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citta {pi}


Pāḷi; √ citta
gender:
type:
alt. sp.: IPA: t͡ʃɪt̪t̪ə, Velthuis: citta, readable: chitta, simple: citta
translation ~:
skr.:
khmer: ចិត្ត
thai: จิตฺต
sinhal.: චිත්ත
burm.: စိတ္တ
appears:



chitta.jpg

[dic] citta

citta: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.

ATI Glossary

citta: Mind; heart; state of consciousness.

 

Buddhist Dictionary

by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:

citta: 'mind', 'consciousness', 'state of consciousness', is a synonym of mano and viññāṇa (see khandha and Table I). Dhammasaṅgaṇi divides all phenomena into consciousness (citta), mental concomitants (see cetasika) and corporeality (rūpa).

In adhicitta, 'higher mentality', it signifies the concentrated, quietened mind, and is one of the 3 trainings (see sikkhā).

The concentration (or intensification) of consciousness is one of the 4 roads to power (see Iddhipāda ).

 

PTS Dictionary

by the Pali Text Society:

 

Glossary Thanissaro

— —

 

Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms

by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:

— —

Info

The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.

Content

Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |

c

capala

Renderings
Introduction

Capala: two meanings

Opinion is divided regarding the meaning of capala.

  • PED says: ‘moving to and fro, wavering, trembling, unsteady, fickle.’
  • Bodhi says: vain (AN iii 391); personally vain (MN i 470);
  • Norman says: vain (Tha 157); unsteady (Dhp 33).

Thus PED says movement, Bodhi says vanity, and Norman says both. And so do we, but in three words: fidgety, fluttery, and puffed up.

Introduction: uddhacca and capala

Both uddhata and capala which frequently occur together, have double meanings. See Glossary sv Uddhacca. Their double meanings mirror each other, and can grouped as follows:

Group 1:

  • uddhata: restless
  • capala: fidgety/ fluttery

Group 2:

  • uddhata: vain
  • capala: puffed up

Double meanings of uddhata and capala: illustrated

The meanings of uddhacca and capala can be illustrated as follows:

1) uddhata, restless

• When one’s mind is restless it is timely to develop the enlightenment factors of tranquillity, inward collectedness, and detached awareness.

Yasmiṁ bhikkhave samaye uddhataṁ cittaṁ hoti kālo tasmiṁ samaye passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya(SN v 115)

2) capala, fluttery:

• Like a fletcher straightens an arrow, the wise man straightens up his unsteady, fluttery mind, which is hard to supervise, hard to restrain.

Phandanaṁ capalaṁ cittaṁ durakkhaṁ dunnivārayaṁ
Ujuṁ karoti medhāvī usukāro va tejanaṁ. (Dhp 33)

3) uddhato capalo, vain, puffed up:

• A vain, puffed up bhikkhu clothed in rag-robes does not look glorious because of it. He is like a monkey in a lion-skin.

Uddhato capalo bhikkhu paṁsukūlena pāruto
Kapīva sīhacammena na so tenupasobhati. (Tha 1080)

4) uddhato capalo, vain, puffed up:

• Because of improper contemplation I was addicted to finery. I was vain, puffed up, and afflicted by lust for sensuous pleasure.

Ayoniso manasikārā maṇḍanaṁ anuyuñjisaṁ
Uddhato capalo cāsiṁ kāmarāgena aṭṭito. (Tha 157)

Illustrations
capalena

capalena: (main article see: capala)

Illustration: capalena, fidgety

When a forest-dwelling bhikkhu visits and lives with the monastic community he should not be restless and fidgety.

Āraññakenāvuso bhikkhunā saṅghagatena saṅghe viharantena anuddhatena bhavitabbaṁ acapalena. (MN i 470)

capalā

capalā: (main article see: capala)

Illustration: capalā, fidgety

These bhikkhus say, “We are study bhikkhus, we are study bhikkhus,” but they are restless, frivolous, fidgety, talkative, garrulous, of muddled mindfulness, not fully conscious, inwardly uncollected, mentally scattered, [and are dwelling with] their sense faculties unrestrained [from grasping, through mindfulness].

ime pana dhammayogamhā dhammayogamhā ti uddhatā unnaḷā capalā mukharā vikiṇṇavācā muṭṭhassatī asampajānā asamāhitā vibbhantacittā pākatindriyā. (AN iii 355)

capalaṁ

capalaṁ: (main article see: capala)

Illustration: capalaṁ, fluttery

Like a fletcher straightens an arrow, the wise man straightens up his unsteady, fluttery mind, which is hard to supervise, hard to restrain.

Phandanaṁ capalaṁ cittaṁ durakkhaṁ dunnivārayaṁ
Ujuṁ karoti medhāvī usukāro va tejanaṁ. (Dhp 33)

capalo

capalo: (main article see: capala)

Illustration: capalo, puffed up

Because of improper contemplation I was addicted to finery. I was vain, puffed up, and afflicted by lust for sensuous pleasure.

Ayoniso manasikārā maṇḍanaṁ anuyuñjisaṁ
Uddhato capalo cāsiṁ kāmarāgena aṭṭito. (Tha 157)

Illustration: capalo, puffed up

A vain, puffed up bhikkhu clothed in rag-robes does not look glorious because of it. He is like a monkey in a lion-skin.

Uddhato capalo bhikkhu paṁsukūlena pāruto
Kapīva sīhacammena na so tenupasobhati. (Tha 1080)

Illustration: capalā, puffed up

With hair sleek with oil, puffed up, wearing eye-shadow, they will travel the highway clad in ivory-coloured clothing.

Telasaṇṭhehi kesehi capalā añjitakkhikā
Rathiyāya gamissanti dantavaṇṇikapārutā. (Tha 960)

camma

Renderings
Introduction

Chavi and camma: human skin and fascia

Chavi and camma are the superficial and deep layers of human integument. In translation they are usually called ‘outer skin’ and ‘inner skin.’ We will show that in humans:

1) chavi is skin

2) camma is fascia.

Fascia lies below skin. Fascia is not skin.

Cammi: animal hide

In animals, cammi is equivalent to English ‘hide’ because it means not only the skin of the living animal, but also the leather produced from that skin. Animals do not have chavi. In animals, hair grows on cammi; in humans it grows on chavi.

• Again, one kind of noble thoroughbred horse is not quickened nor does it acquire an earnest attitude [to its work] when it sees the shadow of the goad, nor when its hairs (loma) are struck by the goad, nor when its hide (camma) is struck by the goad. Only when its bone is struck by the goad is it quickened and it acquires an earnest attitude [to its work].

