well-being

Sutvā subhāsitaṁ vācaṁ dhammatthasaṁhitaṁ padaṁ

I properly reflected on the truth and reality of the matter

Tathaṁ yāthāvakaṁ atthaṁ yoniso paccavekkhisaṁ. (Tha 347)

Illustration: atthaṁ, matter; atthaṁ, atthena, what is useful; me attho, need (+ instrumental case)

[Venerable Assaji:]

‘I am not able to explain the teaching in detail, but I can tell you the matter in brief.’

na tāhaṁ sakkomi vitthārena dhammaṁ desetuṁ. Api ca te saṅkhittena atthaṁ vakkhāmī ti

[The ascetic Sāriputta:]

‘So be it, friend, tell me little or tell me much,

hotu āvuso appaṁ vā bahuṁ vā bhāsassu

but just tell me what is useful;

atthaṁyeva me brūhi

I need only what is useful.

attheneva me attho

Why should you make a great elaboration?’

kiṁ kāhasi vyañjanaṁ bahun ti. (Vin.1.41)

Illustration: atthaṁ, purpose

When gold is refined it becomes malleable, wieldy and radiant. Whatever ornament one wishes to make from it, it would serve the purpose (tañcassa atthaṁ anubhoti) (AN iii 16; SN v 92; AN i 254-7; MN iii 243).

Illustration: atthaṁ, what is meaningful

[Hemavata:]

‘Does he not speak falsehood? Does he not have rough speech? Does he not speak what is untrue? Does he not speak what is frivolous?’

Kacci musā na bhaṇati kacci na khīṇavyappatho
Kacci vebhūtiyaṁ nāha kacci samphaṁ na bhāsati

[Sātāgira:]

‘He does not speak falsehood, nor does he have rough speech, and neither does he speak what is untrue. He is a wise person: he speaks what is meaningful.’

Musā ca so na bhaṇati atho na khīṇavyappatho
Atho vebhūtiyaṁ nāha mantā atthaṁ so bhāsati. (Snp 158-9)

Comment:

Atthaṁ: ‘what is meaningful.‘ Here, the opposite of ‘what is frivolous’ (samphaṁ).

Illustration: atthaṁ, what is useful

Some unvirtuous bhikkhus are dependent on kings or kings’ ministers, thinking that if anyone accuses them of misconduct, these people will say what is useful in their defence (rājāno vā rāja mahāmattā vā pariyodhāya atthaṁ bhaṇissantī ti) (AN i 153-5).

Illustration: atthaṁ, for the sake of

In this regard a bhikkhu, properly reflecting, uses the robe simply to ward off cold and heat, and to ward off the touch of horseflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun, and snakes:

• simply for covering his loins.

yāvadeva hirikopīnapaṭicchādanatthaṁ.

Properly reflecting, he uses the abode simply to ward off cold and heat, and to ward off the touch of horseflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun, and snakes; simply to dispel the oppressiveness of the weather and:

• for the sake of enjoying solitary retreat.

Illustration: atthaṁ, supreme goal

One who is meditative, one who sits [alone in the woods] and is spiritually undefiled, who has done what needed to be done, who is free of perceptually obscuring states, who has attained the supreme goal, he is what I call a Brahman.

Jhāyiṁ virajamāsīnaṁ katakiccaṁ anāsavaṁ
Uttamatthaṁ anuppattaṁ tamahaṁ brūmi brāhmaṇaṁ. (Dhp 386)

But following a lowly fool who has not attained the supreme goal and who is full of envy,

Khuddañca bālaṁ upasevamāno anāgatatthañca usūyakañca

Having failed to understand the teaching clearly in this world, one reaches death, having not overcome one’s unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching].

Idheva dhammaṁ avibhāvayitvā avitiṇṇakaṅkho maraṇaṁ upeti. (Snp 318)

attho

attho: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: attho, meaning

It would be good if the Blessed One would explain the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will remember it.

Sādhu vata bhante bhagavantaṁyeva paṭibhātu etassa bhāsitassa attho bhagavato sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī ti. (SN v 219)

Illustration: attho, matter

Thus do noble young men declare their [attainment of] arahantship: the matter is spoken of without any reference to themselves

attho ca vutto attā ca anupanīto. (AN iii 359)

Illustration: attho, need

‘Should I resort to the knife, or [not]? What need have I of life? ’

Satthaṁ vā āharissāmi ko attho jīvitena me. (Tha 407)

Illustration: attho, for (the sake of)

What is a mirror for?

kimatthiyo ādāso ti.

For (the sake of) reflection, bhante.

Paccavekkhanattho bhante ti. (MN i 416)

COMMENT

Atthiya (adj.) [= atthika] having a purpose or end. Kimatthiyo for what purpose? (PED).

Illustration: attho, for the sake of

• For what purpose, bhante, is non-attachment [to originated phenomena]?

Virāgo pana bhante kimatthiyo ti?

• Non-attachment is for the sake of liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

Virāgo kho rādha vimuttattho

• For what purpose, bhante, is liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]?

Vimutti pana bhante kimatthiyā ti?

• Liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] is for the sake of [realising] the Untroubled.

Vimutti kho rādha nibbānatthā. (SN iii 189)

Illustration: attho, supreme goal

Gone forth from the household life into the ascetic life, but has not attained the supreme goal of asceticism

agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito hoti svāssa sāmaññattho ananuppatto hoti. (DN i 230)

anattho

anattho: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: anattho, harmful; attho, beneficial

What is harmful (katamo ca bhikkhave anattho)? It is the wrong ten factors (micchādiṭṭhi… micchāsamādhi micchāñāṇaṁ micchāvimutti).

This is called harmful.

Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave anattho

What is beneficial?

katamo ca bhikkhave attho

It is the right ten factors (sammādiṭṭhi… sammāsamādhi sammāñāṇaṁ sammāvimutti).

This is called beneficial.

Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave attho ti. (AN v 242)

atthavase

atthavase: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthavase, good reason; attha, meaning

Considering three good reasons it is fitting to explain the teaching to others. What three?

Tayo'me bhikkhave atthavase sampassamānena alameva paresaṁ dhammaṁ desetuṁ. Katame tayo

• The one who explains the Buddha’s teaching, or the one who listens, or both of them, realise the meaning and significance of the teachings.

atthapaṭisaṁvedī ca hoti dhammapaṭisaṁvedī ca. (AN i 151)

Illustration: atthavase, good reasons

For two good reasons the Perfect One establishes training rules for his disciples. To inspire faith in those without faith; and to increase the faith of those with faith.

Dveme bhikkhave atthavase paṭicca tathāgatena sāvakānaṁ sikkhāpadaṁ paññattaṁ. Katame dve appasannānaṁ pasādāya pasannānaṁ bhiyyobhāvāya. (AN i 98)

atthavasaṁ

atthavasaṁ: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthavasaṁ, good reason

• But, great king, considering what good reason do you show such profound humility and pay such loving homage to this [wretched human] body of mine?

Kaṁ pana tvaṁ mahārāja atthavasaṁ sampassamāno imasmiṁ sarīre evarūpaṁ paramanipaccākāraṁ karosi mettupahāraṁ upadaṁsesīti?

• Out of gratitude and thankfulness I show such profound humility and pay such loving homage to the Blessed One.

Kataññutaṁ kho ahaṁ bhante kataveditaṁ sampassamāno bhagavati evarūpaṁ paramanipaccākāraṁ karomi mettupahārāṁ upadaṁsemi. (AN v 65)

‘Considering what good reason, Lord of the Devas (kiṁ pana tvaṁ devānaminda atthavasaṁ sampassamāno), do you announce the attainment of such inspiration and joy?’

‘Considering six good reasons (cha kho ahaṁ bhante atthavase sampassamāno), bhante, I announce the attainment of such inspiration and joy.’

The reasons were, briefly, that as a result of this conversation his future lives would lead him to great happiness and enlightenment (DN ii 285-6)

Considering two good reasons, brahman (dve kho ahaṁ brāhmaṇa atthavase sampassamāno) I frequent secluded abodes in forests and quiet groves: in considering a pleasant abiding for myself in this lifetime, and being tenderly concerned for future generations.

dve kho ahaṁ brāhmaṇa atthavase sampassamāno araññe vanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi: attano ca diṭṭhadhammasukhavihāraṁ sampassamāno pacchimañca janataṁ anukampamāno ti. (MN i 23)

anattha

anattha: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: anattha, spiritual well-being

I will not talk that kind of talk which is low, vulgar, the way of the common man, ignoble, and unconducive to spiritual well-being… that is to say talk of kings…

So yāyaṁ kathā hīnā gammā pothujjanikā anariyā anatthasaṁhitā… Seyyathīdaṁ rājakathā… iti vā iti evarūpiṁ kathaṁ na kathessāmiti. (MN iii 113)

One who is prudent would not stay in an abode that was unconducive to his spiritual well-being.

Na tvevānatthasaṁhitaṁ vase vāsaṁ vicakkhaṇo ti. (Tha 105)

There are, headman, these two unenlightening practices which should not be undertaken by one who has gone forth [into the ascetic life]:

Dve'me bhikkhave antā pabbajitena na sevitabbā:

• the pursuit of sensuous pleasures, which is low, vulgar, the way of the common man, ignoble, and unconducive to spiritual well-being

yo cāyaṁ kāmesu kāmasukhallikānuyogo hīno gammo pothujjaniko anariyo anatthasaṁhito

• the pursuit of self-mortification, which is painful, ignoble, and unconducive to spiritual well-being

yo cāyaṁ attakilamathānuyogo dukkho anariyo anatthasaṁhito. (Vin.1.10; SN iv 331)

An occult art is defined as whatever is non-Buddhistic, and unconducive to spiritual well-being

Tiracchānavijjaṁ nāma yaṁ kiñci bāhirakaṁ anatthasaṁhitaṁ. (Vin.4.305)

Illustration: anattha, useless

It is good indeed that I am freed from that useless, unpleasant, self-mortifying practice.

Sādhu mutto vatamhi tāya anatthasaṁhitāya dukkarakārikāya. (SN i 103)

atthavasaṁ

atthavasaṁ: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthavasaṁ, good reason; atthavasikā, intent on [the development of] spiritual well-being

Bhikkhus, this is the lowest form of livelihood, namely, gathering alms… And yet noble young men intent on [the development of their own] spiritual well-being take up this way of life for a good reason.

antamidaṁ bhikkhave jīvikānaṁ yadidaṁ piṇḍolyaṁ… tañca kho evaṁ bhikkhave kulaputtā upenti atthavasikā atthavasaṁ paṭicca. (SN iii 93; Iti 89)

atthavasikena

atthavasikena: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthavasikena, intent on [the development of] spiritual well-being

The Buddha said that if one was offered to be struck by three hundred spears a day for one hundred years, and told that one would afterwards penetrate the four noble truths, it would be fitting for a noble young man intent on [the development of his own] spiritual well-being to accept the offer (atthavasikena bhikkhave kulaputtena alaṁ upagantuṁ) because the round of birth and death is long-lasting beyond conception; a first point is not to be discerned of [a receiving of] blows by knives, swords, arrows, and axes (SN v 440-1).

atthāya

atthāya: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthāya, spiritual well-being

When the mental image of a skeleton (aṭṭhikasaññā) is developed and cultivated (bhāvitā bahulīkatā).

it is of great fruit and benefit

mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā

it leads to [one’s own] great spiritual well-being

mahato atthāya saṁvattati. (SN v 129)

atthavatī

atthavatī: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthavatī, meaningful

Cūḷakokanadā, Pajjunna’s daughter, spoke these meaningful verses

gāthā cimā atthavatī abhāsi. (SN i 30-31)

Comment:

The verses say one should avoid unvirtuous conduct (pāpaṁ na kayirā), abandon sensuous pleasures (kāme pahāya), and be mindful and fully conscious (satimā sampajāno). Bodhi calls them ‘verses full of meaning.’

atthassa

atthassa: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthassa, meaning

Venerable Visākha Pañcāliputta was instructing the bhikkhus in the assembly hall with an explanation of the teaching, using speech that was polished, well enunciated, articulate, making the meaning clear (atthassa viññāpaniyā) (SN ii 280).

Illustration: atthassa, point

And this is another way of explaining in brief that same point

ayampi kho sāriputta pariyāyo etasseva atthassa saṅkhittena veyyākaraṇāya

• I am not unsure about the perceptually obscuring states spoken of by the Ascetic.

ye āsavā samaṇena vuttā tesvāhaṁ na kaṅkhāmi;

• I do not doubt they have been abandoned by me.

te me pahīṇāti na vicikicchāmī ti. (SN ii 54)

This is another method of explaining in brief that same point: ‘Whatever is experienced is included within dukkha.’

ayampi kho sāriputta pariyāyo etasseva atthassa saṅkhittena veyyākaraṇāya yaṁ kiñci vedayitaṁ taṁ dukkhasmin ti. (SN ii 53)

Illustration: atthassa, something; attho, meaning

I devised this simile for the sake of explaining something

upamā kho me ayaṁ bhikkhave katā atthassa viññāpanāya

This is its meaning

The ‘great low-lying marsh’ is a term for sensuous pleasure

The ‘large herd of deer’ is a term for beings

The ‘safe path’ is a term for the noble eightfold path

ariyassetaṁ aṭṭhaṅgikassa maggassa adhivacanaṁ. (MN i 118)

Illustration: atthassa, objective

A man should make an effort until his objective has been achieved.

Vāyametheva puriso yāva atthassa nipphadā. (SN i 225)

atthe

atthe: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthe, context

A bhikkhu who was ordained by a complete assembly of bhikkhus, and by a valid and legitimate act involving a motion and three invitations, such a person is what is meant in this context by the word ‘bhikkhu’”

tatrayvāyaṁ bhikkhu samaggena saṅghena ñatticatutthena kammena akuppena ṭhānārahena upasampanno ayaṁ imasmiṁ atthe adhippeto bhikkhū ti. (Vin.3.24)

Horner: this one is a monk as understood in this meaning. BDN i 42).

atthena attho

atthena attho: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthena attho, point by point; atthaṁ, matter

It is astounding and extraordinary, friend, that [the explanations of the] Teacher and disciple agree and correspond point by point, and phrase by phrase, and do not disagree as regards the highest state.

Acchariyaṁ āvuso abbhutaṁ āvuso yatra hi nāma satthu ca sāvakassa ca atthena attho vyañjanena vyañjanaṁ saṁsaṁdissati samessati na viggahissati yadidaṁ aggapadasmiṁ.

Just now, friend, I approached the Blessed One and asked him about this matter.

Idānāhaṁ āvuso bhagavantaṁ upasaṅkamitvā etamatthaṁ apucchiṁ.

The Blessed One explained the matter to me in the very same terms and phrases that Venerable Sāriputta used.

Bhagavāpi me eteheva padehi etehi vyañjanehi etamatthaṁ vyākāsi seyyathā pi āyasmā sāriputto. (AN v 320)

Comment:

Atthena attho vyañjanena vyañjanaṁ corresponds to eteheva padehi etehi vyañjanehi.

etamatthaṁ

etamatthaṁ: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: etamatthaṁ, this; ayampi attho, this too

I heard this was said by the Blessed One, the Arahant:

Vuttaṁ h’etaṁ bhagavatā vuttamarahatā ti me sutaṁ

Abandon one thing, bhikkhus, and I guarantee you non-returnership. Which one thing?

Ekadhammaṁ bhikkhave pajahatha ahaṁ vo pāṭibhogo anāgāmitāya. Katamaṁ ekadhammaṁ?

Abandon one thing, bhikkhus, greed, and I guarantee you non-returnership.

Lobhaṁ bhikkhave ekadhammaṁ pajahatha ahaṁ vo pāṭibhogo anāgāmitāyā ti.

This is what the Blessed One said, and in connection with which he added:

Etamatthaṁ bhagavā avoca. Tatthetaṁ iti vuccati

The greed on account of which greedy beings are reborn in the plane of misery,

Yena lobhena luddhāse sattā gacchanti duggatiṁ

through the complete understanding of that greed, those with insight abandon it.

Taṁ lobhaṁ sammadaññāya pajahanti vipassino

Having done so they never return to this [low] plane of existence again.

Pahāya na punāyanti imaṁ lokaṁ kudācanan ti

This, too, was what the Blessed One said, so I heard.

Ayampi attho vutto bhagavatā iti me sutan ti. (Iti 1)

Comment:

With verbs of saying, asking, etc attho often means simply 'this' or 'that,’ says DOP. Here the opening statement is ‘I heard this was said by the Blessed One’ (vuttaṁ h’etaṁ bhagavatā… me sutaṁ). Etamatthaṁ and ayampi attho correspond to it.

attho hoti

attho hoti: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: attho hoti, need (with instrumental case)

Once, bhikkhus became sick and needed (there was a need for) medicine.

Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhu gilānā honti attho ca hoti bhesajjehi. (Vin.4.100)

atthāya

atthāya: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthāya, for the sake of

While a bhikkhu is contemplating the nature of the body, there may arise in him either bodily anguish, or mental sluggishness, or his mind is distracted outwardly. He should then direct his mind towards some faith inspiring meditation object (kismiñcideva pasādaniye nimitte cittaṁ paṇidahitabbaṁ). When he does so, his mind becomes collected (cittaṁ samādhiyati). He should then reflect:

• The [purpose] for the sake of which I directed my mind has been achieved.

yassa kho'haṁ atthāya cittaṁ paṇidahiṁ so me attho abhinipphanno. (SN v 156)

• Being for the sake of crossing [the flood of suffering], not for the sake of clinging to it.

nittharaṇatthāya no gahaṇatthāyāti. (MN i 260)

Illustration: atthāya, useful

When one’s house is in flames, the vessel taken out is the one that is useful, not the one left burnt inside.

Taṁ tassa hoti atthāya no ca yaṁ tattha ḍayhati. (SN i 31)

niratthaṁ

niratthaṁ: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: niratthaṁ, useless

Not long, indeed, till it will rest, this [wretched human] body here, beneath the clod, discarded, void of consciousness:

Like a useless block of wood.

niratthaṁ va kaliṅgaraṁ. (Dhp 41)

atthā

atthā: (main article see: attha)

Illustration: atthā, objective

Those who are arahants with perceptually obscuring states destroyed, who have fulfilled [the religious life], done what had to be done, laid down the burden, achieved their objective.

ye te bhikkhū arahanto khīṇāsavā vusitavanto katakaraṇīyā ohitabhārā anuppattasadatthā. (MN i 141-2)

atthaṅgama

Renderings
Introduction

Asta/attha: ‘vanish’ or ‘vanishing’

Attha is two words with different roots, artha and asta. The former (artha/attha) is covered in the Glossary under Attha. The latter (asta/attha) is examined here. It occurs in three terms:

1) abbhatthaṁ gacchanti (=abhi+atthaṁ gacchanti)

2) atthaṁ paleti

3) atthaṅgamo.

These all mean ‘to vanish’ or ‘vanishing.’

Illustrations

Illustration: abbhatthaṁ gacchanti, to vanish

Whatever one hears of the Master Gotama’s teachings… grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation immediately vanish.

tato tato sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā abbhatthaṁ gacchanti. (AN iii 237)

abbhatthaṁ gacchati

abbhatthaṁ gacchati: (main article see: atthaṅgama)

Illustration: abbhatthaṁ gacchati, to vanish

If there arise in a bhikkhu unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts connected with attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality, then he should pay attention to the dynamic quality of those thoughts (tesaṁ vitakkānaṁ vitakkasaṅkhārasaṇṭhānaṁ manasikātabbaṁ). As he does so, then spiritually unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, hatred, and undiscernment of reality are abandoned in him and vanish (pahīyanti te abbhatthaṁ gacchanti) (MN i 121).

atthaṁ paleti

atthaṁ paleti: (main article see: atthaṅgama)

Illustration: atthaṁ paleti, to vanish

Just as a flame tossed about by the force of the wind vanishes, and is beyond the limits of conception, (atthaṁ paleti na upeti saṅkhaṁ) so a sage liberated from immaterial-factors-and-body vanishes, and is beyond the limits of conception (evaṁ muni nāmakāyā vimutto atthaṁ paleti na upeti saṅkhaṁ) (Snp 1074).

This is explained as follows:

• There is no measuring of one who has vanished;

Atthaṅgatassa na pamāṇamatthi

… That no longer exists in relation to which one might speak of him;

Yena naṁ vajjuṁ taṁ tassa natthi. (Snp 1076)

Thus atthaṁ paleti corresponds to atthaṅgatassa.

atthaṅgamāya

atthaṅgamāya: (main article see: atthaṅgama)

Illustration: atthaṅgamāya, vanishing

This is the one-destination path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of grief and lamentation, for the vanishing of physical and psychological pain

atthaṅgamo

atthaṅgamo: (main article see: atthaṅgama)

Illustration: atthaṅgamo, vanishing

Ānanda, there are five grasped aggregates of which a bhikkhu should abide contemplating their arising and disappearance:

Pañca kho ime ānanda upādānakkhandhā yattha bhikkhunā udayabbayānupassinā vihātabbaṁ.

‘Such is bodily form, such its origination, such its vanishing

* iti rūpaṁ
* iti rūpassa samudayo
* iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo. (MN iii 115)

Illustration: atthaṅgamo, vanishing

Bhikkhus, I will teach you the origination and vanishing of the four bases of mindfulness. Please listen.

catunnaṁ bhikkhave satipaṭṭhānānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca desissāmi. Taṁ suṇātha.

With the origination of food comes the origination of the body. With the ending of food comes the vanishing of the body.

Āhārasamudayā kāyassa samudayo āhāranirodhā kāyassa atthaṅgamo. (SN v 184)

adhiṭṭhāti

adhiṭṭhāna

Renderings
Introduction

Dictionaries: concurrence

The Pāli dictionaries broadly concur with the renderings given here, though DOP says ’fixes the mind on’ and ‘supervise’ and ‘not undertaken’ where we prefer ‘concentrate’ and ‘organise’ and ‘firmly reject.’

On ignoring the dictionaries

In translation, dictionary renderings are mostly ignored. For example,

1) Horner says bhikkhus were ‘looking after’ repairs where we would say ‘organising’ (Vin.2.159).

2) Bodhi says a shopkeeper ‘diligently applies’ himself to his work where we would say he ‘carefully concentrates’ (sakkaccaṁ kammantaṁ adiṭṭhāti) on it.

3) Norman often rejects the usual translations for the word. We accept his ‘established’ at Tha 768, a rendering not noted in the dictionaries.

Illustrations
adhiṭṭhānā

adhiṭṭhānā: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhānā, obstinate adherence

And what Ānanda, is the perception of disgust for the whole world [of phenomena]?

In this regard, Ānanda, for whatever in the world [of phenomena] there is clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification, a bhikkhu abides abandoning, not grasping.

bhikkhu ye loke upayupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā te pajahanto viharati na upādiyanto. (AN v 111)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhānā, resolve

For a khattiya (khattiyā), gaining power is his resolve (balādhiṭṭhānā).

For a brahman, learning the sacred texts is his resolve (mantādhiṭṭhānā).

For a householder, gaining a craft is his resolve (sippādhiṭṭhānā).

For a woman, having a son is her resolve (puttādhiṭṭhānā).

For a thief, gaining a caravan is his resolve (saṭhādhiṭṭhānā).

For an ascetic (samaṇā) maintaining virtue is his resolve (sīlādhiṭṭhānā) (AN iii 363).

anadhiṭṭhānā

anadhiṭṭhānā: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: anadhiṭṭhānā, firmly reject

Some ascetic or Brahmanist may… in every way firmly reject the ties to individual existence in the sensuous plane of existence

sabbaso kāmasaṁyojanānaṁ anadhiṭṭhānā. (MN ii 237)

adhiṭṭhāti

adhiṭṭhāti: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, doggedly assume

He clings to bodily form, grasps it, and doggedly assumes that bodily form is “my [absolute] Selfhood.”

so rūpaṁ upeti upādiyati adhiṭṭhāti attā me ti. (SN iii 114)

adhiṭṭhātabbā

adhiṭṭhātabbā: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhātabbā, concentrate

When resentment has arisen for someone (āghāto jāyetha), one can concentrate on the ownership of karmically consequential conduct by that person

kammassakatā tasmiṁ puggale adhiṭṭhātabbā

‘This Venerable is owner of his karmically consequential conduct, inheritor of it, born of it, intimately related to it, has it as his refuge. He is the inheritor of whatever karmically consequential conduct he undertakes whether meritorious or demeritorious’

kammassako ayamāyasmā kammadāyādo… tassa dāyādo bhavissatī ti).

This is how resentment for that person can be dispelled

evaṁ tasmiṁ puggale āghāto paṭivinetabbo) (AN iii 185)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, concentrate

In this regard a bhikkhu possesses faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], virtue, learning, generosity, and wisdom. He thinks, ‘Oh, that at the demise of the body at death, I might be reborn in the company of wealthy khattiyas.’ He fixes his mind on that idea, concentrates on it, and develops it

so taṁ cittaṁ dahati taṁ cittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti taṁ cittaṁ bhāveti).

These aspirations and musings of his, when developed and cultivated, lead to his rebirth there (MN iii 99).

svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhehi

svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhehi: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhehi, properly concentrate

Out of tender concern the Teacher gave me a [clean] foot-cloth, [saying]: ‘Properly concentrate on this pure thing somewhere quiet.’

Anukampāya me satthā pādāsi pādapuñchaniṁ
Etaṁ suddhaṁ adhiṭṭhehi ekamantaṁ svadhiṭṭhitaṁ. (Tha 560)

Comment

Commentary: manasikārena svadhiṭṭhitaṁ katvā.

Rhys Davids: 'Fix thou thy mind on this clean thing, the while/Well concentrated thou dost sit apart.

Illustration: svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhāti, properly concentrate

Suppose a foolish mountain cow―foolish, incompetent, unknowledgeable about roaming mountains, improficient―were to think, 'How about if I ate grass I have never eaten before and drank water I have never drunk before?' She would lift her hind hoof without having firmly placed her front hoof and thus would not go where she had never gone before. And neither would she safely return to where she had come from.

In the same way, a bhikkhu―foolish, incompetent, unknowledgeable about first jhāna, improficient―enters first jhāna but does not stick with that [successful] meditation object (so taṁ nimittaṁ na āsevati), does not develop it (na bhāveti), cultivate it (na bahulīkaroti), or properly concentrate on it (na svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhāti). The thought occurs to him, 'How about if I entered second jhāna?’ He is not able to so. And when he tries to re-enter first jhāna he is not able to do that either. This is called a bhikkhu who has slipped and fallen from both sides, like the foolish mountain cow (AN iv 418).

adhiṭṭheyyāsi

adhiṭṭheyyāsi: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭheyyāsi, concentrate

If the torpor is unabandoned, then focus on the mental image of light (ālokasaññaṁ manasikareyyāsi), concentrate on the mental image of day (divāsaññaṁ adhiṭṭheyyāsi). As by day, so at night; as at night, so by day (yathā divā tathā rattiṁ yathā rattiṁ tathā divā).

