Pāḷi; √ domanassa
alt. sp.: IPA: d̪oːmən̪əs̪s̪ə, Velthuis: domanassa, readable: domanassa, simple: domanassa
translation ~: …
domanassa: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.
by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:
➥ domanassa: lit. 'sad-mindedness', grief, i.e. mentally painful feeling (cetasika-vedanā), is one of the 5 feelings (see vedanā) and one of the 22 faculties (see indriya). According to the Abhidhamma, grief is always associated with antipathy and grudge, and therefore kammically unwholesome (see akusala). Cf. Table I. 30, 31.
by the Pali Text Society:
by Ven. Thanissaro Maha Thera:
by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:
The puzzling nature of domanassa is apparent in Bodhi’s renderings:
Domanassa in the five faculties of sense impression
One meaning of domanassa is found in the five faculties of sense impression, which concern the pleasantness and unpleasantness of sense impression and moods, where we call domanassa ‘psychological pain.’ The five faculties of sense impression are:
• the faculty of physical pleasure
• the faculty of physical pain
• the faculty of psychological pleasure
• the faculty of psychological pain
• the faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience, namely, whatever sense impression, either physical or psychological, that is neither pleasing nor displeasing
upekkhindriyaṁ yaṁ kho bhikkhave kāyikaṁ vā cetasikaṁ vā neva sātaṁ nāsātaṁ vedayitaṁ. (SN v 211)
Psychological pain apparently stems from thought, because it ceases in second jhāna, when thought ceases (vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā, SN v 214). Psychological pleasure (somanassa) is obviously unrelated to thought, because it is not abandoned till fourth jhāna (SN v 215).
Dukkhadomanassa: psychological pain
A common pairing for domanassa is with dukkha in the phrase dukkhadomanassa which means ‘physical and psychological pain.’ It may seem curious that attachment would cause not only psychological but also physical pain:
• Some person is by nature full of attachment (pakatiyāpi tibbarāgajātiko hoti); he experiences the physical and psychological pain that are born of attachment (rāgajaṁ dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti). (AN ii 149)
But this is well documented in the scriptures, particularly with reference to taṇhā:
• Craving that leads to renewed states of individual existence, accompanied by spiritually fettering delight and attachment, taking delight in this and that, grows.
Taṇhā cassa ponobhavikā nandirāgasahagatā tatra tatrābhinandinī sā cassa pavaḍḍhati.
… One’s physical and psychological sufferings, torments, and anguishes increase.
tassa kāyikāpi darathā pavaḍḍhanti cetasikāpi darathā pavaḍḍhanti kayikāpi santāpā pavaḍḍhanti cetasikāpi santāpā pavaḍḍhanti kāyikāpi pariḷāhā pavaḍḍhanti cetasikāpi pariḷāhā pavaḍḍhanti
… One experiences physical and psychological unpleasantness
so kāyadukkhampi cetodukkhampi paṭisaṁvedeti. (MN iii 287)
Domanassa, as a mood, means dejection. It occurs for example in the phrase abhijjhādomanassā greed and dejection. Dejection means ‘lowness of spirits or downheartedness.’
Illustration: domanassa, faculty of psychological pain
And where does the arisen faculty of psychological pain cease without remainder? With the subsiding of thinking and pondering, and [the development of] internal serenity and concentration, being without thinking and pondering, and being filled with rapture and physical pleasure born of inward collectedness, a bhikkhu enters and abides in second jhāna. And it is here that the arisen faculty of psychological pain ceases without remainder.
Kattha cuppannaṁ domanassindriyaṁ aparisesaṁ nirujjhati: idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyajjhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ettha cuppannaṁ domanassindriyaṁ aparisesaṁ nirujjhati. (SN v 213-4)
Illustration: domanassa, psychological pain
• Would that man, being struck with three hundred spears, experience physical and psychological pain (dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ) on that account?
api nu so puriso divasaṁ tīhi sattisatehi haññamāno tatonidānaṁ dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedayethā ti
• Even if he were struck with one spear he would experience physical and psychological pain on that account, not to speak of three hundred spears
Ekissāpi bhante sattiyā haññamāno tatonidānaṁ dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedayetha. Ko pana vādo tīhi sattisatehi haññamāno ti. (SN ii 100)
Some person is by nature full of attachment (pakatiyāpi tibbarāgajātiko hoti); he experiences the physical and psychological pain that are born of attachment (rāgajaṁ dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti). (AN ii 149)
What is physical pain (dukkhaṁ)? It is physical pain, physical unpleasantness, unpleasant and displeasing sense impression born of bodily sensation
yaṁ kho āvuso kāyikaṁ dukkhaṁ kāyikaṁ asātaṁ kāyasamphassajaṁ dukkhaṁ asātaṁ vedayitaṁ idaṁ vuccatāvuso dukkhaṁ.
