Pāḷi; √ dhutaṅga
alt. sp.: IPA: d̪ʰut̪əŋgə, Velthuis: dhuta“nga, readable: dhutanga, simple: dhutanga
translation ~: …
dhutaṅga: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.
➥ dhutaṅga: Voluntary ascetic practices that monks and other meditators may undertake from time to time or as a long-term commitment in order to cultivate renunciation and contentment, and to stir up energy. For the monks, there are thirteen such practices: (1) using only patched-up robes; (2) using only one set of three robes; (3) going for alms; (4) not by-passing any donors on one's alms path; (5) eating no more than one meal a day; (6) eating only from the alms-bowl; (7) refusing any food offered after the alms-round; (8) living in the forest; (9) living under a tree; (10) living under the open sky; (11) living in a cemetery; (12) being content with whatever dwelling one has; (13) not lying down. [ more ]
by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:
➥ dhutaṅga:1) (lit. 'means of shaking off (the defilements)'); 'means of purification', ascetic or austere practices. These are strict observances recommended by the Buddha to monks as a help to cultivate contentedness, renunciation, energy and the like.
One or more of them may be observed for a shorter or longer period of time.
“The monk training himself in morality should take upon himself the means of purification, in order to gain those virtues through which the purity of morality will become accomplished, to wit: fewness of needs, contentedness, austerity, detachment, energy, moderation, etc.” Visuddhi Magga II
“Without doubt, o monks, it is a great advantage to live in the forest as a hermit, to collect one's alms, to make one's robes from picked-up rags, to be satisfied with three robes” AN 1.30
The vow, e.g. of No. 1, is taken in the words: “I reject robes offered to me by householders,” or “I take upon myself the vow of wearing only robes made from picked-up rags.” Some of the exercises may also be observed by the lay-adherent.
Here it may be mentioned that each newly ordained monk, immediately after his being admitted to the Order, is advised to be satisfied with whatever robes, alms-food, dwelling and medicine he gets:
“The life of the monks depends on the collected alms as food … on the root of a tree as dwelling … on robes made from patched-up rags … on stale cow's urine as medicine. May you train yourself therein all your life.”
Since the moral quality of any action depends entirely upon the accompanying intention and volition, this is also the case with these ascetic practices, as is expressly stated in Visuddhi Magga Thus the mere external performance is not the real exercise, as it is said (Puggalapaññatti 275-84):
“Some one might be going for alms; etc. out of stupidity and foolishness - or with evil intention and filled with desires - or out of insanity and mental derangement - or because such practice had been praised by the Noble Ones….”
These exercises are, however properly observed “if they are taken up only for the sake of frugality, of contentedness, of purity, etc.”
On dhutaṅga practice in modern Thailand, see With Robes and Bowl, by Bhikkhu Khantipālo (Wheel 82/83).
by the Pali Text Society:
by Ven. Thanissaro Maha Thera:
➥ Dhutaṅga: Ascetic practice. Optional observances that monks may undertake to cut away mental defilement and attachment to the requisites of life. There are thirteen altogether, and they include the practice of wearing robes made from thrown-away cloth, the practice of using only one set of three robes, the practice of going for alms, the practice of not by-passing any donors on one's alms path, the practice of eating no more than one meal a day, the practice of eating from one’s alms bowl, the practice of not accepting food after one has eaten one’s fill, the practice of living in the wilderness, the practice of living at the foot of a tree, the practice of living under the open sky, the practice of living in a cemetery, the practice of living in whatever place is assigned to one, and the practice of not lying down.
by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:
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Suttas and Dhammadesanā