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave idhekacco bhadro assājānīyo na heva kho patodacchāyaṁ disvā saṁvijjati saṁvegaṁ āpajjati napi lomavedhaviddho saṁvijjati saṁvegaṁ āpajjati. Napi cammavedhaviddho saṁvijjati saṁvegaṁ āpajjati. Api ca kho aṭṭhivedhaviddho saṁvijjati saṁvegaṁ āpajjati. (AN ii 114)

• At the moment the Blessed One saw her, that extensive wound was healed, and (her thigh became covered in) healthy skin (chavi) with hairs (loma) growing on it.

Tassā sahadassanena bhagavato tāva mahāvaṇo rūḷho ahosi succhavi lomajāto. (Vin.1.218)

Integumentary system

The integumentary system is the two layers that cover human bodies. The outer layer is ‘skin,’ and the inner layer is called by anatomists either:

1) subcutaneous tissue, or

2) hypodermis, or

3) superficial fascia.

‘Skin’ is comprised of epidermis and dermis. In animals, dermis, the lower part of skin, is the source of leather. Dermis rests on superficial fascia.

If skin is removed, it leaves superficial fascia (or ‘hypodermis’ or ‘subcutaneous tissue’). This superficial fascia is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system.

Anatomical dissection of the integumentary system

In the anatomical dissection of the integumentary system, skin is first stripped from superficial fascia. Consider these quotes:

  • ‘Incisions will be made on the back, and four large flaps of skin will be reflected laterally, exposing an underlying fatty layer known as superficial fascia’ (http: wings.buffalo.edu/smbs/ana/first.htm). * ‘Place the cat on its ventral surface. Massage the skin of the dorsal neck region to separate it from the underlying muscles and make a small longitudinal slit through the skin in the midline. Do not cut through the superficial fascia under the skin’ (http: core.ecu.edu/biol/singhasc/cat-muscles.htm).

References:

(http: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subcutaneous_tissue). (http: en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Human_Physiology/Integumentary_System).

Dissection of the integumentary system by Prince Pāyāsi

Prince Pāyāsi dissected the integumentary system like this:

• Then I tell them to strip away the man's skin (chaviṁ), and perhaps we shall see his soul emerging. They do so, but we do not see any soul emerging. Then I tell them to strip away his fascia (cammaṁ), and perhaps we shall see his soul emerging.

Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi tena hi bho imassa purisassa chaviṁ chindatha appevanāmassa jīvaṁ passeyyāmā ti. Te tassa purisassa chaviṁ chindanti nevassa mayaṁ jīvaṁ passāma. Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi tena hi bho imassa purisassa cammaṁ chindatha appevanāmassa jīvaṁ passeyyāmā ti. (DN ii 338)

Three types of fascia

Superficial fascia is the connective tissue and fat under skin. It is attached to deep fascia and visceral fascia. Fascia is therefore of three types:

1) superficial fascia: underlies skin (=hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue).

2) deep fascia: surrounds muscles, bones, nerves and blood vessels.

3) visceral fascia: suspends organs within their cavities.

Fascia has been called ‘the biological fabric that holds us together.’

In this Glossary we call superficial fascia ‘fascia,’ because it is obvious which fascia we mean.

Reference: www. anatomytrains.com/fascia.

Leather: dermis not fascia

Like humans, animal integument has these layers:

1) epidermis (1% of integument thickness)

2) dermis (85% of integument thickness)

3) fascia (14% of integument thickness)

To produce leather:

1) The epidermis with hair and fur is removed (except by furriers).

2) The fascia is removed.

3) The dermis is processed to obtain leather.

Stripping epidermis from dermis is a complicated process.

Reference: www. leatherresource.com/whatisleather.html.

Camma: leather goods

Camma (‘hide’) and cammakhaṇḍaṁ (‘piece of hide’) are sometimes used as the name of leather objects. For example, camma can mean ‘leather shield’ or ‘leather soundboard.’ Cammakhaṇḍa can mean ‘leather bucket’ (Vin.2.122) or ‘leather mat’ (Vin.4.41).

Taco

Taca is practically equivalent to chavi (i.e. comprised of epidermis plus dermis):

• this very body… covered in skin (taca).

imameva kāyaṁ… tacapariyantaṁ. (AN iii 323)

• as a snake sheds its old, worn-out skin (tacaṁ).

urago jiṇṇamiva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. (Snp 17)

• a bhikkhu with golden skin (taco) is good to look at.

Kalyāṇadassano bhikkhu kañcanasannibhattaco. (Snp 551)

Illustrations
camman

camman: (main article see: camma)

Illustration: camman, fascia

When the Blessed One’s body was burned, of whatever had been skin, fascia, flesh, sinews, and synovial fluid, neither soot nor ash was discernable; only bony ashes remained.

Jhāyamānassa kho pana bhagavato sarīrassa yaṁ ahosi chavī ti vā camman ti vā maṁsan ti vā naharū ti vā lasikā ti vā tassa neva chārikā paññāyittha na masi sarīrāneva avasissiṁsu. (DN ii 164)

cammaṁ

cammaṁ: (main article see: camma)

Illustration: cammaṁ, fascia

Suppose a strong man wrapped both one’s leg with a strong horsehair rope and pulled it tight, it would cut through the skin, the fascia, the flesh, the sinews, and the bone, until it reached the marrow..

Seyyathā pi bhikkhave balavā puriso daḷhāya vālarajjuyā jaṅghaṁ veṭhetvā ghaṁseyya sā chaviṁ chindeyya chaviṁ chetvā cammaṁ chindeyya cammaṁ chetvā maṁsaṁ chindeyya maṁsaṁ chetvā nahāruṁ chindeyya nahāruṁ chetvā aṭṭhiṁ chindeyya aṭṭhiṁ chetvā aṭṭhimiñjaṁ āhacca tiṭṭheyya. (SN ii 238)

Illustration: cammaṁ, fascia

Love for sons, bhante, cuts through the skin, the fascia, the flesh, the sinews, and the bone, till it reaches the marrow.

Puttapemaṁ bhante chaviṁ chindati. Chaviṁ chetvā cammaṁ chindati. Cammaṁ chetvā maṁsaṁ chindati. Maṁsaṁ chetvā nāhāruṁ chindati. Nahāruṁ chetvā aṭṭhiṁ chindati. Aṭṭhiṁ chetvā aṭṭhimiñjaṁ āhacca tiṭṭhati. . (Vin.1.83)

Illustration: cammaṁ, hide

A bull's hide stretched with a hundred stakes so it is wrinkle-free.

