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Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms [k]

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Info

The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.

Content

Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |

k

@

sukka

sukka see kaṇha.

@

kaṇha

Renderings

Introduction

Inward darkness

Inward darkness (either tama or kaṇha) connotes all spiritually unwholesome states. For example, Māra’s tenfold army is called ‘the forces of inward darkness’ (kaṇhassābhippahārinī, Snp 439):

• Sensuous pleasure is your first army. Disgruntlement [with the celibate life], your second. Third is hunger and thirst. The fourth is called craving. Lethargy and torpor are your fifth. The sixth is called fear. Your seventh is doubt [about the significance of abandoning spiritually unwholesome factors and undertaking spiritually wholesome factors]. Denigration and obstinacy are your eighth. Gain, renown, honour, and ill-gotten prestige [are your ninth]. Extolling oneself and despising others, [considering them inferior due to conceit, is your tenth]. That is your army, Namuci, the forces of inward darkness. None but the heroic will conquer it. Having conquered it one finds happiness.

Kāmā te paṭhamā senā dutiyā arati vuccati
Tatiyā khuppipāsā te catutthī taṇhā pavuccati
Pañcamaṁ thīnamiddhaṁ te chaṭṭhā bhīru pavuccati
Sattamī vicikicchā te makkho thambho te aṭṭhamo
Lābho siloko sakkāro micchāladdho ca yo yaso
Yo cattānaṁ samukkaṁse pare ca avajānati
Esā namuci te senā kaṇhassābhippahārinī
Na naṁ asūro jināti jetvā ca labhate sukhaṁ. (Snp 436-439)

Sometimes individual factors are singled out as factors of inward darkness. For example, 1) craving 2) mental impurity 3) passionate attachment:

1) He destroyed craving for immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form in this world, the stream of inward darkness which had long been lurking in him.’

Acchecchi taṇhaṁ idha nāmarūpe kaṇhassa sotaṁ dīgharattānusayitaṁ. (Snp 355)

2) When he is conscious of a state of mental impurity he should dispel it with the thought: “It is part of inward darkness.”

Yadāvilattaṁ manaso vijaññā kaṇhassa pakkho ti vinodayeyya. (Snp 967)

3) Those who are full of passionate attachment, enveloped in a mass of inward darkness, will never see [the nature of reality] which is obscure, deep, hard to discern, subtle, going against the stream.

Paṭisotagāmiṁ nipuṇaṁ gambhīraṁ duddasaṁ aṇuṁ
Rāgarattā na dakkhinti tamokkhandhena āvutāti. (SN i 137)

However, that inward darkness equals the āsavas is most clearly seen from this quote:

• In the first watch of the night I recalled my previous births. In the middle watch of the night I purified my divine vision. In the last watch of the night I obliterated the mass of inward darkness.

Rattiyā paṭhamaṁ yāmaṁ pubbajātimanussariṁ
Rattiyā majjhimaṁ yāmaṁ dibbacakkhuṁ visodhayiṁ
Rattiyā pacchime yāme tamokkhandhaṁ padālayiṁ. (Tha 627)

This quote should be compared to the Buddha’s enlightenment where inward darkness is replaced by the three āsavas:

I directed my mind to the knowledge through recalling of past lives;

pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmesiṁ.

… I recalled my manifold former lives with their aspects and particulars.

Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi.

This was the first final knowledge attained by me in the first watch of the night;

Ayaṁ kho me brāhmaṇa rattiyā paṭhame yāme paṭhamā vijjā adhigatā

I directed my mind towards the knowledge of the transmigration of beings

sattānaṁ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmesiṁ.

… Thus with purified divine vision surpassing that of men, I saw beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, well-favoured and ill-favoured, fortunate and unfortunate, and discerned how beings fare according to their deeds.

Iti dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passāmi cavamāne uppajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāmi.

This was the second final knowledge attained by me in the middle watch of the night.

Ayaṁ kho me brāhmaṇa rattiyā majjhime yāme dutiyā vijjā adhigatā

I directed my mind towards the knowledge of the destruction of perceptually obscuring states.

āsavānaṁ khayañāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmesiṁ.

… thus knowing, thus seeing, my mind was freed from the three states of perceptual obscuration.

Tassa me evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavā pi cittaṁ vimuccittha. Bhavāsavā pi cittaṁ vimuccittha. Avijjāsavā pi cittaṁ vimuccittha.

With release, there was the knowledge I was released. I knew that birth was destroyed. The religious life has been fulfilled. What had to be done has been done. There will be no further arising in any state of individual existence

Vimuttasmiṁ vimuttami ti ñāṇaṁ ahosi. Khīṇā jāti vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ nāparaṁ itthattāyāti abbhaññāsiṁ.

This was, brahman, the third final knowledge attained by me in the last watch of the night.

Ayaṁ kho me brāhmaṇa rattiyā pacchime yāme tatiyā vijjā adhigatā. (Vin.3.3-4)

Illustrations

kaṇhaṁ

kaṇhaṁ: (main article see: kaṇha)

Illustration: kaṇhaṁ, dark

What is conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences?

Katamañca bhikkhave kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ

In this regard, some person is a killer, a thief, an adulterer, a liar, or a drinker.

Idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti adinnādāyī hoti kāmesu micchācārī hoti musāvādī hoti surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhāyī hoti. (AN ii 234)

kaṇhakammo

kaṇhakammo: (main article see: kaṇha)

Illustration: kaṇhakammo, accumulated demerit

The stream Bāhumatī: a fool may bathe there forever yet will not purify himself of accumulated demerit.

bāhumatiṁ nadiṁ niccampi bālo pakkhanno kaṇhakammo na sujjhati. (MN i 39)

sukkaṁ

sukkaṁ: (main article see: kaṇha)

Illustration: sukkaṁ, bright

What is conduct that is bright with bright karmic consequences?

Katamañca bhikkhave kammaṁ sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ

In this regard, some person refrains from killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and drinking.

Idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti kāmesu micchācārā paṭivirato hoti musāvādā paṭivirato hoti surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā paṭivirato hoti. (AN ii 234)

Illustration: kaṇha, dark; sukka, bright

What is the dark path of practice? The tenfold wrong factors.

katamo ca bhikkhave kaṇhamaggo: micchādiṭṭhi… micchāsamādhi micchāñāṇaṁ micchāvimutti.

What is the bright path of practice? The tenfold right factors.

Katamo ca bhikkhave sukkamaggo: sammādiṭṭhi… sammāsamādhi sammāñāṇaṁ sammāvimutti. (AN v 244)

Illustration: kaṇhaṁ, dark; sukkaṁ, bright

Having abandoned dark [spiritually unwholesome] factors, a wise person should develop bright [spiritually wholesome] factors.

Kaṇhaṁ dhammaṁ vippahāya sukkaṁ bhāvetha paṇḍito. (SN v 24)

COMMENT

1) Commentary to SN v 24: Kaṇhan ti akusaladhammaṁ. Sukkan ti kusaladhammaṁ.

2) What are spiritually unwholesome factors? Namely, the eightfold path [of wrong factors].

Katame ca bhikkhave akusalā dhammā seyyathīdaṁ micchādiṭṭhi… micchāsamādhi. (SN v 18)

3) What are spiritually wholesome factors? Namely, the eightfold path [of right factors].

Katame ca bhikkhave kusalā dhammā seyyathīdaṁ sammādiṭṭhi… sammāsamādhi. (SN v 18)

sukko

sukko: (main article see: kaṇha)

Illustration: sukko, bright

Because his mind was overpowered and overcome by gains, honour, and renown, Devadatta’s bright moral nature was eradicated.

Lābhasakkārasilokana abhibhūtassa pariyādinnacittassa bhikkhave devadattassa sukko dhammo samucchedamagamā. (SN ii 240)

sukkā

sukkā: (main article see: kaṇha)

Illustration: sukkā, bright

Two bright qualities protect the world. Which two? Shame of wrongdoing and fear of wrongdoing.

Dveme bhikkhave sukkā dhammā lokaṁ pālenti. Katame dve? Hiri ca ottappañca. (Iti 36)

sukka

sukka: (main article see: kaṇha)

Illustration: sukka, bright

Knowledge [of a craft] arises for a fool to his harm. It destroys his bright moral nature, cleaving his head.

Yāvadeva anatthāya ñattaṁ bālassa jāyati
Hanti bālassa sukkaṁsaṁ muddhamassa vipātayaṁ. (Dhp 72)

Illustration: sukka, bright

Sensuous pleasures have endless dangers. They are full of suffering. They are [like] deadly poison. They offer little enjoyment, stir up spiritual defilements, and wither away the bright aspects [of one’s nature].