If the torpor is unabandoned, then perceiving the constant nature of reality (pacchāpuresaññī), concentrate on pacing back and forth (caṅkamaṁ adhiṭṭheyyāsi), your senses inwardly immersed (antogatehi indriyehi), your mind not straying outwards (abahigatena mānasena) (AN iv 86).

Illustration: adiṭṭhāti, concentrate

Possessed of three factors a shopkeeper is unable to either gain or develop wealth. What three? Neither in the morning, afternoon, or evening does he carefully concentrate on his business

na sakkaccaṁ kammantaṁ adiṭṭhāti

Likewise, possessed of three factors a bhikkhu is incapable of either gaining an unattained spiritually wholesome factor, or developing an attained spiritually wholesome factor. Which three? Neither in the morning, afternoon, or evening does he carefully concentrate on an object of meditation

na sakkaccaṁ samādhinimittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti. (AN i 115)

adhiṭṭheyya

adhiṭṭheyya: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭheyya, concentrate on

The Mettā Sutta says an arahant would have an unlimited attitude to all beings (sabbabhūtesū mānasaṁ bhāvaye aparimānaṁ) and that as long as he was free of torpor (yāvatassa vigatamiddho) he would concentrate on this [practice] mindfully (etaṁ satiṁ adhiṭṭheyya) (Snp 151).

adhiṭṭhenti

adhiṭṭhenti: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhenti, organise

Those bhikkhus who organised the building work

yepi bhikkhū navakammaṁ adhiṭṭhenti. (Vin.2.159)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, organise

When a bhikkhu is having a hut built for himself by a benefactor, then standing where there are no crops (appaharite ṭhitena), he should organise the use of a method that involves two or three layers of facing material (dvatticchadanassa pariyāyaṁ adhiṭṭhātabbanti) around the door. Should he organise the use of more than that, even if standing where there are no crops (tato ce uttariṁ appaharite pi ṭhito adhiṭṭhaheyya), it is an offence of pācittiya.

If he organises (the work) standing where there are crops it is a dukkaṭa offence (sace harite ṭhito adhiṭṭhāti āpatti dukkaṭassa) (Vin.4.47-8).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāyā, organise

It is an offence for a bhikkhu to commit an act of murder either by doing it himself or by organising someone else to do it, which is defined as:

• ‘by organising’ means: while organising he orders “Hit thus. Strike thus. Kill thus”’

Adhiṭṭhāyā ti adhiṭṭhahitvā āṇāpeti evaṁ vijjha evaṁ pahara evaṁ ghātehī ti. (Vin.3.74)

adhiṭṭhātuṁ

adhiṭṭhātuṁ: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhātuṁ, formally determine [as personal possessions]

I allow you bhikkhus to formally determine the three robes [as personal possessions]

Anujānāmi bhikkhave ticīvaraṁ adhiṭṭhātuṁ. (Vin.1.297)

adhiṭṭhātabbo

adhiṭṭhātabbo: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhātabbo, formally determine [as a water-strainer]

Bhikkhus travelling a highroad should carry a water-strainer.

• If there is no strainer or regulation water-pot, then a corner of the outer robe should be formally determined [as a water-strainer] with the words “I will drink [water] having strained it with this.’

Sace na hoti parissāvanaṁ vā dhammakarako vā saṅghāṭikaṇṇo pi adhiṭṭhātabbo iminā parissāvetvā pivissāmī ti. (Vin.2.119)

adhiṭṭhahaṁ

adhiṭṭhahaṁ: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhahaṁ, resolve

If one’s energy is excessive it leads to restlessness; if too lax it leads to indolence. Therefore Soṇa, resolve [to apply yourself] moderately energetically.

accāraddhaṁ viriyaṁ uddhaccāya saṁvattati. Atilīnaṁ viriyaṁ kosajjāya saṁvattati. Tasmātiha tvaṁ soṇa viriyasamataṁ adhiṭṭhaha. (AN iii 376)

Illustration: anadhiṭṭhāya, firmly rejecting

Firmly rejecting the ego, I saw the supreme landing-place.

Anadhiṭṭhāya attānaṁ titthamaddakkhimuttamaṁ. (Tha 766)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāya, firmly established

The Blessed One suppressed his illness with energy and lived on having firmly established the aspiration for further life.

Atha kho bhagavā taṁ ābādhaṁ viriyena paṭippanāmetvā jīvitasaṅkhāraṁ adhiṭṭhāya vihāsi. (DN ii 99; SN v 153)

adhiṭṭhito

adhiṭṭhito: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhito, committed

They considered him wise when he was committed to faring alone, but now that he is devoted to sexual intercourse he is harassed as a fool.

Paṇḍito ti samaññāto ekacariyaṁ adhiṭṭhito
Athāpi methune yutto mandova parikissati. (Snp 824)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhitaṁ, firmly established

The Buddha, cleanser of virulent spiritual flaws, removed the spiritual shackle [of grasping] which had long been lurking in me, long been firmly established in me.

Dīgharattānusayitaṁ cirarattamadhiṭṭhitaṁ
Buddho me pānudi ganthaṁ visadosappavāhano ti. (Tha 768)

adhiṭṭhahī

adhiṭṭhahī: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhahī, firmly established

The Buddha is ‘firmly established in non-anger’

Illustration: adhiṭṭhitaṁ, controlled

Being [yourself] controlled by the power of the four perversions [of perception, mind, and view], mind, you lead me round and round like an ox around the threshing-floor.

Catubbipallāsavasaṁ adhiṭṭhitaṁ gomaṇḍalaṁ va parinesi citta maṁ. (Tha 1143)

COMMENT

Catubbipallāsa: ‘the four perversions [of perception, mind, and view].’ Cattāro'me bhikkhave saññāvipallāsā cittavipallāsā diṭṭhivipallāsā. Katame cattāro? Anicce bhikkhave niccanti… Dukkhe bhikkhave sukhanti… Anattani bhikkhave attāti… Asubhe bhikkhave subhan ti saññāvipallāso cittavipallāso diṭṭhivipallāso. (AN ii 52)

adhimuccati

Renderings
Introduction: correcting the texts

Reading vimuccati as adhimuccati

Both VRI and BJT Pāli editions agree that the word sequence cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati is followed by either vimuccati or adhimuccati. In every case we prefer adhimuccati. The commentaries support us in two cases. The readings are as follows:

Horner vs. Trenkner

Concerning the occurrence at MN i 435, Horner praises the reading pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati, saying:

• ‘The compilers were right to vary the last of the four verbs’ (note to MN i 435).

However, she admits that in saying so she contradicts Trenkner, who ‘says he should have adopted’ adhimuccati.

Bodhi: adhimuccati ‘makes better sense’

Bodhi supports Trenckner. In notes to the Aṅguttara references he says:

  • ‘Though all three editions here read vimuccati, Mp [commentary] glosses the word with adhimuccati. The latter makes better sense to me. The manuscript traditions, as well as printed editions, show irregular variations between these two readings throughout the Nikāyas.’ (note to AN iii 245, NDB n.1206).
  • Mp glosses vimuccati here as “liberated from the opposing qualities” (paccanlkadhammehi ca vimuccati). Since all three editions, with the support of Mp [commentary], have vimuccati, I translate in conformity with this reading, but I think it likely that the original reading was adhimuccati, “resolved upon” or “focused on.” As the text unfolds with respect to the successive meditative attainments, in each case the bodhisatta is vimuccati/adhimuccati upon the attainment before he actually achieves it. In such a context being “focused on” rather than “liberated in” makes better sense (note to AN iv 439, NDB n.1943).

Conclusion

At all references we read adhimuccati.

Illustrations
adhimucceyya

adhimucceyya: (main article see: adhimuccati)

Illustration: adhimucceyya, focus on

A bhikkhu with psychic power and mental mastery could, if he wished, focus on the solidness of that wooden log.

Ākaṅkhamāno āvuso bhikkhu iddhimā cetovasippatto amuṁ dārukkhandhaṁ paṭhavītveva adhimucceyya. (AN iii 340-1)

adhimutto

adhimutto: (main article see: adhimuccati)

Illustration: adhimutto, focused on

One is focused exclusively on the Exquisite. This is the third state of refined awareness.

Subhanteva adhimutto hoti. Ayaṁ tatiyo vimokkho. (MN ii 13; AN iv 307)

Illustration: adhimuccati, intent upon

In seeing a visible object via the visual sense, a bhikkhu is not intent upon an agreeable visible object, nor troubled by a disagreeable visible object.

Idha bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā piyarūpe rūpe nādhimuccati appiyarūpe rūpe na vyāpajjati. (SN iv 119)

Illustration: adhimuccati, intent upon

A bhikkhu when contemplating sensuous pleasure his mind does not become energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it. But when contemplating the practice of unsensuousness his mind becomes energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno kāmaṁ manasikaroto kāmesu cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati). Nekkhammaṁ kho panassa manasikaroto nekkhamme cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati) . (AN iii 245)

nādhimuccati

nādhimuccati: (main article see: adhimuccati)

Illustration: nādhimuccati, undecided about

One is unsure, doubtful, undecided about, and has no faith in

idhāvuso bhikkhu satthari… dhamme… saṅghe… sikkhāya… kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati

  • the [perfection of the] Teacher’s [enlightenment]
  • the [excellence of the] teaching
  • the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples
  • the [excellence of the] training (DN iii 237-8).

Illustration: nādhimuccati, undecided

Three states of unsureness (tisso kaṅkhā)

• One is unsure

• one is doubtful about

• one is undecided

• one is unsettled

about the [nature of reality in the] periods of the past, the future, and the present.

atītaṁ vā addhānaṁ ārabbha kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati

anāgataṁ vā addhānaṁ ārabbha kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati

etarahi vā paccuppannaṁ addhānaṁ ārabbha kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati. (DN iii 217)

anaññaposin

Renderings
Introduction

Comprehending anaññaposin

Anaññaposin occurs five times in the scriptures, and always in verse. It is associated with bhikkhus who walk on uninterrupted almsround (called sapadānacārī, MN i 30). This is an austere practice (dhutaguṇa, Vin.3.15) according to which a bhikkhu visits all houses on an almsroute, and therefore does not cultivate special supporters.

Comprehending anaññaposin is confounded by the other meanings of poseti and its derivatives. The PED, for example, suggests anaññaposino means ‘not nourished by another’ (see under posin). Norman calls it ‘not supporting others’ (Snp 65). From this, we see the extent of the puzzle:

1) Question: Is anaññaposino passive or active?

2) Question: Are bhikkhus on almsround not nourished by others?

3) Question: Do good bhikkhus not support others?

Objectives

In considering this issue, we will accomplish the following objectives:

1) We will review the meanings of poseti, and will show it means either to nourish or take care of.

2) We will confirm that bhikkhus are supported by others.

3) We will confirm that it is meritorious to take care of others by sharing one’s almsfood with them.

4) We will show that anaññaposin is a synonym of attabhara (‘self-reliant’), and is therefore passive in meaning.

5) We will show that anaññaposin is a synonym of kule kule appaṭibaddhacitto, which means ‘not emotionally bound to any particular family.’

6) In conclusion, we will show that anaññaposin means that a bhikkhu who collects food on uninterrupted house-to-house almsround is not supported by a patron, and has many admirable qualities. Even the devas envy such a bhikkhu.

Puṭṭha: nourished

Puṭṭha is the past participle of poseti. Here it means ‘to nourish’:

• Like a hero nourished on royal food

Sūro yathā rājakhādāya puṭṭho. (Snp 831)

Posakā: feeding

Posakā means ‘feeding’:

• Parents are of great help to their children, in nursing them, feeding them, and showing them the world.

bahukārā bhikkhave mātāpitaro puttānaṁ āpādakā posakā imassa lokassa dassetāro. (AN i 62)

Posa: support

Posa is the absolutive of poseti. In the following passage it means ‘to support,’ where ‘difficult to support’ could mean either financially difficult to support, or emotionally difficult to support:

• Formerly, the bhikkhus lived happily, the disciples of Gotama. They sought their almsfood without desire. They used their abodes without desire. Knowing the world’s unlastingness [according to reality], they put an end to suffering.

Sukhajivino pure āsuṁ bhikkhū gotamasāvakā
Anicchā piṇḍamesanā anicchā sayanāsanaṁ
Loke aniccataṁ ñatvā dukkhassantaṁ akaṁsu te.

… But now, like headmen in a village, they make themselves difficult to support. They eat and eat, and then lie down, infatuated with other people’s homes.

Dupposaṁ katvā attānaṁ gāme gāmaṇikā viya
Bhūtvā bhutvā nipajjanti parāgāresu mucchitā. (SN i 61)

Poseti: to take care of

Poseti means ‘to take care of’:

• Then the brahman who took care of his mother said to the Blessed One

mātuposako brāhmaṇo bhagavantaṁ etadavoca.

• Master Gotama, I seek almsfood righteously and thereby take care of my parents. In doing so, am I doing my duty?

Ahaṁ hi bho gotama dhammena bhikkhaṁ pariyesāmi. Dhammena bhikkhaṁ pariyesitvā mātāpitaro posemi. Kaccāhaṁ bho gotama evaṁkārī kiccakārī homī ti?

• Certainly, brahman, in doing so you are doing your duty. One who seeks almsfood righteously and thereby takes care of his parents begets much merit.

Taggha tvaṁ brāhmaṇa evaṁkārī kiccakārī hosi. Yo kho brāhmaṇa dhammena bhikkhaṁ pariyesati. Dhammena bhikkhaṁ pariyesitvā mātāpitaro poseti. Bahuṁ so puññaṁ pasavatī ti. (SN i 181-2)

Poseti: to take care of

Jīvaka, as a newborn baby, was discovered on a rubbish heap by Prince Abhaya, who told his men:

• Well, sirs, take that boy to our women’s quarters and give him to nurses to be taken care of (posetuṁ).

Tena hi bhaṇe taṁ dārakaṁ amhākaṁ antepuraṁ netvā dhātīnaṁ detha posetun ti.

… The men took the boy to Prince Abhaya’s women’s quarters and gave him to nurses saying, ‘Take care of him’ (posethā)

taṁ dārakaṁ abhayassa rājakumārassa antepuraṁ netvā dhātīnaṁ adaṁsu posethā ti.

… Because it was said of him ‘He’s alive,’ they named him Jīvaka.

Tassa jīvatī ti jīvako ti nāmaṁ akaṁsu.

… Because the Prince had him taken care of (posāpito), they called him Komārabhacca.

Kumārena posāpito ti komārabhacco ti nāmaṁ akaṁsu

In due course, Jīvaka Komārabhacca approached Prince Abhaya, and asked:

• Who, sire, is my mother? Who is my father?

kā me deva mātā? Ko pitā ti.

• Not even I, good Jīvaka, know your mother, but I am your father, for I had you taken care of (posāpito).

Ahampi kho te bhaṇe jīvaka mātaraṁ na jānāmi. Apicāhaṁ te pitā. Mayāsi posāpito ti. (Vin.1.269)

COMMENT

Apicāhaṁ te pitā. Mayāsi posāpito ti. Word play.

Synonym: attabharassa

Anaññaposino is a synonym of attabharassa (‘self-reliant’), so it is passive not active:

• The devas envy the bhikkhu who collects his food on almsround, who is self-reliant, not supported by a patron, inwardly at peace, and continuously mindful.

Piṇḍapātikassa bhikkhuno attabharassa anaññaposino.
Devā pihayanti tādino upasantassa sadā satimato ti. (Uda 30)

Context: Venerable MahāKassapa walking on uninterrupted house-to-house almsround in Rājagaha.

Not supported by a patron: not emotionally bound to any particular family

The following verse from the Khagaggavisāṇa Sutta repeatedly shows that a bhikkhu who is anaññaposī has no patron. Of particular interest is the link to kule kule appaṭibaddhacitto. The verse could be cynically interpreted as saying that patrons are for greedy, self-indulgent bhikkhus who do not walk on uninterrupted house-to-house almsround, and who are emotionally attached to particular supporters:

• Having no greed for flavours, not self-indulgent, not supported by a patron, walking on uninterrupted house-to-house almsround, not emotionally bound to any particular family, one should live the religious life as solitarily as a rhinoceros horn.

Rasesu gedhaṁ akaraṁ alolo anaññaposī sapadānacārī
Kule kule appaṭibaddhacitto eko care khaggavisāṇakappo. (Snp 65)

Conclusion

1) We have reviewed the possible meanings of poseti, and shown it means either to nourish or to take care of.

2) We have confirmed that bhikkhus are supported by others.

3) We have confirmed that it is meritorious to take care of others by sharing one’s almsfood with them.

4) We have showed that anaññaposin is a synonym of attabhara (‘self-reliant’), and is therefore passive in meaning.

5) We have shown that anaññaposin is a synonym of kule kule appaṭibaddhacitto, which means ‘not emotionally bound to any particular family.’

6) In conclusion, we have shown that anaññaposin means that bhikkhu who collects food on uninterrupted house-to-house almsround is not supported by a patron, and has many admirable qualities. Even the devas envy such a bhikkhu.

Illustrations

Illustration: anaññaposin, not supported by a patron

This bhikkhu Brahmadeva, madam, free of attachment has surpassed the devas. Liberated from the perception of existence, not supported by a patron, this very bhikkhu has entered your house for alms.

Eso hi te brāhmaṇī brahmadevo nirupadhiko atidevappatto
Akiñcano bhikkhu anaññaposī yo te so piṇḍāya gharaṁ paviṭṭho. (SN i 141)

Context: Venerable Brahmadeva walking on uninterrupted almsround in Sāvatthī.

Illustration: anaññaposin, not supported by a patron

One who is not supported by a patron, not well-known, inwardly tamed, established in excellent qualities, whose āsavas are destroyed, and who is free of spiritual flaws, he is what I call a Brahman.

Anaññaposiṁ aññātaṁ dantaṁ sāre patiṭṭhitaṁ
Khīṇāsavaṁ vantadosaṁ tamahaṁ brūmi brāhmaṇan ti. (Uda 4)

Context: Venerable MahāKassapa (‘not well-known’!) walking on almsround in the poor district of Rājagaha.

Illustration: anaññaposin, not supported by a patron

The devas envy the bhikkhu who collects his food on almsround, who is self-reliant, not supported by a patron, but not if it is based on desire for praise and fame.

Piṇḍapātikassa bhikkhuno attabharassa anaññaposino
Devā pihayanti tādino no ce saddasilokanissito ti. (Uda 31)

Context: Bhikkhus walking on almsround for selfish reasons.

anaṇa

Renderings
Introduction

Etymology: aṇa and iṇa

Aṇa occurs only as anaṇa. Its synonym is iṇa. Sāṇo is sa + iṇo=‘not free of karmic debt.’

Karmic debt

Karmic debt is defined in this quote:

• He misconducts himself by way of body, speech, and mind. This, I declare, is getting into karmic debt.

kāyena duccaritaṁ carati vācāya duccaritaṁ carati manasā duccaritaṁ carati. Idamassa iṇādānasmiṁ vadāmi. (AN iii 352)

Freedom from karmic debt

‘Free of karmic debt’ is illustrated in Aṅgulimāla’s verse.

• While I undertook much karmically consequential conduct that leads to [rebirth in] the plane of misery, yet its karmic consequence has reached me now. I enjoy my food free of karmic debt.

Tādisaṁ kammaṁ katvāna bahuṁ duggatigāminaṁ;
Phuṭṭho kammavipākena anaṇo bhuñjāmi bhojanaṁ. (MN ii 105)

Debtlessness

The meaning ‘debtlessness’ is seen in this passage:

• And what is the pleasure of debtlessness?

Katamañca gahapati anaṇasukhaṁ?

… In this regard a noble young man owes no debt great or small to anyone. At the thought: I owe no debt, great or small, to anyone, physical and psychological pleasure come to him. This, householder, is called the pleasure of debtlessness.

Idha gahapati kulaputto na kassaci kiñci dhāreti appaṁ vā bahuṁ vā. So na kassaci kiñci dhāremi appaṁ vā bahuṁ vā ti adhigacchati sukhaṁ adhigacchati somanassaṁ. Idaṁ vuccati gahapati anaṇasukhaṁ. (AN ii 69)

Illustrations
anaṇā

anaṇā: (main article see: anaṇa)

Illustration: anaṇā, not in karmic debt

We have brought about your death, sensuous yearning. Now we are no longer in karmic debt on account of you.

Vadhaṁ carimha te kāma anaṇā dāni te mayaṁ. (Tha 138)

COMMENTS

1) We take te as instrumental case.

2) Karmic debt on account of sensuous yearning can be explained like this:

• What is the consequence of sensuous yearnings?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kāmānaṁ vipāko

… In one yearning for sensuous pleasure a corresponding personal disposition is manifested, either meritorious or demeritorious.

yaṁ kho bhikkhave kāmayamāno tajjaṁ tajjaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinibbatteti puññabhāgiyaṁ vā apuññabhāgiyaṁ vā ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave kāmānaṁ vipāko. (AN iii 411)

sāṇo

sāṇo: (main article see: anaṇa)

Illustration: sāṇo, not free of karmic debt

• For seven days I ate the country’s almsfood whilst not free of karmic debt. But on the eighth day [complete] knowledge [of things according to reality] arose in me.

sattāhameva kho ahaṁ āvuso sāṇo raṭṭhapiṇḍaṁ bhuñjiṁ. Atha aṭṭhamiyā aññā udapādi. (SN ii 221)

COMMENT

‘[Complete] knowledge [of things according to reality]’: arahantship is associated with sammadaññā, e.g. sammadaññā vimutto (MN i 235), sammadaññāya paṇḍitā (Snp 733).

COMMENT

Sāṇo is sa + iṇo.

anamatagga

Renderings
Introduction

Anamatagga: uncertain derivation

Anamatagga has long been a source of controversy. The difficulty of the word is acknowledged by PED when it says: ‘The meaning can best be seen, not from the derivation (which is uncertain), but from the examples quoted.’

Translators’ renderings

Translators render it in the following ways:

• ‘The journeying-on as being without beginning and end’

• ‘This saṁsāra is without discoverable beginning’

anamataggoyaṁ bhikkhave saṁsāro. (Bodhi, SN v 441)

Thus anamatagga potentially means:

1) endless

2) beginningless

3) without discoverable beginning

We will now show the problem of these terms, and we will show why we follow PED’s ‘whose beginning and end are alike unthinkable,’ and the commentary’s (ad SN ii 178) aparicchinnapubbāparakoṭikoti attho (‘first and last point cannot be determined’).

Endlessness: the problem

1) The problem with calling the round of birth and death ‘endless’ is that arahants have ended it, and others will follow. The most one could say is ‘potentially endless’ or ‘perhaps endless for some.’

2) The second problem with calling the round of birth and death ‘endless’ is that the Buddha did not quite say that when he said:

• There comes a time when the great ocean dries up, evaporates, and exists no more, but not, I declare, an ending of suffering for beings roaming and wandering the round of birth and death, [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving.

Hoti kho so bhikkhave samayo yaṁ mahāsamuddo ussussati visussati na bhavani na tvevāhaṁ bhikkhave avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ sandhāvataṁ saṁsarataṁ dukkhassa antakiriyaṁ vadāmi. (SN iii 149)

To say that beings will continue to suffer as long as they wander the round of birth and death, is not to say that the round of birth and death is endless.

Beginningless: the problem

The problem with calling the round of birth and death ‘beginningless’ is that the Buddha again did not quite say that when he said ‘a first point is not to be discerned’ (pubbā koṭi na paññāyati, SN ii 181).

Without discoverable beginning: the problem

The problem with saying anamataggoyaṁ means ‘saṁsāra is without discoverable beginning’ is that sometimes anamataggoyaṁ is used in reference to the future. For example, the Sattisata Sutta (SN v 441) says a man may be offered the opportunity to penetrate the four noble truths on the condition that he agrees to receive 300 spear wounds a day for a hundred years. Then the sutta says:

• It would be fitting for a noble young man intent on [the development of his own] spiritual well-being to accept the offer. For what reason? Because the round of birth and death is anamatagga. A first point is not to be discerned of [a receiving of] blows by knives, swords, arrows, and axes.

Atthavasikena bhikkhave kulaputtena alaṁ upagantuṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Anamataggoyaṁ bhikkhave saṁsāro pubbā koṭi na paññāyati sattippahārānaṁ asippahārānaṁ usuppahārānaṁ pharasuppahārānaṁ

The logic for accepting the offer would be that saṁsāra is ‘without discoverable end,’ not ‘without discoverable beginning.’

Anamatagga: etymology

Anamatagga is etymologically ana (= a neg.) + mata (fr. man) + aggā (pl.) (PED), which have the following meanings:

  • mata is the past participle of maññati, meaning ‘thought, understood, considered.’ From this we call anamata ‘beyond conception.’
  • Agga means ‘the very tip, the very end’ (DOP sv Agga1).
  • PED takes agga as aggā (plural) and translates the term ‘whose beginning and end are alike unthinkable.’ DOP says ‘without beginning (or end).’
  • That agga can mean ‘beginning’ is seen in the term aggena (‘in the beginning, beginning from, from,’ PED sv Agga1) and aggañña (‘recognized as primitive primeval’).
  • That agga can mean ‘end’ is seen here:

‘While bhikkhus are investigating that legal matter endless brawls arise.

Tehi ce bhikkhave tasmiṁ adhikaraṇe vinicchiyamāne anaggāni ceva bhassāni jāyanti. (Vin.2.95)

If ana-aggā means ‘without beginning or end,’ it means ‘long-lasting.’ This is supported by quotes where the adjective is ‘long’: Dīgho vo saṁsāro (Thi 474).

Anamatagga: endless beyond conception

Where the object is not the round of birth and death, we say ‘endless beyond conception’:

For the fool, the round of birth and death is [truly] long-lasting, weeping again and again over the deaths of his fathers, the killings of his brothers, and the punishments of himself, which are endless beyond conception.

Dīgho bālānaṁ saṁsāro punappunañca rodataṁ
Anamatagge pitumaraṇe bhātuvadhe attano ca vadhe. (Thi 495)

Illustrations

Illustration: anamatagga, long-lasting beyond conception

So long is the period of a universal cycle, bhikkhu. And of universal cycles of such length, we have wandered the round of birth and death for the periods of so many universal cycles, so many hundreds of universal cycles, so many thousands of universal cycles, so many hundreds of thousands of universal cycles. For what reason?

Evaṁ dīgho kho bhikkhu kappo. Evaṁ dīghānaṁ kho bhikkhu kappānaṁ neko kappo saṁsito nekaṁ kappasataṁ saṁsitaṁ nekaṁ kappasahassaṁ saṁsitaṁ nekaṁ kappasatasahassaṁ saṁsitaṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu?