āsabhacammaṁ saṅkusatena suvihataṁ vigatavalikaṁ. (MN iii 105)

Illustration: camma, hide

Having removed the hide and then covered the cow again with the same hide, he might say ‘This cow is joined to the hide just as it was before.’

vidhunitvā bāhiraṁ cammakāyaṁ teneva cammena taṁ gāviṁ paṭicchādetvā evaṁ vadeyya tathevāyaṁ gāvī saṁyuttā imināva cammenā ti. (MN iii 274-5)

Illustration: cammaṁ, hide

Then that unvirtuous lay-follower, having slaughtered that calf, having skinned it (‘removed its hide’), gave it to that unvirtuous bhikkhu.

Atha kho so pāpūpāsako taṁ vacchakaṁ vadhitvā cammaṁ vidhunitvā tassa pāpabhikkhuno pādāsi. (Vin.1.193)

Illustration: camma, skin

Eighty-four thousand chariots with upholstery of lion skins, tiger skins, leopard skins

Caturāsīti rathasahassāni adāsi sīhacammaparivārāni vyagghacammaparivārāni dīpicammaparivārāni. (AN iv 393)

Illustration: camma, skin

Now at that time the Group-of-Six bhikkhus thinking, “High beds and luxurious covers are objected to by the Blessed One,” used large skins: a lion’s skin, a tiger’s skin, a leopard’s skin

Mahācammāni dhārenti. Sīhacammaṁ byagghacammaṁ dipīcammaṁ. (Vin.1.192)

Illustration: cammaṁ, leather shield

The robber Angulimala, having grabbed his sword and leather shield

coro aṅgulimālo asicammaṁ gahetvā. (MN ii 99)

Illustration: cammaṁ, leather soundboard

'This lute, sire, consists of numerous components, a great many components, and it gives a sound when its numerous components are played upon; that is, in dependence on the body, the leather soundboard, the stem, the pegbox, the strings, the plectrum, and the appropriate effort of the musician.

ayaṁ kho bhante vīṇā nāma anekasambhārā mahāsambhārā anekehi sambhārehi samāraddhā vadati seyyathīdaṁ doṇiñca paṭicca cammañca paṭicca daṇḍañca paṭicca upaveṇañca paṭicca tantiyo ca paṭicca koṇañca paṭicca purisassa ca tajjaṁ vāyāmaṁ paṭicca. (SN iv 197)

Comment:

The first guitar-like instrument was the tanbur. It was built of polished cedar, had a soundboard made of leather, and resembled a crude guitar. http: gibsonguitarek.wikispaces.com/ ===== citta ===== citta: === Renderings === * for citta: * mind * mental state * idea * minded * attitude * mentality * inward * spiritually * spiritually * disposition * for cetasā: * mind * attitude * for cittuppāda: * mental state * for adhicitta: * the higher mental states * for cittasamādhi: * inward collectedness based on reflection === Introduction === Citta: mind Citta can usually be called ‘mind’: <blockquote> • He sees women there lightly attired and lust invades his mind

rāgo cittaṁ anuddhaṁseti. (SN ii 231)

• Through being without grasping his mind was liberated from perceptually obscuring states

anupādāya āsavehi cittaṁ vimuttan ti. (MN iii 30)

• He purifies his mind of lethargy and torpor.

thīnamiddhā cittaṁ parisodheti. (DN i 71)

• When one’s mind is free of these five defilements

Yato ca kho bhikkhave cittaṁ imehi pañcahi upakkilesehi vippamuttaṁ hoti. (AN iii 16-17)

• His mind becomes settled, calm, concentrated, and collected.

ajjhattameva cittaṁ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. (MN iii 89)

</blockquote> The four paths to psychic power The four paths to psychic power are: * chandasamādhi-padhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṁ iddhipādaṁ * viriyasamādhi-padhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṁ iddhipādaṁ * cittasamādhi-padhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṁ iddhipādaṁ * vīmaṁsāsamādhi-padhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṁ iddhipādaṁ Developing the four paths to psychic power The Chanda Sutta (SN v 268) says that to develop these four paths one must first develop the four samādhis: * chandasamādhi * viriyasamādhi * cittasamādhi * vīmaṁsāsamādhi Cittasamādhi = dhammasamādhi The Pāṭaliya Sutta (SN iv 350-2) shows that cittasamādhi is synonymous with dhammasamādhi • ‘This is dhammasamādhi. If you were to obtain cittasamādhi in this way, you would abandon that state of unsureness.’

Ayaṁ kho so gāmaṇi dhammasamādhī tatra ce tvaṁ cittasamādhiṁ paṭilabheyyāsi evaṁ tvaṁ imaṁ kaṅkhādhammaṁ pajaheyyāsi. (SN iv 352)

Cittasamādhi: inward collectedness based on reflection

The Pāṭaliya Sutta (SN iv 351-2) concerns the development of dhammasamādhi through reflecting on one’s virtue. See Illustrations below. Therefore our renderings are:

  • dhammasamādhi: inward collectedness based on righteous reflection
  • cittasamādhi: inward collectedness based on reflection

Citta=ceto

In some of the illustrations we take for granted the equivalence of citta and ceto, as confirmed in PED sv ceto.

Illustrations
cittuppādaṁ

cittuppādaṁ: (main article see: citta)

Illustration: cittuppādaṁ, mental state; cetasā, mind

Fostering what mental states do spiritually unwholesome factors fade and spiritually wholesome factors flourish?

Kathaṁrūpaṁ bhante cittuppādaṁ sevato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti

In this regard, some person is

• not greedy and abides with an ungreedy mind.

anabhijjhālu hoti anabhijjhāsahagatena cetasā viharati

• benevolent and abides with a benevolent mind

Avyāpādavā hoti avyādapādasahagatena cetasā viharati

• compassionate and abides with a compassionate mind.

Avihesavā hoti avihesāsahagatena cetasā viharati. (MN iii 51)

Comment:

PED sv cittuppāda: ‘state of consciousness.’

citto

citto: (main article see: citta)

Illustration: citto, mind

In seeing a visible object with mindfulness muddled, focusing on the agreeable aspect, one experiences it with a mind of attachment and persists in cleaving to it.

Rūpaṁ disvā sati muṭṭhā piyaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto
Sārattacitto vedeti tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati. (Tha 98; SN iv 76)

Illustration: citta, mind; citto, mental state

And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating the nature of the mind

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati?