Anantādīnavā kāmā bahudukkhā mahāvisā
Appassādā raṇakarā sukkapakkhavisosanā. (Thi 358)

kaṇhassa

kaṇhassa: (main article see: kaṇha)

Illustration: kaṇhassa, inward darkness

‘He destroyed craving for immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form in this world, the stream of inward darkness which had long been lurking in him.’

Acchecchi taṇhaṁ idha nāmarūpe kaṇhassa sotaṁ dīgharattānusayitaṁ. (Snp 355)

Illustration: kaṇha, inward darkness

Sensuous pleasure is your first army. Disgruntlement [with the celibate life], your second. Third is hunger and thirst. The fourth is called craving.

Lethargy and torpor are your fifth. The sixth is called fear. Your seventh is doubt [about the significance of abandoning spiritually unwholesome factors and undertaking spiritually wholesome factors]. Denigration and obstinacy are your eighth.

Gain, renown, honour, and ill-gotten prestige [are your ninth]. Extolling oneself and despising others, [considering them inferior due to conceit, is your tenth].

That is your army, Namuci, the forces of inward darkness. None but the heroic will conquer it. Having conquered it one finds happiness.

Kāmā te paṭhamā senā dutiyā arati vuccati
Tatiyā khuppipāsā te catutthī taṇhā pavuccati

Pañcamaṁ thīnamiddhaṁ te chaṭṭhā bhīru pavuccati
Sattamī vicikicchā te makkho thambho te aṭṭhamo

Lābho siloko sakkāro micchāladdho ca yo yaso
Yo cattānaṁ samukkaṁse pare ca avajānati

Esā namuci te senā kaṇhassābhippahārinī
Na naṁ asūro jināti jetvā ca labhate sukhaṁ. (Snp 436-439)

Illustration: kaṇhassa, inward darkness

When he is conscious of a state of mental impurity he should dispel it with the thought: ‘It is part of inward darkness’

Yadāvilattaṁ manaso vijaññā kaṇhassa pakkho ti vinodayeyya. (Snp 967)

Illustration: kaṇha, inwardly dark; sukka, inwardly bright

There are spiritually wholesome and spiritually unwholesome factors; blameworthy and blameless factors; inferior and superior factors; and inwardly dark and bright factors with their correlative combinations.

Atthi bhikkhave kusalākusalā dhammā sāvajjānavajjā dhammā hīnappaṇītā dhammā kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgā dhammā. (SN v 104)

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kappa

Renderings

Introduction

The period of a universal cycle

The period of a universal cycle (kappa) is long (dīgho kho bhikkhu kappo SN ii 181). If a square city had sides 10 kilometres long, and walls 10 kilometres high, and was filled with mustard seeds, and a man removed one seed every hundred years, he would have removed all the seeds, but the universal cycle would still be unfinished (SN ii 182).

The maths is easily totted. If a mustard seed is a cubic millimetre, then the seeds would be emptied in 10,000 million million years.

Living for a kappa

But perplexingly, the Buddha said that by developing the four paths to psychic power (cattāro iddhipādā), if one wished one could live for a kappa or slightly more than a kappa (kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā SN v 259). He said he could do the same himself (DN ii 103). But is this the same kappa? Could an arahant live for billions of years?

The problem of co-existing Buddhas

Some, amazingly, say yes, he can. But there are problems with this. Firstly, there can never simultaneously be two Perfectly Enlightened Buddhas in the world (yaṁ ekissā lokadhātuyā dve arahanto sammāsambuddho apubbaṁ acarimaṁ uppajjeyyuṁ netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjatī ti, MN iii 65). And if these Perfectly Enlightened Buddhas lived for the period of a universal cycle, their lives would overlap, which would break this law. The births of recent Buddhas are as follows:

  • Buddha Vipassī: 91 kappas ago
  • Buddha Sikhī and Buddha Vessabhū: 31 kappas ago
  • Buddha Kakusandha, Buddha Konāgamana, Buddha Kassapa and Buddha Gotama arose in this present ‘fortunate kappa’ (bhaddakappe), and Buddha Metteyya is expected here, too (DN ii 2; BDPPN).

Thus, with up to five Perfectly Enlightened Buddhas in one kappa, with each Buddha capable of living one kappa, but unable to co-exist with other Perfectly Enlightened Buddhas, it would only be possible if kappa had more than one meaning, with one kappa being much shorter, at most a fifth of the other.

Venerable MahāKassapa: less than 220 years old

In more recent times, consider Venerable Mahā Kassapa. He was 120 years old at the First Council (BDPPN), and some even claim he is still alive today, dwelling in the Kukkutagiri Mountains, wrapt in samādhi, awaiting the arrival of Metteyya Buddha (BDPPN). According to this he is therefore now approximately 2,600 years old. But at the Second Council, 100 years after the First Council, the oldest bhikkhu on earth (paṭhavyā saṅghatthero, Vin.2.303) was Venerable Sabbakāma. Therefore Kassapa must have passed away before his 220th birthday. But 220 is too generous, because by the laws of normal distribution, Sabbakāma must have been marking the end of the bell curve. And as, at the Second Council, he had been in robes for 120 years, and if we can assume he ordained at aged 20 after leaving his wife (Tha 453), then it would seem that the absolute end of the bell curve would not be many hours or minutes beyond 140, and that 140 is therefore as old as a bhikkhu can possibly get.

Kappa: length is not fixed

The Mahāpadāna Sutta (DN ii 3) says human lifespan (āyuppamāṇaṁ) has varied considerably in the times of previous Perfectly Enlightened Buddhas, as follows:

• Buddha Vipassī: 80,000 years.

asīti vassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṁ ahosi (DN ii 53)

  • Buddha Sikhī: 70,000 years
  • Buddha Vessabhū: 60,000 years
  • Buddha Kakusandhu: 40,000 years
  • Buddha Konāgamana: 30,000 years
  • Buddha Kassapa: 20,000 years
  • Buddha Gotama: 100 years.

The Mahāpadāna Sutta (DN ii 11) gives further details of Buddha Vipassī:

• He was born of the khattiya race in a khattiya family

Vipassī bhikkhave bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho khattiyo jātiyā ahosi khattiyakule udapādi

• He lived for 80,000 years

Vipassissa bhikkhave bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa asītivassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṁ ahosi

Thus Buddha Vipassī lived for the lifespan of his era. And because his own lifespan and the human lifespan correspond, and because Buddhas can live for a kappa, it suggests that kappa means the human lifespan, and that all the figures for human lifespans given in the list above can be read as kappas. So the length of this kind of kappa diminishes over time. Therefore kappa in our present era means ‘a century’.

Universal cycle: four incalculable phases

Now we will examine the other meanings of kappa: ‘universal cycle’ and ‘period of a universal cycle.’ We have already explained the timespan of the universal cycle. These cycles have four incalculable phases (cattāri kappassa asaṅkheyyānī):

1) a period when the universal cycle is in its contracting phase

yadā kappo saṁvaṭṭati

2) a period when the universal cycle is in its stationary contracted phase

yadā kappo saṁvaṭṭo tiṭṭhati

3) a period when the universal cycle is in its expanding phase

yadā kappo vivaṭṭati

4) a period when the universal cycle is in its stationary expanded phase

yadā kappo vivaṭṭo tiṭṭhati. (AN ii 142)

These cycles of expansion and contraction affect the heavenly realms, too, up to and including the world of Brahmā (DN i 15). With the contraction phase, the world of Brahmā disappears, and residents there must move temporarily into the Ābhassarā world.

Universal cycles: incalculable number of sand grains

How many of these universal cycles have there ever been? There have been so many, that the Buddha likened them to the numbers of sand grains between ‘the point where the river Ganges originates and the point where it enters the great ocean’ (SN ii 183-4). And if we remember that each sand grain represents billions of centuries, that is a very long time indeed.

Recalling previous lives

When ascetics and Brahmanists recall previous lives, the Brahmajāla Sutta says they fall into three groups:

• those who remember up to several hundred thousand lifetimes

anekāni pi jātisatasahassāni

• those who recall [past lives during] 10 universal cycles

dasa pi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni

• those who recall [past lives during] 40 universal cycles

These feats of memory are extraordinary, but nothing compared to Venerable Sobhita, called the ‘chief of disciples who could recall past lives’ (AN i 25). In the course of one night he was able to recall [past lives during] 500 universal cycles (pañcakappasatānāhaṁ ekarattiṁ anussarinti, Tha 165-6). Anuruddha could remember further, but may have needed more nights:

• It is because I have developed and cultivated these four bases of mindfulness that I recall [past lives during] 1,000 universal cycles.