Because, bhikkhu, the round of birth and death is long-lasting beyond conception.

Anamataggoyaṁ bhikkhu saṁsāro

A first point is not to be discerned of beings [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving, roaming and wandering the round of birth and death.

pubbā koṭi na paññāyati avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ sandhāvataṁ saṁsarataṁ. (SN ii 181-2)

Illustration: anamatagga, long-lasting beyond conception

Suppose a man cut up whatever grass, sticks, branches, and foliage there are in this great subcontinent and collected them into a single heap of sticks four fingerbreadths long, and placed them down one by one, saying:

Seyyathā pi bhikkhave puriso yaṁ imasmiṁ jambudīpe tīṇakaṭṭhasākhāpalāsaṁ taṁ chetvā ekajjhaṁ saṁhareyya ekajjhaṁ saṁharitvā caturaṅgulaṁ caturaṅgulaṁ ghaṭikaṁ karitvā nikkhipeyya

‘This is my mother, this my mother’s mother.’

ayaṁ me mātā tassā me mātu ayaṁ mātā ti

The sequence of that man’s mothers, and mothers of mothers, would not be exhausted, yet the grass, wood, branches, and foliage in this great subcontinent would be finished and exhausted. For what reason?

Apariyādinnāva bhikkhave tassa purisassa mātu mātaro assu. Atha imasmiṁ jambudīpe tiṇakaṭṭhasākhāpalāsaṁ parikkhayaṁ pariyādānaṁ gaccheyya. Taṁ kissa hetu?

Because the round of birth and death is long-lasting beyond conception. A first point is not to be discerned of beings roaming and wandering the round of birth and death, [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving.

Anamataggoyaṁ bhikkhave saṁsāro pubbā koṭi na paññāyati avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ sandhāvataṁ saṁsarataṁ. (SN ii 178)

Illustration: anamatagga, long-lasting beyond conception

It would be fitting for a noble young man intent on [the development of his own] spiritual well-being to accept the offer. For what reason? Because the round of birth and death is long-lasting beyond conception. A first point is not to be discerned of [a receiving of] blows by knives, swords, arrows, and axes.

Atthavasikena bhikkhave kulaputtena alaṁ upagantuṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Anamataggoyaṁ bhikkhave saṁsāro pubbā koṭi na paññāyati sattippahārānaṁ asippahārānaṁ usuppahārānaṁ pharasuppahārānaṁ. (SN v 441)

anālaya

Renderings
Introduction

1) Ālayo: ‘repository,’ ‘shelter’ or ‘abode’

The noun ālayo has two broad meanings. Firstly ‘repository,’ ‘shelter’ or ‘abode’:

• ‘the great ocean, fearsome repository of heaps of gems’

mahāsaraṁ bahubheravaṁ ratanagaṇānamālayaṁ. (SN v 400)

• the terrified crane ‘takes flight, looking for shelter’

• the body, ‘the abode of many miseries’

2) Ālayo: ‘clinging,’ ‘adhering to.’ Anālayo: ‘letting go.’

We concentrate here on the second broad meaning, calling ālaya ‘clinging’ or ‘adhering to,’ and anālayo ‘letting go.’

Illustrations
allīyissanti

allīyissanti: (main article see: anālaya)

Illustration: allīyissanti, adhere to

Shall it be that those non-Buddhist ascetics, whose teachings are badly explained, should adhere to and undertake a rains residency period?

vassāvāsaṁ allīyissanti saṅkāsayissanti.

Shall it be that these birds, having made nests in the tree-tops, should adhere to and undertake a rains residency period?

vassāvāsaṁ allīyissanti saṅkāsayissanti.

But these ascetic disciples of the Sakyans’ Son, walk on tour during the cold season, hot season, and wet season, trampling down crops and grass, and bring about the death of many small beings (Vin.1.137).

allīyetha

allīyetha: (main article see: anālaya)

Illustration: allīyetha, to cling to

But if you cling to, prize, treasure, and cherish this perception [of reality] so perfect and pure would you then have understood that the teaching explained by me is comparable to a raft, being for the sake of crossing [the flood of suffering], not for the sake of clinging to it?

Imañce tumhe bhikkhave diṭṭhiṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ allīyetha keḷāyetha dhanāyetha mamāyetha api nu tumhe bhikkhave kullūpamaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājāneyyātha nittharaṇatthāya no gahaṇatthāyāti? . (MN i 260)

allīyanti

allīyanti: (main article see: anālaya)

Illustration: allīyanti, to cling to

So long as they are not free of attachment, desire, love, thirst, passion, and craving regarding those sand castles, they cling to them, prize, treasure, and cherish them.

yāvakivañca tesu paṁsvāgārakesu avigatarāgā honti avigatacchandā avigatapemā avigatapipāsā avigatapariḷāhā avigatataṇhā tāva tāni paṁsvāgārakāni allīyanti kelāyanti dhanāyanti mamāyanti. (SN iii 190)

ālayo

ālayo: (main article see: anālaya)

Illustration: ālayo, clinging

The fondness, clinging, attraction, and cleaving within these five grasped aggregates is the origin of suffering.

Yo imesu pañcasupādānakkhandhesu chando ālayo anunayo ajjhosānaṁ so dukkhasamudayo. (MN i 191)

ālaya

ālaya: (main article see: anālaya)

Illustration: ālaya, clinging

For beings who take pleasure and delight in clinging, finding satisfaction in clinging

ālayarāmāya kho pana pajāya ālayaratāya ālayasammuditāya. (MN i 167)

Illustration: ālaya, clinging; anālaye, letting go

Beings take pleasure and delight in clinging, find satisfaction in clinging. But they really listen to the teaching of letting go taught to them by the Perfect One, they lend an ear, they apply their minds to understand [it].

ālayārāmā bhikkhave pajā ālayaratā ālayasammuditā sā tathāgatena anālaye dhamme desiyamāne sussūsati sotaṁ odahati aññācittaṁ upaṭṭhapeti. (AN ii 131)

anālayo

anālayo: (main article see: anālaya)

Illustration: anālayo, letting go

The complete passing away and ending of this same craving, the giving up and relinquishment of it, the freedom from it, the letting go of it, is called the ending of suffering.

Yo tassāyeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti anālayo ayaṁ vuccatāvuso dukkhanirodho. (MN i 49)

Illustration: anālaya, letting go

Bhikkhus, I will teach you letting go and the path leading to letting go. Please listen.

anālayañca vo bhikkhave desissāmi anālayagāmiñca maggaṁ taṁ suṇātha

And what is letting go? The destruction of attachment, the destruction of hatred, the destruction of undiscernment of reality: this is called letting go.

Katamañca bhikkhave anālayaṁ: yo bhikkhave rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave anālayaṁ

And what is the path leading to letting go?

Katamo ca bhikkhave anālayagāmī maggo

Inward calm and insightfulness: this is called the path leading to letting go

samatho ca vipassanā ca. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave anālayagāmī maggo. (SN iv 369)

nicca

anicca

Renderings
Introduction

Step-by-step change

Anicca concerns change that is either step-by-step or continuous. For example, the Sattasuriyuggamana Sutta (AN iv 100) describes seven successive disasters that will step-by-step destroy Planet Earth. Firstly the vegetation will be destroyed, then the rivers and lakes, the oceans, the mountains, and finally the planet itself. Each destructive step is said to illustrate anicca (evaṁ aniccā bhikkhave saṅkhārā).

• Bhikkhus, there comes a time when for many hundreds and thousands of years there is no rain. Without rain, all grass and vegetation, all trees yielding medicine, all the palms and giants of the jungle become parched and dried up and are no more. Thus unlasting are originated phenomena.

evaṁ aniccā bhikkhave saṅkhārā. (AN iv 101)

Continuous change

More usually, however, anicca refers to a continuous process, where the practice involves the uninterrupted observation of change. For example:

• Some person abides contemplating unlastingness in relation to all originated phenomena, perceiving unlastingness, experiencing unlastingness

idhekacco puggalo sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccānupassī viharati aniccasaññī aniccapaṭisaṁvedī

… continuously

… without a break

… uninterruptedly

… intent upon it mentally

… penetrating it with penetrative discernment

We illustrate this idea with the following quote:

• As swift as are the sun and moon, and as swift as are the devas that run before the sun and moon, the factors essential to life perish even more swiftly than that. Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will abide diligently applied [to the practice]’

yathā ca candimasuriyānaṁ javo yathā ca yā devatā candimasuriyānaṁ purato dhāvanti tāsaṁ devatānaṁ javo tato sīghataraṁ āyusaṅkhārā khīyanti. Tasmātiha bhikkhave evaṁ sikkhitabbaṁ appamattā viharissāmā ti. (SN ii 266)

The problem of ‘impermanent’

Anicca is usually termed ‘impermanent.’ And if permanent means ‘continuing or enduring without fundamental or marked change’ (Webster’s), then impermanent means continuing or enduring with fundamental or marked change. In which case, permanence means lastingness without change, and impermanence means lastingness with change. But the concept that things last, continue, or endure to the slightest degree is not supported by the scriptures.

1) Firstly, we have noted that anicca is continuous and uninterrupted, and this discounts any degree of lastingness.

2) Secondly, there are three marks of the originated.

Tīṇi'māni bhikkhave saṅkhatassa saṅkhatalakkhaṇāni

• an arising is discernable

uppādo paññāyati

• a disappearance is discernable

vayo paññāyati

• a changeability while persisting is discernable

ṭhitassa aññathattaṁ paññāyati. (AN i 152)

The idea of ‘changeability while persisting’ again negates any possibility of lastingness. Hence ‘impermanence’ is unsatisfactory for this reason.

Nicca: lasting and everlasting

Nicca stems from ni, which means ‘downward’=onward, on and on, says PED. We give it two meanings corresponding with the two meanings for anicca.

1) When we call it ‘everlasting’, it is commonly linked to ‘eternal’:

• Having passed on, that I will be―everlasting, enduring, eternal, of an unchangeable nature; I will endure like unto eternity itself’:

so pecca bhavissāmi nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassāmī ti. (MN i 138)

2) Where nicca is linked to ‘unlasting’ we call it ‘lasting’:

• Is bodily form lasting or unlasting?

rūpaṁ niccaṁ vā aniccaṁ vā ti. (SN iii 187)

Illustrations
niccā

niccā: (main article see: anicca)

Illustration: niccā, lasting

There are among humans no sensuous pleasures that are lasting.

na santi kāmā manujesu niccā. (SN i 22)

aniccaṁ

aniccaṁ: (main article see: anicca)

Illustration: aniccaṁ, unlasting

You should abandon fondness for what is unlasting.

Yaṁ kho bhikkhu aniccaṁ tatra te chando pahātabbo ti. (SN iii 76)

aniccato

aniccato: (main article see: anicca)

Illustration: aniccato, unlasting

Seeing all states of individual existence [according to reality] as unlasting

Aniccato sabbabhavaṁ vipassaṁ. (Tha 1091)

Illustration: anicca, unlastingness

How is the perception of the unlastingness [of the five aggregates] developed and cultivated?

kathaṁ bhāvitā ca bhikkhave aniccasaññā kathaṁ bahulīkatā…

Such is bodily form, such its origination, such its vanishing etc

Iti rūpaṁ iti rūpassa samudayo iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo. (SN iii 155)

Illustration: anicca, unlastingness; aniccaṁ unlasting

And what, Ānanda, is the perception of the unlastingness [of the five aggregates]

In this regard, Ānanda, a bhikkhu… reflects

The five aggregates are unlasting

rūpaṁ aniccaṁ vedanā aniccā saññā aniccā saṅkhārā aniccā viññāṇaṁ aniccan ti

Thus he abides contemplating unlastingness in relation to these five aggregates

Illustration: anicca, unlastingness

What, Ānanda, is the perception of the unlastingness of all originated phenomena?

Katamācānanda sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccasaññā

In this regard a bhikkhu is revolted, appalled, and disgusted by all originated phenomena.

idhānanda bhikkhu sabbasaṅkhārehi aṭṭīyati harāyati jigucchati.

This, Ānanda, is called the perception of the unlastingness of all originated phenomena

ayaṁ vuccatānanda sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccasaññā. (AN v 111)

Illustration: anicca, unlastingness

To abandon the view that there is sweetness in originated phenomena the perception of the unlastingness [of the five aggregates] should be developed .

Assādadiṭṭhiyā pahānāya aniccasaññā bhāvetabbā. (AN iii 447)

Illustration: anicca, unlastingness

If a bhikkhu’s mind is imbued with the perception of the unlastingness [of the five aggregates], his mind draws back, bends back, turns away from gains, honour, and renown and is not attracted to it, and either indifference or loathing is established in him.

Aniccasaññā paricitena bhikkhave bhikkhuno cetasā bahulaṁ viharato lābhasakkārasiloke cittaṁ patilīyati patikuṭati pativaṭṭati na sampasārīyati upekkhā vā paṭikkūlyatā vā saṇṭhāti. (AN iv 47)

Illustration: anicca, unlastingness

When one abides contemplating unlastingness in relation to the six senses, a repulsion to sensation is established in oneself;

Chasu kho nāgita phassāyatanesu aniccānupassīno viharato phasse pāṭikkūlyatā saṇṭhāti. (AN iii 30)

aniccā

aniccā: (main article see: anicca)

Illustration: aniccā, unlasting

In the past this Mount Vepulla was called Pācinavaṁsa, and the people were called Tivaras whose lifespan was 40,000 years. They could climb Mount Pācinavaṁsa in four days and descend in four days. At that time the Blessed One Kakusandha, arahant, perfectly enlightened, had arisen in the world. His two chief disciples were named Vidhura and Sañjīva, an excellent pair. Now see, bhikkhus! That mountain’s name has disappeared, those people have died, and that Blessed One has passed away to the Untroubled-without-residue.

• Thus unlasting are originated phenomena, thus unenduring are originated phenomena, thus unconsoling are originated phenomena. It is time enough, bhikkhus, to be disillusioned with all originated phenomena, to be unattached to them, to be liberated from them.

Evaṁ aniccā bhikkhave saṅkhārā evaṁ addhuvā bhikkhave saṅkhārā evaṁ anassāsikā bhikkhave saṅkhārā. Yāvañcidaṁ bhikkhave alameva sabbasaṅkhāresu nibbindituṁ alaṁ virajjituṁ alaṁ vimuccituṁ. (SN ii 191)

aniccatā

aniccatā: (main article see: anicca)

Illustration: aniccatā, unlastingness

Now there comes a time, friends, when the external Gaseousness Phenomenon is agitated. It blows away village, town, city, district, and country. But there comes a time when, in the last month of the hot season, people try to stir a breeze with a fan or bellows, and even the grass at the fringe of a thatch roof does not stir.

So when even in the external Gaseousness Phenomenon with all its vastness, unlastingness is discernable, destruction is discernable, disappearance is discernable, changeableness is discernable, then what to say of this short-lasting body?

Tassā hi nāma āvuso bāhirāya vāyodhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati khayadhammatā paññāyissati vayadhammatā paññāyissati vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. Kiṁ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa. (MN i 185-9)

niccaṁ

niccaṁ: (main article see: anicca)

Illustration: niccaṁ, constantly

They extinguish the fire of attachment, constantly perceiving the foul.

Te nibbāpenti rāgaggiṁ niccaṁ asubhasaññino. (Iti 93)

Illustration: niccaṁ, constantly

I go constantly through the mechanism of thought, for my mind, brahman, is joined to him.

Saṅkappayantāya vajāmi niccaṁ mano hi me brāhmaṇa tena yutto. (Snp 1144)

Illustration: niccaṁ, constantly

With those who are constantly energetic.

anīgha

Renderings
Introduction

The derivation of anīgha

DOP says the etymology of anīgha is uncertain, but suggests it means either niddukkha or a + īgha (without evil). But the scriptures do not support this.

Etymology: a + nīgha not a + īgha

The scriptures show that anīgha is a + nīgha not a + īgha. For example, the Kāmabhu Sutta (SN iv 292) says the arahant is called anīgho because he has abandoned rāgo nīgho, doso nīgho, moho nīgho:

• Attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality are spiritual defilements

rāgo kho bhante nīgho doso nīgho moho nīgho

… The arahant has abandoned them, chopped them down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed them, so they will never arise again in future, therefore the arahant is called ‘one who is rid of spiritual defilement’

te khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā tasmā khīṇāsavo bhikkhu anīgho ti vuccati. (SN iv 292)

Nīgha means rāgo, doso and moho

The Kāmabhu Sutta also therefore shows that nīgha means rāgo, doso, and moho.

Nīgha means spiritual defilement

Other suttas show the meaning of anīgha is broader than that, showing that nīgha means spiritual defilement.

1) The Uraga Sutta, quoted more fully below, links it to the abandonment of the five hindrances (yo nīvaraṇe pahāya pañca anīgho).

2) Other suttas associate anīgha with freedom from, for example, longing (nirāsaṁ), doubt (saṁsayaṁ) and attachment (asitaṁ; chinnaganthaṁ; saṁyojanabandhanacchidā). See Illustrations.

Therefore nīgha means any kind of spiritual defilement.

Anīgha means ‘rid of spiritual defilement’

If anīgha means freedom from a broad range of spiritual defilements through their being abandoned, chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, so they will never arise again in future, it is properly represented by the phrase ‘rid of spiritual defilement.’

Spellings, anīgha and anigha

There are two spellings: anīgha and anigha, but anīgha seems more orthodox. Anigha occurs only in verse, suggesting that anīgha becomes anigha for metrical purposes. Indeed, DOP says anīgha is ‘usually unmetrical.’

Illustrations
anigho

anigho: (main article see: anīgha)

Illustration: anigho, rid of spiritual defilement

[The Blessed One:]

‘Indeed, I am rid of spiritual defilement, deity;

anigho ve ahaṁ yakkha

and no spiritually fettering delight is found in me;

atho nandi na vijjati

And when I am sitting alone, disgruntlement [with the celibate life] does not overwhelm me.

Atho maṁ ekamāsīnaṁ arati nābhikīratīti.

Then the Buddha explained:

Spiritually fettering delight is for one with spiritual defilement;

aghajātassa ve nandi

Spiritual defilement is for one with spiritually fettering delight;

nandijātassa ve aghaṁ

Thus know me friend as a bhikkhu free of spiritually fettering delight and rid of spiritual defilement.

Anandi anigho bhikkhu evaṁ jānāhi āvuso ti. (SN i 54)

Comment:

I accept PTS spellings here. I take anigha as standing for anīgha because DOP says anīgha is usually unmetrical. I take aghaṁ to mean nigha because the passage itself does so.

Although these readings are unsettled, other readings do no better in explaining the nature of the conversation here. Bodhi renders the word as ‘untroubled’ throughout.

anīghaṁ

anīghaṁ: (main article see: anīgha)

Illustration: anīghaṁ, rid of spiritual defilement

One whose spiritual shackles are destroyed, one rid of spiritual defilement, free of expectations

taṁ chinnaganthaṁ anīghaṁ nirāsaṁ. (SN i 12)

anīghā

anīghā: (main article see: anīgha)

Illustration: anīghā, rid of spiritual defilement

He has a benevolent mind and unhateful thoughts. He thinks ‘May these creatures sustain themselves happily, and be rid of unfriendliness, hostility, and spiritual defilement.’

ime sattā averā avyāpajjhā anīghā sukhī attānaṁ pariharantū ti. (MN iii 55)

Illustration: anīghaṁ, rid of spiritual defilement

Rid of spiritual defilement, free of doubt [about the excellence of the teaching], unattached to anything in the whole world [of phenomena]

anīghaṁ chinnasaṁsayaṁ asitaṁ sabbalokassa. (Iti 97)

anīgho

anīgho: (main article see: anīgha)

Illustration: anīgho, rid of spiritual defilement

He who has abandoned the five hindrances, who is rid of spiritual defilement, who has overcome uncertainty [about the excellence of the teaching], who is free of the arrow [of doubt and uncertainty about the excellence of the teaching],

yo nīvaraṇe pahāya pañca anīgho tiṇṇakathaṅkatho visallo. (Snp 17)

Comment:

Because of its proximity to tiṇṇakathaṅkatho we take visallo to mean free of vicikicchākathaṅkathāsallaṁ, a term which occurs at DN iii 250 and AN iii 292.

anīghā

anīghā: (main article see: anīgha)

Illustration: anīghā, rid of spiritual defilement

Those who have severed every tie and bond [to individual existence], inwardly tamed, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], rid of spiritual defilement, free of expectations,

Ye sabbasaṁyojanabandhanacchidā dantā vimuttā anīghā nirāsā;. (Snp 491)

Illustration: anīgho, rid of spiritual defilement

And whatever man here is wise, one who is blessed with profound knowledge, who has freed himself from this [wretched] bondage to all states of individual existence, he is free of craving, rid of spiritual defilement, and free of expectations [in regard to both this world and the world beyond]. He has overcome birth and old age, I declare.

Vidvā ca yo vedagū naro idha bhavābhave saṅgamimaṁ visajja
So vitataṇho anīgho nirāso atāri so jāti jaranti brūmiti. (Snp 1060)

nīghā

nīghā: (main article see: anīgha)

Illustration: nīghā, spiritual defilement

Bhikkhus, there are these three kinds of spiritual defilement. What three?

Tayome bhikkhave nīghā. Katame tayo?

• the spiritual defilement of attachment

• the spiritual defilement of hatred

• the spiritual defilement of undiscernment of reality

anuneti

Renderings
Introduction

Anunaya: ‘leading along’

Anunaya means ‘leading along.’

Anunetar: ‘diplomat’

Anuneta® is ‘one who leads or persuades or conciliates,’ says DOP, so we call it ‘diplomat.’

Anunayasaṁyojanaṁ: attraction [to sensuous pleasure]

The second of the seven ties to individual existence (sattannaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ AN iv 7-9) is repugnance, paṭighasaṁyojanaṁ. In opposition to repugnance is the first of the seven ties, anunayasaṁyojanaṁ and we call this ‘attraction.’ This is in accordance with the root idea ‘leading along,’ and it harmonises with ‘inclination towards,’ a term suggested by DOP. But by ‘attraction’ we mean ‘attraction [to sensuous pleasure],’ which we explain in three steps:

1) The seven ties to individual existence (satta saṁyojanāni) are: anunayasaṁyojanaṁ paṭighasaṁyojanaṁ diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ etc.

2) The seven unwholesome proclivities (sattannaṁ anusayānaṁ) are: kāmarāgānusayo paṭighānusayo diṭṭhānusayo etc.

2) In these lists anunayasaṁyojanaṁ corresponds to kāmarāgānusaya, the proclivity to attachment to sensuous pleasure. Hence we render anunayasaṁyojanaṁ as ‘attraction [to sensuous pleasure]’ not just ‘attraction.’

Anuneti: to conciliate

That anuneti means ‘to conciliate’ is clear in two illustrations below.

Anunīta

PED calls anunīta (pp of anuneti) ‘led, induced.’ We prefer ‘motivated’ or ‘attracted.’

Illustrations
anunīto

anunīto: (main article see: anuneti)

Illustration: anunīto, attracted

In smelling a fragrant, delightful smellable object, and in smelling a disgusting stench:

Dispel repugnance for the stench

Akantiyasmiṁ paṭighaṁ vinodaye

And do not, by desire, be attracted to the pleasing.

Chandānunīto na ca kantiye siyā. (SN iv 70)

Illustration: anunīto, motivated

How indeed could someone motivated by desire

Established in [the pursuit of] personal inclination

Transcend his own dogmatism?

sakaṁ hi diṭṭhiṁ kathamaccayeyya. (Snp 781)

anunayo

anunayo: (main article see: anuneti)

Illustration: anunayo, attraction

The fondness, clinging, attraction, and cleaving within these five grasped aggregates is the origination of dukkha.

Yo imesu pañcasupādānakkhandhesu chando ālayo anunayo ajjhosānaṁ so dukkhasamudayo. (MN i 191)

anunentī

anunentī: (main article see: anuneti)

Illustration: anunentī, conciliating

Sumedhā conciliated Anikaratta about her decision to become a bhikkhunī instead of marrying him, by telling him ‘This deathlessness has been attained by many, and it is to be obtained even today by one who properly applies himself, but it cannot be attained by one who does not properly strive.’ The next verse says:

• Finding no delight in originated phenomenon, Sumedhā spoke thus. And, on conciliating Anikaratta, Sumedhā threw her hair onto the floor.

Evaṁ bhaṇati sumedhā saṅkhāragate ratiṁ alabhamānā
Anunentī anikarattaṁ kese ca chamaṁ khipi sumedhā. (Thi 514)

Comment:

The conciliation is proven in the next verse, where Anikaratta begs Sumedhā’s father:

• ‘Let Sumedhā leave to go forth [into the ascetic life].’

Vissajjetha sumedhaṁ pabbajituṁ. (Tha 515)

anunayamāno

anunayamāno: (main article see: anuneti)

Illustration: anunayamāno, having conciliated

When a pauper was reborn amidst the Tāvatiṁsā devas, who then complained about his attaining outstanding glory. Sakka, Lord of the Devas, explained that when this deva was a human being, he properly trained himself in the Buddha’s training system.

• Then Sakka, Lord of the Devas, on conciliating the Tāvatiṁsā devas, on that occasion recited these verses etc.

Atha kho bhikkhave sakko devānamindo deve tāvatiṁse anunayamāno tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imā gāthāyo abhāsi. (SN i 232)

anunetā

anunetā: (main article see: anuneti)

Illustration: anunetā, diplomat

Kind and friendly, approachable, free of stinginess, a guide, teacher, and diplomat, such a person attains prestige.

Saṅgāhako mittakaro vadaññū vītamaccharo
Netā vinetā anunetā tādiso labhate yasaṁ. (DN iii 192)

abbhanumodati

anumodati

Renderings
Illustrations
abbhanumodāmi

abbhanumodāmi: (main article see: anumodati)

Illustration: abbhanumodāmi, applaud; approve of

When the Buddha described a sacrifice in which no animals were killed, the brahmans asked Kūṭadanta why he did not applaud the ascetic Gotama’s fine words (samaṇassa gotamassa subhāsitaṁ subhāsitato nābbhanumodatī ti). He replied:

‘My dear sirs, I do not disapprove of the ascetic Gotama’s fine words. One’s head would split open if one did.’