In this regard a bhikkhu discerns

• a mental state with attachment as just that

sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ sarāgaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a mental state without attachment as just that

vītarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ vītarāgaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a mental state with hatred as just that

sadosaṁ vā cittaṁ sadosaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a mental state without hatred as just that

vītadosaṁ vā cittaṁ vītadosaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a mental state with undiscernment of reality as just that

samohaṁ vā cittaṁ samohaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a mental state without undiscernment of reality as just that

vītamohaṁ vā cittaṁ vītamohaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a contracted mental state as just that

saṅkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ saṅkhittaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a distracted mental state as just that

vikkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ vikkhittaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• an exalted mental state as just that

mahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ mahaggataṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• an unexalted mental state as just that

amahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ amahaggataṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a surpassed mental state as just that

sauttaraṁ vā cittaṁ sauttaraṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• an unsurpassed mental state as just that

anuttaraṁ vā cittaṁ anuttaraṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a collected mental state as just that

samāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ samāhitaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• an uncollected mental state as just that

asamāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ asamāhitaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a liberated mental state as just that

vimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• an unliberated mental state as just that

avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ avimuttaṁ cittan ti pajānāti. (MN i 59)

cittassa

cittassa: (main article see: citta)

Illustration: cittassa, spiritual; cetaso, mind

Fondness and attachment regarding the visual sense… the mental sense is a spiritual defilement;

Yo bhikkhave cakkhusmiṁ… manasmiṁ chandarāgo cittasse'so upakkileso

In so far as one abandons the spiritual defilement in these six cases, his mind inclines to the practice of unsensuousness.

Yato kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno imesu chasu ṭhānesu cetaso upakkileso pahīno hoti nekkhammaninnaṁ cassa cittaṁ hoti. (SN iii 232)

Illustration: citto, -minded; citto, spiritually

The noble disciple, Kālāmas, who is so friendly-minded, so unhostile-minded, so spiritually undefiled, and so spiritually purified, is one by whom four sources of comfort are found in this very lifetime.

Sa kho so kālāmā ariyasāvako evaṁ averacitto evaṁ avyāpajjhacitto evaṁ asaṅkiliṭṭhacitto evaṁ visuddhacitto. Tassa diṭṭheva dhamme cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti. (AN i 192)

Illustration: cittassa, inward

When my husband died, he rose amongst the deities and he revealed himself to me in his former bodily form, but I do not recall any inward disquiet on that account.

Na kho panāhaṁ bhante abhijānāmi tatonidānaṁ cittassa aññathattan ti. (AN iv 66)

Illustration: citta, mental

Perception and sense impression are mental activity

saññā ca vedanā ca cittasaṅkhāro ti. (MN i 301)

adhicitta

adhicitta: (main article see: citta)

Illustration: adhicitta, the higher mental states

What is the training in the higher mental states?

Katamā ca bhikkhave adhicittasikkhā

In this regard, secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, a bhikkhu enters and abides in first jhāna… fourth jhāna.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamajjhānaṁ… catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (AN i 235)

cittaṁ

cittaṁ: (main article see: citta)

Illustration: cittaṁ, idea

“Did you earlier have the idea, ‘I will go to the monastery,’and after you arrived at the monastery, was the corresponding idea quelled?” “Yes, sir.”

Ahosi te pubbe cittaṁ ārāmaṁ gamissāmī ti. Tassa te ārāmagatassa yaṁ tajjaṁ cittaṁ taṁ paṭippassaddhanti. Evaṁ bho.

“It is exactly the same, brahman, with a bhikkhu who is an arahant:

He earlier had the idea to attain arahantship, and when he attained arahantship, the corresponding idea was quelled.

Yaṁ pubbe cittaṁ ahosi arahattappattiyā arahatte patte yaṁ tajjaṁ cittaṁ taṁ paṭippassaddhaṁ. (SN v 273)

cittasamādhiṁ

cittasamādhiṁ: (main article see: citta)

Illustration: cittasamādhiṁ, inward collectedness based on reflection

A headman said he was unsure which religious doctrine was true. The Buddha told him he should overcome unsureness through the inward collectedness attained by reflecting on virtuousness as follows:

• ‘I harm no one at all, whether weak or strong. In both respects I have made a lucky throw: since I am restrained in conduct of body, speech, and mind, and since, with the demise of the body at death, I will be reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds.’

sohaṁ na kiñci vyābādhemi tasaṁ vā thāvaraṁ vā. Ubhayamettha kaṭaggāho yañcamhi kāyena saṁvuto vācāya saṁvuto manasā saṁvuto yañca kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjissāmī ti.

’[As he reflects thus] gladness arises. In one who is glad, rapture arises. For one whose mind is rapturous, his body grows tranquil. His body tranquil, he experiences physical pleasure. Experiencing physical pleasure, his mind becomes collected.

tassa pāmojjaṁ jāyati pamuditassa pīti jāyati pītimanassa kāyo passambhati passaddhakāyo sukhaṁ vediyati sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati

‘This, headman, is inward collectedness based on righteous reflection.

Ayaṁ kho so gāmaṇi dhammasamādhī.

‘If you were to obtain inward collectedness based on reflection in this way, you would abandon that state of unsureness.

Tatra ce tvaṁ cittasamādhiṁ paṭilabheyyāsi evaṁ tvaṁ imaṁ kaṅkhādhammaṁ pajaheyyāsi. (SN iv 351-2)

Illustration: citto, thought

Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu might approach families with the thought:

Yo hi koci bhikkhave bhikkhu evaṁcitto kulāni upasaṅkamati

‘May they give to me, not hold back. May they give much, not little.’ (SN ii 200).

Illustration: citta, attitude

One should develop an unhostile, beneficent attitude which leads to the world of the devas

Avyāpajjhaṁ hitaṁ cittaṁ devalokāya bhāvaye. (AN iii 213)

Illustration: citto, attitude

If a bhikkhu takes from village or wilderness by what is reckoned as theft, something not given… he is pārājika, no longer in communion.

Yo pana bhikkhu gāmā vā araññā vā adinnaṁ theyyasaṅkhātaṁ ādiyeyya… ayampi pārājiko hoti asaṁvāso.

Word Commentary says:

• by what is reckoned as theft (theyyasaṅkhātan ti): a thieving attitude (theyyacitto), a stealing attitude (avaharaṇacitto).

Illustration: cittaṁ, attitude

How about if I developed [unlimited] goodwill further?

yannūnāhaṁ uttariṁ mettaṁ bhāveyyantī.

Then for seven years the teacher Sunetta developed a mind of [unlimited] goodwill.