Imesañca panāhaṁ āvuso catunnaṁ satipaṭṭhānānaṁ bhāvitattā bahulīkatattā kappasahassaṁ anussarāmīti. (SN v 303)

But that merely 1,000 sand grains in the 2500 kilometres of the River Ganges. The Buddha’s ability was unlimited. His usual ability during conversations was 91 universal cycles (MN i 483; SN iv 325):

• When I recollect the past ninety-one universal cycles, Vaccha, I do not recall any Ājīvaka ascetic who went to heaven.

Ito kho so vaccha ekanavuto kappo yamahaṁ anussarāmi nābhijānāmi kañci ājīvakaṁ saggūpagaṁ. (MN i 483)

• When I recollect the past ninety-one universal cycles, headman, I do not recall any family being destroyed merely by giving cooked almsfood.

Ito so gāmaṇi ekanavuto kappo yamahaṁ anussarāmi nābhijānāmi kiñcikulaṁ pakkabhikkhāanuppadānamattena upahatapubbaṁ. (SN iv 324)

But at full stretch he could recall hundreds of thousands of universal cycles. In fact, as far as he liked (so yāvatakaṁ ākaṅkhati tāvatakaṁ anussarati, DN iii 134). Thus he could legitimately proclaim:

• So long is the period of a universal cycle, bhikkhu. And of universal cycles of such length, we have wandered the round of birth and death for the periods of so many universal cycles, so many hundreds of universal cycles, so many thousands of universal cycles, so many hundreds of thousands of universal cycles.

Evaṁ dīgho kho bhikkhu kappo. Evaṁ dīghānaṁ kho bhikkhu kappānaṁ neko kappo saṁsito nekaṁ kappasataṁ saṁsitaṁ nekaṁ kappasahassaṁ saṁsitaṁ nekaṁ kappasatasahassaṁ saṁsitaṁ. (SN ii 181-2)

Recollecting kappas of contraction and expansion: centuries

When bhikkhus recall their previous lives, they describe it as follows:

• ’I recall my manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two lifetimes, three lifetimes… a hundred lifetimes, a thousand lifetimes, a hundred thousand lifetimes, [past lives during] many kappas of contraction, many kappas of expansion, many kappas of contraction and expansion.

aneke pi saṁvaṭṭakappe aneke pi vivaṭṭakappe aneke pi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe. (SN ii 214)

Because kappa is part of the contraction and expansion phases of the universal cycle, in this context it must mean ‘century’:

• ’… many centuries of the universal cycle’s contraction phase, many centuries of the universal cycle’s expansion phase… .’

Illustrations

kappaṁ

kappaṁ: (main article see: kappa)

Illustration: kappaṁ, century

If one develops and cultivates the four paths to psychic power, if one wishes, one could live for a century or for slightly more than a century.

so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā. (SN v 259)

Illustration: kappaṁ, century

Beings have wandered the round of birth and death for many centuries, many hundreds of centuries, many thousands of centuries, many hundreds of thousands of centuries

neko kappo saṁsito nekaṁ kappasataṁ saṁsitaṁ nekaṁ kappasahassaṁ saṁsitaṁ nekaṁ kappasatasahassaṁ saṁsitaṁ. (SN ii 181)

kappe

kappe: (main article see: kappa)

Illustration: kappe, centuries

Bhikkhus, to whatever extent I wish, I recall my manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two lifetimes… a hundred thousand lifetimes, [past lives during] many centuries of the universal cycle’s contraction phase, many centuries of the universal cycle’s expansion phase, many centuries of the universal cycle’s contraction and expansion phases.

aneke pi saṁvaṭṭakappe aneke pi vivaṭṭakappe aneke pi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe. (SN ii 214)

Illustration: kappaṁ, the period of a universal cycle

• ‘Bhante, how long is the period of a universal cycle?’

kīvadīgho nu kho bhante kappo ti?

• ’The period of a universal cycle is long, bhikkhu. It is not easy to count it and say it is so many years, or so many hundreds of years, or so many thousands of years, or so many hundreds of thousands of years.”

Dīgho kho bhikkhu kappo. So na sukaro saṅkhātuṁ ettakāni vassāni iti vā ettakāni vassasatāni iti vā ettakāni vassasahassāni iti vā ettakāni vassasatasahassāni iti vā ti. (SN ii 181)

kappā

kappā: (main article see: kappa)

Illustration: kappā, universal cycle

• ’Master Gotama, how many universal cycles have elapsed and gone by?’

Kīvabahukā nu kho bho gotama kappā abbhatītā atikkantā ti.

• ’Brahman, many universal cycles have elapsed and gone by. It is not easy to count them and say that there have been so many universal cycles, or so many hundreds of universal cycles, or so many thousands of universal cycles, or so many hundreds of thousands of universal cycles.’

Bahukā kho brāhmaṇa kappā abbhatītā atikkantā. Te na sukarā saṅkhātuṁ ettakā kappā iti vā ettakāni kappasatāni iti vā ettakāni kappasahassāni iti vā ettakāni kappasatasahassāni iti vā ti. (SN ii 183-4)

Illustration: kappe, universal cycle; saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappa, the period of a universal cycle;

Having cultivated a mind of [unlimited] goodwill for seven years, then for the periods of seven universal cycles I did not return to this [low] plane of existence.

Satta vassāni mettacittaṁ bhāvetvā satta saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe nayimaṁ lokaṁ punarāgamāsiṁ.

During the universal cycle’s contraction phase, I went to the Ābhassarā world.

Saṁvaṭṭamāne sudaṁ bhikkhave kappe ābhassarūpago homi.

During the universal cycle’s expansion phase, I was reborn in an empty Brahmā palace.

Vivaṭṭamāne kappe suññaṁ brahmavimānaṁ upapajjāmi. (Iti 14-16)

Illustration: kappa, period of a universal cycle

Devadatta is bound for [rebirth in] the plane of sub-human existence, bound for hell, and he will remain there for the period of a universal cycle, unredeemable.

āpāyiko devadatto nerayiko kappaṭṭho atekiccho. (AN iii 402)

@

kappaṁ n’eti

Renderings

Introduction

Kappaṁ n’eti: Snp 521, Snp 535, and Snp 860

Kappaṁ n’eti occurs thrice in the scriptures: Snp 521, Snp 535, and Snp 860. Kappaṁ occurs with the same meaning a further five times at Snp 373, Snp 517, Snp 911, Snp 914, and Snp 1101, but these do not much help with the meaning of kappaṁ n’eti:

• He is not caught up in egocentric conception.

• The one who has abandoned egocentric conception

In Snp 911 kappaṁ is almost synonymous with saṅkhā:

• The Brahman is beyond the limits of conception and egocentric conception.

Na brāhmaṇo kappamupeti saṅkhā. (Snp 911)

Snp 373 and Snp 517 are in the illustrations.

Kappa: meaning

Kappa means ‘a (false) supposition, imagining; a theory; a figment,’ says DOP. These words concur with our rendering, except for being countable nouns.

PED says kappa means ‘anything made with a definite object in view, prepared, arranged,’ and says that ‘as a cycle of time=saṁsāra at Sn 521, 535, 860,’ which is wrong.

Eti: meaning

Eti means:

  • ‘to go, go to, reach’ (PED).
  • ‘goes; goes towards; reaches, obtains; reaches (a state); is involved (in)’ (DOP).

Norman: come to/submit to figments

Norman translates the three references as follows:

• He comes to no figment among devas and men who are subject to figments.

Devamanussesu kappiyesu kappaṁ n’eti. (Snp 521)

• Having thrust away the triple perception, the mud, he does not come to figments.

Saññaṁ tividhaṁ panujja paṅkaṁ kappaṁ n’eti. (Snp 535)

• He does not submit to figments, being without figments.

kappaṁ n’eti akappiyo. (Snp 860)

Norman does not always follow the singular cases, for which an uncountable noun would be suitable.

Snp 860: not caught up in egocentric conception

In Snp 860 kappaṁ n’eti is associated with not comparing oneself with others:

• The sage, free of greed and stinginess, does not proclaim himself as being amongst the superior, equal, or inferior. He is not caught up in egocentric conception. He is free of egocentric conception.

Vītagedho amaccharī na ussesu vadate muni
Na samesu na omesu kappaṁ n’eti akappiyo. (Snp 860)

Snp 535: the three modes [of self-centredness] abandoned

In Snp 535 kappaṁ n’eti is associated with abandoning the three modes of self-centredness:

• One who has thrust away the three grubby modes of perception, and who is not caught up in egocentric conception: they call him ‘noble.’