Nāhaṁ bho samaṇassa gotamassa subhāsitaṁ subhāsitato nābbhanumodāmi. Muddhāpi tassa vipateyya yo samaṇassa gotamassa subhāsitaṁ subhāsitato nābbhanumodeyya

He said his silence was because the Buddha had described the sacrifice as if he himself had performed it in a previous life, which the Buddha confirmed (DN i 143).

abbhanumodati

abbhanumodati: (main article see: anumodati)

Illustration: abbhanumodati, approve of

Venerable Sāriputta thought how wonderful for Puṇṇa Mantāṇiputta that his knowledgeable companions in the religious life praised him point by point in the Teacher’s presence, and that the Teacher approves of it.

lābhā āyasmato puṇṇassa mantāṇiputtassa yassa viññū sabrahmacārī satthu sammukhā anumāssa anumāssa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsanti tañca satthā abbhanumodati. (MN i 146)

Illustration: abbhanumodati, applaud

King Pasenadi mocked Queen Mallikā for always applauding the Buddha, saying:

• Just as a teacher, whatever he says to his pupil, the pupil applauds it: ‘So it is, teacher! So it is!’

Seyyathā pi nāma ācariyo yaññadeva antevāsissa bhāsati taṁ tadevassa antevāsī abbhanumodati evametaṁ ācariyā evametaṁ ācariyāti. (MN ii 107)

Illustration: abbhanumodati, applaud

Ascetics mocked Poṭṭhapāda: ‘Whatever ascetic Gotama says, Poṭṭhapāda applauds it: “So it is, Blessed One. So it is, Sublime One.”’

yaññadeva samaṇo gotamo bhāsati taṁ tadevassa abbhanumodati. Evametaṁ bhagavā evametaṁ sugatā ti. (DN i 189)

anumodeyyaṁ

anumodeyyaṁ: (main article see: anumodati)

Illustration: anumodeyyaṁ, offer the words of appreciation

A bhikkhu may wish “Oh, that I may offer the words of appreciation in the refectory after the meal, not some other bhikkhu.”

aho vata ahameva bhattagge bhuttāvī anumodeyyaṁ. Na añño bhikkhu bhattagge bhuttāvī anumodeyyā ti. (MN i 28)

anumodanassa

anumodanassa: (main article see: anumodati)

Illustration: anumodanassa, offering the words of appreciation; anumodati, to offer the words of appreciation

After eating the meal, the Buddha would sit in silence for a while, but not let the time go by for offering the words of appreciation.

na ca anumodanassa kālamatināmeti.

Having eaten, he offers the words of appreciation.

So bhuttāvī anumodati. (MN ii 139)

anumoditabbaṁ

anumoditabbaṁ: (main article see: anumodati)

Illustration: anumoditabbaṁ, acclaim

If bhikkhu makes a declaration of arahantship, his words should be neither applauded nor criticised;

bhāsitaṁ neva abhinanditabbaṁ nappaṭikkositabbaṁ

But he should be interrogated. If he answers correctly, expressing one’s approval, one may applaud and acclaim the bhikkhu’s words.

sādhū ti bhāsitaṁ abhinanditabbaṁ anumoditabbaṁ. (MN iii 30)

Illustration: anumodati, applaud

When Venerable Udāyī three times contradicted Venerable Sāriputta, Sāriputta thought:

• Venerable Udāyī contradicts me for up to the third time, and not a single bhikkhu applauds me.

yāva tatiyampi kho me āyasmā udāyī paṭikkosati na ca me koci bhikkhu anumodati. (AN iii 194)

anumodamāno

anumodamāno: (main article see: anumodati)

Illustration: anumodamāno, appreciative

And then having kept the observance, the wise man with a serene mind, being appreciative, should in the morning share out food and drink to the community of bhikkhus, as is fitting.

Tato ca pāto upavutthuposatho annena pānena ca bhikkhusaṅghaṁ
Pasannacitto anumodamāno yathārahaṁ saṁvibhajetha viññū. (Snp 405)

Illustration: anumodamāno, applaud

Fools do indeed not praise generosity

bālā have nappasaṁsanti dānaṁ

The wise applaud it

Dhīro ca dānaṁ anumodamāno. (Dhp 177)

Illustration: anumodanti, encourage

When a deva is due to pass away, other devas encourage him with three words of advice:

tīhi vācāhi anumodanti

• ‘Go, sir, to a good realm. Having done so, gain what is inwardly good. Having done so, become firmly established in it.’

ito bho sugatiṁ gaccha. Sugatiṁ gantvā suladdhalābhaṁ labha. Suladdhalābhaṁ labhitvā suppatiṭṭhito bhavāhī ti. (Iti 76)

anumodi

anumodi: (main article see: anumodati)

Illustration: anumodi, thank

Keṇiya, the matted-hair ascetic, served and satisfied the community of bhikkhus headed by the Buddha with various kinds of good food. Then the Blessed One thanked him with these verses.

keṇiyaṁ jaṭilaṁ bhagavā imāhi gāthāhi anumodi.

Comment:

We say the Buddha ‘thanked’ Keṇiya. What he said was:

• Fire veneration is the chief aspect of sacrifices. Sāvittī is the chief of Vedic hymns. A king is the chief of human beings. The sea is the chief of waters.

Aggihuttamukhā yaññā sāvittī chandaso mukhaṁ
Rājā mukhaṁ manussānaṁ nadinaṁ sāgaro mukhaṁ.

… The moon is the chief light amongst the constellations. The sun is the chief of luminary bodies. For those who make offerings, seeking merit, the community of bhikkhus, is the chief [recipient].

Nakkhattānaṁ mukhaṁ cando ādicco tapataṁ mukhaṁ
Puññaṁ ākaṅkhamānānaṁ saṅgho ve yajataṁ mukhan ti

When the Blessed One had thanked Keṇiya, the matted-hair ascetic, with these verses he rose from his seat and departed.

Atha kho bhagavā keṇiyaṁ jaṭilaṁ imāhi gāthāhi anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi. (MN ii 146; Snp 571-2; Vin.1.246)

Other translators say (keṇiyaṁ jaṭilaṁ bhagavā imāhi gāthāhi anumodi):

  • Horner: the Lord thanked him in these verses
  • Bodhi: the Blessed One gave him his blessing with these stanzas.
  • Norman: the Blessed One gave thanks to the matted-hair ascetic
anumodanīyena anumodi

anumodanīyena anumodi: (main article see: anumodati)

Illustration: anumodanīyena anumodi, thank with words of appreciation

Then the Blessed One thanked the householder Ugga with these words of appreciation

uggaṁ gahapatiṁ vesālikaṁ iminā anumodanīyena anumodi:

• ‘One who gives what is agreeable will gain what is agreeable. He who preferentially gives clothes, bed, food, drink and various requisites to those who are spiritually purified, knowing the arahants to be like a field for what is relinquished, offered, not held back, a spiritually outstanding person gives what is hard to give. One who gives what is agreeable will gain what is agreeable.’

… When the Blessed One had thanked the householder Ugga with these words of appreciation he rose from his seat and departed.

uggaṁ gahapatiṁ vesālikaṁ iminā anumodanīyena anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi. (AN iii 50)

anuseti

anusaya

Renderings
Introduction

Anusaya: ‘proclivity’

Anusaya means tendency, but ‘always in a bad sense,’ says PED. The Madhupiṇḍika Sutta appropriately calls the anusayas ‘unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors’ (pāpakā akusalā dhammā MN i 109). Accordingly, we call anusayas ‘proclivities’ which means ‘a strong natural proneness, usually to something objectionable or evil’ (Webster’s).

Anuseti: ‘lurk within’ and ‘linger’

Anuseti means ‘to lie down with.’ Illustrations below show it can be called ‘to lurk within’ or ‘to linger.’ Relevant quotes are presented below.

Anuseti: ‘identify with.’

In some circumstances anuseti means ‘to identify with.’ This needs a substantial explanation because it is unnoted by translators and lexicographers alike.

‘To identify with’: explanation

To show that anuseti means ‘to identify with,’ we will use an argument that includes the concept of ‘being measured,’ as follows:

1) Firstly, when we say ‘to identify with’ we mean ‘to see things as “[in reality] mine,” or “[in reality] what I am,” “my [absolute] Selfhood.”’

etaṁ mama eso’hamasmi eso me attā ti.

2) Secondly, when the Dutiya Bhikkhu Sutta says ‘one is measured because of anuseti’ (yaṁ kho bhikkhu anuseti taṁ anumīyati, SN iii 36-7) we take ‘measured’ to mean ‘measured against others via the three modes of self-centredness.’ These are the tisso vidhā, namely: ‘I am better,’ ‘I am equal,’ ‘I am worse’ (SN v 56).

3) That ‘being measured’ comes from ‘identifying with’ is shown in the Surādha Sutta, which says that transcending the modes [of self-centredness] (vidhā samatikkantaṁ) is attained by not identifying with the five aggregates, as follows:

• One perceives all bodily form… field of sensation according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood”’

sabbaṁ rūpaṁ… sabbaṁ viññāṇaṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti.

… Thus knowing, thus seeing, in regard to this [wretched human] body together with its consciousness and all external phenomena, the mind is rid of the illusions of personal identity and personal ownership and self-centredness, it has transcended the modes [of self-centredness], and is peaceful and liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

Evaṁ kho surādha jānato evaṁ passato imasmiñca saviññāṇake kāye bahiddhā ca sabbanimittesu ahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānāpagataṁ mānasaṁ hoti vidhā samatikkantaṁ santaṁ suvimuttanti. (SN iii 80-1)

4) We have seen that the Surādha Sutta says ‘being measured’ comes from ‘identifying with,’ and the Dutiya Bhikkhu Sutta says being measured (anumīyati) comes from anuseti. Therefore anuseti means ‘to identify with.’

6) Accordingly, the Dutiya Bhikkhu Sutta can be translated as follows:

‘What one identifies with, by that one is measured.’

yaṁ kho bhikkhu anuseti taṁ anumīyati. (SN iii 36-7)

This makes perfect sense, and validates our argument.

Advantage: rational

Rendering anuseti as ‘to identify with’ has two advantages. Firstly, translations are rational, as for example here:

• Whatever one identifies with, one is reckoned in terms of.

yaṁ kho bhikkhu anuseti tena saṅkhaṁ gacchati. (SN iii 35)

Advantage: congruous

The second advantage of translating anuseti as ‘to identify with’ is that it avoids the incongrous idea of ‘having a tendency to the five aggregates.’ For example Bodhi says:

• If, venerable sir, one has an underlying tendency towards form, then one is measured in accordance with it

Rūpaṁ ce bhante anuseti taṁ anumīyati. (translation of SN iii 36)

This is incongruous, for the following reasons:

1) ‘Tendency’ goes with verbs and mental states, but not other nouns. For example, a tendency to argue, to doubt, to anger etc.

2) Webster’s dictionary accordingly says tendency means ‘a proneness to a particular kind of thought or action.’

3) The seven anusaya’s themselves follow this principle, with a list that includes the proclivity to repugnance, to self-centredness etc. But no ‘tendency to the five aggregates.’

Therefore when anuseti is applied to nouns that are not mental states, we use the verb ‘to identify with,’ and our comparable rendering for SN iii 36 is:

• If, bhante, one identifies with bodily form, by that one is measured.

Rūpaṁ ce bhante anuseti taṁ anumīyati. (SN iii 36)

Anusaya: same principle

The same principle holds for the noun anusaya. Rendering it ‘proclivity’ makes good sense when it is linked to verbs and mental states. But when linked to other types of nouns, we call it ‘identification.’ This avoids the obvious problems of Bodhi’s translations, where anuseti is always ‘underlying tendency.’ Let us compare translations of two quotes:

Quote 1)

Bodhi says:

• the underlying tendency to lust lies within one.

Tassa rāgānusayo anuseti. (Bodhi, MN iii 285)

This translation is satisfactory because lust is a mental state. Our translation of the quote is comparable:

• The proclivity to attachment lurks within him.

Tassa rāgānusayo anuseti. (MN iii 285)

Quote 2)

Bodhi says:

• The desire, lust, delight, and craving, the engagement and clinging, the mental standpoints, adherences, and underlying tendencies regarding the form element: these have been abandoned by the Tathāgata.

rūpadhātuyā kho gahapati yo chando yo rāgo yā nandi yā taṇhā ye upayupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā te tathāgatassa pahīnā. (Bodhi, SN iii 10)

This quote involves a noun that is not a mental state (‘underlying tendencies regarding the form element’). We translate the passage with ‘identification’ (‘identification in regards to bodily form’) as follows:

• The fondness, attachment, spiritually fettering delight, craving, clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification in regards to bodily form have been abandoned by the Perfect One

rūpadhātuyā kho gahapati yo chando yo rāgo yā nandi yā taṇhā ye upayupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā te tathāgatassa pahīnā. (SN iii 10)

Conclusion

In conclusion, where they involve nouns that are not mental states, anusaya and anuseti mean ’identification’ and ‘to identify with.’

Illustrations

Illustration: anusaya, proclivity

Discard the proclivity to self-centredness

Illustration: anusaya, proclivity

The illusion of personal identity, the illusion of personal ownership, and the proclivity to self-centredness

Illustration: anusaya, proclivity

The proclivity to attachment should be abandoned in regard to pleasant sense impression

sukhāya vedanāya rāgānusayo pahātabbo

The proclivity to repugnance should be abandoned in regard to unpleasant sense impression

dukkhāya vedanāya paṭighānusayo pahātabbo

The proclivity to uninsightfulness into reality should be abandoned in regard to neutral sense impression

adukkhamasukhāya vedanāya avijjānusayo pahātabbo. (SN iv 205)

Illustration: anusaya, proclivity

• For whatever the reason that entrenched perception and conception assail a man

yatonidānaṁ purisaṁ papañcasaññāsaṅkhā samudācaranti

… if there is found nothing there to be delighted in, welcomed, or clung to

ettha ce natthi abhinanditabbaṁ abhivaditabbaṁ ajjhositabbaṁ

… this is the end of the proclivity to attachment

this is the end of the proclivity to repugnance

this is the end of the proclivity to dogmatism

this is the end of the proclivity to doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]

anusayā

anusayā: (main article see: anusaya)

Illustration: anusayā, unwholesome proclivities

He in whom there are no unwholesome proclivities, in whom the origins of whatever is spiritually unwholesome are abolished,

Yassānusayā na santi keci mūlā akusalā samūhatāse. (Snp 14)

Illustration: anusayā, unwholesome proclivities

Seven unwholesome proclivities

Sattannaṁ bhikkhave anusayānaṁ

• proclivity to attachment to sensuous pleasure

• proclivity to repugnance

• proclivity to dogmatism

• proclivity to doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]

• proclivity to self-centredness

• proclivity to attachment to individual existence

• proclivity to uninsightfulness into reality

Illustration: anusayā, identification

The fondness, attachment, spiritually fettering delight, craving, clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification in regards to bodily form have been abandoned by the Perfect One

rūpadhātuyā kho gahapati yo chando yo rāgo yā nandi yā taṇhā ye upayupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā te tathāgatassa pahīnā. (SN iii 10)

anuseti

anuseti: (main article see: anusaya)

Illustration: anuseti, identify with

Whatever one is intent upon, conceives of, and identifies with, this becomes the basis for the establishment of one’s stream of consciousness.

bhikkhave ceteti yañca pakappeti yañca anuseti ārammaṇametaṁ hoti viññāṇassa ṭhitiyā

When there is the basis, there is the establishment of one’s stream of consciousness.

Yañca ārammaṇe sati patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa hoti.

When one’s stream of consciousness is established and has [egoistically] matured, there is the appearance of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form.

Tasmiṁ patiṭṭhite viññāṇe virūḷhe nāmarūpassa avakkanti hoti. (SN ii 66)

Illustration: anuseti, identify with

Even if one is not intent upon something, and does not conceive of it, but nonetheless one identifies with it, this becomes the basis for the establishment of one’s stream of consciousness.

no ce bhikkhave ceteti no ce pakappeti atha ce anuseti ārammaṇametaṁ hoti viññāṇassa ṭhitiyā. (SN ii 67)

Illustration: anuseti, identify with

Whatever one identifies with, one is reckoned in terms of.

yaṁ kho bhikkhu anuseti tena saṅkhaṁ gacchati;

Whatever one does not identify with, one is not reckoned in terms of.

yaṁ nānuseti na tena saṅkhaṁ gacchatī ti.

If one identifies with bodily form… fields of sensation, then one is reckoned in terms of it.

Rūpaṁ… viññāṇaṁ ce anuseti tena saṅkhaṁ gacchati.

If one does not identify with bodily form… fields of sensation, then one is not reckoned in terms of it.

Rūpaṁ… viññāṇaṁ ce nānuseti na tena saṅkhaṁ gacchati. (SN iii 35)

Illustration: anuseti, identify with

What one identifies with, by that one is measured. By what one is measured, one is reckoned.

Yaṁ kho bhikkhu anuseti taṁ anumīyati. Yaṁ anumīyati tena saṅkhaṁ gacchati

What one does not identify with, by that one is not measured. By what one is not measured, one is not reckoned.

yaṁ nānuseti na taṁ anumīyati yaṁ nānumīyati na tena saṅkhaṁ gacchatīti.

If one identifies with the five aggregates, by that one is measured. By what one is measured, one is reckoned.

Rūpaṁ… viññāṇaṁ ce anuseti taṁ anumīyati yaṁ anumīyati tena saṅkhaṁ gacchati.

If one does not identify with the five aggregates, by that one is not measured. By what one is not measured, one is not reckoned.

Rūpaṁ… viññāṇaṁ ce nānuseti na taṁ anumīyati yaṁ nānumīyati na tena saṅkhaṁ gacchati. (SN iii 36-7)

Illustration: anuseti, lurk within

Wrong view [of reality] has lurked within the ignorant for a long time

The ignorant indeed say one is a Brahman on account of birth.

Ajānantā no pabruvanti jātiyā hoti brāhmano. (Snp 649)

Illustration: anuseti, lurk within

The Blessed One has through his explanations removed the arrow of doubt and uncertainty [about the way of spiritual fulfilment, and of unfulfilment] long lurking in me.

bhagavatā vyākatā dīgharattānusayitañca pana me vicikicchākathaṅkathāsallaṁ tañca bhagavatā abbūḷhanti. (DN ii 283)

Illustration: anuseti, lurk within

When affected by a pleasant sense impression, he takes delight in it, he welcomes it, and persists in cleaving to it.

so sukhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati.

The proclivity to attachment lurks within him.

Tassa rāgānusayo anuseti. (MN iii 286)

Illustration: anuseti, lurk within one

The proclivity to attachment lurks within one in relation to pleasant sense impression.

sukhāya kho āvuso visākha vedanāya rāgānusayo anuseti

The proclivity to repugnance lurks within one in relation to unpleasant sense impression.

dukkhāya vedanāya paṭighānusayo anuseti

The proclivity to uninsightfulness into reality lurks within one in relation to neutral sense impression.

adukkhamasukhāya vedanāya avijjānusayo anusetīti. (MN i 302)

Illustration: anuseti, linger within

And of what sort is he who is like carving on a rock? In this regard, some person is frequently angry (abhiṇhaṁ kujjhati). Moreover that anger lingers within him for a long time

so ca khvassa kodho dīgharattaṁ anuseti

And of what sort is he who is like carving on the ground? In this regard, some person is frequently angry (abhiṇhaṁ kujjhati), but his anger does not linger within him for a long time

so ca khvassa kodho na dīgharattaṁ anuseti. (AN i 284)

antagū

Renderings
Introduction

Antagū: reached the end of

Antagū means ‘one who has reached the end (of something),’ and is therefore usually qualified. For example: ‘the end of the spiritual path’ (paṭipadantaguṁ) or ‘the end of suffering’ (dukkhantagunā), and so on.

Lokantagū: reached the end of the world [of phenomena]

Lokantagū means ‘one who has reached the end of the world.’ Loka is dealt with in detail elsewhere in the Glossary, but in conclusion we take ‘world’ as ‘world [of phenomena].’

Vedantagū: completed his scriptural education

Vedantagū means ‘reached the end of scriptural knowledge,’ but reads better as ‘completed one’s scriptural education,’ as here:

• One who has submitted to inward taming, completed his scriptural education, fulfilled the religious life.

damasā upeto vedantagū vusitabrahmacariyo. (Snp 463)

Illustrations

Illustration: antagū, reached the end of suffering

You have reached the end of suffering, gone beyond suffering.

antagūsi pāragū dukkhassa. (Snp 539)

paṭipadantaguṁ

paṭipadantaguṁ: (main article see: antagū)

Illustration: paṭipadantaguṁ, reached the end of the spiritual path

They call him enlightened in the world, a wise person who has reached the end of the spiritual path.

Tamāhu loke sambuddhaṁ dhīraṁ paṭipadantaguṁ. (AN i 236)

lokantagū

lokantagū: (main article see: antagū)

Illustration: lokantagū, one who has reached the end of the world [of phenomena]

The end of the world [of phenomena] can never be reached by means of travelling. Yet without reaching the end of the world [of phenomena] there is no freedom from suffering.

Gamanena na pattabbo lokassanto kudācanaṁ
Na ca appatvā lokantaṁ dukkhā atthi pamocanaṁ.

Therefore, truly, one who knows the world [of phenomena] [according to reality], one of great wisdom, one who has reached the end of the world [of phenomena], fulfiller of the religious life, knowing the end of the world [of phenomena] [according to reality], inwardly at peace, longs not for this world or another.

Tasmā have lokavidū sumedho lokantagū vusitabrahmacariyo
Lokassa antaṁ samitāvī ñatvā nāsiṁsati lokamimaṁ parañcā ti. (SN i 62)

Illustration: lokantagū, one who has reached the end of the world [of phenomena]

The Enlightened One, dispeller of inward darkness, All-Seeing Eye, one who has reached the end of the world [of phenomena], transcended all states of individual existence

tamonudo buddho samantacakkhu lokantagū sabbabhavātivatto. (Snp 1133)

dukkhantagunā

dukkhantagunā: (main article see: antagū)

Illustration: dukkhantagunā, reached the end of suffering

… proclaimed by the Buddha who has reached the end of suffering.

Buddhena dukkhantagunā pakāsitaṁ. (AN i 215)

Illustration: antagū, one who has completed his scriptural education

‘If one who has completed [his scriptural education], who is blessed with profound knowledge, should receive an offering at the time of alms bestowal, then, I declare, the offering would have a good result.

Yadantagū vedagū yaññakāle yassāhutiṁ labhe tassijjheti brūmi. (Snp 458)

Comment:

Antagū: ‘one who has completed [his scriptural education].’ Although antagū is unqualified here, it is clarified as vedantagū in Snp 463.

anussavati

anvāssavati

Renderings
Introduction

Etymology

Alternative spellings

Their alternative spellings are

Equivalence in practice

The two words are used in similar ways, which suggests their equivalence, for example:

• spiritually unwholesome factors do not pursue him

akusalā dhammā nānussavanti. (SN iv 188)

• spiritually unwholesome factors will pursue him

akusalā dhammā anvāssavissantī ti. (MN iii 113)

To pursue: to continue to afflict

Because savati means ‘to flow,’ it is tempting to render both words in terms of ‘flow,’ as translators often do, and so does DOP (‘flows after, flows upon, flows continually over’). But the PED suggests anvāssavati means not just ‘stream into’ but also ‘attack, befall.’ We prefer ‘pursue’ because it means ‘to continue to afflict’ (Webster’s). One simile in particular shows the incongruity of ‘flow,’ where flies ‘attack and pursue’ someone smelling like a rotten corpse. See illustrations below.

Illustrations
anvāssavissantī

anvāssavissantī: (main article see: anvāssavati)

Illustration: anvāssavissantī, pursue

’The flies will surely attack and pursue one who has putrefied himself and who is full of inward rottenness. They cannot fail to do so.

Taṁ vata bhikkhu kaṭuviyakataṁ attānaṁ āmagandhe avassutaṁ makkhikā nānupatissanti nanvāssavissantī ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjatī ti.

‘His thoughts bound up with attachment will attack him like flies.’

Makkhikā anupatissanti saṅkappā rāganissitā. (AN i 280)

Illustration: anvāssavissantī, pursue

While I am pacing back and forth thus, neither greed nor dejection nor unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors will pursue me.

nābhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssavissantī ti. (MN iii 113)

anvāssaveyyuṁ

anvāssaveyyuṁ: (main article see: anvāssavati)

Illustration: anvāssaveyyuṁ, pursue

If you abide with the faculty of sight unrestrained [from grasping, through mindfulness], greed, dejection, and unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors would pursue you.

cakkhundriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ. (SN iv 178)

anussavanti

anussavanti: (main article see: anvāssavati)

Illustration: anussavanti, pursue

I abide mindfully in such a way that perceptually obscuring states do not pursue me

tathā sato viharāmi yathā sataṁ viharantaṁ āsavā nānussavanti. (SN ii 54)

apekkhā

Renderings
Introduction

Apekkhā & Apekhā

The spelling is either -kkh- or -kh-, which are used indiscriminately, says PED. There is inconsistency between editions, and even within editions. For example, both BJT and VRI versions read:

So taṁ namassaṁ acari mutyapekkho Snp 346

So taṁ namassaṁ acari mutyapekho Tha 1264

We have normalised our spellings to -pekkh-

Illustrations

Illustration: apekkhassa, looking for

For he is the [unsurpassed] field for one looking for merit.

khettaṁ hi taṁ puññapekkhassa hoti. (Snp 481)

Illustration: apekkhā, affection

Passionate attachment to jewellery and earrings, and affection for children and wives, are the strong bonds, say the wise.

Sārattarattā maṇikuṇḍalesu puttesu dāresu ca yā apekkhā.
Etaṁ daḷhaṁ bandhanamāhu dhīrā. (SN i 77)

apekkha

apekkha: (main article see: apekkhā)

Illustration: apekkha, affection

A man might think thus: ‘I am attached and emotionally bound to that woman by acute fondness and affection… How about if I got rid of my fondness and attachment regarding that woman?’.

ahaṁ kho amussā itthiyā sāratto paṭibaddhacitto tibbacchando tibbāpekkho… Yannūnāhaṁ so me amussā itthiyā chandarāgo taṁ pajaheyyan ti. (MN ii 224)

apekkhava

apekkhava: (main article see: apekkhā)

Illustration: apekkhava, full of longing

Filled with lust means: lustful, full of longing, emotionally bound.

Avassutā nāma: sārattā apekkhavatī paṭibaddhacittā. (Vin.4.214)

Illustration: apekkha, longing

Do not, sir, die filled with longing. To die filled with longing is unpleasant and blameworthy. Of your eighty-four thousand cities, Kusāvatī is the chief. Abandon fondness for them. Harbour no longing for life.

Mā kho tvaṁ deva sāpekkho kālamakāsi. Dukkhā sāpekkhassa kālakiriyā garahitā ca sāpekkhassa kālakiriyā. Imāni te deva caturāsītinagarasahassāni kusāvatirājadhānippamukhāni. Ettha deva chandaṁ pajaha. Jīvite apekkhaṁ mākāsi. (DN ii 192)

apekkhaṁ

apekkhaṁ: (main article see: apekkhā)

Illustration: apekkhaṁ, longing

He has abandoned longing for this world and the next.