Atha kho bhikkhave sunetto satthā sattavassāni mettaṁ cittaṁ bhāvesi. (AN iv 104)

Illustration: cittaṁ, attitude

• Being not tenderly concerned for their welfare, would he have a mind of [unlimited] goodwill or of enmity?

ahitānukampissa mettaṁ vā tesu cittaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ hoti sapattakaṁ vā ti

• Of enmity, reverend Gotama.

Sapattakaṁ bho gotama. (DN i 228)

cetasā

cetasā: (main article see: citta)

Illustration: cetasā, attitude; cittaṁ, mind

In this regard a bhikkhu focuses on the mental image of light, concentrates on the mental image of day. As by day, so by night; as by night, so by day.

bhikkhu ālokasaññaṁ manasikaroti divāsaññaṁ adhiṭṭhāti. Yathā divā tathā rattiṁ yathā rattiṁ tathā divā

Thus with an attitude open and unclouded, he makes his mind radiant.

iti vivaṭena cetasā apariyonaddhena sappabhāsaṁ cittaṁ bhāveti. (AN iii 323-6)

Illustration: citto, attitude

He listens to the teaching with an appreciative attitude, not looking for weak spots

Anupārambhacitto dhammaṁ suṇāti na randhagavesi. (AN iv 27)

Comment:

1) randhagavesi: seeking weak spots

2) anupārambhacitto tuṭṭhena cittena, appreciative attitude (Tha 360-4).

Illustration: citta, disposition

If Ānanda were to die not free of attachment, by virtue of his faithful disposition, he would rule as Lord of the Devas seven times

Sace udāyi ānando avītarāgo kālaṁ kareyya tena cittappasādena sattakkhattuṁ devesu devarajjaṁ kareyya. (AN i 228)

Illustration: cittaṁ, mentality

He develops a doglike mentality fully and uninterruptedly;

kukkuracittaṁ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṁ abbokiṇṇaṁ

he develops a doglike way of behaviour fully and uninterruptedly.

kukkurākappaṁ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṁ abbokiṇṇaṁ

Having done so, with the demise of the body at death, he reappears in the company of dogs (MN i 387-8).

cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati

cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati:

Renderings

cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati: obsess the mind

Introduction

Pariyādāti and pariyādiyati

Pariyādāti means ‘to exhaust,’ ‘to consume,’ ‘to destroy,’ and ‘to overcome.’ See Illustrations.

Pariyādiyati is the passive of pariyādāti, but both verbs have an active sense. Thus PED says both mean ‘to exhaust.’

Cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati

Knowing the meaning of pariyādāti is of no avail in the search for the meaning of cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati, which is to be discerned through context. We use two phrases:

1) ‘plague the mind’

2) ‘obsess the mind’

We regard mental states as ‘plaguing’ the mind, and sensations as ‘obsessing’ it.

Illustrations: pariyādāti, pariyādiyati

Pariyādāti: to exhaust

Our limited provisions are finished and exhausted.

amhākaṁ kho yā parittā sambalamattā sā parikkhīṇā pariyādinnā. (SN ii 98)

Pariyādāti: to overcome

One who is attached, overpowered, and overcome by attachment, misconducts himself by way of body, speech, and mind.

Ratto kho āvuso rāgena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto kāyena duccaritaṁ carati vācāya duccaritaṁ carati manasā duccaritaṁ carati. (AN i 216)

Pariyādiyati: to consume

They rapidly consumed all the grass, wood and greenstuff

khippameva pariyādiyati tiṇakaṭṭhodakaṁ haritakapaṇṇaṁ. (DN ii 342)

Pariyādiyati: to destroy

And how is the perception of the unlastingness [of the five aggregates] developed and cultivated so that it destroys all attachment to sensuous pleasure.

kathaṁ bhāvitā ca bhikkhave aniccasaññā kathaṁ bahulīkatā sabbaṁ kāmarāgaṁ pariyādiyati. (SN iii 157)

Illustrations: cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati
cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati

cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati: (main article see: cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati)

Illustration: cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati, plague the mind

Lethargy and torpor plague my mind.

Thīnamiddhañca me cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati. (AN iii 69)

Illustration: cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhanti, plague the mind

The bodily form of the ignorant Everyman changes and alters. With the change and alteration of bodily form, his mind is preoccupied with the change

Tassa taṁ rūpaṁ vipariṇamati aññathā hoti. Tassa rūpavipariṇāmaññathābhāvā rūpavipariṇāmānuparivatti viññāṇaṁ hoti.

Agitation and other mental states born of this preoccupation plague his mind.

Tassa rūpavipariṇāmānuparivattijā paritassanā dhammasamuppādā cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhanti. (SN iii 16)

Illustration: cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī, plague the mind

Disgruntlement [with the celibate life] plagues my mind

arati cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī ti. (DN iii 280)

Illustration: cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī, plague the mind

If the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] goodwill is developed and cultivated, it is impossible, out of the question, that ill will would plague your mind.

Aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ mettāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya… atha ca panassa vyāpādo cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (DN iii 248)

Illustration: cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī, plague the mind

If the notion “I am” has vanished, and one does not regard anything as “[in reality] what I am,”’ it is impossible, out of the question, that the arrow of doubt and uncertainty [about the excellence of the teaching] would plague your mind.

aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ asmī ti vigate ayamahamasmī ti asamanupassato atha ca panassa vicikicchākathaṅkathāsallaṁ cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī ti. (DN iii 250)

cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti

cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti: (main article see: cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati)

Illustration: cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti, obsess the mind

Just as space is not established anywhere, Rāhula, likewise develop the meditation on space; for when you do so, arisen pleasing and displeasing sensations will not obsess your mind

seyyathā pi rāhula ākāso na katthaci patiṭṭhito evameva kho tvaṁ rāhula ākāsasamaṁ bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi. Ākāsasamaṁ hi te rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti. (MN i 423)

cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati

cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati: (main article see: cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati)

Illustration: cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati, obsess the mind

His mind is obsessed by acquisition. His mind is obsessed by loss… prestige… imprestige… criticism… praise… pleasure… pain.

Tassa lābho pi cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati alobho pi cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati yaso pi cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati ayaso pi cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati nindā pi cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati pasaṁsā pi cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati. Sukham pi cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati dukkham pi cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati. (AN iv 157)

ceteti

ceteti see cetanā.

cetanā

cetanā and ceteti.

Renderings
Introduction

Intention and intentional effort

Cetanā can mean either intention or intentional effort.