Saññaṁ tividhaṁ panujja paṅkaṁ kappaṁ n’eti tamāhu ariyo ti. (Snp 535)

Because Snp 860 (in paragraph above) involves comparison of oneself with others, we regard saññaṁ tividhaṁ… paṅkaṁ (‘the three grubby modes of perception’) in Snp 535 as likewise implying comparison of oneself with others, and therefore meaning tisso vidhā (‘the three modes [of self-centredness]’). The three modes of self-centredness are:

• ‘I am better’ mode [of self-centredness]

seyyo’hamasmī ti vidhā

• ‘I am equal’ mode [of self-centredness]

sadiso’hamasmī ti vidhā

• ‘I am worse’ mode [of self-centredness]

hīno’hamasmī ti vidhā. (SN v 56)

Snp 521

Snp 521 is illustrated below.

Conclusion

Kappaṁ n’eti is associated with terms that imply arahantship:

1) Not comparing oneself with others

2) Thrusting away the three modes of self-centredness

Although kappaṁ is close in meaning to the widely supported ‘figment,’ this term is problematic for two reasons:

1) Firstly, our findings show that the specific figment involved is egocentric conception.’

2) Secondly, egocentric conception is an uncountable noun, and therefore better than ‘figment’ because pluralising is then unnecessary.

Illustrations

kappaṁ n’eti

kappaṁ n’eti: (main article see: kappaṁ n’eti)

Illustration: kappaṁ n’eti, he is not caught up in egocentric conception

Amidst devas and men caught up in egocentric conception, he is not caught up in egocentric conception. They call him spiritually cleansed.

Devamanussesu kappiyesu kappaṁ n’eti tamāhu nahātako ti. (Snp 521)

kappāni

kappāni: (main article see: kappaṁ n’eti)

Illustration: kappāni, modes of egocentric conception

‘One who has investigated all modes of egocentric conception, the round of birth and death, and both the passing away and rebirth [of beings]; one who is free of spiritual defilement, spiritually unblemished, spiritually purified, who has realised the destruction of birth: they call him enlightened.’

Kappāni viceyya kevalāni saṁsāraṁ dubhayaṁ cutūpapātaṁ
Vigatarajamanaṅgaṇaṁ visuddhaṁ pattaṁ jātikhayaṁ tamāhu buddhan ti. (Snp 517)

COMMENT

Kappāni: ‘modes of egocentric conception.’ Egocentric conception is linked to the three modes of self-centredness in Snp 535. It likely has that meaning here.

Illustration: kappa, egocentric conception

‘One of purified wisdom who has utterly transcended egocentric conception in regards to things of the past and future, who is free of [bondage to] the six senses and their objects: he would properly fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism in the world.

Atītesu anāgatesu cā pi kappātīto aticca suddhipañño
Sabbāyatanehi vippamutto sammā so loke paribbajeyya. (Snp 373)

@

kamma

Renderings

Introduction

Kamma: conduct

Kamma often means ‘conduct’ or ‘deed’. For example:

• A noble disciple is endowed with blameless bodily conduct.

anavajjena kāyakammena samannāgato hoti. (AN ii 69-70)

• Although he may do an unvirtuous deed by body, speech, or mind, he is incapable of hiding it.

Kiñcāpi so kammaṁ karoti pāpakaṁ kāyena vācā uda cetasā vā
Abhabbo so tassa paṭicchādāya. (Snp 230-232)

Kamma: the operation of the karmic mechanism

Kamma can mean ‘the operation of the karmic mechanism,’ called kammayanta at quotes below, Tha 574 and Tha 419.

• He is superstitious. He believes in luck, not in the operation of the karmic mechanism.

kotuhalamaṅgaliko hoti maṅgalaṁ pacceti no kammaṁ

• He is not superstitious. He believes in the operation of the karmic mechanism, not in luck.

akotuhalamaṅgaliko hoti kammaṁ pacceti no maṅgalaṁ. (AN iii 206)

Because merit and demerit is accumulated, it means that all but arahants are caught in the operation of the karmic mechanism:

• Thus does [one who is attached to] the [human] body take his course, driven by the operation of the karmic mechanism

Evāyaṁ vattate kāyo kammayantena yantito. (Tha 574)

• By destroying the origin of ignorance [of things according to reality], [the eightfold path, ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, Tha 421] is a destroyer of the operation of the karmic mechanism.

PED (sv yanta) for kammayanta (Tha 419) gives ‘the machinery of Kamma,’ and (sv yantita) renders kammayantena (Tha 574) as ‘impelled by the machinery of Karma.’

Kamma: the field

Kamma is sometimes called ‘the field,’ which we take to mean ‘the [field of] operation of the karmic mechanism’:

• Thus Ānanda,

… the [field of] operation of the karmic mechanism is the field.

…the stream of consciousness, the seed.

… craving, the moisture.

taṇhā sneho.

… For beings [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving.

avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ

… the stream of consciousness is established in the low plane of existence.

hīnāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ

… In this way renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future.

evaṁ āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hoti. (AN i 223-4)

English word karma

Karma means:

  • the principle of retributive justice determining a person’s state of life and the state of his reincarnations as the effect of his past deeds
  • the doctrine of inevitable consequence
  • destiny or fate (Collins Dictionary).

We therefore avoid using the term because of the connotations of fatalism or fate. Nonetheless, we use ‘karmic’.

Merit and demerit: upacita

Where kamma is ‘accumulated’ (upacita) it stands for merit or demerit. For example:

• This is the first time that demerit whose consequence comes without delay has been accumulated by Devadatta.

idaṁ bhikkhave devadattena paṭhamaṁ ānantariyakammaṁ upacitaṁ. (Vin.2.193)

• Venerable Cunda the metalworker has accumulated merit that is conducive to long life

Āyusaṁvattanikaṁ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṁ upacitaṁ. (DN ii 136)

The arahant: no further karmically consequential conduct

The arahant does not undertake karmically consequential deeds:

• What do you think, bhikkhus: can a bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed (khīṇāsavo bhikkhu) undertake a karmically consequential deed that is meritorious, demeritorious, or karmically neutral?

puññābhisaṅkhāraṁ vā abhisaṅkhareyya apuññābhisaṅkhāraṁ vā abhisaṅkhareyya āneñjābhisaṅkhāraṁ vā abhisaṅkhareyyā ti

• No, bhante (SN ii 83).

The arahant: destruction of merit and demerit

The scriptures sometimes suggest the arahant has destroyed all merit and demerit. For example:

• Whatever karmically consequential conduct was undertaken by me, whether small or great, all that [accumulated merit and demerit] is exhausted.

Yaṁ mayā pakataṁ kammaṁ appaṁ vā yadi vā bahuṁ;
Sabbametaṁ parikkhīṇaṁ. (Tha 80)

• While I undertook much karmically consequential conduct of the kind which leads to [rebirth in] the plane of misery, yet its karmic consequence has reached me now. I enjoy my food free of karmic debt.

Tādisaṁ kammaṁ katvāna bahuṁ duggatigāminaṁ;
Phuṭṭho kammavipākena anaṇo bhuñjāmi bhojanaṁ. (MN ii 105)

Yet the scriptures also unequivocably say the opposite, that till the time of their death arahants continue to receive the karmic consequences of previous karmically consequential conduct:

• The bhikkhu… who is free of perceptually obscuring states… undertakes no new karmically consequential conduct and nullifies previous karmically consequential conduct by the gradual experience [of its consequences].

bhikkhu… anāsavaṁ… so navañca kammaṁ na karoti purāṇañca kammaṁ phussa phussa vyantīkaroti. (AN iii 414)

And the body, too, is to be regarded as the consequences of previous karmically consequential conduct, even for arahants.

kāyo… purāṇamidaṁ bhikkhave kammaṁ… daṭṭhabbaṁ. (SN ii 64-5)

Therefore when the scriptures say arahants have exhausted their merit and demerit, it either means:

1) that they will have done so by the time of their final passing, or

2) that when accumulated merit and demerit is exhausted, there still remains the consequences of that merit and demerit.

The non-returner and demerit

A non-returner receives within his very lifetime all unpleasant karmic consequences of past conduct:

• Whatever demeritorious karmically consequential conduct was previously undertaken by this [wretched human] body born of deeds, all [the consequences of] that must be experienced now [in this lifetime]; it will not [be able to] arise hereafter.’ Thus developed, the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] goodwill leads to non-returnership for a wise bhikkhu here who has not penetrated to a more exalted liberation.

yaṁ kho me idha kiñcī pubbe iminā karajakāyena pāpakammaṁ kataṁ sabbaṁ taṁ idha vedanīyaṁ na taṁ anugaṁ bhavissatī ti. Evaṁ bhāvitā kho bhikkhave mettācetovimutti anāgāmitāya saṁvattati idha paññassa bhikkhuno uttariṁ vimuttiṁ appaṭivijjhato. (AN v 300)

A non-returner is therefore left to receive after death only pleasant karmic consequences.

