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dukkha {pi}


Pāḷi; √ dukkha
gender:
type:
alt. sp.: IPA: d̪ukkʰə, Velthuis: dukkha, readable: dukkha, simple: dukkha
translation ~:
skr.:
khmer: ទុក្ខ
thai: ทุกฺข
sinhal.: දුක්ඛ
burm.: ဒုက္ခ
appears:



dukkha.jpg

[dic] dukkha

dukkha: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.

ATI Glossary

dukkha: Stress; suffering; pain; distress; discontent. [ more ]

 

Buddhist Dictionary

by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:

dukkha:

(1) 'pain', painful feeling, which may be bodily and mental (see vedanā).

(2) 'Suffering', 'ill'. As the first of the Four Noble Truths (see sacca) and the second of the three characteristics of existence (see ti-lakkhaṇa), the term dukkha is not limited to painful experience as under (1), but refers to the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena which, on account of their impermanence, are all liable to suffering, and this includes also pleasurable experience. Hence 'unsatisfactoriness' or 'liability to suffering' would be more adequate renderings, if not for stylistic reasons. Hence the first truth does not deny the existence of pleasurable experience, as is sometimes wrongly assumed. This is illustrated by the following texts:

“Seeking satisfaction in the world, monks, I had pursued my way. That satisfaction in the world I found. In so far as satisfaction existed in the world, I have well perceived it by wisdom. Seeking for misery in the world, monks, I had pursued my way. That misery in the world I found. In so far as misery existed in the world, I have well perceived it by wisdom. Seeking for the escape from the world, monks, I had pursued my way. That escape from the world I found. In so far as an escape from the world existed, I have well perceived it by wisdom” A. 111, 1011)

“If there were no satisfaction to be found in the world, beings would not be attached to the world …. If there were no misery to be found in the world, beings would not be repelled by the world …. If there were no escape from the world, beings could not escape therefrom” A. 111, 102 2)

See dukkhatā. For texts on the Truth of Suffering, see W. of B. and 'Path'. See The Three Basic Facts of Existence, II. Suffering (Wheel 191/193).

 

PTS Dictionary

by the Pali Text Society:

 

Glossary Thanissaro

Dukkha: Stress; suffering.

 

Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms

by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:

Renderings
  • for dukkha:
    • pain
    • physical pain
    • unpleasant
    • what is unpleasant
    • suffering
    • in misery
    • miserable
    • intrinsically unsatisfactory
    • what is intrinsically unsatisfactory
    • intrinsic unsatisfactoriness
    • faculty of physical pain
  • dukkhaṁ: pain; physical pain; unpleasant; intrinsically unsatisfactory; suffering; in misery; (=miserably, adv)
  • dukkhindriyaṁ: faculty of physical pain
  • dukkham: what is unpleasant
  • dukkho: unpleasant; suffering
  • dukkhā: unpleasant (adj); what is intrinsically unsatisfactory; intrinsically unsatisfactory; suffering
  • dukkhasmin: what is intrinsically unsatisfactory
  • dukkhassā: suffering
  • dukkhassa: suffering
  • dukkhan: suffering
  • dukkhāya: suffering
Introduction

Dukkha of tilakkhaṇa: ‘intrinsically unsatisfactory’

Dukkha occurs in relation to anicca in the question: ‘Yaṁ panāniccaṁ dukkhaṁ vā taṁ sukhaṁ vā ti?.’ The constant answer to this is that whatever is anicca is dukkha. Here we render dukkha as ‘intrinsically unsatisfactory,’ because the reflection that things are meaningless involves a relationship with desire. If things are meaningless it is because they do not satisfy desire. This therefore links to the argument regarding Self, which likewise is linked to desire:

Bodily form, bhikkhus, is void of personal qualities. If bodily form was endowed with personal qualities it would not lead to affliction and it would be possible to demand of bodily form: ‘My bodily form: be thus! My bodily form: be not thus!’ But because bodily form is void of personal qualities it therefore leads to affliction and it is not possible to demand of bodily form: ‘My bodily form: be thus! My bodily form: be not thus!’