Vihari apekkhaṁ idha vā huraṁ vā. (Tha 10)

COMMENT

Vihari: ‘he has abandoned.’ Commentary: viharī ti visesato hari apahari apanesi. Apaharati: ‘takes away, removes’ (DOP).

anapekkhino

anapekkhino: (main article see: apekkhā)

Illustration: anapekkhino, long not

Those of peaceful minds, who are aware, mindful, and meditative, rightly see the nature of reality, and long not for sensuous pleasures.

Ye santacittā nipakā satimanto ca jhāyinoSammā dhammaṁ vipassanti kāmesu anapekkhino. (Iti 39)

apekkho

apekkho: (main article see: apekkhā)

Illustration: apekkho, longing

He lived the religious life venerating you, longing for freedom [from individual existence].

So taṁ namassaṁ acari mutyapekkho. (Snp 344)

apekkhamānā

apekkhamānā: (main article see: apekkhā)

Illustration: apekkhamānā, longing

Longing for the future or the past, yearning for present and former pleasures.

Pacchā pure vāpi apekkhamānā ime vā kāme purime vā jappaṁ. (Snp 773-4)

Illustration: apekkhaṁ, concern

Dwelling in the woods which resound with the cries of peacocks and herons, being accompanied by leopards and tigers, give up concern for the body. Do not fail [to do so]’: so you used to urge me, mind.

Mayūrakoñcābhirutamhi kānane dīpīhi vyagghehi purakkhato vasaṁ
Kāye apekkhaṁ jaha mā virādhaya itissu maṁ citta pure niyuñjasi. (Tha 1113)

apekkhavā

apekkhavā: (main article see: apekkhā)

Illustration: apekkhavā, full of concern

If that bodily form changes and alters, his mind is preoccupied with the change.

Tassa taṁ rūpaṁ vipariṇamati aññathā hoti. Tassa rūpavipariṇāmaññathābhāvā rūpavipariṇāmānuparivatti viññāṇaṁ hoti.

Agitation and other mental states born of this preoccupation plague his mind.

Tassa rūpavipariṇāmānuparivattijā paritassanā dhammasamuppādā cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhanti.

Thus he is fearful, agitated, and full of concern, and because of grasping he is agitated .

Cetaso pariyādānā uttāsavā ca hoti vighātavā ca apekkhavā ca upādāya ca paritassati. (MN iii 227)

anapekkhā

anapekkhā: (main article see: apekkhā)

Illustration: anapekkhā, unconcerned

When the boy has grown up and has enough wisdom, then his nurse is unconcerned about the boy, thinking, ‘The boy can now safeguard himself. He will not be negligent [in looking after himself]

Yato ca kho so bhikkhave kumāro vuddho hoti alaṁpañño anapekkhā pana bhikkhave dhāti tasmiṁ kumāre hoti attaguttodāni kumāro nālaṁ pamādāyā ti. (AN iii 6)

anapekkhinaṁ

anapekkhinaṁ: (main article see: apekkhā)

Illustration: anapekkhinaṁ, indifferent

He is indifferent to sensuous pleasures.

anapekkhamāno

anapekkhamāno: (main article see: apekkhā)

Illustration: anapekkhamāno, being indifferent

Being unsatisfied with amusement, delight, and sensuous pleasure, being indifferent [to them].

Khiḍḍaṁ ratiṁ kāmasukhañca loke analaṅkaritvā anapekkhamāno. (Snp 59)

Illustration: anapekkhā, indifferent

But when in the charnel ground it lies discarded, dead, bloated, and discoloured, [even] relatives are indifferent to it.

Yadā ca so mato seti uddhumāto vinīlako
Apaviddho susānasmiṁ anapekkhā honti ñātayo. (Snp 200)

appamāda

appamatta

Renderings
Introduction

With specified objects

Appamatta and appamāda often have specified objects:

1) We will abide using blocks of wood as cushions, and be diligently and vigorously applied to inward striving.

Kaliṅgarūpadhānā viharissāma appamattā ātāpino padhānasmin ti. (SN ii 267-8)

2) Happy indeed are those human beings honouring the Sublime One, applying themselves to Gotama’s training system, who train in it with diligence.

Sukhitā vata te manujā sugataṁ payirupāsiya
Yuñjaṁ gotama sāsane appamattānusikkhareti. (SN i 52)

3) The diligent and resolute practisers of my training system will go without your approval where, having gone, they will not grieve.

Te appamattā pahitattā mama sāsanakārakā
Akāmā te gamissanti yattha gantvā na socare. (Snp 445)

4) For a bhikkhu who abides properly considering pairs [of teachings] in this way, diligently, vigorously, and resolutely, one of two fruits can be expected.

Evaṁ sammā dvayatānupassino kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ. (Snp 140)

5) They bring [us] offerings day and night, so [please] diligently protect them.

Divā ca ratto ca haranti ye baliṁ tasmā hi ne rakkhatha appamattā. (Snp 223)

6) He is no friend at all, who, anticipating conflict, is always diligently looking for your weak spots.

Na so mitto yo sadā appamatto bhedāsaṅkī randhamevānupassī. (Snp 255)

7) With the arrow [of craving] removed, living the religious life diligently, he longs for neither this world nor the next.

Abbūḷhasallo caramappamatto nāsiṁsati lokamimaṁ parañcāti. (Snp 779)

8) Being diligent in the practice of sacrifice

With no specified object

Sometimes, there is no specified object. The relationship between terms in the following passages show why, in such cases, we take the object to be ‘the practice’ (i.e. ‘the practice of the teaching’):

1) My disciple who abides diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice] for one night and day, practising as I instructed him, might experience exclusively happiness for a hundred years.

Idha mama sāvako… ekaṁ rattindivaṁ appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto yathā mayānusiṭṭhaṁ tathā paṭipajjamāno satampi vassāni ekanta sukhapaṭisaṁvedī vihareyya. (AN v 86)

2) Bhante, it would be good if the Blessed One would explain the teaching to me in brief, so that, having heard the teaching from the Blessed One, I might abide alone, withdrawn [from human fellowship, sensuous pleasures, and spiritually unwholesome factors], diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice].

sādhu me bhante bhagavā saṅkhittena dhammaṁ desetu yamahaṁ bhagavato dhammaṁ sutvā eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto vihareyyanti. (SN iv 145)

3) When a bhikkhu is perfect in diligence [in the practice], it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate this noble eightfold path.

Appamādasampannassetaṁ bhikkhave bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṁ ariyaṁ aṭṭhaṅgikaṁ maggaṁ bhāvessati ariyaṁ aṭṭhaṅgikaṁ maggaṁ bahulīkarissatīti

Illustrations
appamatto

appamatto: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: appamatto, diligent

A diligent householder with a practice like this ends up with the devas called Sayampabha.

Etaṁ gihī vattayamappamatto sayampabhe nāma upeti deve ti. (Snp 404)

Illustration: appamatto, diligent man

The wise and diligent man who associates with such a person.

yo tādisaṁ bhajati appamatto. (Snp 317)

appamattā

appamattā: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: appamattā, those who are diligently applied [to the practice]

Those who are wise, diligently applied [to the practice], and prudent attain [the supreme goal].

Dhīrā samadhigacchanti appamattā vicakkhaṇā ti. (Tha 4)

appamādena

appamādena: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: appamādena, with diligence

So, then, bhikkhus, I take your leave. Originated phenomena are destined to disappear. Apply yourself [to the practice] with diligence.

Handadāni bhikkhave āmantayāmi vo. Vayadhammā saṅkhārā. Appamādena sampādetha (DN ii 156)

appamādo

appamādo: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: appamādo, being diligent

Being diligent in [doing] what is righteous: this is supremely auspicious.

Appamādo ca dhammesu etaṁ maṅgalamuttamaṁ. (Snp 264)

appamattassa

appamattassa: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: appamattassa, diligently

‘The religious life is well explained, fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, so that for one who trains himself diligently [in it], going forth [into the ascetic life] is not in vain.’

Svākkhātaṁ brahmacariyaṁ sandiṭṭhikamakālikaṁ
Yattha amoghā pabbajjā appamattassa sikkhato ti. (Snp 567)

Illustration: appamatto, diligently applied [to the practice]

Being diligently applied [to the practice], he attains perpetual deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states].

Appamatto samāno asamayavimokkhaṁ ārādheti. (MN i 197)

Illustration: appamattā, diligently applied [to the practice]

‘We will abide diligently applied [to the practice]’

appamattā viharissāmā ti. (SN ii 266)

Illustration: appamādo, diligence; appamattā, diligently applied [to the practice]

You should abide spiritually supported by one thing: diligence in [cultivating] spiritually wholesome factors.

Eko dhammo upanissāya vihātabbo appamādo kusalesu dhammesu

When you are abiding diligently applied [to the practice], spiritually supported by diligence [in cultivating spiritually wholesome factors], your harem will think:

Appamattassa te mahārāja viharato appamādaṁ upanissāya itthāgārassa evaṁ bhavissati

‘The king dwells diligently applied [to the practice], spiritually supported by diligence [in cultivating spiritually wholesome factors].

rājā kho appamatto viharati appamādaṁ upanissāya.

Come, then, let us also dwell diligently applied [to the practice], spiritually supported by diligence [in cultivating spiritually wholesome factors].’

Handa mayampi appamattā viharāma appamādaṁ upanissāyāti. (SN i 89)

appamādaṁ

appamādaṁ: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: appamādaṁ, diligence; appamatto, diligent

The wise praise diligence in performing meritorious deeds.

Appamādaṁ pasaṁsanti puññakiriyāsu paṇḍitā

‘The wise person who is diligent [in performing meritorious deeds] secures both benefits: benefit in this lifetime, and benefit in the hereafter.

Appamatto ubho atthe adhigaṇhāti paṇḍito
Diṭṭhe dhamme ca yo attho yo cattho samparāyiko. (SN i 86)

Illustration: appamādo, diligence

Which one thing is very useful? Diligence in [cultivating] spiritually wholesome factors.

Katamo eko dhammo bahukāro? Appamādo kusalesu dhammesu. (DN iii 272-3)

Illustration: appamādo, diligence [in the practice]

And what is diligence [in the practice]?

Katamo ca bhikkhave appamādo

In this regard a bhikkhu protects the mind against perceptually obscuring states and against states associated with perceptually obscuring states.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cittaṁ rakkhati āsavesu ca sāsavesu ca dhammesu. (SN v 232)

Illustration: appamādaṁ, diligence [in the practice]

Seeing negligence [in the practice] as danger, and diligence [in the practice] as safety.

Pamādaṁ bhayato disvā appamādañca khemato. (Tha 980)

Illustration: appamāda, diligence [in the practice]

Whatever spiritually wholesome factors there are, they all stem from diligence [in the practice].

ye keci kusalā dhammā sabbe te appamādamūlakā. (SN v 42)

Illustration: appamādo, diligence [in the practice]

To abandon negligence [in the practice] develop diligence [in the practice].

Pamādassa pahānāya appamādo bhāvetabbo. (AN iii 449)

Illustration: appamādo, diligence [in the practice]

Diligence [in the practice] is the path to the Deathless. Negligence [in the practice] is the path to death.

Appamādo amatapadaṁ pamādo maccuno padaṁ. (Dhp 21)

Pamāda
pamādo

pamādo: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: pamādo, negligent in

‘Moggallāna, Moggallāna, do not be negligent, brahman, in [practising] first jhāna

mā brāhmaṇa paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ pamādo

• Steady your mind in first jhāna

paṭhame jhāne cittaṁ saṇṭhapehi

• Concentrate your mind in first jhāna

paṭhame jhāne cittaṁ ekodiṁ karohi

• Compose your mind in first jhāna

paṭhame jhāne cittaṁ samādahāti. (SN iv 264)

napamajjeyya

napamajjeyya: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: napamajjeyya, should not be negligent in

Knowing inward peace as Peace, he should not be negligent in [practising] Gotama’s training system.

Santī ti nibbutiṁ ñatvā sāsane gotamassa napamajjeyya. (Snp 933)

Illustration: pamādo, negligent

When the teaching has been so well explained, how can one who understands [it] be negligent [in practising it]?

Evaṁ sudesite dhamme ko pamādo vijānataṁ. (SN i 193)

pamajjitun

pamajjitun: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: pamajjitun, negligently applied [to the practice]

Whether walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, your last day approaches. There is no time for you to be negligently applied [to the practice].

Carato tiṭṭhato vāpi āsīnasayanassa vā
Upeti carimā ratti na te kālo pamajjitun ti. (Tha 452)

pamādattha

pamādattha: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: pamādattha, negligently applied [to the practice]

Meditate, Cunda! Do not be negligently applied [to the practice] lest you regret it later!

Jhāyatha cunda mā pamādattha. Mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha. (MN i 46)

pamāda

pamāda: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: pamāda, negligence [in the practice]

Liquor, wines, and intoxicants which are bases of negligence [in the practice].

pamatto

pamatto: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: pamatto, negligently applied [to the practice]

The man negligently applied [to the practice] who pursues another’s wife meets with four states.

Cattāri ṭhānāni naro pamatto āpajjati paradārūpasevī. (Dhp 309)

Illustration: pamatto, negligently applied [to the practice]

‘This deity dwells much too negligently applied [to the practice].’

atibāḷhaṁ kho ayaṁ yakkho pamatto viharati. (MN i 253)

pamādamhā

pamādamhā: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: pamādamhā, negligence [in the practice]

Does he keep aloof from negligence [in the practice]? Does he not neglect meditation?’

Kacci ārā pamādamhā kacci jhānaṁ na riñcati. (Snp 156)

Illustration: pamādo, negligence [in the practice]

Negligence [in the practice] is a spiritual defilement. One who is constantly negligently applied [to the practice] is oppressed by spiritual defilement.

Pamādo rajo pamādo pamādānupatito rajo. (Snp 334)

pamatta

pamatta: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: pamatta, negligent

‘You have come here for your own ends, Maleficent One, O kinsman of the negligent.

Pamattabandhu pāpima senatthena idhāgato. (Snp 430)

pamādā

pamādā: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: pamādā, negligence [in the practice]

The world [of beings] is obstructed by uninsightfulness into reality. Because of selfishness, and negligence [in the practice] it shines not.

Avijjāya nivuto loko vevicchā pamādā nappakāsati. (Snp 1033)

pamajjitun

pamajjitun: (main article see: appamatta)

Illustration: pamajjitun, negligently applied [to the practice]

Illness has arisen in me. It is not the time for me to be negligently applied [to the practice].

Ābādho me samuppanno kālo me nappamajjitun ti. (Tha 30)

parijānāti

abhijānāti

Renderings
Introduction

Distinguished levels of understanding

Abhijānāti is often paired with parijānāti in contexts which, for both words, imply distinguished levels of understanding by arahants and other noble disciples. The words are here called ‘full understanding’ and ‘profound understanding.’

Parijānāti more sublime

Profound understanding is more sublime than full understanding because it is usually restricted to arahants. Rarely it is applied to non-returners (e.g. pañcakāmaguṇike rāge pariññate natthi taṁ saṁyojanaṁ yena saṁyojanena saṁyutto ariyasāvako puna imaṁ lokaṁ āgaccheyya, SN ii 99).

Pariññā and nibbāna

The noun of parijānāti is pariññā, which shares the definition of nibbāna (rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave pariññā ti SN iii 26; rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo idaṁ vuccati nibbānan ti SN iv 251).

Nābhijānāti: not understand, not recall

When abhijānāti occurs in the negative it means either:

1) to not know

2) to not understand

3) to not recall

• This world, the world hereafter, the brahmā world, and the deva world. I do not know the celebrated Gotama’s view of these.

Ayaṁ loko paro loko brahmaloko sadevako
Diṭṭhiṁ te nābhijānāmi gotamassa yasassino. (Snp 1117)

• We do not know what you are meditating upon.

Yassa te nābhijānāma yampi nissāya jhāyasi. (Tha 1084)

• Many in the world, being ignorant, are truly bound to the mud of sensuous pleasure. They do not [come to] know the end of birth and death.

Kāmapaṅkena sattā hi bahū loke aviddasū
Pariyantaṁ nābhijānanti jātiyā maraṇassa ca. (Thi 354)

• We do not understand those things though we have come like hair-splitting [archers].

Ye mayaṁ nābhijānāma vālavedhisamāgatā. (Tha 1084)

• I do not recall a sensuous thought having ever arisen in me.

nābhijānāmi kāmavitakkaṁ uppannapubbaṁ. (MN iii 125)

• I do not recall any Ājīvaka ascetic who went to heaven.

nābhijānāmi kañci ājīvakaṁ saggūpagaṁ. (MN i 483)

• I do not recall indulging in sexual intercourse even in a dream.

nābhijānāmi supinantenapi methunaṁ dhammaṁ paṭisevitā. (Vin.2.79)

Illustrations
abhijānāsi

abhijānāsi: (main article see: abhijānāti)

Illustration: abhijānāsi, recall

Do you recall having asked other ascetics and Brahmanists this question?

abhijānāsi no tvaṁ devānaminda ime pañhe aññe samaṇabrāhmaṇe pucchitā ti. (DN ii 284)

abhijānāmi

abhijānāmi: (main article see: abhijānāti)

Illustration: abhijānāmi, recall

When my husband died, he rose amongst the deities and he revealed himself to me in his former bodily form (purimena attabhāvena uddassesi); but I do not recall any inward disquiet on that account.

na kho panāhaṁ bhante abhijānāmi tatonidānaṁ cittassa aññathattan ti. (AN iv 66)

anabhijānaṁ

anabhijānaṁ: (main article see: abhijānāti)

Illustration: anabhijānaṁ, recall

If a bhikkhu, though not recalling it, should claim with reference to himself a superhuman attainment of knowledge and vision that is worthy of the Noble Ones, saying “Thus I know; thus I see;” then, whether or not he is later interrogated about it, fallen and seeking purification, he says “Friends, though not knowing, I said ‘I know’; though not seeing, I said ‘I see.’ I boasted vainly and falsely”; unless it was from over-estimation, he is pārājika, no longer in communion.

yo pana bhikkhu anabhijānaṁ uttarimanussadhammaṁ attūpanāyikaṁ alamariyañāṇadassanaṁ samudācareyya Iti jānāmi iti passāmī ti tato aparena samayena samanuggāhiyamāno vā asamanuggāhiyamāno vā āpanno visuddhāpekkho evaṁ vadeyya ajānam evaṁ āvuso avacaṁ jānāmi; apassaṁ passāmi. Tucchaṁ musā vilapin ti. Aññatra adhimānā ayampi pārājiko hoti asaṁvāso. (Vin.3.91)

Comment:

Rendering anabhijānaṁ as ‘recall’ is supported by a perspective on the Word Commentary’s definition of ‘interrogated’ (samanuggāhiyamāno), as follows:

• ‘Interrogated means: when a matter (i.e. a claim to have attained a superhuman attainment) is acknowledged, he is asked: What was attained by you? How was it attained? When was it attained? Where was it attained? Which spiritual defilements have you abandoned? Which states have you gained?

Samanuggāhīyamāno ti yaṁ vatthu paṭiññātaṁ hoti tasmiṁ vatthusmiṁ samanuggāhīyamāno kinte adhigataṁ kinti te adhigataṁ kadā te adhigataṁ kattha te adhigataṁ katame te kilesā pahīnā katamesaṁ tvaṁ dhammānaṁ lābhī ti.

The correct answer to these questions would logically be ‘I do not recall attaining any superhuman attainment’ rather than ‘I do not know any superhuman attainment.’ Nonetheless, anabhijānaṁ in this rule is usually rendered ‘not knowing.’ This produces stilted results:

  • Horner: Whatever monk should boast with reference to himself of a state of further-men, sufficient ariyan knowledge and insight, though not knowing it fully, and saying: ‘This I know, this I see.’.. (BDN i 159).
  • Norman: Whatever bhikkhu should, while not knowing [for certain], boast a superhuman state, knowledge and insight deserving the name ‘noble,’ as being present in himself, [saying] ‘I know thus, I see thus.’.. (The Pātimokkha, PTS, 2001).

Illustration: abhijānāti, fully understand; abhiññāya, full understanding; parijānāti, profoundly understand; pariññāya, profound understanding

When a bhikkhu has heard that all things are unsuited to stubborn attachment he fully understands the whole teaching.

evañcetaṁ bhikkhu bhikkhuno sutaṁ hoti sabbe dhammā nālaṁ abhinivesāyāti so sabbaṁ dhammaṁ abhijānāti

Through fully understanding the whole teaching, he profoundly understands the whole teaching.

sabbaṁ dhammaṁ abhiññāya sabbaṁ dhammaṁ parijānāti

Through profoundly understanding the whole teaching, he perceives all phenomena differently.

sabbaṁ dhammaṁ pariññāya sabbanimittāni aññato passati. (SN iv 50)

Illustration: abhijānāti, fully understand; abhiññāya, full understanding; pariññeyyaṁ profoundly understand

A bhikkhu who is a disciple in training… fully understands solidness to be solidness

yopi so bhikkhave bhikkhu sekho… sopi paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito abhijānāti

Fully understanding solidness to be solidness

paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito abhiññāya

may he not think of solidness in personal terms

paṭhaviṁ mā maññi

… For what reason? So that he may profoundly understand it, I declare

Pariññeyyaṁ tassā ti vadāmi. (MN i 4)

Illustration: abhijānāti, fully understand; abhiññāya, full understanding; pariññātaṁ profoundly understood

The arahant, too, fully understands solidness to be solidness (arahaṁso pi paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito abhijānāti)

Fully understanding solidness to be solidness

paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito abhiññāya

he does not think of solidness in personal terms

paṭhaviṁ na maññati

For what reason? He profoundly understands it, I declare

Taṁ kissa hetu? Pariññātaṁ tassā ti vadāmi. (MN i 4)

Illustration: anabhijānaṁ, fully understand; aparijānaṁ, profoundly understanding

Bhikkhus, one who has not fully and profoundly understood the All and detached his mind from it and abandoned it, is incapable of destroying dukkha

Sabbaṁ bhikkhave anabhijānaṁ aparijānaṁ avirājayaṁ appajahaṁ abhabbo dukkhakkhayāya. (SN iv 17)

abhiññāya

abhiññāya: (main article see: abhijānāti)

Illustration: abhiññāya, full understanding

One is the path to worldly gain, another the path leading to the Untroubled. Fully understanding this, the bhikkhu, the disciple of the Buddha, should not take delight in worldly honour.

Aññā hi lābhūpanisā aññā nibbānagāminī
Evametaṁ abhiññāya bhikkhu buddhassa sāvako
Sakkāraṁ nābhinandeyya. (Dhp 75)

Illustration: abhiññāya, full understanding

The noble eightfold path should be developed for the full understanding of the five aggregates.

Imesaṁ kho bhikkhave pañcannaṁ upādānakkhandhānaṁ abhiññāya ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo bhāvetabbo. (SN v 61)

abhiññeyyo

abhiññeyyo: (main article see: abhijānāti)

Illustration: abhiññeyyo, fully understood

The ascetic Vacchagotta said that most religious teachers declared the place of rebirth of even their best disciples, whereas the Buddha only declared this of some disciples. The ascetic Vacchagotta said that because of this:

‘There was unsureness and uncertainty in me: How is the teaching of the Ascetic Gotama’s to be fully understood?’

Tassa mayhaṁ bho gotama ahudeva kaṅkhā ahu vicikicchā kathannāma samaṇassa gotamassa dhammo abhiññeyyo. (SN iv 399)

Illustration: abhiññāya, fully understand

Sāriputta, friend, it is through seeing and fully understanding the ending of the visual sense, the visual field of sensation, and things known through the visual field of sensation, that I regard these things as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood.”

Cakkhusmiṁ āvuso sāriputta cakkhuviññāṇe cakkhuviññāṇaviññātabbesu dhammesu nirodhaṁ disvā nirodhaṁ abhiññāya cakkhuṁ cakkhuviññāṇaṁ cakkhuviññāṇaviññātabbe dhamme n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti samanupassāmi. (MN iii 265)

abhijānaṁ

abhijānaṁ: (main article see: abhijānāti)

Illustration: abhijānaṁ, fully understanding; parijānaṁ profoundly understanding

Bhikkhus, one who has not fully and profoundly understood the visual sense and discarded and abandoned it, is incapable of destroying suffering

Cakkhuṁ bhikkhave anabhijānaṁ aparijānaṁ avirājayaṁ appajahaṁ abhabbo dukkhakkhayāya. (SN iv 89)

Illustration: abhiññāya, full understanding

There are these four spiritual shackles:

• the spiritual shackle of greed

• the spiritual shackle of ill will

• the spiritual shackle of adherence to observances and practices

• the spiritual shackle of stubborn attachment to dogmatic opinions

• For the full understanding of these four spiritual shackles the noble eightfold path should be developed

imesaṁ kho bhikkhave catunnaṁ ganthānaṁ abhiññāya ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo bhāvetabbo. (SN v 59)

abbhaññāsiṁ

abbhaññāsiṁ: (main article see: abhijānāti)

Illustration: abbhaññāsiṁ, fully understand

Bhikkhus, in the world [of beings] with its devas, māras, and brahmās, in the world of mankind with its ascetics and Brahmanists, its royalty and commoners, whatsoever is seen, heard, sensed, cognised, attained, searched into, pondered over by the mind, I fully understand it.

Yaṁ bhikkhave sadevakassa lokassa samārakassa sabrahmakassa sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya diṭṭhaṁ sutaṁ mutaṁ viññātaṁ pattaṁ pariyesitaṁ anuvicaritaṁ manasā tamahaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ. (AN ii 25)

abhiññā

abhiññā: (main article see: abhijānāti)

Illustration: abhiññā, transcendent insight

There are ascetics and Brahmanists conducting and applying themselves rightly in the world who, having realised this world and the world hereafter for themselves through transcendent insight, make them known to others.

atthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā ye imañca lokaṁ parañca lokaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī ti. (MN iii 72)

Illustration: abhiññā, transcendent insight

I claim to have reached the consummation and perfection of transcendent insight into profound truths not heard before

pubbāhaṁ bhikkhave ananussutesu dhammesu abhiññāvosānapāramippatto paṭijānāmi. (AN iii 9)

Illustration: abhiññāya, transcendent insight

Bhikkhus, I explain the teaching with transcendent insight, not without transcendent insight.

abhiññāyā'haṁ bhikkhave dhammaṁ desemi no anabhiññāya. (AN i 276)

Illustration: abhiññā, supernormal attainments

One might just as well think that a bull elephant seven or seven and a half cubits could be hidden by a palm leaf as think that my six supernormal attainments could be eclipsed [by the Venerable Ānanda’s attainments].

Sattaratanaṁ vā so āvuso nāgaṁ aḍḍhaṭṭharatanaṁ vā tālapattikāya chādetabbaṁ maññeyya yo me cha abhiññā chādetabbaṁ maññeyyā ti. (SN ii 217)

Illustration: abhiññā, supernormal attainments

Six supernormal attainments (cha abhiññā)

1) various kinds of psychic power (anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ).