Nullifying karmically consequential deeds

Karmically consequential deeds are nullified by experiencing their karmic consequence, a process described in these quotes:

• ’I declare that there can be no nullification of karmically consequential deeds which have been intentionally undertaken and karmically accumulated without experiencing [their karmic consequences], either in this life, or on rebirth, or in some other subsequent [existence].’

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave sañcetanikānaṁ kammānaṁ katānaṁ upacitānaṁ appaṭisaṁviditvā vyantībhāvaṁ vadāmi. Tañca kho diṭṭhe vā dhamme upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye. (AN v 292)

• Previous karmically consequential conduct is nullified by the gradual experience [of its consequences]

purāṇañca kammaṁ phussa phussa vyantīkaroti. (AN ii 198)

The four types of deeds

There are four types of deeds. The first three types are:

Here, ‘dark’ means ‘a hostile karmically consequential deed’ (savyāpajjhaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ… vacīsaṅkhāraṁ… manosaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti, MN i 391) and ‘bright’ means ‘an unhostile karmically consequential deed’ (avyāpajjhaṁ MN i 391).

The karmic consequences of such deeds are also dark, bright, or dark-and-bright (kaṇhavipākaṁ sukkavipākaṁ kaṇhasukkavipākaṁ) where ‘dark’ means hostile sense impression (savyāpajjhaṁ vedanaṁ MN i 389) and ‘bright’ means unhostile sense impression (avyāpajjhaṁ vedanaṁ MN i 390).

For those wishing to escape karmically consequential conduct there is a fourth type of deed called ‘neither-dark-nor-bright’ (kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ) which leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct (kammakkhayāya saṁvattati). This deed involves

1) The intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences

yamidaṁ kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

2) The intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is bright with bright karmic consequences

yampidaṁ kammaṁ sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

3) The intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is dark-and-bright with dark-and-bright karmic consequences.

yampidaṁ kammaṁ kaṇhasukkaṁ kaṇhasukkavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā. (MN i 391)

This is called conduct that is neither-dark-nor-bright with neither-dark-nor-bright karmic consequences that leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct.

idaṁ vuccati puṇṇa kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ akaṇhāsukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati. (MN i 391)

The seven enlightenment factors are such conduct (kammaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati, AN ii 237). So is the eightfold path (sammādiṭṭhi… sammāsamādhī, AN ii 237).

On making the suttas incomprehensible

The sutta we have just quoted can be made incomprehensible, if, instead of saying one should abandon karmically consequential conduct, the sutta is rendered to say that one should ‘abandon all conduct, whether dark or bright.’ This would contradict much of the Buddha’s teaching, which constantly praises the cultivation of good conduct:

• The refraining from everything unvirtuous; the undertaking of what is spiritually wholesome… this is the training system of the Buddhas.

sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṁ kusalassa upasampadā… etaṁ buddhānaṁ sāsanaṁ(Dhp 183)

• Do not be afraid of acts of merit. This is called what is pleasant, desirable, likeable, agreeable, and pleasing, namely meritorious deeds

Mā bhikkhave puññānaṁ bhāyittha sukhassetaṁ bhikkhave adivacanaṁ iṭṭhassa kantassa piyassa manāpassa yadidaṁ puññāni. (Iti 14-16)

Merit is not obstructive

Although non-greed, non-hatred, and discernment of reality are bases for the arising of [meritorious] deeds (alobho… adoso… amoho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya), when greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality disappear, that merit is abandoned (lobhe… dose… mohe vigate evaṁ taṁ kammaṁ pahīṇaṁ hoti, AN i 134-5). If it was not abandoned, then merit would prevent one’s final liberation, because:

• I declare that there is no putting an end to suffering without experiencing the consequences of karmically consequential deeds which have been intentionally undertaken and karmically accumulated.

Na tvevāhaṁ bhikkhave sañcetanikānaṁ kammānaṁ katānaṁ upacitānaṁ appaṭisaṁviditvā dukkhassantakiriyaṁ vadāmi. (AN v 292)

Kamma in disciplinary procedures

In the context of discipline, kamma means ‘legal act of an assembly of bhikkhus.’

Illustrations

kammena

kammena: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kammena, conduct

A noble disciple (ariyasāvako) is endowed with

• blameless bodily conduct

anavajjena kāyakammena samannāgato hoti

• blameless verbal conduct

anavajjena vacīkammena samannāgato hoti

• blameless mental conduct

anavajjena manokammena samannāgato hoti. (AN ii 69-70)

kammaṁ

kammaṁ: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kammaṁ, conduct

The ignorant engage in spiritually unwholesome conduct that arises from attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

Rāgajañca dosajañca mohajañcāpaviddasu karonti akusalaṁ kammaṁ. (AN ii 72)

kammassa

kammassa: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kammassa, conduct/deed; kammānaṁ types of conduct

'Of what conduct of mine is this the fruit, of what deed the karmic consequence, that I now have such great spiritual power and might?'

kissa nu kho me idaṁ kammassa phalaṁ kissa kammassa vipāko yenāhaṁ etarahi evaṁ mahiddhiko evaṁ mahānubhāvo ti.

Then it occurred to me that it was the fruit and karmic consequence of three types of conduct, namely giving, inward taming, and restraint [in conduct].

Tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave etadahosi tiṇṇaṁ kho me idaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ tiṇṇaṁ kammānaṁ vipāko yenāhaṁ etarahi evaṁ mahiddhiko evaṁ mahānubhāvo ti seyyathīdaṁ dānassa damassa saṁyamassā ti. (Iti 14-16)

kammaṁ

kammaṁ: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kammaṁ, deed

Although he may do an unvirtuous deed by body, speech, or mind, he is incapable of hiding it.

Kiñcāpi so kammaṁ karoti pāpakaṁ kāyena vācā uda cetasā vā
Abhabbo so tassa paṭicchādāya. (Snp 230-232)

Illustration: kammaṁ, conduct

What is conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences?

Katamañca bhikkhave kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ?

In this regard, some person is a killer, a thief, an adulterer, a liar, or a drinker.

Idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti adinnādāyī hoti kāmesu micchācārī hoti musāvādī hoti surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhāyī hoti

And what is conduct that is bright with bright karmic consequences?

Katamañca bhikkhave kammaṁ sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ?

In this regard, someone refrains from killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and drinking alcohol.

Idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti kāmesu micchācārā paṭivirato hoti musāvādā paṭivirato hoti surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā paṭivirato hoti. (AN ii 234-5)

Illustration: kamma, deeds

Killing is threefold, I declare: due to greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

Pāṇātipātampahaṁ bhikkhave tividhaṁ vadāmi lobhahetukampi dosahetukampi mohahetukampi.

Stealing is threefold, I declare: due to greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

Adinnādānampahaṁ bhikkhave kividhaṁ vadāmi lobhahetukampi dosahetukampi mohahetukampi.

Thus greed is a basis for the arising of karmically consequential deeds; likewise hatred and undiscernment of reality.

Iti kho bhikkhave lobho kammanidānasambhavo doso kammanidānasambhavo moho kammanidānasambhavo.

The destruction of greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality each produces the destruction of a basis of karmically consequential deeds.

Lobhakkhayā kammanidānasaṅkhayo dosakkhayā kammanidānasaṅkhayo mohakkhayā kammanidānasaṅkhayo ti. (AN v 262)

Illustration: kamma, conduct

Bhikkhus, not from conduct born of greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality are there devas, men, and other fortunate beings to be discerned; but hell-beings, animals, ghosts, and other unfortunate beings.

Na bhikkhave lobhajena kammena dosajena kammena mohajena kammena devā paññāyanti na manussā paññayanti yā vā panaññāpi kāci sugatiyo. Atha kho bhikkhave lobhajena kammena dosajena kammena mohajena kammena nirayo paññāyati tiracchānayoni paññāyati pettivisayo paññāyati yā vā panaññāpi kāci duggatiyo.

Bhikkhus, not from conduct born of non-greed, non-hatred, and discernment of reality are there hell-beings, animals, ghosts, and other unfortunate beings to be discerned; but devas, men, and other fortunate beings.