Rūpaṁ bhikkhave anattā rūpañca hidaṁ bhikkhave attā abhavissa nayidaṁ rūpaṁ ābādhāya saṁvatteyya labbhetha ca rūpe evaṁ me rūpaṁ hotu evaṁ me rūpaṁ mā ahosī ti. Yasmā ca kho bhikkhave rūpaṁ anattā tasmā rūpaṁ ābādhāya saṁvattati. Na ca labbhati rūpe evaṁ me rūpaṁ hotu evaṁ me rūpaṁ mā ahosī ti. (SN iii 67-8)

And because we render dukkha as ‘intrinsically unsatisfactory’ (‘that which is unlasting is intrinsically unsatisfactory’) we correspondingly render sukhaṁ as ‘essentially substantial’:

Dukkha in the summary of the teaching: the dukkha of tilakkhaṇa

As we have said, dukkha occurs in the Buddha’s summary of his teaching: ‘I explain just dukkha and the ending of dukkha (dukkhañceva paññāpemi dukkhassa ca nirodhanti SN iii 119). The scriptures show that this dukkha is related to anicca, and is therefore the dukkha of tilakkhaṇa, meaning ‘what is intrinsically unsatisfactory.’ Two suttas prove this point.

  • 1) Firstly, when the Buddha said ‘Whatever is experienced is included within dukkha (yaṁ kiñci vedayitaṁ taṁ dukkhasmin ti) he explained that ‘This has been stated by me with reference to the unlastingness of originated phenomena’ (taṁ kho panetaṁ bhikkhu mayā saṅkhārānaññeva aniccataṁ sandhāya bhāsitaṁ SN iv 216).
  • 2) Secondly, when the Buddha asked Sāriputta to explain how spiritually fettering delight in sense impression no longer remained present in him (yā vedanāsu nandī sā na upaṭṭhāsī ti), Sāriputta answered:

• There are these three types of sense impression. What three? Pleasant sense impression, unpleasant sense impression, and neutral sense impression.

tisso kho imā āvuso vedanā katamā tisso? Sukhā vedanā dukkhā vedanā adukkhamasukhā vedanā

… These three types of sense impression are unlasting. Whatever is unlasting is intrinsically unsatisfactory. When this was understood, spiritually fettering delight in sense impression no longer remained present in me.’ Being asked thus, bhante, I would answer in such a way.”

imā kho āvuso tisso vedanā aniccā. Yadaniccaṁ taṁ dukkhan ti viditaṁ. Yā vedanāsu nandī sā na upaṭṭhāsī ti. Evaṁ puṭṭhohaṁ bhante evaṁ vyākareyyanti.

The Buddha responded:

• Very good, Sāriputta! This is another method of explaining in brief that same point: ‘Whatever is experienced is included within dukkha.’

yaṁ kiñci vedayitaṁ taṁ dukkhasmin ti. (SN ii 53)

Thus when dukkha is applied comprehensively to all things it is linked to anicca, and is therefore the dukkha of tilakkhaṇa, meaning ‘what is intrinsically unsatisfactory.’

Dukkha in the four noble truths: suffering

The dukkha of the four noble truths is ‘suffering’:

1) Birth is suffering; old age is suffering; death is suffering;

jāti pi dukkhā jarāpi dukkhā maraṇampi dukkhaṁ

grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation are suffering;

association with the unbeloved is suffering; separation from the beloved is suffering;

appiyehi sampayogo dukkho piyehi vippayogo dukkho

not getting what one wants, that too is suffering.

yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ

In brief the five grasped aggregates are suffering.

saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā. (SN v 422)

2) ‘This is suffering’: an effort should be made [to profoundly understand this].

Idaṁ dukkhan ti yogo karaṇīyo.