2) divine ear (dibbasotadhātu): hearing the voices of devas and men, whether far or near.

3) knowledge of the minds of other persons, by encompassing their minds with one’s own (cetopariyañāṇaṁ)

4) the final knowledge: the knowledge through recalling of past lives

pubbenivāsānussati ñāṇaṁ vijjā

5) the final knowledge: the knowledge of the transmigration of beings (sattānaṁ cutūpapāte ñāṇaṁ vijjā), and discerning how beings fare according to their deeds (yathākammūpage satte pajānāti).

6) the final knowledge: the knowledge of the destruction of perceptually obscuring states (āsavānaṁ khaye ñāṇaṁ vijjā) (SN ii 212-4).

Comment:

Bodhi says: ‘This is one of the rare texts in the Nikāyas where the word abhiññā is used collectively to designate the six higher knowledges.’

Illustration: abhiññāya, supernormal attainment

The Buddha told Baka the Brahmā that he knew of three groups of devas that Baka was ignorant of: the Ābhassarā, Subhakiṇṇā and Vehapphalā devas.

‘Thus, Brahmā,’ he concluded, ‘in regard to supernormal attainment I do not stand merely at the same level as you, so how could I be lower? Rather, I am above you.

evampi kho ahaṁ brahme neva te samasamo abhiññāya kuto nīceyyaṁ. Atha kho ahameva tayā bhiyyo. (MN i 329)

pariññā

pariññā: (main article see: abhijānāti)

Illustration: pariññā, profound understanding

What things should be profoundly understood?

Katame ca bhikkhave pariññeyyā dhammā:

The five aggregates

Rūpaṁ bhikkhave pariññeyyo dhammo… viññāṇaṁ pariññeyyo dhammo

What is profound understanding?

Katamā ca bhikkhave pariññā?

The destruction of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality

Yo bhikkhave rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo. (SN iii 26)

pariññāya

pariññāya: (main article see: abhijānāti)

Illustration: pariññāya, profoundly understanding

Recognising this danger, that suffering arises dependent on existential nourishment, profoundly understanding all existential nourishment, one is free of attachment to all existential nourishment.

Etamādīnavaṁ ñatvā dukkhaṁ āhārapaccayā
Sabbāhāraṁ pariññāya sabbāhāramanissito. (Snp 747-9)

abhijjhā

Renderings
Introduction

Abhijjhā: greed not covetousness

Abhijjhā has long been called ‘covetousness,’ which means the desire for other’s possessions, but it more likely means ‘greed,’ because:

1) PED says it is ‘almost identical in meaning with lobha.’

2) The Sāḷha Sutta (AN i 194) says lobho and abhijjhā are synonyms (taṁ kiṁ maññatha sāḷhā atthi lobho ti? Evaṁ bhante. Abhijjhā ti kho ahaṁ sāḷhā etamatthaṁ vadāmi (AN i 194).

3) In the scriptures abhijjhā stands for the first of the five hindrances, where it is linked to sensuous pleasure (abhijjhālū kāmesu Iti 91), and is listed with the other four hindrances (vyāpannacittā thīnamiddha uddhatā vicikicchī MN i 17-18). In this last reference it is linked to rāga (abhijjhālū kāmesu tibbasārāgā MN i 17-18).

Abhijjhā: broad meaning more likely

Objection to rendering abhijjhā as greed may be raised on the grounds that abhijjhā is explained in terms of covetousness:

• ’In this regard, some person is greedy. He covets others’ property and possessions: “Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!”’

idha bhante ekacco abhijjhālu hoti yaṁ taṁ parassa paravittūpakaraṇaṁ taṁ abhijjhātā hoti aho vata yaṁ parassa taṁ mamassā ti. (MN iii 49)

But this is in illustration of the two types of mental conduct, good and bad, where abhijjhālū and vyāpannacitto are bad, and anabhijjhālū and avyāpannacitto are good. In this situation, it is likely the two words stand for two broad categories (greed and hatred), not one narrow category and one broad category (covetousness and hatred). The same is true of abhijjhādomanassā, where it is more likely that abhijjhā has a broad meaning, not a narrow meaning. For example:

1) While I am pacing back and forth thus, neither greed nor dejection nor unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors will pursue me.

nābhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssavissantī ti. (MN iii 113)

2) A bhikkhu abides contemplating the nature of the body, vigorously, fully consciously, and mindfully, having eliminated greed and dejection in regard to the world [of phenomena].

vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. (SN v 182)

Abhijjhā: not in relation to others’ possessions

Abhijjhā is not always linked to others’ possessions:

• In seeing a visible object with mindfulness muddled, focusing on the agreeable aspect, one experiences it with a mind of attachment and persists in cleaving to it. Many sense impressions arising from the visible object blossom [within oneself], greed and vexation as well, by which one’s mind becomes disturbed.

Rūpaṁ disvā sati muṭṭhā piyaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto
Sārattacitto vedeti tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati
Tassa vaḍḍhanti vedanā anekā rūpasambhavā
Abhijjhā ca vihesā ca cittamassūpahaññati. (Tha 794-5)

Illustrations

Illustration: abhijjhā, greed

He, having abandoned these five hindrances which are spiritual defilements and weakening to penetrative discernment, abides contemplating the nature of the body, vigorously, fully consciously, and mindfully, having eliminated greed and dejection in regard to the world [of phenomena].

So ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalikaraṇe kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. (MN iii 136)

Illustration: abhijjhā, greed

• ’What do you think, Sāḷha: is there greed (lobho)?’

Taṁ kiṁ maññatha sāḷhā atthi lobho ti?

• ’Yes, bhante.

• ’I call it greed (abhijjhā), Sāḷha.

Abhijjhā ti kho ahaṁ sāḷhā etamatthaṁ vadāmi. (AN i 194)

Illustration: abhijjhā, greed

There are these four spiritual shackles

cattārome bhikkhave ganthā

• the spiritual shackle of greed

• the spiritual shackle of ill will

• the spiritual shackle of adherence to observances and practices

• the spiritual shackle of stubborn attachment to dogmatic opinions.

abhijjhālu

abhijjhālu: (main article see: abhijjhā)

Illustration: abhijjhālu, greedy

In this regard, some person is

  • greedy (abhijjhālu hoti) and abides with a greedy attitude (abhijjhāsahagatāya saññāya viharati);
  • unbenevolent (vyāpādavā) and abides with an unbenevolent attitude
  • malicious (vihesavā) and abides with a malicious attitude (MN iii 55).

abhinandati

Renderings
Introduction

On longing for the future

One ‘takes delight’ in the present, or ‘longs for’ the future. ‘Longing for’ the future means directing the mind with desire (cittaṁ paṇidahati), as follows:

• How does one long for the future?

Kathañcāvuso anāgataṁ paṭikaṅkhati:

… One directs one’s mind to acquire what has not yet been acquired, thinking, ‘May the visual sense and visible objects be thus in the future.’ In directing one’s mind thus, one longs for it. In doing so one longs for the future.

iti me cakkhuṁ siyā anāgatamaddhānaṁ iti rūpāti appaṭiladdhassa paṭilābhāya cittaṁ paṇidahati. Cetaso paṇidhānapaccayā tadabhinandati. Tadabhinandanto anāgataṁ paṭikaṅkhati. (MN iii 195-6)

Illustrations
nābhinandati

nābhinandati: (main article see: abhinandati)

Illustration: nābhinandati, take delight in

They always take delight in food, both devas and human beings. So what sort of deity could it be that does not take delight in food?

Annamevābhinandanti ubhaye devamānusā
Atha ko nāma so yakkho yaṁ annaṁ nābhinandatī ti. (SN i 32)

Illustration: abhinandati, take delight in

One who takes delight in the Solidness Phenomenon, takes delight in what is intrinsically unsatisfactory. One who takes delight in what is intrinsically unsatisfactory, I declare, is not freed from suffering, I declare.

Yo bhikkhave paṭhavīdhātuṁ abhinandati dukkhaṁ so abhinandati. Yo dukkhaṁ abhinandati aparimutto so dukkhasmā vadāmi. (SN ii 175)

nābhinandeyya

nābhinandeyya: (main article see: abhinandati)

Illustration: nābhinandeyya, take delight in

The bhikkhu, the disciple of the Buddha, should not take delight in worldly honour. He should cultivate seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors] instead.

bhikkhu buddhassa sāvako sakkāraṁ nābhinandeyya vivekamanubrūhaye. (Dhp 75)

abhinandāmi

abhinandāmi: (main article see: abhinandati)

Illustration: abhinandāmi, take delight in

And I would take delight in that supreme teaching, great Seer, understanding which, one living the religious life, one who is mindful, would overcome attachment to the world [of phenomena].

tañcāhaṁ abhinandāmi mahesi dhammamuttamaṁ
Yaṁ viditvā sato caraṁ tare loke visattikaṁ. (Snp 1054)

abhinanditaṁ

abhinanditaṁ: (main article see: abhinandati)

Illustration: abhinanditaṁ, take delight in

See the body [according to reality], Kulla, as ailing, foul, and loathsome; oozing and dripping [from its nine orifices]―but which fools take delight in.

abhinandanti

abhinandanti: (main article see: abhinandati)

Illustration: abhinandanti, take delight in

In this regard, Ānanda, a person is gentle, pleasant to live with. His companions in the religious life take delight in his company

abhinandanti sabrahmacārī ekattavāsena. (AN iii 350)

nābhinandāmi

nābhinandāmi: (main article see: abhinandati)

Illustration: nābhinandāmi, long for; nābhinandāmi, take delight in

I do not long for death. I take no delight in life. I await the inevitable hour like a servant for his wages.

Nābhinandāmi maraṇaṁ nābhinandāmi jīvitaṁ
Kālañca paṭikaṅkhāmi nibbisaṁ bhatako yathā. (Tha 1003)

nābhinandati

nābhinandati: (main article see: abhinandati)

Illustration: nābhinandati, long for

He abandons craving for states of individual existence but he does not long for the cessation of individual existence.

Bhavataṇhā pahīyati vibhavaṁ nābhinandati. (Uda 33)

Illustration: abhinandanti, long for

Some people are revolted, appalled, and disgusted by individual existence.

bhaveneva kho paneke aṭṭiyamānā harāyamāsā jigucchamānā

They long for the cessation of individual existence

Illustration: abhinandati, long for

Being affected by an unpleasant sense impression, he longs for sensuous pleasure.

so dukkhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno kāmasukhaṁ abhinandati. (SN iv 208-9)

Illustration: abhinandanti, applaud

A man who has long been living abroad, who returns safely from afar, his relatives, friends, and comrades applaud his return.

Ñātimittā suhajjā ca abhinandanti āgataṁ. (Dhp 219)

abhinandiṁsu

abhinandiṁsu: (main article see: abhinandati)

Illustration: abhinandiṁsu, applaud

Those bhikkhus neither applauded those ascetics words, nor criticised them, but rose and left.

neva abhinandiṁsu nappaṭikkosiṁsu. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkamiṁsu. (SN v 109)

abhinandīti

abhinandīti: (main article see: abhinandati)

Illustration: abhinandīti, applaud

Venerable Ānanda was pleased and applauded the Blessed One’s words.

attamano āyasmā ānando bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandīti. (MN ii 266)

abhinanditabbaṁ

abhinanditabbaṁ: (main article see: abhinandati)

Illustration: abhinanditabbaṁ, applaud

A bhikkhu makes a declaration of arahantship.

bhikkhu aññaṁ vyākaroti khīṇā jāti vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ nāparaṁ itthattāyā ti pajānāmi ti.

The bhikkhus words should be neither applauded nor criticised

tassa bhikkhave bhikkhuno bhāsitaṁ neva abhinanditabbaṁ nappaṭikkositabbaṁ

But he should be asked a question. If he answers correctly, then:

… expressing one’s approval, one may applaud and acclaim that bhikkhu’s words

tassa bhikkhave bhikkhuno sādhū ti bhāsitaṁ abhinanditabbaṁ anumoditabbaṁ. (MN iii 29-30)

Illustration: nābhinandāmi, applaud

If one does not pardon those who confess their faults, one harbours unfriendliness:

• I do not applaud that unfriendliness, thus I pardon your transgression

Taṁ veraṁ nābhinandāmi patigaṇhāmi voccayan ti. (SN i 25)

abhinibbatti

Renderings
Illustrations
abhinibbattati

abhinibbattati: (main article see: abhinibbatti)

Illustration: abhinibbattati, manifest

Bhikkhus, just as heat is generated and fire manifests from the rubbing together of two fire-sticks,

Seyyathā pi bhikkhave dvinnaṁ kaṭṭhānaṁ saṅghaṭṭasamodhānā usmā jāyati tejo abhinibbattati. (SN ii 97)

abhinibbatteti

abhinibbatteti: (main article see: abhinibbatti)

Illustration: abhinibbatteti, is manifested

In one yearning for sensuous pleasure a corresponding personal disposition is manifested, either meritorious or demeritorious.

yaṁ kho bhikkhave kāmayamāno tajjaṁ tajjaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinibbatteti puññabhāgiyaṁ vā apuññabhāgiyaṁ vā. (AN iii 411)

abhinibbattissathā

abhinibbattissathā: (main article see: abhinibbatti)

Illustration: abhinibbattissathā, be manifested

• If a stream of consciousness did not arise in the womb, would immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form develop there?

viññāṇañca hi ānanda mātukucchismiṁ na okkamissatha api nu kho nāmarūpaṁ mātukucchismiṁ samuccissathā ti?

• No, bhante.

• Or if the stream of consciousness having entered the womb should leave it, would immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form be manifested in this world?

viññāṇañca hi ānanda mātukucchiṁ okkamitvā vokkamissatha api nu kho nāmarūpaṁ itthattāya abhinibbattissathā ti

• No, bhante (DN ii 63).

Illustration: abhinibbatteti, arouse

As he abides contemplating the nature of the body internally he becomes perfectly inwardly collected and perfectly serene.

tattha sammāsamādhiyati sammāvippasīdati

Being thus perfectly inwardly collected and perfectly serene he arouses knowledge and vision externally of others’ bodies [according to reality]

so tattha sammā samāhito sammāvippasanno bahiddhā parakāye ñāṇadassanaṁ abhinibbatteti. (DN ii 216)

abhinibbattessāmi

abhinibbattessāmi: (main article see: abhinibbatti)

Illustration: abhinibbattessāmi, make

Seeing a piece of wood, a man might think, ‘I will make fire; I will produce heat.’

aggiṁ abhinibbattessāmi tejo pātukarissāmī ti. (MN i 241)

Illustration: abhinibbatti, rebirth

What is birth? It is the birth, being born, arising, rebirth, appearance of aggregates, acquiring of senses by the various beings in the various classes of beings. This is called birth.

yā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jāti sañjāti okkanti abhinibbatti khandhānaṁ pātubhāvo āyatanānaṁ paṭilābho ayaṁ vuccatāvuso jāti.

Illustration: abhinibbatti, rebirth

• One is reckoned according to wherever the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs

yattha yattheva attabhāvassa abhinibbatti hoti tena teneva saṅkhaṁ gacchati

• If the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs in a clan of khattiyas, one is reckoned as a noble.

khattiyakule ce attabhāvassa abhinibbatti hoti khattiyotveva saṅkhaṁ gacchati

• If the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs in a clan of brahmans, one is reckoned as a brahman.

brāhmaṇakule ce attabhāvassa abhinibbatti hoti brāhmaṇotveva saṅkhaṁ gacchati. (MN ii 181)

abhinibbattiyā

abhinibbattiyā: (main article see: abhinibbatti)

Illustration: abhinibbattiyā, rebirth

Spiritual instability, bhante, is an illness, a carbuncle, a [piercing] arrow.

ejā bhante rogo ejā gaṇḍo ejā sallaṁ

It draws man to this or that state of individual existence and rebirth.

ejā imaṁ purisaṁ parikaḍḍhati tassa tasseva bhavassa abhinibbattiyā

Thus he arises in various [states of individual existence].

Tasmā ayaṁ puriso uccāvacamāpajjati. (DN ii 283)

Illustration: abhinibbattiyā, rebirth

Craving is the seamstress

For craving stitches him to this or that state of individual existence and rebirth

taṇhā hi naṁ sibbati tassa tasseva bhavassa abhinibbattiyā. (AN iii 400)

Illustration: abhinibbatti, rebirth

Rebirth is suffering; non-rebirth is happiness.

abhinibbatti kho āvuso dukkhā anabhinibbatti sukhā.

When there is rebirth, this suffering can be expected:

abhinibbattiyā āvuso sati idaṁ dukkhaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ

Cold, heat, hunger, thirst, defaecation, urination, being burnt, beaten, chopped, being scolded in gatherings with relatives and old friends (AN v 121).

abhinibbattā

abhinibbattā: (main article see: abhinibbatti)

Illustration: abhinibbattā, reborn

There are beings unalike in body but alike in state of refined awareness, for example the devas newly reborn in the Brahmā group.

Santi bhikkhave sattā nānattakāyā ekattasaññino seyyathā pi devā brahmakāyikā paṭhamābhinibbattā. (AN iv 401)

abhibhū

Renderings
Introduction

The dictionaries

  • PED (sv Abhibhū): overcoming, conquering, vanquishing, having power over, a Lord or Master of.
  • DOP (sv Abhibhū): vanquishing, overcoming, one who surpasses, a master, a sovereign

The world and attachment

But the suttas do not support the idea that the All or the world should be conquered or vanquished, but rather that attachment should be conquered:

• He has overcome attachment to the world.

tiṇṇo loke visattikan ti. (MN i 160)

This is confirmed in the following quotes, which link Sabbābhibhū to freedom from attachment:

1) I have transcended the All. I have understood the All. I do not cleave to any phenomenon. I have abandoned the All.

Sabbābhibhū sabbavidūhamasmi sabbesu dhammesu anupalitto
Sabbañjaho . (Dhp 353)

2) One who has transcended the All, understood the All, who is of great wisdom, who does not cleave to any phenomenon, who has abandoned the All.

Sabbābhibhuṁ sabbaviduṁ sumedhaṁ sabbesu dhammesu anupalittaṁ
Sabbañjahaṁ. (Snp 211)

3) free of attachment, who has transcended the whole world [of phenomena]

Bhikkhu Bodhi: ‘transcended’

Bhikkhu Bodhi recognises ‘transcended’:

• I am one who has transcended all, a knower of all, unsullied among all things, renouncing all, by craving’s ceasing freed. Having known this all for myself, to whom should I point as teacher?

Sabbābhibhū sabbavidūhamasmi sabbesu dhammesu anupalitto
Sabbañjaho taṇhakkhaye vimutto sayaṁ abhiññāya kamuddiseyyaṁ. (Bodhi, MN i 171)

• Suppose I were to abide with a mind abundant and exalted, having transcended the world and made a firm determination with the mind.

Yaṁnūnāhaṁ vipulena mahaggatena cetasā vihareyyaṁ abhibhuyya lokaṁ adhiṭṭhāya manasā. (Bodhi, MN ii 262)

The All

• And what is the All? The visual sense and visible objects, the auditory sense and audible objects, the olfactory sense and smellable objects, the gustatory sense and tasteable objects, the tactile sense and tangible objects, the mental sense and mentally known objects. This is called the All.

Kiñca bhikkhave sabbaṁ. Cakkhuñceva rūpā ca sotañca saddā ca ghānañca gandhā ca jivhā ca rasā ca kāyo ca phoṭṭhabbā ca mano ca dhammā ca. Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sabbaṁ.. (SN iv 15)

Illustrations
sabbābhibhū

sabbābhibhū: (main article see: abhibhū)

Illustration: sabbābhibhū, transcended the All

I have transcended the All. I have understood the All. I do not cleave to any phenomenon. I have abandoned the All. I am liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through the destruction of craving. Having fully understood [the All] by myself, who could I designate [as my teacher]?

Sabbābhibhū sabbavidūhamasmi sabbesu dhammesu anupalitto
Sabbañjaho taṇhakkhaye vimutto sayaṁ abhiññāya kamuddiseyyaṁ. (Dhp 353)

sabbābhibhuṁ

sabbābhibhuṁ: (main article see: abhibhū)

Illustration: sabbābhibhuṁ, transcended the All

One who has transcended the All, understood the All, who is of great wisdom, who does not cleave to any phenomenon, who has abandoned the All, who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through the destruction of craving, the wise know him as truly a sage.

Sabbābhibhuṁ sabbaviduṁ sumedhaṁ sabbesu dhammesu anupalittaṁ
Sabbañjahaṁ taṇhakkhaye vimuttaṁ taṁ vāpi dhīrā muniṁ vedayanti. (Snp 211)

sabbalokābhibhuṁ

sabbalokābhibhuṁ: (main article see: abhibhū)

Illustration: sabbalokābhibhuṁ, transcended the whole world [of phenomena]

One who has abandoned both sensuous delight and disgruntlement [with the celibate life], who is freed from inward distress, free of attachment, who has transcended the whole world [of phenomena], a Hero, he is what I call a Brahman.

Hitvā ratiñca aratiñca sītibhūtaṁ nirupadhiṁ
Sabbalokābhibhuṁ vīraṁ tamahaṁ brūmi brāhmaṇaṁ. (Snp 642; Dhp 418)

COMMENT

Sabbalokābhibhuṁ: ‘transcended the whole world [of phenomena].’ Which is defined in this quote:

• ‘Whatever is destined to decay is called ‘the world [of phenomena]’ in the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system.

Yaṁ kho ānanda palokadhammaṁ ayaṁ vuccati ariyassa vinaye loko. (SN iv 53)

abhibhuyya lokaṁ

abhibhuyya lokaṁ: (main article see: abhibhū)

Illustration: abhibhuyya lokaṁ, transcending the world [of sensuous pleasure]

How about if I, by transcending the world [of sensuous pleasure] with resolve, were to abide with an awareness that was abundant and enlarged? Having done so, unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome mental states such as greed, ill will, and aggressiveness would not exist. With their abandonment, my mind would become immeasurable, unlimited, and well developed.'

Yaṁnūnāhaṁ vipulena mahaggatena cetasā vihareyyaṁ abhibhuyya lokaṁ adhiṭṭhāya manasā. Vipulena hi me mahaggatena cetasā viharato abhibhuyya lokaṁ adhiṭṭhāya manasā ye pāpakā akusalā mānasā abhijjhāpi vyāpādāpi sārambhāpi te na bhavissanti. Tesaṁ pahānā aparittañca me cittaṁ bhavissati appamāṇaṁ subhāvitan ti. (MN ii 262)

abhivadati

Renderings
Illustrations
abhivadanti

abhivadanti: (main article see: abhivadati)

Illustration: abhivadanti, proclaim

Those teachings which are excellent in the beginning, the middle, and the end, whose spirit and letter proclaim the utterly complete and pure religious life. Things like this are much heard by him.

kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ abhivadanti. (Vin.2.96)

Illustration: abhivadanti, proclaim

Some [ascetics and Brahmanists] proclaim the viññāṇa kasiṇa, limitless and imperturbable.

viññāṇakasiṇaṁ eke abhivadanti appamāṇaṁ āneñjaṁ. (MN ii 229)

Illustration: abhivadanti, proclaim

Some [ascetics and Brahmanists] proclaim that the state of awareness of nonexistence, limitless and imperturbable, where one perceives that there is [nowhere] anything at all, is the purest, highest, best, and greatest of those states of refined awareness, whether refined material states of awareness, or immaterial states of awareness, or states of refined awareness involving mental cognisance alone, or involving the external senses.

Yā vā panetāsaṁ saññānaṁ parisuddhā paramā aggā anuttariyā akkhāyati yadi rūpasaññānaṁ yadi arūpasaññānaṁ yadi ekattasaññānaṁ yadi nānattasaññānaṁ natthi kiñci ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ eke abhivadanti appamāṇaṁ āneñjaṁ. (MN ii 230)

nābhivadiṁ

nābhivadiṁ: (main article see: abhivadati)

Illustration: nābhivadiṁ, glorify

I did not consider I was solidness, I did not consider I was part of solidness, I did not consider I was separate from solidness, I did not consider solidness to be “[in reality] mine,” I did not glorify solidness.

paṭhaviṁ nāhosiṁ paṭhaviyā nāhosiṁ paṭhavito nāhosiṁ paṭhaviṁ me ti nāhosiṁ paṭhaviṁ nābhivadiṁ. (MN i 329)

Illustration: abhivadanti, glorify

‘Brahmanic sacrifices glorify sights and sounds, also flavours, sensuous pleasures, and women.

Rūpe ca sadde ca atho rase ca
Kāmitthiyo cābhivadanti yaññā. (Vin.1.37)

Illustration: abhivadanti, assert

“Those who assert a doctrine different from this have strayed from spiritual purity. They are not spiritually perfected.”

Aññaṁ ito yābhivadanti dhammaṁ aparaddhā suddhimakevalī te

Non-Buddhist ascetics each say this because they are passionately attached to their own dogmatic views.

Evampi titthiyā puthuso vadanti sandiṭṭhirāgena hi tebhirattā. (Snp 891)

Illustration: abhivadanti, assert

• Some assert that the attā is perceptive and unimpaired after death

Saññī attā hoti arogo parammaraṇā ti ittheke abhivadanti.

• Some assert that the attā is unperceptive and unimpaired after death.

asaññī attā hoti arogo parammaraṇā ti ittheke abhivadanti

• Some assert that the attā is neither perceptive nor unperceptive and unimpaired after death.

nevasaññīnāsaññī attā hoti arogo parammaraṇā ti ittheke abhivadanti. (MN ii 228)

Illustration: abhivadanti, assert

‘All these reverend ascetics and Brahmanists with lofty voices are only asserting their attachment in saying ‘We shall be thus after passing on; we shall be thus after passing on.’

sabbepime bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhaṁsarā āsattiṁ yeva abhivadanti. Iti pecca bhavissāma iti pecca bhavissāmā ti. (MN ii 232)

Illustration: abhivadati, welcome

Engaged as he is in welcoming and rejecting, whatever sense impression he experiences―whether pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral―he takes delight in it, welcomes it, and persists in cleaving to it. In so doing, spiritually fettering delight arises.