What is psychological pain (domanassaṁ)? It is psychological pain, psychological unpleasantness, unpleasant and displeasing sense impression born of mental sensation. This is called psychological pain
yaṁ kho āvuso cetasikaṁ dukkhaṁ cetasikaṁ asātaṁ manosamphassajaṁ dukkhaṁ asātaṁ vedayitaṁ idaṁ vuccatāvuso domanassaṁ. (DN ii 307)
A bhikkhu might approach families with the thought: ‘May they give to me, not hold back.’ When a bhikkhu approaches families with such a thought.
• If they do not give, he thereby becomes resentful. On that account he experiences physical and psychological pain.
na denti tena bhikkhu sandīyati. So tatonidānaṁ dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedayati. (SN ii 200)
With the abandonment of physical pleasure and pain, and following the vanishing of psychological pleasure and pain, a bhikkhu enters and abides in fourth jhāna, which is free of pleasure and pain, and [is imbued with] purified detached awareness and mindfulness
bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhaṁ asukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (MN i 303)
This is the one-destination path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of grief and lamentation, for the vanishing of physical and psychological pain
ekāyano ayaṁ bhikkhave maggo sattānaṁ visuddhiyā sokapariddavānaṁ samatikkamāya dukkhadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamāya. (SN v 142)
A bhikkhu thinks ‘When will I attain that supreme state of deliverance which the Noble Ones have attained? In arousing desire for supreme deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states], psychological pain arises due to desire.
kudassu nāmāhaṁ tadāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharissāmi yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṁ upasampajja viharantī ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṁ upaṭṭhāpayato uppajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṁ. (MN i 303)
Illustration: domanassa, dejection
One who is attached, overpowered, and overcome by attachment, is intent upon his own harm, upon the harm of others, upon the harm of both, and so experiences psychological pain and dejection.
Ratto kho āvuso rāgena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto attavyābādhāya pi ceteti paravyābādhāya pi ceteti. Ubhayavyābādhāya pi ceteti. Cetasikampi dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti.
But if attachment be abandoned he is not intent upon his own harm, upon the harm of others, upon the harm of both, and thus does not experience psychological pain and dejection.
Rāge pahīṇe nevattavyābādhāya pi ceteti na paravyābādhāya pi tetti. Na ubhayavyābādhāya pi ceteti. Na cetasikaṁ dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti. (AN i 156)
In seeing a visible object via the visual sense, do not grasp its aspects and features. Since by abiding with the faculty of sight unrestrained [from grasping, through mindfulness], greed, dejection, and unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors would pursue you.
Cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā mā nimittaggāhino ahuvattha mānuvyañjanaggāhino yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ cakkhundriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ. (SN iv 178)
When we hear that the Blessed One will set out from amongst the Kosalan people on tour in the Mallan country, on that occasion there arises in us dissatisfaction and dejection at the thought: ‘The Blessed One will be far away from us.’
hoti no tasmiṁ samaye anattamanatā hoti domanassaṁ. Dūre no bhagavā bhavissatī ti.
When we hear that the Blessed One will set out from among the Magadhans on tour in the Kāsian country, on that occasion there arises in us satisfaction and joy at the thought: ‘The Blessed One will be near to us.’
hoti no tasmiṁ samaye attamanatā hoti somanassaṁ. Āsanne no bhagavā bhavissatī ti. (SN v 349)
They received a poor meal.
Out of dejection, they did not eat as much as expected.
te teneva domanassena na cittarūpaṁ bhuñjiṁsu. (Vin.2.77-8)
A bhikkhu abides contemplating the nature of the body, vigorously, fully consciously, and mindfully, having eliminated greed and dejection in regard to the world [of phenomena].
bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. (SN v 182)
Suttas and Dhammadesanā