‘This is the origin of suffering’: an effort should be made [to abandon this].

Ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo ti yogo karaṇīyo.

‘This is the ending of suffering’: an effort should be made [to realise this].

Ayaṁ dukkhanirodho ti yogo karaṇīyo.

‘This is the practice leading to the ending of suffering’: an effort should be made [to develop this].

Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ti yogo karaṇīyo. (SN v 430)

Suffering: the actual and the psychological

Suffering has two connotations, which we will call 1) ‘the actual’ and 2) ‘the psychological’. For example, the body itself is sometimes called suffering, but sometimes suffering is said to arise from attachment to the body. Some quotes contain a mixture of both connotations.

1) The actual:

• Bhikkhus, the arising, establishment, rebirth and appearance of bodily form is the arising of suffering.

Yo rūpassa uppādo ṭhīti abhinibbatti pātubhāvo dukkhasseso uppādo. (SN iii 32)

2) The psychological:

• Suffering arises because of attachment. With the destruction of all grasping there is no arising of suffering.

upadhiṁ paṭicca dukkhamidaṁ sambhoti sabbūpādānakkhayā natthi dukkhassa sambhavo. (Uda 32-3)

• Whatever within these five grasped aggregates is the elimination and rejection of fondness and attachment is the ending of suffering.

Yo imesu pañcasupādānakkhandhesu chandarāgavinayo chandarāgappahānaṁ so dukkhanirodho ti. (MN i 191)

3) Both actual and psychological:

• Properly regard the [five grasped] aggregates as suffering, and abandon that from which suffering arises.

Dukkhan ti khandhe paṭipassa yoniso yato ca dukkhaṁ samudeti taṁ jaha. (Tha 1116)

Dukkha in other contexts

We render dukkha in other contexts as follows:

  • 1) Dukkha as a sense impression: ‘pain’ (noun) or ‘unpleasant’ (adjective). ‘Painful’ is unuseable as the general adjective because ‘pain’ applies only to bodily felt sensation. ‘Unpleasant’ covers all sensations like sounds, smells etc.
  • 2) Dukkha in opposition to psychological pain (e.g. dukkhehi domanassehi): ‘physical pain.’
  • 3) Dukkhindriyaṁ is called ‘the faculty of physical pain,’ being in contrast to domanassindriyaṁ ‘the faculty of psychological pain,’ SN v 211).

Sometimes ‘miserable’ is an appropriate adjective:

• They declare that the [absolute] Selfhood after death is altogether happy, not subject to decay, and conscious. They declare that the [absolute] Selfhood after death is altogether miserable, not subject to decay, and conscious.

ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo parammaraṇā saññī ti naṁ paññapenti. Ekantadukkhī attā hoti arogo parammaraṇā saññī ti naṁ paññapenti. (DN i 31)

Illustrations

Illustration: dukkha, physical pain

This is the one-destination path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of grief and lamentation, for the vanishing of physical and psychological pain

Illustration: dukkha, unpleasant

Contact with sensuous pleasures is unpleasant, very hot, and anguishing

kāmā dukkhasamphassā ceva mahābhitāpā ca mahāpariḷāhā ca. (MN i 507-8)

Illustration: dukkha, intrinsically unsatisfactory

When a bhikkhu abides much with his mind fortified by the perception that what is unlasting is intrinsically unsatisfactory, then when laziness, indolence, slackness, negligence and idleness [in the practice], and unreflectiveness arise, an acute perception of danger arises, as it might in relation to a murderer with a drawn sword.

Anicce dukkhasaññā paricitena bhikkhave bhikkhuno cetasā bahulaṁ viharato ālasye kosajje vissaṭṭhiye pamāde ananuyoge apaccavekkhanāya tibbā bhayasaññā paccupaṭṭhitā hoti seyyathā pi ukkhittāsike vadhake. (AN iv 52)

Illustration: dukkha, intrinsically unsatisfactory

When a bhikkhu abides much with his mind fortified by the perception that what is unlasting is intrinsically unsatisfactory, then when laziness, indolence, slackness, negligence and idleness [in the practice], and unreflectiveness arise, an acute perception of danger arises, as it might in relation to a murderer with a drawn sword.