Na bhikkhave alobhajena kammena adosajena kammena amoha jena kammena nirayopaññāyati. Tiracchānayoni paññāyati. Pettivisayo paññāyati yā vā panaññāpi kāci duggatiyo. Atha kho bhikkhave alobhajena kammena adosajena kammena amohajena kammena devā paññāyanti manussā paññāyanti yā vā panaññāpi kāci sugatiyo. (AN iii 338-9)

Illustration: kammaṁ, conduct; kamma, karmically consequential conduct

Conduct produced from, born of, due to, originated by greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality is spiritually unwholesome and blameworthy.

yaṁ bhikkhave lobhapakataṁ… dosapakataṁ… mohapakataṁ kammaṁ mohajaṁ mohanidānaṁ mohasamudayaṁ taṁ kammaṁ akusalaṁ taṁ kammaṁ sāvajjaṁ

It has unpleasant karmic consequences and leads to the [further] origination of karmically consequential conduct. It does not lead to the ending of karmically consequential conduct.

taṁ kammaṁ dukkhavipākaṁ taṁ kammaṁ kammasamudayāya saṁvattati. Na taṁ kammaṁ kammanirodhāya saṁvattati.

Conduct produced from, born of, due to, originated by non-greed, non-hatred, and discernment of reality is spiritually wholesome and blameless.

yaṁ bhikkhave alobho… adoso… amohapakataṁ kammaṁ amohajaṁ amohanidānaṁ amohasamudayaṁ. Taṁ kammaṁ kusalaṁ taṁ kammaṁ anavajjaṁ

It has pleasant karmic consequences and leads to the ending of karmically consequential conduct. It does not lead to the origination of karmically consequential conduct.

taṁ kammaṁ sukhavipākaṁ taṁ kammaṁ kammanirodhāya. Na taṁ kammaṁ kammasamudayāya saṁvattati. (AN i 263)

Illustration: kammaṁ, conduct; karmically consequential conduct

What, bhikkhus, is conduct that is neither-dark-nor-bright with neither-dark-nor-bright karmic consequences that leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct?

Katamañca bhikkhave kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ akaṇhāsukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati?

The eightfold path.

Sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhī. (AN ii 237)

Illustration: kammaṁ, karmically consequential conduct

He undertakes no new karmically consequential conduct

so navañca kammaṁ na karoti

As to previous karmically consequential conduct, he nullifies it by the gradual experience [of its consequences]

purāṇañca kammaṁ phussa phussa vyantīkaroti. (AN ii 197)

Illustration: kammaṁ, karmically consequential conduct

With the abandonment of craving, karmically consequential conduct is abandoned. With the abandonment of karmically consequential conduct, suffering is abandoned.

Taṇhāya pahānā kammaṁ pahīyati. Kammassa pahānā dukkhaṁ pahīyati. (SN v 86-7)

Illustration: kammaṁ, conduct; kamma, karmically consequential conduct

And what is conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences

Katamañca puṇṇa kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ

In this regard, some person undertakes a hostile karmically consequential deed by way of body… speech… mind

idha puṇṇa ekacco savyāpajjhaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ… vacīsaṅkhāraṁ… manosaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti.

And what, Puṇṇa, is conduct that is bright with bright karmic consequences?

kammaṁ sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ

In this regard, some person undertakes an unhostile karmically consequential deed by way of body… speech… mind

avyāpajjhaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ… vacīsaṅkhāraṁ… manosaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti

What, Puṇṇa, is conduct that is neither-dark-nor-bright with neither-dark-nor-bright karmic consequences that leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct?

kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ akaṇhāsukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati

The intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences

yamidaṁ kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

or intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is bright with bright karmic consequences

yampidaṁ kammaṁ sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

or intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is dark-and-bright with dark-and-bright karmic consequences

yampidaṁ kammaṁ kaṇhasukkaṁ kaṇhasukkavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

is conduct that is neither-dark-nor-bright with neither-dark-nor-bright karmic consequences that leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct.

idaṁ vuccati puṇṇa kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ akaṇhāsukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati. (MN i 391)

Illustration: kammaṁ, karmically consequential conduct/deeds

Intentional effort is karmically consequential conduct, I declare.

Cetanāhaṁ bhikkhave kammaṁ vadāmi

In applying intentional effort, one undertakes karmically consequential conduct by way of body, speech, or mind.

cetayitvā kammaṁ karoti kāyena vācāya manasā.

What is the basis for the arising of karmically consequential deeds?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kammānaṁ nidānasambhavo

Sensation is the basis for the arising of karmically consequential deeds.

phasso bhikkhave kammānaṁ nidānasambhavo

What is the diversity in karmically consequential deeds?

Katamā ca bhikkhave kammānaṁ vemattatā:

There is a deed [whose karmic consequence is] to be experienced in hell, or as an animal, a ghost, a human, or as a deva.

atthi bhikkhave kammaṁ nirayavedanīyaṁ atthi kammaṁ tiracchānayonivedanīyā atthi kammaṁ pettivisayavedanīyaṁ atthi kammaṁ manussalokavedanīyaṁ atthi kammaṁ devalokavedanīyaṁ.

What is the karmic consequence of karmically consequential deeds?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kammānaṁ vipāko

The karmic consequence of karmically consequential deeds is threefold: that which arises in this life, or on rebirth, or in some other subsequent [existence].

Tividhāhaṁ bhikkhave kammānaṁ vipākaṁ vadāmi diṭṭhevā dhamme upajje vā apare vā pariyāye.

What is the ending of karmically consequential deeds?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kammanirodho

The ending of sensation is the ending of karmically consequential deeds.

Phassanirodho bhikkhave kammanirodho. (AN iii 415)

Illustration: kammaṁ, deed; kammaṁ, karmically consequential conduct

What is previous karmically consequential conduct?

The visual sense should be seen as [the consequence of] previous karmically consequential conduct, originated, arisen from intentional effort, and to be necessarily experienced.

Cakkhu bhikkhave purāṇakammaṁ abhisaṅkhataṁ abhisañcetayitaṁ vedaniyaṁ daṭṭhabbaṁ

The auditory sense… The olfactory sense… The gustatory sense… The tactile sense… The mental sense should be seen as [the consequence of] previous karmically consequential conduct, originated, arisen from intentional effort, and to be necessarily experienced.

mano purāṇakammo abhisaṅkhato abhisañcetayito vedaniyo daṭṭhabbo

This is called previous karmically consequential conduct.

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave purāṇakammaṁ.

What is new karmically consequential conduct?

Katamañca bhikkhave navaṁ kammaṁ

Whatever deed one does in the present by way of body, speech, or mind.

yaṁ kho bhikkhave etarahi kammaṁ karoti kāyena vācāya manasā

What is the ending of karmically consequential conduct?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kammanirodho

He who attains liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through the ending of karmically consequential conduct by way of body, speech, and mind, this is called the ending of karmically consequential conduct.

yo kho bhikkhave kāyakammavacīkammamanokammassa nirodhā vimuttiṁ phusati. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave kammanirodho. (SN iv 132-3)

kammānaṁ

kammānaṁ: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kammānaṁ, karmically consequential deeds: kammaṁ, accumulated merit

There are three bases for the arising of karmically consequential deeds. What three?

Tīṇi'māni bhikkhave nidānāni kammānaṁ samudayāya. Katamāni tīṇi:

• Greed is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

lobho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya

• Hatred is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

doso nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya

• Undiscernment of reality is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

moho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya.

Karmically consequential conduct produced from greed, born of greed, due to greed, originated by greed bears fruit wherever the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs.

Yaṁ bhikkhave lobhapakataṁ… mohapakataṁ kammaṁ mohajaṁ mohanidānaṁ mohasamudayaṁ yatthassa attabhāvo nibbattati tattha taṁ kammaṁ vipaccati..

Wherever that karmically consequential conduct bears fruit, there one experiences the karmic consequences of one’s conduct, either in this life, or on rebirth, or in some other subsequent [existence].

Yattha taṁ kammaṁ vipaccati tattha tassa kammassa vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti diṭṭhe vā dhamme upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye.

There are three bases for the arising of karmically consequential deeds

Tīṇi'māni bhikkhave nidānāni kammānaṁ samudayāya. Katamāni tīṇi:

• Non-greed is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

alobho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya

• Non-hatred is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

adoso nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya

• Penetrative discernment is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

amoho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya

But with the disappearance of greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality, that accumulated merit is abandoned.

lobhe… dose… mohe vigate evaṁ taṁ kammaṁ pahīṇaṁ hoti.

It is chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, never to arise again in future.