  • Intention means not ‘action’ but ‘delayed action.’ ‘Intending to act’ means acting later, if at all.
  • Intentional effort concerns the application of intention.

The difference between intention and intentional effort is crucial in relation to kamma, where it is said:

• Intentional effort is karmically consequential conduct, I declare.

Cetanāhaṁ bhikkhave kammaṁ vadāmi. (AN iii 415)

Having the intention to make merit or demerit is action by way of the mind only, whereas intentional effort concerns all three modes: body, speech, and mind.

Ceteti: to act intentionally

This quote illustrates ceteti’s meaning ‘to act intentionally.’

• When pacing back and forth one brings about the death of many small beings. What karmic consequence does the Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta describe for this?

so abhikkamanto paṭikkamanto bahū khuddake pāṇe saṅghātaṁ āpādeti. Imassa pana gahapati nigaṇṭho nātaputto kaṁ vipākaṁ paññāpetī ti.

• The Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta does not declare what is unintentional as greatly blameworthy.

Asañcetanikaṁ bhante nigaṇṭho nātaputto no mahāsāvajjaṁ paññāpetī ti.

• But what if one does it intentionally?

Sace pana gahapati cetetī ti.

• Then it is greatly blameworthy.

Mahāsāvajjaṁ bhante hotī ti.

• But under which [of the three categories] does the Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta place intentional effort?

Cetanaṁ pana gahapati nigaṇṭho nātaputto kismiṁ paññāpetī ti.

• Under the mental category, bhante.

Manodaṇḍasmiṁ bhante ti. (MN i 377)

On absolutives

Cetayitvā is an absolutive, the most common connective in Pāli, being almost equivalent to the word ‘and,’ says Duroiselle. It usually denotes one action completed before another, and so may be translated by the word ‘having’ followed by a past participle, for example gantvā, ‘having gone’ (PGPL, para 618, i).

But the absolutive can sometimes be treated as a present participle. For example: idha āgantvā ahaṁ coraṁ passiṁ whilst coming here I saw a thief (PGPL, para 618, vi). The present participle may generally be translated by ‘while, whilst,’ thereby expressing contemporaneity of action (PGPL, para 619, i). For example, consider this quote:

• The Buddha does not sit while grasping his chin with his hand

na ca pāṇinā hanukaṁ upādiyitvā nisīdati. (MN ii 138)

Upādiyitvā must be treated as a present participle, otherwise the sentence reads ‘He sits down having not grasped his chin with his hand.’

Cetayitvā

The word cetayitvā occurs just once in the scriptures: cetayitvā kammaṁ karoti kāyena vācāya manasā (AN iii 415). Taken as a present participle, it reads:

• In applying intentional effort, one undertakes karmically consequential conduct by way of body, speech, or mind.

But if taken as a classical ‘having’ absolutive, the sentence says:

• Having intended, one undertakes conduct by way of body, speech, or mind.

This would suggest that deeds follow a preceding intention, which is not necessarily so. Having intended, one may not act accordingly. ‘I intended to make merit’ does not mean I actually did so. Therefore cetayitvā means ‘in applying intentional effort,’ as we have said.

Illustrations

Illustration: cetanā, intentional effort

What, Puṇṇa, is conduct that is neither-dark-nor-bright with neither-dark-nor-bright karmic consequences that leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct?

kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ akaṇhāsukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati

Where, Puṇṇa, there is the intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences, or bright with bright karmic consequences, or dark-and-bright with dark-and-bright karmic consequences

yamidaṁ kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā… sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā… kaṇhasukkaṁ kaṇhasukkavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

… is called conduct that is neither-dark-nor-bright with neither-dark-nor-bright karmic consequences that leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct.

idaṁ vuccati puṇṇa kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ akaṇhāsukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati. (MN i 391)

Comments:

Horner: ‘Where, Puṇṇa, there is the will to get rid of that deed that is dark… bright… dark-and-bright… .’ Horner’s rendering of tatra is crucial.

Bodhi: ‘Therein, the volition to abandon the kind of action that is dark… bright… dark-and-bright… .’

Illustration: cetanā, intentional effort; cetayitvā, in applying intentional effort

Intentional effort is karmically consequential conduct, I declare. In applying intentional effort, one undertakes karmically consequential conduct by way of body, speech, or mind.

Cetanāhaṁ bhikkhave kammaṁ vadāmi cetayitvā kammaṁ karoti kāyena vācāya manasā. (AN iii 415)

Illustration: cetanā, intentional effort

When bhikkhus suffered nocturnal emissions they asked the Buddha whether this was also an offence, pointing out that ‘intentional effort is to be found there also’ (atthi cettha cetanā labbhā ti). The Buddha agreed but said it was not subject to the rule (Vin.3.112).

Illustration: cetanā, intentional effort

Sense impression, perception, intentional effort, sensation, and the paying of attention, are called ‘immaterial-factors.’

vedanā saññā cetanā phasso manasikāro idaṁ vuccatāvuso nāmaṁ. (MN i 53)

Illustration: cetanā, intentional effort; sañcetanā, intentional effort

What are mental factors?

katame ca bhikkhave saṅkhārā

The aggregate of intentional effort is sixfold:

chayime bhikkhave cetanākāyā

• intentional effort in relation to visible objects

• intentional effort in relation to audible objects

• intentional effort in relation to smellable objects

• intentional effort in relation to tasteable objects

• intentional effort in relation to tangible objects

• intentional effort in relation to mentally known objects

Illustration: cetanā, intention

The man’s

  • intention (cetanā) would be to get away [from a red-hot charcoal pit],
  • his desire (patthanā) would be to get away,
  • his resolve (paṇidhi) would be to get away.

Atha kho bhikkhave tassa purisassa ārakāvassa cetanā ārakā patthanā ārakā paṇidhi. (SN ii 99-100)

ceteti

ceteti: (main article see: cetanā)

Illustration: ceteti, is intent upon

When the noble disciple is intent upon going forth from the household life into the ascetic life, he is nearly in leaf, like the celestial coral tree of the Tāvatiṁsa devas.

yasmiṁ samaye ariyasāvako agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajjāya ceteti paṇḍupalāso bhikkhave ariyasāvako tasmiṁ samaye hoti devānaṁva tāvatiṁsānaṁ pāricchattako koviḷāro. (AN iv 118)

cetayamānassa

cetayamānassa: (main article see: cetanā)

Illustration: cetayamānassa, intentional effort; ceteyyaṁ, intent upon

Poṭṭhapāda, once the bhikkhu is possessed of that preliminary state of refined awareness, he proceeds from stage to stage till he reaches the highest state of refined awareness.