Anicce dukkhasaññā paricitena bhikkhave bhikkhuno cetasā bahulaṁ viharato ālasye kosajje vissaṭṭhiye pamāde ananuyoge apaccavekkhanāya tibbā bhayasaññā paccupaṭṭhitā hoti seyyathā pi ukkhittāsike vadhake. (AN iv 52)

Illustration: dukkha, suffering, unpleasantness, pain, what is intrinsically unsatisfactory, suffering

Three kinds of suffering:

Tisso imā āvuso dukkhatā

• the unpleasantness of pain,

• the intrinsic unsatisfactoriness of originated phenomena

• the suffering of change.

Illustration: dukkha, physical pain; dukkhasmā, suffering

The ignorant Everyman is not freed from birth, old age, and death, from grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation. He is not freed, I declare, from suffering.

assutavā puthujjano na parimuccati jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi na parimuccati dukkhasmā ti vadāmi. (MN i 8)

I am overwhelmed by birth, old age, and death; by grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation.

api ca kho otiṇṇamhā jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi

I am overwhelmed by suffering, overcome by suffering. Perhaps an ending of this whole mass of suffering might be discerned!’

dukkhotiṇṇā dukkhaparetā appeva nāma imassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa antakiriyā paññāyethā ti. (SN iii 93; Iti 89)

And what is the basis for the arising of suffering? Craving, bhikkhus.

Katamo ca bhikkhave dukkhassa nidānasambhavo: taṇhā bhikkhave dukkhassa nidānasambhavo:

And what are the varieties of suffering?

Katamā va bhikkhave dukkhassa vemattatā

• Suffering that is inordinate.

atthi bhikkhave dukkhaṁ adhimattaṁ

• Suffering that is slight.

• Suffering that fades away quickly.

• Suffering that fades away slowly.

Illustration: dukkha, pain; dukkhaṁ, suffering

• What do you think, headman? If Ciravāsi’s mother was executed, imprisoned, fined, or criticised, would grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation arise in you?

uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā ti.

• Bhante, if Ciravāsi’s mother was executed, imprisoned, fined, or criticised, even my life would be upset, so how could grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation not arise in me?

• In this way too, headman, it can be understood: ‘Whatever suffering arises, all of it stems from fondness, with fondness as its basis; for fondness is the origin of suffering.

yaṁ kiñci dukkhaṁ uppajjamānaṁ uppajjati sabbantaṁ chandamūlakaṁ chandanidānaṁ chando hi mūlaṁ dukkhassa ti. (SN iv 329-330)

One who is unwise develops attachment and ends up with suffering again and again, the fool.

Yo ve avidvā upadhiṁ karoti punappunaṁ dukkhamupeti mando

Therefore, knowing this, one who properly considers the birth and origin of suffering would not develop attachment.

Tasmā pajānaṁ upadhiṁ na kayirā dukkhassa jātippabhavānupassi. (Snp 1049-50)

I roamed countless rounds of birth and death without respite. It brought me suffering. Now my mass of suffering has disappeared.

Anekajātisaṁsāraṁ sandhāvissaṁ anibbisaṁ
Tassa me dukkhajātassa dukkhakkhandho aparaddho ti. (Tha 78)

He discerns thus: “When I confront the source of this suffering with effort, by confronting it with effort [the suffering] fades away. When the source of this suffering is passively observed, through developing detached awareness, [the suffering] fades away.”