So evaṁ anurodhavirodhaṁ samāpanno yaṁ kiñci vedanaṁ vedeti sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā so taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati tassa taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandī. (MN i 266)

abhivadatu

abhivadatu: (main article see: abhivadati)

Illustration: abhivadatu, welcome

Once, when bhikkhus were noisy the Buddha told them ‘Go I dismiss you. You should not live with me.’ Later someone asked:

‘Bhante, may the Blessed One take delight in the community of bhikkhus.

abhinandatu bhante bhagavā bhikkhusaṅghaṁ

May he welcome the community of bhikkhus.

abhivadatu bhante bhagavā bhikkhusaṅghaṁ

May he assist them as he used to do in the past.

seyyathā pi bhante bhagavatā pubbe bhikkhusaṅgho anuggahito evameva bhagavā etarahi anugaṇhātu bhikkhusaṅghaṁ. (MN i 457)

abhivadiṁ

abhivadiṁ: (main article see: abhivadati)

Illustration: abhivadiṁ, welcome

Seeing the danger of individual existence when searching for either [states of] individual existence or the cessation of [states of] individual existence, I did not welcome individual existence, nor rejoice in or grasp anything.

Bhavevāhaṁ bhayaṁ disvā bhavañca vibhavesinaṁ
Bhavaṁ nābhivadiṁ kiñci nandiñca na upādiyinti. (MN i 330)

Illustration: abhivadanti, welcome

Pañcasikha told the Buddha that Sakka, Lord of the Devas, was waiting to meet him. The Buddha said:

‘Pañcasikha, may Sakka, Lord of the Devas, his ministers and followers be happy,

Evaṁ sukhī hotu pañcasikha sakko devānamindo sāmacco saparijano

‘For they all desire happiness: devas, humans, asuras, magical serpents, heavenly musicians, and whatever other groups of beings there are.’

sukhakāmā hi devā manussā asurā nāgā gandhabbā ye caññe santi puthukāyā ti.

For that is the way that Perfect Ones welcome such mighty deities.

Evañca pana tathāgatā evarūpe mahesakkhe yakkhe abhivadanti.

Welcomed (abhivadito), Sakka entered the Indasāla Cave, venerated the Blessed One, and stood at a respectful distance (DN ii 270).

amatadhātu

Renderings
Introduction

The amatadhātu of arahants: deathlessness

PED (under dhātu) says that -dhātu in amatadhātu ‘is so far weakened in meaning, that it simply corresponds to the English abstract suffix -hood or -ity.’ But with no ‘deathless-hood’ or ‘deathless-ity,’ it would be ‘deathlessness.’ When linked to freedom from attachment it means arahantship:

• Having touched with his very being deathlessness, which is free from attachment,

Kāyena amataṁ dhātuṁ phassayitvā nirupadhiṁ. (Iti 46)

Because it implies arahantship, amataṁ dhātuṁ therefore equals amataṁ, which is defined as follows:

• The destruction of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality: this is called the Deathless.

Yo so bhikkhu rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo idaṁ vuccati amataṁ. (SN v 8)

The amatadhātu of non-arahants: the immortal phenomenon

Confusingly, there is another amatadhātu that is realised by non-arahants, a state which is also called nibbāna. We call this ‘the immortal phenomenon.’ We will show that it is equivalent to inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena] (animitto cetosamādhi). This latter state likewise does not necessarily mean arahantship, as Venerable Mahā Moggallāna discovered: while he abided therein, his mind pursued phantasms.

Animitto cetosamādhi: Venerable MahāMoggallāna’s mind pursued phantasms

MahāMoggallāna said:

• Here, friends, while I was alone in solitary retreat, a reflection arose in my mind thus: ‘It is said, “inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena]; inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].” What now is the inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena]?’

Animitto cetosamādhi animitto cetosamādhīti vuccati katamo nu kho animitto cetosamādhī ti

… Then, friends, it occurred to me:

Tassa mayhaṁ āvuso etadahosi

… In this regard a bhikkhu, by not focusing upon any abiding phenomenon,

Idha bhikkhu sabbanimittānaṁ amanasikārā

… enters and abides in the inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].

animittaṁ cetosamādhiṁ upasampajja viharati

… This is called the inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].

ayaṁ vuccati animitto cetosamādhī ti.

… Then, friends, by not focusing upon any abiding phenomenon,

So khvāhaṁ āvuso sabbanimittānaṁ amanasikārā

… I entered and dwelt in inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].

animittaṁ cetosamādhiṁ upasampajja viharāmi

… While I abided therein my mind pursued phantasms.

tassa mayhaṁ āvuso iminā vihārena viharato nimittānusārī viññānam hoti. (SN iv 263-269)

Focusing one’s mind on the immortal phenomenon

In the Mahāmāluṅkya Sutta the Buddha discusses the path and practice to abandon the five ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence (i.e. the path to non-returnership).

Katamo cānanda maggo katamā paṭipadā pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ pahānāya? (MN i 435)

He explains that in this path and practice a bhikkhu:

1) enters jhāna, then

2) contemplates the five aggregates as an illness, a carbuncle, a [piercing] arrow, suffering etc, then

te dhamme aniccato dukkhato rogato gaṇḍato sallato aghato ābādhato parato palokato suññato anattato samanupassati

3) averts his mind from those states, then

So tehi dhammehi cittaṁ paṭivāpeti

4) focuses his mind on the immortal phenomenon:

so tehi dhammehi cittaṁ paṭivāpetvā amatāya dhātuyā cittaṁ upasaṁharati

5) Focusing on the immortal phenomenon is followed in the sutta by the following reflection:

• This is peaceful, this is sublime, namely: the quelling of all originated phenomena, the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment, the destruction of craving, the passing away [of originated phenomena], the ending [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled.

etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhākkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānan ti. (MN i 435)

6) The sutta then says: ‘Established therein, he attains the destruction of perceptually obscuring states.

So tattha ṭhito āsavānaṁ khayaṁ pāpuṇāti

The destruction of perceptually obscuring states means the attainment of arahantship. Therefore arahantship occurs after having focused the mind on the immortal phenomenon, and even after the reflection ‘this is nibbāna.’ In this case, the immortal phenomenon and nibbāna precede arahantship.

7) The sutta confirms this because it says that those who have the etaṁ santaṁ reflection may not attain arahantship until the following life, because it says:

• ‘If the bhikkhu does not thereby attain the destruction of perceptually obscuring states, then he arises spontaneously [in the higher planes of existence], there to attain nibbāna-without-residue, never to return from those worlds.’

no ce āsavānaṁ khayaṁ pāpuṇāti… opapātiko hoti tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā. (MN i 435)

In other words, the immortal phenomenon that one focuses one’s mind on is linked to either arahantship or non-returnership.

The immortal phenomenon means animittadhātu

That the immortal phenomenon means animittadhātu (the unabiding phenomenon) can be demonstrated in seven steps:

1) The experience of focusing on the amatadhātu is described in the etaṁ santaṁ reflection, as noted above (MN i 435-7).

2) The etaṁ santaṁ reflection is equivalent to the winning of inward collectedness such that though one does not contemplate the visual sense or visible object… yet one still contemplates.

Idhānanda bhikkhu evaṁ manasikaroti etaṁ santaṁ… nibbānan ti evaṁ kho ānanda siyā bhikkhuno tathārūpo samādhipaṭilābho yathā na cakkhuṁ manasikareyya na rūpaṁ manasikareyya… yampidaṁ diṭṭhaṁ sutaṁ mutaṁ viññātaṁ pattaṁ pariyesitaṁ anuvicaritaṁ manasā tampi na manasikareyya manasi ca pana kareyyā ti. (AN v 321)

3) These objects that one does not contemplate are called ‘all nimittāni’ (sabbanimittāni) in this passage:

• He perceives all phenomena (sabbanimittāni) differently. He sees the visual sense differently, he sees visible objects differently… .

sabbanimittāni aññato passati cakkhuṁ aññato passati rūpe aññato passati… mano aññato passati dhamme aññato passati manoviññāṇaṁ aññato passati manosamphassaṁ aññato passati yampidaṁ mano samphassapaccayā uppajjati sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā tampi aññato passati. (SN iv 50)

4) Thus focusing on the amatadhātu is equivalent to not contemplating all nimittāni (sabbanimittāni na manasikareyya) yet still contemplating (manasi ca pana kareyyā ti).

5) ‘Still contemplating’ implies contemplating what is animitta.

6) Attaining the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] by focusing upon the unabiding [phenomenon] (animittāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā) involves two similar steps:

• ignoring all nimittāni

• focusing upon the animitta phenomenon

animittāya ca dhātuyā manasikāro. (MN i 297)

7) Therefore these phrases are equivalent:

• he focuses his mind on the amatadhātu

amatāya dhātuyā cittaṁ upasaṁharati (MN i 435)

• focusing upon the animittadhātu

animittāya ca dhātuyā manasikāro. (MN i 297)

That focusing on animittadhātu means perceiving the passing away and ending [of originated phenomena] (virāgasaññā and nirodhasaññā) is discussed sv Nimitta. Presumably the amatadhātu is named as such (and even called nibbāna in the etaṁ santaṁ reflection) because of the immortal quality of these two perceptions.

Illustrations
amatāya dhātuyā

amatāya dhātuyā: (main article see: amatadhātu)

Illustration: amatāya dhātuyā, the immortal phenomenon

A bhikkhu enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

He regards whatever phenomena there that are connected with the five aggregates, as unlasting, as intrinsically unsatisfactory, as an illness, as a carbuncle, as a [piercing] arrow, as suffering, as an affliction, as alien, as destined to decay, as void [of personal qualities], as void of personal qualities.

So yadeva tattha hoti rūpagataṁ vedanāgataṁ saññāgataṁ saṅkhāragataṁ viññāṇagataṁ te dhamme aniccato dukkhato rogato gaṇḍato sallato aghato ābādhato parato palokato suññato anattato samanupassati.

He averts his mind from those states.

So tehi dhammehi cittaṁ paṭivāpeti

and focuses his mind on the immortal phenomenon:

so tehi dhammehi cittaṁ paṭivāpetvā amatāya dhātuyā cittaṁ upasaṁharati

This is peaceful, this is sublime, namely: the quelling of all originated phenomena, the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment, the destruction of craving, the passing away [of originated phenomena], the ending [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled.

etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhākkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānan ti.

Established therein, he attains the destruction of perceptually obscuring states.

So tattha ṭhito āsavānaṁ khayaṁ pāpuṇāti

If he does not attain the destruction of perceptually obscuring states, then because of that righteous attachment, righteous spiritually fettering delight, with the destruction of the five ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence, he arises spontaneously [in the higher planes of existence], there to attain nibbāna-without-residue, never to return from those worlds.

no ce āsavānaṁ khayaṁ pāpuṇāti teneva dhammarāgena tāya dhammanandiyā pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā opapātiko hoti tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā. Ayampi kho ānanda maggo ayaṁ paṭipadā pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ pahānāya. (MN i 435-7 = AN iv 421)

avassuta

Renderings
Illustrations
avassutā

avassutā: (main article see: avassuta)

Illustration: avassutā, filled with lust

How can the lady Sundarīnandā, filled with lust, consent to physical contact with a male person who is filled with lust?

Kathaṁ hi nāma ayyā sundarīnandā avassutā avatassussa purisapuggalassa kāyasaṁsaggaṁ sādiyissatī ti. (Vin.4.213)

Illustration: avassutā, filled with lust

Filled with lust means: lustful, full of longing, emotionally bound.

Avassutā nāma: sārattā apekkhavatī paṭibaddhacittā. (Vin.4.214)

avassuto

avassuto: (main article see: avassuta)

Illustration: avassuto, full of defilement

How, friends, is one full of defilement?

Kathañcāvuso avassuto hoti

In this regard, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense, a bhikkhu is intent upon an agreeable visible object and troubled by a disagreeable visible object. He abides without having established mindfulness of the body, with an undeveloped mind, and he does not discern according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where those unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors cease without remainder.

idhāvuso bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā piyarūpe rūpe adhimuccati appiyarūpe rūpe vyāpajjati anupaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati parittacetaso tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti.

This is called, friends, a bhikkhu who is full of defilement amidst visible objects known via the visual sense,

Ayaṁ vuccatāvuso bhikkhu avassuto cakkhuviññeyyesu rūpesu avassuto. (SN iv 184-187)

avassutaṁ

avassutaṁ: (main article see: avassuta)

Illustration: avassutaṁ, full of defilement

And the Venerable MahāMoggallāna saw that person sitting in the midst of the assembly of bhikkhus―unvirtuous, of an unvirtuous moral nature, of foul and odious behaviour, secretive in conduct, no ascetic though pretending to be one, not celibate though pretending to be so, spiritually rotten, full of defilement, and morally decayed.

Addasā kho āyasmā mahāmoggallāno taṁ puggalaṁ dussīlaṁ pāpadhammaṁ asucisaṅkassarasamācāraṁ paṭicchannakammantaṁ assamaṇaṁ samaṇapaṭiññaṁ abrahmacāriṁ brahmacārīpaṭiññaṁ antopūtiṁ avassutaṁ kasambujātaṁ majjhe bhikkhusaṅghassa nisinnaṁ. (Uda 52)

Illustration: avassutaṁ, spiritually defiled: avassutā, soaked

If the mind is unsupervised [by mindfulness], acts of body, speech, and mind are unsupervised [by the mind].

Citte gahapati arakkhite kāyakammampi arakkhitaṁ hoti. Vacī kammampi arakkhitaṁ hoti. Manokammampi arakkhitaṁ hoti.

When acts of body, speech, and mind are unsupervised [by the mind], they are spiritually defiled.

Tassa arakkhitakāyakammantassa arakkhitavacīkammantassa arakkhitamanokammantassa kāyakammampi avassutaṁ hoti. Vacīkammampi avassutaṁ hoti. Manokammampi avassutaṁ hoti.

When acts of body, speech, and mind are spiritually defiled, they are rotten.

Tassa avassutakāyakammantassa avassutavacīkammantassa avassutamanokammantassa kāyakammampi pūtiyaṁ hoti. Vacīkammampi pūtiyaṁ hoti. Manokammampi pūtiyaṁ hoti.

When acts of body, speech, and mind are rotten, one’s death is inauspicious.

Tassa pūtikāyakammantassa pūtivacīkammantassa pūtimanokammantassa na bhaddakaṁ maraṇaṁ hoti. Na bhaddikā kālakiriyā.

It is like when a hut is poorly thatched, the hut, the rafters, and the walls are unprotected.

Seyyathā pi gahapati kūṭāgāre ducchanne kūṭampi arakkhitaṁ hoti. Gopānasiyo pi arakkhitā honti. Bhitti pi arakkhitā hoti.

The hut, the rafters, and the walls become soaked.

Kūṭampi avassutaṁ hoti. Gopānasiyo pi avassutā honti. Bhitti pi avassutā hoti.

The hut, the rafters, and the walls become rotten.

Kūṭampi pūtikaṁ hoti. Gopānasiyo pi pūtikā honti. Bhitti pi pūtikā hoti. (AN i 261)

avassutāni

avassutāni: (main article see: avassuta)

Illustration: avassutāni, soggy

He would strike a number of trees with the blade of his axe. When so struck, the firm and pithy trees would give off a dull sound, but those that are inwardly rotten, soggy, and decayed would give off a hollow sound.

Tattha yāni tāni rukkhāni daḷhāni sāravantāni kuṭhāripāsena ākoṭitāni kakkhalaṁ paṭinadanti yāni tāni rukkhāni antopūtīni avassutāni kasambujātāni tāni kuṭhāripāsena ākoṭitāni daddaraṁ paṭinadanti. (AN iv 171)

avassute

avassute: (main article see: avassuta)

Illustration: avassute, oozing

Woe upon oozing, stinking, bodies, which are in league with Māra! In your body there are nine ever-flowing streams.

Dhiratthu pure duggandhe mārapakkhe avassute
Navasotāni te kāye yāni sandanti sabbadā. (Tha 279)

Illustration: avassutā, oozing

Oozing with lust for sensuous pleasure

avijjā

Renderings
Introduction

Ignorance: extraordinary consensus

Avijjā has been called ‘ignorance’ at least since 1875 when Childers’ dictionary appeared. Even today this word is universally accepted. The consensus is extraordinary.

What is missing: insight

‘Ignorance’ means lack of knowledge or education that is abandoned through knowledge and education. But avijjā is abandoned through transcendent insight (abhiññā pahātabbā AN ii 247). What is missing in avijjā is not knowledge but insight.

Channa’s stumbling block: lack of insight

The difference between knowledge and insight is illustrated in the case of Venerable Channa who knew the teaching but did not see the nature of reality (dhammaṁ passato hoti). Although he understood the theory of anicca, he lacked insight. So he asked Venerable Ānanda to explain the teaching in such a way that he might see the nature of reality (dhammaṁ passeyyan ti) (SN iii 133). Channa’s stumbling block was not knowledge, so he was not ‘ignorant’.

Overcoming avijjā: a matter of insight

With enlightenment, when avijjā is dispelled and vijjā arises (avijjā vihatā vijjā uppannā) ‘darkness is banished, and light arises’ (tamo vihato āloko uppanno) (MN i 248). One knows and sees (evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato) the four noble truths as clearly as if one were looking at fish in a crystal clear pond (DN i 84). Overcoming avijjā is therefore a matter of insight not knowledge. Other quotations below make the same point.

Illustrations

Illustration: avijjā, uninsightfulness into reality

Which things must be abandoned through transcendent insight?

Katame ca bhikkhave dhammā abhiññā pahātabbā?

Uninsightfulness into reality and craving for states of individual existence.

Avijjā ca bhavataṇhā ca. (AN ii 247)

Illustration: avijjā, vijjā, un/insightfulness into reality

This uninsightfulness into reality is indeed undiscernment of reality whereby this wandering the round of birth and death goes on for a long time.

Avijjā hāyaṁ mahāmoho yenidaṁ saṁsitaṁ ciraṁ

But whatever beings have insight into reality, they do not come to renewed states of individual existence.

Vijjāgatā va ye sattā nāgacchanti punabbhavan ti. (Snp 729-730)

Illustration: avijjā, uninsightfulness into reality

Camouflaged by skin, the body is not seen according to reality.

Chaviyā kāyo paṭicchanno yathābhūtaṁ na dissati.

The fool, led on by uninsightfulness into reality, thinks it exquisite.

Subhato naṁ maññati bālo avijjāya purakkhato.

However, having heard the Buddha’s word, the bhikkhu here possessed of knowledge [of things according to reality] profoundly understands [the body], for he perceives it according to reality.

bhikkhu paññāṇavā idha so kho naṁ pajānāti yathābhūtaṁ hi passati.

Whoever would think to be swelled-headed because of such a body, or would disparage another, what is this except not seeing it [according to reality]?

kimaññatra adassanā ti. (Snp 194; 199; 202; 206)

avijjaṁ

avijjaṁ: (main article see: avijjā)

Illustration: avijjaṁ, uninsightfulness into reality

When the perception of the unlastingness [of the five aggregates] is developed and cultivated, it destroys all uninsightfulness into reality

Aniccasaññā bhikkhave bhāvitā bahulīkatā… sabbaṁ avijjaṁ pariyādiyati. (SN iii 155)

Illustration: avijjā, vijjā, un/insightfulness into reality

The ignorant Everyman does not discern according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from the five aggregates.

assutavā puthujjano rūpassa… viññāṇassa samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti.

This is called uninsightfulness into reality

ayaṁ vuccatāvuso avijjā

The learned noble disciple discerns this according to reality

sutavā ariyasāvako rūpassa… viññāṇassa assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti

This is called insightfulness into reality

Ayaṁ vuccatāvuso vijjā. (SN iii 173-4)

Illustration: avijjā, vijjā, un/insightfulness into reality

When a bhikkhu knows and sees the visual sense as unlasting, uninsightfulness into reality is abandoned and insightfulness into reality arises.

cakkhuṁ kho bhikkhu aniccato jānato passato bhikkhuno avijjā pahīyati vijjā uppajjati. (SN iv 49-50)

Illustration: avijjā, uninsightfulness into reality

Bhikkhus, ignorance of suffering [according to reality], the origin of suffering, the ending of suffering, the practice leading to the ending of suffering, is called uninsightfulness into reality, and it is on account of this quality that one lacks insight into reality.

Yaṁ kho bhikkhu dukkhe aññāṇaṁ dukkhasamudaye aññāṇaṁ dukkhanirodhe aññāṇaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya aññāṇaṁ ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhu avijjā ettāvatā ca avijjāgato hoti.

Bhikkhus, whatsoever is the knowledge of suffering [according to reality], of the origin of suffering, the ending of suffering, and of the practice leading to the ending of suffering, is called insightfulness into reality, and it is on these grounds that one is possessed of insight into reality.

Yaṁ kho bhikkhu dukkhe ñāṇaṁ dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṁ dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṁ ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhu vijjā ettāvatā ca vijjāgato hoti. (SN v 430)

Illustration: avijjā, uninsightfulness into reality

What is the condition that nourishes uninsightfulness into reality? The five hindrances, one should reply.

ko cāhāro avijjāya? Pañca nīvaraṇā tissa vacanīyaṁ.

Magnifying the five hindrances magnifies uninsightfulness into reality.

Pañcanīvaraṇā paripūrā avijjaṁ paripūrenti. (AN v 116)

Illustration: avijjā, uninsightfulness into reality

‘Bhante, when, in regard to those who are not perfectly enlightened, the view arises that they are in fact perfectly enlightened, due to what is this view to be discerned?’

asammāsambuddhesu sammā sambuddhā ti. Ayaṁ nu kho bhante diṭṭhi kiṁ paṭicca paññāyatī ti

‘Mighty, Kaccāna, is this phenomenon, namely the phenomenon of uninsightfulness into reality’

mahati kho esā kaccāna dhātu yadidaṁ avijjādhātu. (SN ii 153)

Illustration: avijjā, vijjā, un/insightfulness into reality

• Bhante, how should a bhikkhu know, how should he see, for uninsightfulness into reality to be abandoned by him and insightfulness into reality to arise?”

kathaṁ pana bhante jānato kathaṁ passato avijjā pahīyati vijjā uppajjatī ti?

• In this regard, bhikkhu, a bhikkhu has heard that all things are unsuited to stubborn attachment.’

sabbe dhammā nālaṁ abhinivesāyā ti.

… When a bhikkhu has heard that all things are unsuited to stubborn attachment he fully understands the whole teaching,

so sabbaṁ dhammaṁ abhijānāti

… Through fully understanding the whole teaching, he profoundly understands the whole teaching.

sabbaṁ dhammaṁ parijānāti

… Through profoundly understanding the whole teaching, he perceives all phenomena differently.

sabbanimittāni aññato passati

… When, bhikkhu, a bhikkhu knows and sees thus, uninsightfulness into reality is abandoned by him and insightfulness into reality arises.”

evaṁ kho bhikkhu jānato evaṁ passato bhikkhuno avijjā pahīyati vijjā uppajjatī ti. (SN iv 49-50)

vijjā

vijjā: (main article see: avijjā)

Illustration: vijjā, insightfulness into reality

The seven factors of enlightenment, when developed and cultivated, bring to perfection insightfulness into reality and liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

satta bojjhaṅgā bhāvitā bahulīkatā vijjāvimuttiṁ paripūrenti. (SN v 329)

Illustration: vijjā, insightfulness

‘This is sense impression’: in regard to profound truths not heard before, there arose in me vision, knowledge [of things according to reality], penetrative discernment, insightfulness, and illumination.

Imā vedanā ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṁ udapādi ñāṇaṁ udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi. (SN iv 233)

Illustration: avijjā, vijjā, un/insightfulness into reality

For an ignorant person void of insight into reality, wrong view [of reality] arises.

avijjāgatassa bhikkhave aviddasuno micchādiṭṭhi pahoti

For an intelligent person with insight into reality, right perception [of reality] arises.

vijjāgatassa bhikkhave viddasuno sammādiṭṭhi pahoti. (SN v 1)

avijjāyogo

avijjāyogo: (main article see: avijjā)

Illustration: avijjāyogo, uninsightfulness into reality

What is the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from uninsightfulness into reality?

avijjāyogo ca kathaṁ hoti?

In this regard, some person does not discern according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from the six senses.

idha bhikkhave ekacco channaṁ phassāyatanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti

For him who does not discern according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from the six senses.

Tassa channaṁ phassāyatanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ appajānato

the uninsightfulness and ignorance regarding the six senses that lurk within him: this is called the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from uninsightfulness into reality.

yā chasu phassāyatanesu avijjā aññāṇaṁ sānuseti ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave avijjāyogo. (AN ii 10)

avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ

Renderings
Introduction

Pubbā koṭi na paññāyati avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ sandhāvataṁ saṁsarataṁ

This means:

• A first point is not to be discerned of beings with the hindrance of uninsightfulness into reality, and with the tie to individual existence of craving, roaming and wandering the round of birth and death

Pubbā koṭi na paññāyati avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ sandhāvataṁ saṁsarataṁ. (SN ii 181-2)

We render the terms as:

But translators commonly render nīvaraṇānaṁ and saṁyojanānaṁ as past participles: ‘hindered’ and ‘fettered’:

  • ‘hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving’ (Bodhi, SN ii 181).
  • ‘hindered by ignorance, fettered by craving’ (Horner, MN i 294).

But the suttas show that the relevant past participles are nivutā and saṁyuttā.

Avijjanīvaraṇa Sutta: nivutā

The past participle given in the Avijjanīvaraṇa Sutta for nīvaraṇaṁ is nivutā (‘obstructed by’):

• Bhikkhus, I do not see any other single hindrance obstructed by which beings would roam and wander the round of birth and death for such a long time as the hindrance of uninsightfulness into reality. Obstructed by the hindrance of uninsightfulness into reality, beings roam and wander the round of birth and death for a long time.

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave aññaṁ ekanīvaraṇampi samanupassāmi yena nīvaraṇena nivutā pajā dīgharattaṁ sandhāvanti saṁsaranti yathayidaṁ bhikkhave avijjānīvaraṇaṁ. Avijjānīvaraṇena hi bhikkhave nivutā pajā dīgharattaṁ sandhāvanti saṁsarantī ti. (Iti 9)

The connection between avijjā and nivuto is confirmed in the Vaṅgīsa Sutta:

• The world [of beings] is obstructed by uninsightfulness into reality

Avijjāya nivuto loko. (Snp 1033)

Taṇhāsaṁyojana Suttas: saṁyuttā

The past participle given in the Taṇhāsaṁyojana Sutta for saṁyojanānaṁ is saṁyuttā (‘tethered by’).

• Bhikkhus, I do not see any other single tie to individual existence, tethered by which beings would roam and wander the round of birth and death for such a long time as the tie of craving. Tethered [to individual existence] by the tie of craving, beings roam and wander the round of birth and death for a long time.

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave aññaṁ ekasaṁyojanampi samanupassāmi yena saṁyojanena saṁyuttā sattā dīgharattaṁ sandhāvanti saṁsaranti yathayidaṁ bhikkhave taṇhāsaṁyojanaṁ. Taṇhāsaṁyojanena hi bhikkhave saṁyuttā sattā dīgharattaṁ sandhāvanti saṁsarantī ti. (Iti 9)

Nivutā: meaning

Nivuta is the past participle of nivarati (‘surrounded, hemmed in, obstructed, enveloped,’ PED). We call it ‘obstructed.’ Some call it ‘shrouded in’ or ‘enveloped in,’ but it is associated in the suttas with the instrumental case, not the locative case:

• By what is the world [of beings] obstructed?