Yato kho poṭṭhapāda bhikkhu idha sakasaññī hoti so tato amutra tato amutra anupubbena saññaggaṁ phusati.

Then, remaining in the highest state of refined awareness it occurs to him, ‘Intentional effort is worse for me, being free of intentional effort is better.

Tassa saññagge ṭhitassa evaṁ hoti cetayamānassa me pāpiyo acetayamānassa me seyyo

If I were to be intent upon or to aim [at anything further], these states of refined awareness that I have attained would cease and less refined states of refined awareness would arise in me.

Ahañceva kho pana ceteyyaṁ abhisaṅkhareyyaṁ imā ca me saññā nirujjheyyuṁ aññā ca oḷārikā saññā uppajjeyyuṁ.

How about if I were not to be intent upon or to aim [at anything further]?’

Yannūnāhaṁ na ceva ceteyyaṁ na cābhisaṅkhareyyan ti.

So he is neither intent [upon anything], nor aims [at anything further].

So na ceva ceteti na cābhisaṅkharoti.

And then, being not intent [upon anything], nor aiming [at anything further], in him just these states of refined awareness cease, and other less refined states of refined awareness do not arise.

Tassa acetayato anabhisaṅkharoto tā ceva saññā nirujjhanti aññā ca oḷārikā saññā na uppajjanti. (DN i 183-4)

Illustration: ceteti, to be intent upon

Bhante, the bhikkhu Vakkali is intent upon deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states].

vakkali bhante bhikkhu vimokkhāya cetetī ti. (SN iii 121)

Illustration: ceteti, to be intent upon

And how does a spiritually outstanding person think?

Kathañca bhikkhave sappuriso sappurisacintī hoti

In this regard a spiritually outstanding person is not intent upon his own harm, the harm of others, the harm of both.

idha bhikkhave sappuriso nevattavyābādhāya ceteti na paravyābādhāya ceteti na ubhayavyābādhāya ceteti. (MN iii 21)

Illustration: ceteti, to be intent upon

Those people who were of little faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], spoke thus: The ascetic Gotama is extravagant and is intent upon extravagance.

Samaṇo pana gotamo bāhuliko bāhullāya cetetī ti. (Vin.2.197)

cetanāya

cetanāya: (main article see: cetanā)

Illustration: cetanāya, aspiration

For one who is virtuous, perfect in virtue, there is no need to harbour the aspiration: ‘May freedom from an uneasy conscience arise in me.

sīlavato bhikkhave sīlasampannassa na cetanāya karaṇīyaṁ avippaṭisāro me uppajjatū ti.

It is quite natural that this should happen.

dhammatā esā bhikkhave yaṁ sīlavato sīlasampannassa avippaṭisāro uppajjati. (AN v 3)

Illustration: ceteti, to aspire

With sensation one experiences, with sensation one perceives, with sensation one aspires.

Phuṭṭho bhikkhave vedeti phuṭṭho sañjānāti phuṭṭho ceteti. (SN iv 68)

paññāvimutti

paññāvimutti see cetovimutti.

cetovimutti

cetovimutti and paññāvimutti.

Renderings
Introduction

Cetovimutti (when without paññāvimutti)

In contexts without paññāvimutti, cetovimutti means ‘liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].’ This can be demonstrated in two steps:

1) Cetovimutti means freedom from attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

• Now that unshakeable liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] is void of attachment, void of hatred, void of undiscernment of reality.

sā kho panākuppā cetovimutti suññā rāgena suññā dosena suññā mohena. (SN iv 296-7)

2) Freedom from attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality means liberation from perceptually obscuring states:

• The elimination of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality: the destruction of perceptually obscuring states is spoken of in that way.

rāgavinayo dosavinayo mohavinayo ti āsavānaṁ khayo tena vuccatī ti. (SN v 8)

Cetovimutti: often not arahantship

Cetovimutti usually does not mean arahantship:

• If the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] goodwill is developed and cultivated, it is impossible, out of the question, that ill will would plague your mind.

Aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ mettāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya… atha ca panassa vyāpādo cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī ti. (DN iii 248)

Where it does mean arahantship, it is called unshakeable (akuppā cetovimutti). See next paragraph.

Cetovimutti: temporary or permanent

Cetovimutti may mean temporary or permanent liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]:

• Then Venerable Godhika, abiding diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice] attained temporary liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]. But then Venerable Godhika fell away from that temporary liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

Atha kho āyasmā godhiko appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto sāmayikaṁ cetovimuttiṁ phusi. Atha kho āyasmā godhiko tāya sāmayikāya cetovimuttiyā parihāyi. (SN i 120)

• Which one thing should be realised? Unshakeable liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

Katamo eko dhammo sacchikātabbo? Akuppā cetovimutti. (DN iii 272-3)

Cetovimutti plus paññāvimutti

When cetovimutti occurs with paññāvimutti it has a different meaning. Paññāvimutti never occurs without cetovimutti, so has a single meaning. Here we will consider their meanings when they occur together, in the light of the eleventh Bālavaggo Sutta, where they correspond to samatha and vipassanā:

• Two things are conducive to insightfulness into reality. Which two? Inward calm and insightfulness.

Dve me bhikkhave dhammā vijjābhāgiyā. Katame dve? Samatho ca vipassanā ca.

When inward calm is developed, what benefit accrues? The mind is developed.

Samatho bhikkhave bhāvito kamatthamanubhoti? Cittaṁ bhāvīyati.

When the mind is developed, what benefit accrues? Attachment is abandoned.

Cittaṁ bhāvitaṁ kamatthamanubhoti? Yo rāgo so pahīyati.

When insightfulness is developed, what benefit accrues? Penetrative discernment is developed.

Vipassanā bhikkhave bhāvitā kamatthamanubhoti? Paññā bhāvīyati.

When penetrative discernment is developed, what benefit accrues? Uninsightfulness into reality is abandoned.

Paññā bhāvitā kamatthamanubhoti? Yā avijjā sā pahīyati.

The mind that is defiled by attachment is not liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

Rāgupakkiliṭṭhaṁ vā bhikkhave cittaṁ na vimuccati.

Penetrative discernment that is defiled by uninsightfulness into reality is not developed.

Avijjupakkiliṭṭhā vā paññā na bhāvīyati.

Therefore the liberation [from attachment] by [developing] the mind [in inward calm] is due to the fading away of attachment.