So evaṁ pajānāti imassa kho me dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṁ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti imassa pana me dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṁ bhāvayato virāgo hotī ti. (MN ii 223)

dukkhaṁ

dukkhaṁ: (main article see: dukkha)

Illustration: dukkhaṁ, pain

There are just six senses, affected through one or other of which the fool experiences pleasure and pain.

saḷevāyatanāni yehi puṭṭho bālo sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvediyati etesaṁ vā aññatarena. (SN ii 23-24)

Illustration: dukkhaṁ, physical pain

What is physical pain? It is physical pain, physical unpleasantness arisen from bodily sensation which is experienced as unpleasant, as displeasing.

Katamaṁ cāvuso dukkhaṁ: yaṁ kho āvuso kāyikaṁ dukkhaṁ kāyikaṁ asātaṁ kāyasamphassajaṁ dukkhaṁ asātaṁ vedayitaṁ idaṁ vuccatāvuso dukkhaṁ.

Some person is by nature full of attachment; he experiences the physical and psychological pain that are born of attachment.

rāgajaṁ dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti. (AN ii 149)

Illustration: dukkhaṁ, unpleasant

That which is experienced by body or mind as unpleasant or displeasing is called an unpleasant sense impression.

Yaṁ kho āvuso visākha kāyikaṁ vā cetasikaṁ vā dukkhaṁ asātaṁ vedayitaṁ ayaṁ dukkhā vedanā.

That which is experienced by body or mind as neither pleasant or unpleasant is called neutral sense impression.

Yaṁ kho āvuso visākha kāyikaṁ vā cetasikaṁ vā nevasātaṁ nāsātaṁ vedayitaṁ ayaṁ adukkhamasukhā vedanā ti. (MN i 302)

Illustration: dukkhaṁ, intrinsically unsatisfactory

You should abandon fondness for what is intrinsically unsatisfactory

Yaṁ kho bhikkhu dukkhaṁ tatra te chando pahātabbo ti. (SN iii 76)

• What do you think, Aggivessana? Is bodily form lasting or unlasting?

• Unlasting, Master Gotama.

• That which is unlasting, is it intrinsically unsatisfactory or essentially substantial?

• Intrinsically unsatisfactory, Master Gotama.

• That which is unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, and destined to change, is it fitting to regard it as “[in reality] mine,” or “[in reality] what I am,” or “my [absolute] Selfhood”?

• No, Master Gotama.

Taṁ kiṁ maññasi aggivessana rūpaṁ… viññāṇaṁ niccaṁ vā aniccaṁ vā ti aniccaṁ bho gotama. Yaṁ panāniccaṁ dukkhaṁ vā taṁ sukhaṁ vā ti. Dukkhaṁ bho gotama. Yaṁ panāniccaṁ dukkhaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ kallannu taṁ samanupassituṁ etaṁ mama eso’hamasmi eso me attā ti. No hidaṁ bho gotama.

• What do you think, Aggivessana: when one adheres to what is intrinsically unsatisfactory, resorts to it, cleaves to it, regards it as this is “[in reality] mine,” this is “[in reality] what I am,” this is “my [absolute] Selfhood”’ could one ever profoundly understand what is intrinsically unsatisfactory or abide with what is intrinsically unsatisfactory destroyed?

Taṁ kiṁ maññasi aggivessana yo nu kho dukkhaṁ allīno dukkhaṁ upagato dukkhaṁ ajjhosito dukkhaṁ etaṁ mama eso’hamasmi eso me attā ti samanupassati api nu kho so sāmaṁ vā dukkhaṁ parijāneyya dukkhaṁ vā parikkhepetvā vihareyyāti.

• How could one, Master Gotama. No, Master Gotama.

Kiṁ hi siyā bho gotama. No hidaṁ bho gotamā ti. (MN i 232-3)

Bhante, it is said, ‘what is intrinsically unsatisfactory, what is intrinsically unsatisfactory.’ On what grounds, bhante, might there be what is intrinsically unsatisfactory or the evidence of what is intrinsically unsatisfactory?

Dukkhaṁ dukkhan ti bhante vuccati kittāvatā nu kho bhante dukkhaṁ vā assa dukkhapaññatti vā ti?