Yaṁ bhikkhave alobhapakataṁ kammaṁ alobhajaṁ alobhanidānaṁ alobhasamudayaṁ lobhe vigate… dose vigate… mohe vigate evaṁ taṁ kammaṁ pahīṇaṁ hoti ucchinnamūlaṁ tālāvatthukataṁ anabhāvakataṁ āyatiṁ anuppādadhammaṁ. (AN i 134-5)

Comment:

If the merit of good conduct was not automatically abandoned in this way, then doing good deeds would block one’s final liberation because one is obliged to receive the karmic consequences of all conduct.

Illustration: kamma, karmically consequential conduct

This Venerable is owner of his karmically consequential conduct, inheritor of it, born of it, intimately related to it, has it as his refuge. He is the inheritor of whatever karmically consequential conduct he undertakes whether meritorious or demeritorious.

Kammassako ayamāyasmā kammadāyādo kammayonī kammabandhū kammapaṭisaraṇo. Yaṁ kammaṁ karissati kalyāṇaṁ vā pāpakaṁ vā tassa dāyādo bhavissatī ti. (AN iii 185)

Illustration: kamma, karmically consequential conduct

He was resolute in applying himself to spiritually wholesome factors… By undertaking that karmically consequential conduct, heaping it up, lavishly and abundantly, with the demise of the body at death he was reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds.

daḷhasamādāno ahosi kusalesu dhammesu… so tassa kammassa katattā upacitattā ussannattā vipulantā kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjati. (DN iii 145-6)

pāpakammā

pāpakammā: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: pāpakammā, accumulated demerit; pāpaṁ pubbe kataṁ, demerit

A brahman told the bhikkhunī Puṇṇikā that whoever does a demeritorious deed (pāpakamma pakubbatī) is released from the accumulated demerit by water ablution (dakābhisecanā sopi pāpakammā pamuccati).

Puṇṇikā replied that if rivers could carry off one’s accumulated demerit (pāpaṁ pubbe kataṁ vahuṁ), they would carry off one’s accumulated merit as well (puññampimā vaheyyuṁ) (Thi 236-251).

pāpakammaṁ kataṁ

pāpakammaṁ kataṁ: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: pāpakammaṁ kataṁ, demeritorious conduct

Previous demeritorious conduct whose karmic consequence has not yet ripened.

pubbe pāpakammaṁ kataṁ avipakkavipākaṁ. (AN ii 196)

kaṇhakammo

kaṇhakammo: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kaṇhakammo, accumulated demerit

The stream Bāhumatī: a fool may bathe there forever yet will not purify himself of accumulated demerit.

bāhumatiṁ nadiṁ niccampi bālo pakkhanno kaṇhakammo na sujjhati. (MN i 39)

Illustration: kammaṁ, legal act of an assembly of bhikkhus

A legal act done with an incomplete assembly of bhikkhus (vaggakammaṁ) is invalid (‘reversible, not fit to stand,’ kuppaṁ aṭṭhānārahaṁ) (Vin.1.316).

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anukampati

anukampa

anuddaya

karuṇā

Renderings

Introduction

[Unlimited] compassion

The practices of mettā, karuṇā, muditā and upekkhā are sometimes called the four divine abidings (cattāro brahmavihārā, DN ii 196) and sometimes the four unlimited states (catasso appamaññā, DN iii 223). Practising them together is called the ‘unlimited liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]’ (appamāṇā cetovimutti, SN iv 296). The Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN i 298) and Godatta Sutta (SN iv 296) say the ‘makers of limitation’ (pamāṇakaraṇo) are rāgo, doso and moho (rāgo kho āvuso pamāṇakaraṇo doso pamāṇakaraṇo moho pamāṇakaraṇo). Therefore the four brahmavihāras should be practised unlimited by rāgo, doso and moho. And therefore we call karuṇā ‘[unlimited] compassion’:

• In this regard a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind of [unlimited] compassion, likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, in all directions, everywhere, he abides pervading the whole world [of beings] with a mind of [unlimited] compassion, vast, exalted, unlimited, free of unfriendliness and hostility.

Idha bhante bhikkhu karuṇāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharati tathā dutiyaṁ tathā tatiyaṁ tathā catutthiṁ iti uddhamadho tiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbatthatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ karuṇāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena avyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati. (SN iv 296)

• It is impossible, friend, out of the question, that one might develop and cultivate the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] compassion, make it one’s vehicle and practice, carry it out, pursue it, and properly undertake it, yet still maliciousness would plague your mind. There is no such possibility.

Aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ karuṇāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya anuṭṭhitāya paricitāya susamāraddhāya atha ca panassa vihesā cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī'ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ āvuso vihesāya yadidaṁ karuṇā cetovimutti (DN iii 249)

• When resentment has arisen for someone one can develop [unlimited] compassion for that person.

Yasmiṁ bhikkhave puggale āghāto jāyetha karuṇā tasmiṁ puggale bhāvetabbā. (AN iii 185)

Illustrations

Illustration: karuṇā, [unlimited] compassion

• ’The Blessed One abides in a state of [unlimited] compassion’

bhagavā hi bhante karuṇāvihārī ti.

• ’Jīvaka, any attachment, hatred, or undiscernment of reality whereby maliciousness might arise, have been abandoned by the Perfect One… If what you said referred to that, then I allow it to you’

karuṇaṁ

karuṇaṁ: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: karuṇaṁ, [unlimited] compassion

He who abides in solitary retreat for the four months of the Rains, practising the meditation on [unlimited] compassion, sees Brahmā.

yo vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyati karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyati so brahmānaṁ passati. (DN ii 237)

Illustration: karuṇaṁ, [unlimited] compassion

If anyone from a clan of khattiyas goes forth from the household life into the ascetic life, and on account of the teaching and discipline proclaimed by the Perfect One, develops [unlimited] goodwill, [unlimited] compassion, [unlimited] warmhearted joy, and [unlimited] detached awareness, and thereby gains inward peace: on account of that inward peace, he is one who is applied to a practice that is proper for ascetics, I declare.

Evameva kho bhikkhave khattiyakulā cepi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito hoti so ca tathāgatappaveditaṁ dhammavinayaṁ āgamma evaṁ mettaṁ karuṇaṁ muditaṁ upekkhaṁ bhāvetvā labhati ajjhattaṁ vūpasamaṁ. Ajjhattaṁ vūpasamā samaṇasāmīcipaṭipadaṁ paṭipanno ti vadāmi. (MN i 284)

Illustration: karuṇaṁ, [unlimited] compassion

Karuṇā: the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] compassion has the state of awareness of boundless space as its culmination.

ākāsānañcāyatanaparamāhaṁ bhikkhave karuṇā cetovimuttiṁ vadāmi. (SN v 120)

kāruññam

kāruññam: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: kāruññam, compassion

’Ānanda, would you just simply passively observe an elder bhikkhu while he is being harassed?

atthi nāma ānanda theraṁ bhikkhuṁ vihesiyamānaṁ ajjhupekkhissatha

… Truly, Ānanda, compassion does not develop in allowing an elder bhikkhu to be harassed’

Na hi nāma ānanda kāruññampi bhavissati theramhi bhikkhumhi vihesiyamānamhī ti. (AN iii 194)

Illustration: karuṇaṁ (Commentary: anuddayaṁ), sympathetic

Namuci approached me, uttering sympathetic words

Namuci karuṇaṁ vācaṁ bhāsamāno upāgamī

‘You are thin and sallow-faced. You are nearly dead… Live, sir. Life is better [than death]…. The path of striving is hard: hard to undertake, and hard to bear’

duggo maggo padhānāya dukkaro durabhisambhavo. (Snp 425-6)

COMMENT

Karuṇaṁ: ‘sympathetic.’ Treating karuṇaṁ as anuddayaṁ. Commentary: Karuṇaṁ vācan ti anuddayāyuttaṁ vācaṁ.

kāruññataṁ

kāruññataṁ: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: kāruññataṁ, compassion

Then the Blessed One, understanding the Brahmā’s request, out of compassion for beings surveyed the world with the vision of a Buddha.

atha kho bhagavā brahmuno ca ajjhesanaṁ viditvā sattesu ca kāruññataṁ paṭicca buddhacakkhunā lokaṁ volokesi. (SN i 137)

kāruññatā

kāruññatā: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: kāruññatā, compassion; anukampatā, tender concern

If a bhikkhu is wanting to reprove another, having contemplated five principles within himself he may do so:

paraṁ codetukāmena pañca dhamme ajjhattaṁ manasikaritvā paro codetabbo

• [I will speak out of] compassion

• [I will speak out of] seeking welfare

• [I will speak out of] tender concern

• [I will speak aiming at the] removal of offences

• [I will speak] aiming at vinaya

COMMENT

Parentheses in accordance with Codanā Sutta:

If a bhikkhu is reproving, wanting to reprove another, he should do so having established five principles within himself.