Kena ssu nivuto loko. (Snp 1032)

Saṁyuttā: meaning

Our research shows that saṁyuttā means ‘tethered [to individual existence].’ See sv Saṁyutta. In the passage from the Taṇhāsaṁyojana Sutta quoted above, the structure of the sentence rendered the parenthesis unnecessary.

Applying the past participles

If these missing past participles are inserted, it produces the following result, full of redundancy:

• A first point is not to be discerned of beings [obstructed by] the hindrance of uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by the tie to individual existence of craving, roaming and wandering the round of birth and death.

pubbā koṭi na paññāyati avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ sandhāvataṁ saṁsarataṁ. (SN ii 181-2)

Removing the redundancy

Without redundancy, the phrase becomes:

• A first point is not to be discerned of beings [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving, roaming and wandering the round of birth and death.

pubbā koṭi na paññāyati avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ sandhāvataṁ saṁsarataṁ. (SN ii 181-2)

Ironically, then, we have simply replaced nīvaraṇānaṁ and saṁyojanānaṁ with nivutā and saṁyuttā, and apart from adding brackets, have followed Bodhi and Horner exactly:

  • ‘hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving’ (Bodhi, SN ii 181).
  • ‘hindered by ignorance, fettered by craving’ (Horner, MN i 294).
Illustrations

Illustration: [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving

For those beings, [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving, taking delight in this and that, renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future.

Avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ kho āvuso sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ tatra tatrābhinandanā evaṁ āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hotī ti. (MN i 294)

aveccappasāda

Renderings
Introduction

Etymology: avecca

The etymology and meaning of avecca is at last clear, because whereas the PED had said ‘the form is not sufficiently clear semantically,’ the DOP now recognises it as an absolutive of aveti, to know. Therefore Tha 497 can be translated accordingly:

• One is neither a thief nor a sage by the word of another. But as one knows oneself, the devas likewise know one too.

Na pare vacanā coro na pare vacanā muni
Attā ca naṁ yathāveti devā pi naṁ tathā vidū. (Tha 497)

Notice that veti in pāda c corresponds to vidū in pāda d, from vindati, to know.

Avecca: meaning

DOP says avecca means ‘having penetrated’ or ‘understanding.’ Norman says ‘having understood’ or ‘understanding’:

1) ‘He who having understood the noble truths sees them [clearly]’

Yo ariyasaccāni avecca passati. (Norman, Snp 229)

2) ‘Understanding all knowledge, you have revealed the doctrine, having sympathy for beings.’

Sabbaṁ tuvaṁ ñāṇamavecca dhammaṁ pakāsesi satte anukampamāno. (Norman, Snp 378)

DOP’s ‘having penetrated’ makes better sense, and we have shown sv Passati that when it lacks an object, passati means ‘see [the nature of reality].’ Thus we translate the two verses as:

1) He who, having penetrated the [four] noble truths, sees [the nature of reality] (Snp 229).

2) Having penetrated all knowledge, you have explained the teaching (Snp 378).

Thus, so far, if pasāda means ‘faith,’ aveccappasāda means ‘faith through having penetrated.’

Avecca and unshakability

Avecca is linked in the scriptures to unshakability, for example in this verse:

• Like a locking-post firmly embedded in the ground that is unshakeable by the winds of the four quarters, I declare, is the [quality of a] spiritually outstanding person, who, having penetrated the [four] noble truths, sees [the nature of reality].

Yathindakhīlo paṭhaviṁ sito siyā catubbhi vātehi asampakampiyo
Tathūpamaṁ sappurisaṁ vadāmi yo ariyasaccāni avecca passati. (Sn.v.229)

If avecca implies unshakability, then aveccappasāda seems to mean faith that is unshakeable on account of having penetrated profound truths.

Faith is stabilised by knowledge: Sekha Sutta

The theme of stabilising faith through knowledge is confirmed in the Sekha Sutta, which says that noble knowledge [of things according to reality] (ariyañāṇaṁ) stabilises four of the faculties, including the faculty of faith (saddhindriya):

• When noble knowledge [of things according to reality] has arisen in the noble disciple, then there is stability and steadiness in four faculties. Which four? The faculties of faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], energetic application [to the practice], mindfulness, and inward collectedness.

yato ca kho bhikkhave ariyasāvakassa ariyañāṇaṁ uppannaṁ hoti atha catunnaṁ indriyānaṁ saṇṭhiti hoti atha catunnaṁ indriyānaṁ avaṭṭhiti hoti. Katamesaṁ catunnaṁ saddhindriyassa viriyindriyassa satindriyassa samādhindriyassa. (SN v 228-9)

Faith is stabilised by knowledge: Vīmaṁsaka Sutta

Likewise the Vīmaṁsaka Sutta. Here a disciple explains how his unshakeable faith arose from transcendent insight into the teaching:

• As the Blessed One explained the teaching to me with its increasingly higher and more sublime levels, concerning what is inwardly dark and bright with their correlative combinations, thus through transcendent insight into a certain one of those teachings, I came to a conclusion about the teachings. I gained faith in the Teacher thus: “The Blessed One is perfectly enlightened. The teaching is well explained by the Blessed One. The community of disciples is applied to the excellent practice.”

Yathā yathā me āvuso bhagavā dhammaṁ deseti uttaruttariṁ paṇītapaṇītaṁ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgaṁ tathā tathāhaṁ tasmiṁ dhamme abhiññāya idhekaccaṁ dhammaṁ dhammesu niṭṭhamagamaṁ satthari pasīdiṁ sammā sambuddho bhagavā svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo supaṭipanno saṅgho ti.

… Bhikkhus, when one’s faith in the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment] is settled, rooted, and established, and described in these terms, words, and phrases, then one’s faith is said to be supported by reasons, rooted in vision [of things according to reality], and firm. It is not shakeable by any ascetic, Brahmanist, deva, māra, or brahmā, or by anyone in the world.

Yassa kassa ci bhikkhave imehi ākārehi imehi padehi imehi vyañjanehi tathāgate saddhā niviṭṭhā hoti mūlajātā patiṭṭhitā ayaṁ vuccatī bhikkhave ākāravatī saddhā dassanamūlikā daḷhā asaṁhāriyā samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṁ. (MN i 320)

Aveccappasāda: unshakeable faith

In conclusion, aveccappasāda implies a faith that is ‘supported by reasons, rooted in vision [of things according to reality], and firm. It is not shakeable by any ascetic, Brahmanist, deva, māra, or brahmā.’ We call it ‘unshakeable faith.’

Buddhe aveccappasāda

A noble disciple who has unshakeable faith in the Buddha (buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti) has come to the conclusion that:

• He is indeed the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, perfect in insightfulness into reality and in conduct, the Sublime One, one who knows the world [of phenomena] [according to reality], the unexcelled trainer of men to be tamed, the teacher of devas and men, the Enlightened One, the Blessed One.

iti pi so bhagavā arahaṁ sammā sambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidu anuttaro purisadammasārathī satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā ti. (SN v 390)

According to this, the noble disciple’s faith is not in the person of the Buddha, but in the perfection of his enlightenment. This is in accordance with the definition of saddhindriyaṁ which is linked to tathāgatassa bodhiṁ:

• And what is the faculty of faith? In this regard, the noble disciple has faith. He has faith in the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s enlightenment: ‘He is indeed the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, perfect in insightfulness into reality and in conduct, the Sublime One, one who knows the world [of phenomena] [according to reality], the unexcelled trainer of men to be tamed, the teacher of devas and men, the Enlightened One, the Blessed One.’

Katamañca bhikkhave saddhindriyaṁ idha bhikkhave ariyasāvako saddho hoti saddahati tathāgatassa bodhiṁ iti pi so bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathī satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā ti. Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave saddhindriyaṁ. (SN v 196)

Therefore ‘unshakeable faith in the Buddha’ means ‘unshakeable faith in the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment].’

Dhamme aveccappasāda

A noble disciple who has unshakeable faith in the teaching (dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti) has come to the conclusion that:

• The teaching is well explained by the Blessed One, fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally applicable, to be realised by the wise for themselves.

svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhī ti. (SN v 390)

In the light of these qualities, the teaching’s excellence and effectiveness, ‘unshakeable faith in the Dhamma’ means ‘unshakeable faith in the [excellence of the] teaching.’

Saṅghe aveccappasāda

A noble disciple who has unshakeable faith in the community of disciples (saṅghe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti) has come to the conclusion that:

• The community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the excellent practice, the correct practice, the noble practice, the proper practice; that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals. This is the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples. They are worthy of offerings, hospitality, gifts, and honouring with joined palms. They are the unsurpassed field of merit for the world.

supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho ujupaṭipanno bhagato sāvakasaṅgho ñāyapaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho sāmīcipaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṁ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭhapurisapuggalā esabhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṁ puññakkhettaṁ lokassāti. (SN v 390)

‘Unshakeable faith in the community of disciples’ is therefore faith in their excellent qualities.

Increasing levels of unshakeability

Although unshakeable faith is associated with stream-entry, the Cūḷahatthipadopama Sutta says one cannot conclude that the Blessed One is perfectly enlightened until arahantship:

• And it is not until this point that a noble disciple can come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is perfectly enlightened; the teaching is well explained by the Blessed One; the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the excellent practice.’“

Ettāvatā kho brāhmaṇa ariyasāvako niṭṭhaṁ gato hoti sammāsambuddho bhagavā svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho ti. (MN i 184)

At levels lesser than arahantship, the faculties, including the faculty of faith, are correspondingly weaker:

• One who has completed and fulfilled these five spiritual faculties is an arahant. If they are weaker than that, one is a non-returner; if still weaker, a once-returner; if still weaker, a stream-enterer.

Imesaṁ kho bhikkhave pañcannaṁ indriyānaṁ samattā paripūrattā arahaṁ hoti. Tato mudutarehi anāgāmī hoti. Tato mudutarehi sakadāgāmī hoti. Tato mudutarehi sotāpanno hoti. (SN v 200)

Illustrations
aveccappasannā

aveccappasannā: (main article see: aveccappasāda)

Illustration: aveccappasannā, having unshakeable faith

Whoever has unshakeable faith in me, all are stream-enterers.

ye keci bhikkhave mayi aveccappasannā sabbe te sotāpannā. (AN v 120)

aveccappasādena

aveccappasādena: (main article see: aveccappasāda)

Illustration: aveccappasādena, unshakeable faith

Bhikkhus, a noble disciple possessed of four factors is said to be well off, with great wealth and riches, of great glory. What four?”

Catūhi bhikkhave dhammehi samannāgato ariyasāvako aḍḍho mahaddhano mahābhogo mahāyaso ti vuccati. Katamehi catūhi

1) He has unshakeable faith in the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment],

buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti

2) He has unshakeable faith in the [excellence of the] teaching,

Dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti

3) He has unshakeable faith in the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples,

Saṅghe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti

4) He possesses the virtues dear to the Noble Ones.

Ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti. (SN v 402)

asmi

Renderings
Introduction

Potential meanings of asmi

Asmi means ‘I am’ (verb), but the Khemaka Sutta (SN iii 126-132) shows four other renderings may occasionally be justified.

1) the notion “I am” (noun)

2) “[in reality] what I am” (noun)

3) ‘egocentric’ (adjective)

4) redundancy in the phrase asmī ti māno (=’self-centredness’), because māno is equivalent to asmī ti māno. This is covered sv Māno.

Asmi in the Khemaka Sutta: ‘the notion “I am”

In the Khemaka Sutta, Venerable Khemaka said the notion “I am” was still to be found in him in relation to the five grasped aggregates (pañcasupādānakkhandhesu asmī ti adhigataṁ). He said this was a vague sense, like perfume around a lotus, not located in any particular part of the flower. Here, therefore, asmī ti is rendered ‘the notion “I am.”’

Asmi in the Khemaka Sutta: “[in reality] what I am”

Venerable Khemaka said that although the notion “I am” was still found in him, nonetheless he did not regard any particular one of aggregates as “[in reality] what I am” (ayamahamasmī ti ca na samanupassāmī ti). Here, therefore, asmī ti is “[in reality] what I am.”

Asmi in the Khemaka Sutta: egocentric

The bhikkhus asked him: ‘Friend Khemaka, when you mention this notion “I am” (asmī ti vadesi) what do you say is “[in reality] what I am”? (kimetaṁ asmī ti vadesi?). Do you say that the five aggregates are “[in reality] what I am,” or do you say that “[in reality] what I am” is separate from the five aggregates?

Rūpaṁ asmī ti vadesi? Aññatra rūpā asmī ti vadesi?… Viññāṇaṁ asmī ti vadesi? Aññatra viññāṇā asmī ti vadesi?

Venerable Khemaka replied: ‘Friends, I do not say the five aggregates are “[in reality] what I am,” nor do I say that “[in reality] what I am” is separate from the five aggregates.’ Then he explained:

‘Friends, even though a noble disciple has abandoned the five ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence (pañcorambhāgiyāni saṁyojanāni) still, in regard to the five grasped aggregates (pañcasupādānakkhandhesu) there remains within him

• a residual self-centredness

anusahagato asmī ti māno

• a residual egocentric desire

asmī ti chando

• a residual proclivity to self-centredness that have not yet been abolished

asmī ti anusayo asamūhato.

If he abides contemplating the arising and disappearance of the five grasped aggregates, these three residual phenomena are abolished.

pañcasupādānakkhandhesu udayabbayānupassino viharato.

Venerable Khemaka compared these three residual phenomena to the aroma of a cloth cleaned with cowdung, which even though clean, would retain an unpleasant aroma. If placed in a sweet-scented casket, the aroma would dissipate. Likewise, with proper practice, the dung-like aroma of self-centredness will fade away.

Thus, in the phrase asmī ti chando, asmī ti is adjectival and we call it ‘egocentric,’ which produces a comprehensible translation. In comparison, Bodhi persistently calls it “I am” as follows:

• ‘there lingers in him a residual conceit “I am” (asmī ti māno), a desire “I am” (asmī ti chando), an underlying tendency “I am” (asmī ti anusayo) that have not yet been abolished’ (CDB p.945).

Asmī ti māna and asmī ti anusayo in the quote just given

These have been rendered in the quotation as:

  • asmī ti māna: self-centredness
  • asmī ti anusayo: proclivity to self-centredness

We justify calling asmi ‘self-centredness’ as follows:

Other suttas show that māna equals the notion “I am” (asmī ti bhikkhave mānagatametaṁ: SN iv 202-3). This suggests that asmimāno is a redundancy (i.e. a compound of two equivalent terms), and that asmimāno is a synonym of māno. Therefore all three terms (asmi, māna, and asmimāna) do or can mean ‘self-centredness.’ This is discussed further sv Māna.

Differentiating the qualities of “I am”

“I am” is used by the ignorant Everyman but also by the arahant, who ‘makes use of conventional speech without grasping it’ (yañca loke vuttaṁ teneva voharati aparāmasanti) (SN i 14; MN i 500). But there seems no grammatical device to indicate the different quality of their “I am’s.” Although the Taṇhājālinī Sutta (AN ii 212-3) says the thought ‘I am this way’ (evamasmī ti hoti) is imbued with taṇhā, this is obviously not true for arahants’ “I am’s.” The Buddha himself said:

• ‘I am a Brahman’

ahamasmi bhikkhave brāhmaṇo. (Iti 101)

• ‘I have understood the All’

sabbavidu'hamasmi. (Dhp 353)

• ‘I am freed from inward distress’

sītibhūtosmi. (Vin.1.8)

Translators might like to indicate the non-ignorant quality of such I am’s, but how could this be done? One cannot possibly have the arahant say:

  • ‘I (conventionally speaking) am a Brahman’
  • I (conventionally speaking) have understood the All etc.

Or have the common man say:

• ‘I (grasped as such) am this way’

The context, however, makes it clear which “I am’s” are likely imbued with taṇhā, and which are not.

Illustrations
asmimānassa

asmimānassa: (main article see: asmi)

Illustration: asmimānassa, self-centredness

The elimination of self-centredness is happiness supreme

asmimānassa vinayo etaṁ ve paramaṁ sukhan ti. (Uda 10)

asmī ti diṭṭhimānānusayaṁ

asmī ti diṭṭhimānānusayaṁ: (main article see: asmi)

Illustration: asmī ti diṭṭhimānānusayaṁ, self-centredness

He uproots the proclivity to self-centredness

asmī ti diṭṭhimānānusayaṁ samūhanitvā. (MN i 47)

Comment:

Asmī ti diṭṭhimānānusayaṁ is similar to Venerable Khemaka’s asmī ti anusayo which we translated above as ‘a proclivity to self-centredness.’ We consider that the two phrases are equivalent because:

1) asmī ti and māno are synonyms meaning self-centredness, and

2) because self-centredness is essentially a view, the word diṭṭhi is redundant.

Bodhi translates it as ‘the underlying tendency to the view and conceit “I am,”’ and Horner ‘addiction to the latent view “I am.”’

asmimāna

asmimāna: (main article see: asmi)

Illustration: asmimāna, self-centredness

In one who perceives the voidness of personal qualities [in all things], self-centredness is uprooted. He realises the Untroubled in this very lifetime

anattasaññi asmimānasamugghātaṁ pāpuṇāti diṭṭheva dhamme nibbānaṁ ti. (Uda 37)

ahamasmi

ahamasmi: (main article see: asmi)

Illustration: ahamasmi, I am

• If there were no sense impression in any way, would there be the thought “I am this”?

yattha panāvuso sabbaso vedayitaṁ natthi api nu kho tattha ayamahamasmī ti siyā ti

• No, bhante (DN ii 67).

Illustration: ahamasmi, I am

When this Venerable regards himself thus: ‘I am at peace. I am inwardly at peace. I am free of grasping’ that is declared to be grasping on the part of this good ascetic or Brahmanist.

santo’hamasmi nibbuto’hamasmi anupādino’hamasmī ti samanupassati tadapi imassa bhoto samaṇassa brāhmaṇassa upādānamakkhāyati. (MN ii 237)

Illustration: ahamasmi, I am

I am a stream-enterer, no more liable to rebirth in the plane of damnation, assured of deliverance, with enlightenment as my destiny.

sotāpanno’hamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo ti. (DN ii 93)

Illustration: ahamasmi, I am

Bhikkhus, there are these three modes [of self-centredness] (tisso vidhā). What three?

• ‘I am better’ mode [of self-centredness]

seyyo’hamasmī ti vidhā

• ‘I am equal’ mode [of self-centredness]

sadiso’hamasmī ti vidhā

• ‘I am worse’ mode [of self-centredness]

hīno’hamasmī ti vidhā. (SN v 56)

Illustration: asmi, notion “I am”; I am

The Taṇhājālinī Sutta (AN ii 212-3) lists 36 assertions of personal identity which arise with the notion “I am.” The sutta says when there is the notion “I am” (asmī ti bhikkhave sati) there come the thoughts

  • I am here itthasmī ti hoti
  • I am this way evamasmī ti hoti
  • I am otherwise aññathasmī ti hoti

and other similar thoughts.

The sutta continues: when there is the thought

‘Because of this, I am’ (iminā asmī ti bhikkhave sati) there come the thoughts:

  • Because of this, I am here iminā itthasmī ti hoti
  • Because of this, I am this way iminā evamasmī ti hoti
  • Because of this, I am otherwise iminā aññathasmī ti hoti

and other such thoughts (AN ii 212-3).

Illustration: asmi, notion “I am”

A wise person should completely destroy the origin of entrenched conception, the notion “I am.”

mūlaṁ papañcasaṅkhāya mantā asmī ti sabbamuparundhe. (Snp 916)

Illustration: asmi, the notion “I am”; I am

The notion “I am” is a matter of thinking in personal terms.

asmī ti maññitametaṁ

‘I am this’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms.

ayamahamasmī ti maññitametaṁ

Thinking in personal terms is an illness, a carbuncle, a [piercing] arrow. Therefore train yourselves with the thought, ‘We will live with minds free of thinking in personal terms.’

maññitaṁ bhikkhave rogo maññitaṁ gaṇḍo maññitaṁ sallaṁ tasmātiha bhikkhave amaññamānena cetasā viharissāmāti evaṁ hi vo bhikkhave sikkhitabbaṁ

The notion “I am” is

Asmī ti bhikkhave

• a matter of spiritual instability

• a matter of mental turmoil

• a matter of entrenched perception

• an acquiescence in self-centredness

Illustration: asmi, notion “I am”

So, too, the notion “I am” occurs with the grasping of (the five aggregates), not without grasping.

Evameva kho āvuso ānanda rūpaṁ upādāya asmī ti hoti no anupādāyaviññāṇaṁ upādāya asmī ti hoti no anupādāya. (SN iii 105)

Illustration: asmi, notion “I am”; ahamasmi, “[in reality] what I am”

If the notion “I am” has vanished, and one does not regard anything as “[in reality] what I am,”’ it is impossible, out of the question, that the arrow of doubt and uncertainty [about the excellence of the teaching] would plague your mind.

aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ asmī ti vigate ayamahamasmī ti asamanupassato atha ca panassa vicikicchākathaṅkathāsallaṁ cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī ti. (DN iii 250)

ahamasmi

ahamasmi: (main article see: asmi)

Illustration: ahamasmi, “[in reality] what I am”

• That which is unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, destined to change, is it fitting to regard it as “[in reality] mine,” or “[in reality] what I am,” or “my [absolute] Selfhood”?

Yaṁ panāniccaṁ dukkhaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ kallannu taṁ samanupassituṁ etaṁ mama eso’hamasmi eso me attā ti

• No, Master Gotama (MN i 232-3).

Illustration: asmi, “[in reality] what I am”

So when even in the external Solidness Phenomenon with all its vastness, unlastingness is discernable, destruction is discernable, disappearance is discernable, changeableness is discernable, then what to say of this short-lasting body evolved from craving? There can be no considering that as “[in reality] me,” or as “[in reality] mine,” or as “[in reality] what I am.”

Kiṁ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa taṇhūpādinnassa. Ahan ti vā maman ti vā asmī ti va atha khvāssa notevettha hoti. (MN i 185-9)

ahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayā

Renderings
Introduction

Ahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayā: others’ translations

Ahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayā has been rendered as follows:

  • Horner: ‘the tendency to pride that “I am the doer, mine is the doer”’ (MLS Vol.3, p39).
  • Bodhi: ‘I-making, mine-making, and the underlying tendency to conceit’ (MLDB p.908).
  • PED: ahaṅkāra selfishness, egotism, arrogance; mamaṅkāra, selfish attachment, self-interest, selfishness; mān’ānusaya bias of conceit.

Horner uses inverted commas, but there is no support for inverted commas either in the phrase itself, or even when it is divided up, as at (AN iii 444 ahaṅkārā ca me uparujjhissanti; mamaṅkārā ca me uparujjhissanti).

The suffix -kara

The suffix -kāra has three possible meanings, says PED (sv -kāra):

1) ‘Doer or maker of’: for example, owl uhuṅkāra is the maker of the ‘uhu’ sound; fletcher usukāra the maker of arrows (usu).

2) ‘Production or application of’: for example, sakkāra, application of honour i.e. the act of honouring. Bodhi chooses this meaning, but with an unnatural form: ‘I-making, mine-making.’

3) ‘State of’: for example, darkness or blindness andhakāra. Darkness is the ‘state of being dark’, or the ‘state of what is dark’. Blindness is the ‘state of being blind’, or the ‘state of one who is blind’.

Renderings for ahaṅkāra and mamaṅkāra

Various ways of rendering ahaṅkāra and mamaṅkāra could be extracted from this.

1) ‘The doer or maker of me and of mine’: this is unlikely because ahaṅkāra and mamaṅkāra need to be uprooted (ahaṅkārā ca me uparujjhissanti; mamaṅkārā ca me uparujjhissanti). So, if anything, it would be ‘the assumption that there is a doer or maker’ that would be uprooted.

2) ‘The production of me or mine’ (e.g. I-making, mine-making): But this would similarly lead to the problematic idea of ‘uprooting production.’

3) ‘The state of what is me or what belongs to me’: this option has most potential. But ahaṅkāra and mamaṅkāra would be better as:

  • Ahaṅkāra, the state of what is me: ‘personal identity.’
  • Mamaṅkāra, the state of what belongs to me: ‘personal ownership.’

But because ahaṅkāra and mamaṅkāra need to be uprooted (ahaṅkārā ca me uparujjhissanti; mamaṅkārā ca me uparujjhissanti) these would work better as:

  • Ahaṅkāra, ‘the illusion of personal identity.’
  • Mamaṅkāra, ‘the illusion of personal ownership.’

Rendering mānānusayo

Finally, mānānusayo is ‘the proclivity to self-centredness.’ See Glossary sv Anusaya.

Link to the three reflections on the voidness of personal qualities [in the five aggregates]

Our rendering is supported by the following quote, in which:

1) ‘The illusion of personal identity does not exist’ (ahaṅkāra na hoti) corresponds to ‘perceiving the five aggregates as “not [in reality] what I am”’ (n’eso’hamasmi).

2) ‘The illusion of personal ownership does not exist’ (mamaṅkāra na hoti) corresponds to ‘perceiving the five aggregates as “not [in reality] mine”’ (n’etaṁ mama).

3) ‘The proclivity to self-centredness does not exist’ (mānānusayā na hoti) corresponds to ‘perceiving the five aggregates as “not my [absolute] Selfhood”’ (na me so attā).

The quote is this:

• Knowing and seeing what in this [wretched human] body together with its consciousness and all external phenomena, do the illusion of personal identity, the illusion of personal ownership, and the proclivity to self-centredness not exist?

Kathaṁ pana bhante jānato kathaṁ passato imasmiñca saviññāṇake kāye bahiddhā ca sabbanimittesu ahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayā na hontī ti?

… Whatever bodily form… fields of sensation, past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or sublime, far or near, one perceives all fields of sensation according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood.”

Yaṁ kiñci viññāṇaṁ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā yaṁ dūre santike vā sabbaṁ viññāṇaṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti. (MN iii 18-9)

Illustrations

Illustration: the illusion of personal identity, the illusion of personal ownership, and the proclivity to self-centredness

Therefore I say with the destruction, fading away, ending, giving up, and relinquishment of all thinking in personal terms, of all states of inward distraction, all illusions of personal identity, all illusions of personal ownership, and of the proclivity to self-centredness, the Perfect One is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through being without grasping.

Tasmā tathāgato sabbamaññitānaṁ sabbamathitānaṁ sabbaahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayānaṁ khayā virāgā nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā anupādā vimutto ti vadāmī ti. (MN i 486)

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