Where there is the visual sense, Samiddhi, where there are visible objects, the visual field of sensation, things known through the visual field of sensation, there what is intrinsically unsatisfactory exists or the evidence of what is intrinsically unsatisfactory.

Yattha kho samiddhi atthi cakkhu atthi rūpā atthi cakkhuviññāṇaṁ atthi cakkhuviññāṇaviññātabbā dhammā atthi tattha dukkhaṁ vā dukkhapaññatti vā… Atthi mano atthi dhammā atthi manoviññāṇaṁ atthi manoviññāṇaviññātabbā dhammā atthi tattha dukkhaṁ vā dukkhapaññatti vā.

Where there is no visual sense, Samiddhi, no visible objects, no the visual field of sensation, no things known through the visual field of sensation, there what is intrinsically unsatisfactory does not exist nor any evidence of what is intrinsically unsatisfactory.

Yattha ca kho samiddhi natthi cakkhu natthi rūpā natthi cakkhuviññāṇaṁ natthi cakkhuviññāṇa-viññātabbā dhammā natthi tattha dukkhaṁ vā dukkhapaññatti vā. (SN iv 39)

Illustration: dukkhaṁ, what is intrinsically unsatisfactory; dukkhasmā, suffering

One who takes delight in the Solidness Phenomenon, takes delight in what is intrinsically unsatisfactory. One who takes delight in what is intrinsically unsatisfactory is not freed from suffering, I declare.

Yo bhikkhave paṭhavīdhātuṁ abhinandati dukkhaṁ so abhinandati. Yo dukkhaṁ abhinandati aparimutto so dukkhasmā vadāmi. (SN ii 175)

Illustration: dukkhaṁ, suffering

Whatever suffering arises, all of it arises dependent on the stream of consciousness. That is the first consideration.

yaṁ kiñci dukkhaṁ sambhoti sabbaṁ viññāṇapaccayā ti. Ayamekānupassanā. (Snp 733)

The five aggregates are truly burdens,

bhārā bhave pañcakkhandhā

The carrier of the burden is the person.

bhārahāro ca puggalo

Taking up the burden is suffering in the world,

bhārādānaṁ dukkhaṁ loke

Casting off the burden is bliss.

There are just six senses which if not restrained one meets with suffering.

Chaḷeva phassāyatanāni bhikkhavo asaṁvuto yattha dukkhaṁ nigacchati. (SN iv 70)

Friend, when there is disgruntlement [with the celibate life] this suffering should be expected.

Anabhiratiyā āvuso sati idaṁ dukkhaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ

When going standing, sitting, lying, or having gone to the village, or the wilderness, or the root of a tree, or a solitary abode, or out into the open air, or into the midst of the bhikkhus he finds no happiness or comfort.

gacchannopi sukhaṁ sātaṁ nādhigacchati… Bhikkhumajjhagatopi sukhaṁ sātaṁ nādhigacchati. (AN v 122)

Illustration: dukkhaṁ, in misery (=miserably, adv)

One abides in misery if one is without respect and deference.

dukkhaṁ kho agāravo viharati appatisso. (SN i 139)

Illustration: dukkhaṁ, in misery

A bhikkhu who has students and a teacher abides in misery, not at ease.

sāntevāsiko bhikkhave bhikkhu sācariyako dukkhaṁ na phāsu viharati. (SN iv 137)

Bhikkhus, the lazy person abides in misery, soiled by unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors, and great is the personal good that he neglects.

dukkhaṁ hi bhikkhave kusīto viharati vokiṇṇo pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi. Mahantañca sadatthaṁ parihāpeti. (SN ii 28-9)

dukkhindriyaṁ

dukkhindriyaṁ: (main article see: dukkha)

Illustration: dukkhindriyaṁ, faculty of physical pain

Bhikkhus, there are these five faculties of sense impression. What five? The faculty of physical pleasure, the faculty of psychological pleasure, the faculty of physical pain, the faculty of psychological pain, the faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience.