Iti kho bhikkhave rāgavirāgā cetovimutti

And the liberation [from uninsightfulness] by [developing] penetrative discernment is due to the fading away of uninsightfulness into reality.

avijjāvirāgā paññāvimuttī ti. (AN i 61)

On the basis of this sutta this we render the terms as:

  • Cetovimutti: liberation [from attachment through inward calm]
  • Paññāvimutti: liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment

Cetovimuttiṁ plus paññāvimuttiṁ: not necessarily arahantship

The combination of cetovimuttiṁ and paññāvimuttiṁ may or may not imply arahantship:

• Some person is unvirtuous but he discerns according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where that unvirtuousness ceases without remainder.

Idha panānanda ekacco puggalo dussīlo hoti tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti yatthassa taṁ dussīlyaṁ aparisesaṁ nirujjhati. (AN v 139)

• He, in this very lifetime, through the destruction of perceptually obscuring states, enters upon and abides in the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, realising it for himself through transcendent insight.

So āsavānaṁ khayā anāsavaṁ cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati (AN i 234) (MN i 34).

Ubhatobhāgavimutto; Paññāvimutto; Paññāvimuttin; Cetovimuttin

For discussion of these terms see Glossary sv Ubhatobhāgavimutto.

  • ubhatobhāgavimutto: one who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] both through [penetrative discernment and through attaining the immaterial states of awareness]
  • paññāvimutto: one who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment
  • paññāvimuttin: one who is liberated [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment
  • cetovimuttin: one who is liberated [from attachment through inward calm]
Illustrations: cetovimutti plus paññāvimutti
cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ

cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ: (main article see: cetovimutti)

Illustration: cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ, liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment

We shall so enter and abide in the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment,

yañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ upasampajja viharato

that the illusion of personal identity, the illusion of personal ownership, and the proclivity to self-centredness do not exist

ahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayā na honti

That is how you must train yourselves

Evaṁ hi vo sāriputta sikkhitabbaṁ. (AN i 133)

Illustration: cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ, liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment,

And how is there unrestraint [of the sense faculties]?

Katañcava bhikkhave asaṁvaro hoti.

In this regard, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense, a bhikkhu is intent upon an agreeable visible object and troubled by a disagreeable visible object.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā piyarūpe rūpe adhimuccati appiyarūpe rūpe vyāpajjati

He abides without having established mindfulness of the body, with an undeveloped mind, and he does not discern according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where those unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors cease without remainder.

anupaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati parittacetaso tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. (SN iv 190)

Illustration: cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ, the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment

Some person is virtuous and he discerns according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where that virtuousness ceases without remainder.

Idha panānanda ekacco puggalo sīlavā hoti tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti yatthassa taṁ sīlaṁ aparisesaṁ nirujjhati. (AN v 141)

Illustration: cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ, the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment

Some person is full of attachment but he discerns according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where that attachment ceases without remainder.

Idha panānanda ekacco puggalo tibbarāgo hoti tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti yatthassa so rāgo apariseso nirujjhati. (AN v 141)

Illustration: cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ, the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment

Some person is ill-tempered but he discerns according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where that anger ceases without remainder.

Idha panānanda ekacco puggalo kodhano hoti tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti yatthassa so kodho apariseso nirujjhati. (AN v 142)

Illustration: cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ, the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment

Some person is full of restlessness but he discerns according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where that restlessness ceases without remainder.

Idha panānanda ekacco puggalo uddhato hoti tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti yatthassa taṁ uddhaccaṁ aparisesaṁ nirujjhati. (AN v 142)

Illustration: cetovimutti, liberation [from attachment through inward calm]; paññāvimutti, liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment

Bhikkhus, these five practices if developed and cultivated have liberation [from attachment through inward calm], and liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment as their fruit and benefit. Which five?

Pañcime bhikkhave dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā cetovimuttiphalā ca honti cetovimuttiphalānisaṁsā ca. Paññāvimuttiphalā ca honti paññāvimuttiphalānisaṁsā ca. Katame pañca?

The perception of the unlastingness [of the five aggregates], the perception that what is unlasting is intrinsically unsatisfactory, the perception that what is intrinsically unsatisfactory is void of personal qualities, the perception of the abandonment [of sensuous thoughts, unbenevolent thoughts, malicious thoughts, and unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors], the perception of the passing away [of originated phenomena], the perception of the ending [of originated phenomena].

Aniccasaññā anicce dukkhasaññā dukkhe anattasaññā pahānasaññā virāgasaññā nirodhasaññā. (AN iii 85)

Illustrations: cetovimutti
cetovimuttiyā

cetovimuttiyā: (main article see: cetovimutti)

Illustration: cetovimuttiyā, liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]

• If the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] goodwill is developed and cultivated, it is impossible, out of the question, that ill will would plague your mind.

Aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ mettāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya… atha ca panassa vyāpādo cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī'ti

• If the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] compassion is developed and cultivated, it is impossible, out of the question, that maliciousness would plague your mind.

Aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ karuṇāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya… atha ca panassa vihesā cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī'ti

• If the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] warmhearted joy is developed and cultivated, it is impossible, out of the question, that disgruntlement [with the celibate life] would plague your mind.

Aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ muditāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya… atha ca panassa arati cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī'ti

• If the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] detached awareness is developed and cultivated, it is impossible, out of the question, that attachment would plague your mind. There is no such possibility. For this is the liberation from attachment, namely the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] detached awareness

Aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ upekkhāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya… atha ca panassa rāgo cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī'ti. (DN iii 248-250)

Illustration: cetovimutti, liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]

And what, bhante, is the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through the perception of nonexistence?

Katamā ca bhante ākiñcaññā cetovimutti

In this regard, by completely transcending the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, a bhikkhu enters and abides in the state of awareness of nonexistence, where one perceives that there is [nowhere] anything at all.

Idha bhante bhikkhu sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma natthi kiñcī ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. (SN iv 296)

Illustration: cetovimutti, liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]

And what, bhante, is the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through the [perception of the] absence [of personal qualities]?

Katamā ca bhante suññatā cetovimutti

In this regard a bhikkhu, gone to the wilderness, or the root of a tree, or a solitary abode, reflects thus: ‘This is void of an [absolute] Selfhood and of what could belong to an [absolute] Selfhood.’

Idha bhante bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā itipaṭisaṁcikkhati suññamidaṁ attena vā attaniyena vā. (MN i 297-8)

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Glossary various Teacher

citta: heart, mind. (Source: Glossary late Ven. Ajahn Chah)

 

See also

Suttas and Dhammadesanā

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en/dictionary/citta.txt · Last modified: 2019/09/25 05:32 (external edit)