Pañcimāni bhikkhave indriyāni. Katamāni pañca? Sukhindriyaṁ dukkhindriyaṁ somanassindriyaṁ domanassindriyaṁ upekkhindriyaṁ.

And what is the faculty of physical pain? It is physical pain, physical unpleasantness, unpleasant and displeasing sense impression born of bodily sensation.

Katamañca bhikkhave dukkhindriyaṁ: yaṁ kho bhikkhave kāyikaṁ dukkhaṁ kāyikaṁ asātaṁ kāyasamphassajaṁ dukkhaṁ asātaṁ vedayitaṁ idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave dukkhindriyaṁ. (SN v 211)

dukkham

dukkham: (main article see: dukkha)

Illustration: dukkham, what is unpleasant

And why do you call it sense impression? One experiences therefore it is called sense impression. And what does one experience? One experiences what is pleasant, one experiences what is unpleasant, one experiences what is neutral.

sukhampi vediyati dukkhampi vediyati adukkhamasukhampi vediyatii. (SN iii 87)

dukkho

dukkho: (main article see: dukkha)

Illustration: dukkho, unpleasant

This [wretched human] body is very unpleasant and a great danger.

bahu dukkho kho ayaṁ kāyo bahu ādīnavo. (AN v 110)

Illustration: dukkho, suffering

The accumulation of demerit is suffering.

dukkho pāpassa uccayo. (Dhp 117)

dukkhā

dukkhā: (main article see: dukkha)

Illustration: dukkhā, unpleasant (adj)

To die filled with longing is unpleasant and blameworthy.

Dukkhā sāpekkhassa kālakiriyā garahitā ca sāpekkhassa kālakiriyā. (DN ii 193)

Illustration: dukkhā, what is intrinsically unsatisfactory

It's only what is intrinsically unsatisfactory that comes to be, what is intrinsically unsatisfactory that stands and falls away.

Dukkhameva hi sambhoti dukkhaṁ tiṭṭhati veti ca

Nothing but what is intrinsically unsatisfactory comes to be, nothing but what is intrinsically unsatisfactory ceases.

nāññatra dukkhā sambhoti nāññatra dukkhā nirujjhatī ti. (SN i 135)

• Anurādha, when the Perfect One is not apprehended by you as real and actual (saccato thetato) even in this lifetime, is it right to say that a Perfect One would describe a Perfect One as outside these four positions:

Ettha ca te anurādha diṭṭheva dhamme saccato thetato tathāgate anupalabbhiyamāne

  • A Perfect One exists after death,
  • A Perfect One does not exist after death,
  • A Perfect One both exists and does not exist after death,
  • A Perfect One neither exists nor does not exist after death?

• No, bhante

• Very good, Anurādha! Formerly and also now, I explain just what is intrinsically unsatisfactory and the ending of what is intrinsically unsatisfactory

dukkhañceva paññāpemi dukkhassa ca nirodhan ti. (SN iii 118)

A similar quote occurs in the Alagaddūpama Sutta where the Buddha, responds to the accusation that he teaches the annihilation, destruction, and cessation of a living being (sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññāpetī ti). He replied in the same words: Pubbe cāhaṁ bhikkhave etarahi ca dukkhañceva paññāpemi dukkhassa ca nirodhaṁ (MN i 140).

Illustration: dukkhā, intrinsically unsatisfactory

That sense impression is unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, destined to change, is the wretchedness of sense impression.

Yā vedanā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā ayaṁ vedanāya ādīnavo. (SN iv 220)

Sensuous pleasures are unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, and destined to change, and from their change and alteration there arises grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation.

Kāmā hi bho aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā tesaṁ vipariṇāmaññathābhāvā uppajjanti sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. (DN i 36)

That sense impression is unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, destined to change, is the wretchedness of sense impression.

Yā vedanā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā ayaṁ vedanāya ādīnavo. (SN iv 220)

Sensuous pleasures are unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, and destined to change, and from their change and alteration there arises grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation.

Kāmā hi bho aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā tesaṁ vipariṇāmaññathābhāvā uppajjanti sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. (DN i 36)

Illustration: dukkhā, suffering

Sensuous pleasures have been compared by the Blessed One to a skeleton [of meatless bones smeared with blood which leaves a hungry dog unsatisfied, fatigued, and full of vexation]. They are full of suffering and vexation, while the danger in them is great.

aṭṭhikaṅkalūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā bahudukkhā bahūpāyāsā ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo ti. (MN i 364)

dukkhasmin

dukkhasmin: (main article see: dukkha)

Illustration: dukkhasmin, what is intrinsically unsatisfactory

Whatever is experienced is intrinsically unsatisfactory.

yaṁ kiñci vedayitaṁ taṁ dukkhasmin ti.

That has been stated by me with reference to the unlastingness of originated phenomena.

Taṁ kho panetaṁ bhikkhu mayā saṅkhārānaññeva aniccataṁ sandhāya bhāsitaṁ

That has been stated by me with reference to originated phenomena being destined to be destroyed… to originated phenomena being destined to disappear… to originated phenomena being destined to pass away… to originated phenomena being destined to cease… to originated phenomena being destined to change.

… khayadhammataṁ… vayadhammataṁ… virāgadhammataṁ… nirodhadhammataṁ… vipariṇāmadhammataṁ sandhāya bhāsitaṁ: yaṁ kiñci vedayitaṁ taṁ dukkhasmin ti. (SN iv 216)

dukkhassā

dukkhassā: (main article see: dukkha)

Illustration: dukkhassā, suffering

The round of rebirth, destroyed, no longer continues. This is truly the end of suffering.

Chinnaṁ vaṭṭaṁ na vattati esevanto dukkhassā ti. (Uda 75)

dukkhassa

dukkhassa: (main article see: dukkha)

Illustration: dukkhassa, suffering

However, friend, I declare that without having reached the end of the world [of phenomena] there is no putting an end to suffering.

na kho panāhaṁ āvuso appatvā lokassa antaṁ dukkhassa antakiriyaṁ vadāmi. (SN i 62)

dukkhan

dukkhan: (main article see: dukkha)

Illustration: dukkhan, suffering

‘Suffering’ is an epithet for sensuous pleasures;

dukkhan ti bhikkhave kāmānametaṁ adhivacanaṁ

Why so?

Kasmā ca bhikkhave dukkhan ti kāmānametaṁ adhivacanaṁ?

Because one who is passionately attached to sensuous pleasure, fastened by fondness and attachment, is neither free of suffering in this lifetime, nor in the hereafter.

Yasmā ca kāmarāgarattāyaṁ bhikkhave chandarāgavinibaddho diṭṭhadhammikāpi dukkhā na parimuccati samparāyikāpi dukkhā na parimuccati. (AN iii 310)

dukkhāya

dukkhāya: (main article see: dukkha)

Illustration: dukkhāya, suffering

These same five grasped aggregates, attained and clung to, lead to his long-lasting harm and suffering.

tassime pañcupādānakkhandhā upetā upādinnā dīgharattaṁ ahitāya dukkhāya saṁvattanti. (SN iii 114)

 

Glossary various Teacher

dukkha: suffering, unsatisfactoriness. This word has a broad meaning including: dukkha-dukkha - pain ; vipariṇāmadukkha - the suffering due to change and instability ; and sankhāra=dukkha - the unsatisfactory nature of all formations. (Source: Glossary late Ven. Ajahn Chah)

 

See also

Suttas and Dhammadesanā

Dukkha: (unsatisfactoriness; stress; suffering). See also paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent co-arising); Ti-lakkhaṇa (three characteristics of existence).

 

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en/dictionary/dukkha.txt · Last modified: 2019/09/25 05:31 (external edit)