Codakena āvuso bhikkhunā paraṁ codetukāmena pañca dhamme ajjhattaṁ upaṭṭhepetvā paro codetabbo:

I will speak at the right time, not the wrong time

kālena vakkhāmi no akālena

I will speak truth not falsehood

bhūtena vakkhāmi no abhūtena

I will speak gently not harshly

saṇhena vakkhāmi no pharusena

I will speak what is conducive to spiritual well-being not unconducive to spiritual well-being

atthasaṁhitena vakkhāmi no anatthasaṁhitena

I will speak with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill not with inner hatred

mettacittena vakkhāmi no dosantarenā ti. (DN iii 236-7; AN iii 196)

Illustration: kāruññaṁ, compassion ; anuddayaṁ, sympathy; anukampaṁ, tender concern

He explains the Buddha’s teaching to others

• out of compassion

kāruññaṁ paṭicca paresaṁ dhammaṁ deseti

• out of sympathy

anuddayaṁ paṭicca paresaṁ dhammaṁ deseti

• out of tender concern

Anukampaṁ upādāya paresaṁ dhammaṁ deseti. (SN ii 200)

Illustration: kāruññaṁ, compassion; anuddayaṁ, sympathy; anukampaṁ, tender concern

Suppose a sick and ailing man were to go along the highway with no village nearby, and unable to get proper food and medicine; and suppose another man, also going along the road, were to see him; it might

• raise compassion in that man

kāruññaṁ yeva upaṭṭhāpeyya

• raise sympathy

anuddayaṁ yeva upaṭṭhāpeyya

• raise tender concern

so that he might say to himself: Alas for this man! he ought to have proper food and medicine, or a guide to some village. Wherefore? Lest he suffer misfortune and disaster.

Equally, of one whose ways are impure, who obtains no mental clarity, mental calm: for such a person

• compassion ought to arise

kāruññaṁ eva upaṭṭhāpetabbaṁ

• sympathy ought to arise

• tender concern ought to arise

so one says to oneself: ‘Alas for this Venerable! He should give up bad habits in deed, word and thought and develop good habits. Wherefore? Lest this Venerable, with the demise of the body at death, is reborn in the plane of sub-human existence, in the plane of misery, in the plane of damnation, or in hell (AN iii 189).

anukampituṁ

anukampituṁ: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: anukampituṁ, have tender concern; anuddayā, sympathy

If, O Sakka, for some reason intimacy with anyone should arise, the wise man ought not to have tender concern in his mind for such a person.

Yena kenaci vaṇṇena saṁvāso sakka jāyati
Na taṁ arahati sappañño manasā anukampituṁ.

But if with a pure mind he teaches others, he does not become tethered [to them] by his tender concern and sympathy.

Manasā ce pasannena yadaññamanusāsati
Na tena hoti saṁyutto sānukampā anuddayā ti. (SN i 206)

anuddayataṁ

anuddayataṁ: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: anuddayataṁ, sympathy

One who explains the teaching to others should establish five principles within himself. What five?

Paresaṁ ānanda dhammaṁ desentena pañca dhamme ajjhattaṁ upaṭṭhapetvā paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo. Katame pañca:

One should explain the teaching to others with the thought:

1) 'I will speak step-by-step

Ānupubbīkathaṁ kathessāmīti paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo

2) 'I will speak observing a proper method of exposition

Pariyāyadassāvī kathaṁ kathessāmīti paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo

3) ‘I will speak out of sympathy

Anuddayataṁ paṭicca kathaṁ kathessāmīti paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo

4) 'I will speak not for the sake of worldly benefits

Na āmisantaro kathaṁ kathessāmīti paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo

5) 'I will speak without hurting myself or others

Attānañca parañca anupahacca kathaṁ kathessāmī ti paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo. (AN iii 184)

anuddayatā

anuddayatā: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: anuddayatā, sympathy

There are these three kinds of spiritually unwholesome thinking (akusalavitakkā). Which three?

• thinking concerned with not wanting to be despised

• thinking concerned with gains, honour, and renown

• thinking concerned with feeling sorry for others

Comment:

As an example of feeling sorry for others, consider Nissaggiyā Pācittiyā Rule 22 which says that if a bhikkhu wrongfully gets himself a new bowl from a lay supporter, that bowl should be forfeited to the group of bhikkhus. The bowl should be first offered to the senior bhikkhu, who should be persuaded to swap his own bowl for the new bowl if he prefers it. The senior bhikkhu should not refuse to swap out of feeling sorry for the offender (na ca tassa anuddayatāya na gahetabbo), otherwise it is a dukkaṭa offence (yo na gaṇheyya āpatti dukkaṭassa) (Vin.3.247).

anukampamāno

anukampamāno: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: anukampamāno, being tenderly concerned

Being tenderly concerned for friends and comrades, one neglects one’s own spiritual well-being, being emotionally bound [to others]. Seeing this danger in intimacy, one should live the religious life as solitarily as a rhinoceros horn.

Mitte suhajje anukampamāno hāpeti atthaṁ paṭibaddhacitto
Etaṁ bhayaṁ santhave pekkhamāno eko care khaggavisāṇakappo. (Snp 37)

anukampanti

anukampanti: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: anukampanti, tenderly reciprocate

‘There are five ways in which a son should minister to his parents as the eastern direction’

Pañcahi kho gahapatiputta ṭhānehi puttena puratthimā disā mātāpitaro paccupaṭṭhātabbā

‘And there are five ways in which the parents, so ministered to by their son as the eastern direction, will tenderly reciprocate’

Imehi kho gahapatiputta pañcahi ṭhānehi puttena puratthimā disā mātāpitaro paccupaṭṭhitā pañcahi ṭhānehi puttaṁ anukampanti. (DN iii 189)

Illustration: anukampanti, tenderly reciprocate

Wherever a wise man makes his dwelling, here he should feed the virtuous, those restrained [in conduct], those who live the religious life. He should dedicate a gift to the devas who are in that place.

Yasmiṁ padese kappeti vāsaṁ paṇḍitajātiyo
sīlavantettha bhojetvā saṁyate brahmacārayo
Yā tattha devatā āsuṁ tāsaṁ dakkhiṇamādise.

Venerated, they will venerate them, revered, they will revere them. They will tenderly reciprocate, as a mother for her own son. He with whom the devas tenderly reciprocate always has good fortune.

Tā pūjitā pūjayanti mānitā mānayanti naṁ
tato naṁ anukampanti mātā puttaṁ'ca orasaṁ
Devatānukampito poso sadā bhadrāni passatī ti. (DN ii 88-9, Uda 89, Vin.1.229-230)

anukampāya

anukampāya: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: anukampāya, tender concern

For two good reasons the Perfect One establishes training rules for disciples:

sāvakānaṁ sikkhāpadaṁ paññattaṁ

Out of tender concern for the layfolk; and to stop factions of bhikkhus with unvirtuous desires.

gihīnaṁ anukampāya pāpicchānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ pakkhupacchedāya. (AN i 98)

anukampako

anukampako: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: anukampako, have tender concern

‘The [attainment to the] Untroubled-without-residue of the Teacher who had such tender concern for me [will be tonight in the last watch].’

satthu ca me parinibbānaṁ bhavissati yo mamaṁ anukampako ti. (DN ii 143)

anukampikāya

anukampikāya: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: anukampikāya, tender concern

If a foolish baby through the negligence of the nurse puts a stick or stone into its mouth, the nurse would quickly pay attention, and quickly remove it. If she failed to do so, then, taking hold of his head with her left hand, and crooking the finger of her right hand, she would fetch it out even if she drew blood. Why so? There would be some injury to the boy, I don’t deny it, but really, bhikkhus:

• This is what should be done by the nurse wishing for the child's well-being, seeking its welfare, from tender concern, out of tender concern.’

karaṇīyañca kho etaṁ bhikkhave dhātiyā atthakāmāya hitesiniyā anukampikāya anukampaṁ upādāya. (AN iii 6)

anukampamāno

anukampamāno: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: anukampamāno, tender concerned for

Considering two good reasons, brahman, I frequent secluded abodes in forests and quiet groves: in considering a pleasant abiding for myself in this lifetime, and being tenderly concerned for future generations.

attano ca diṭṭhadhammasukhavihāraṁ sampassamāno pacchimañca janataṁ anukampamāno ti. (MN i 23)

anukampī

anukampī: (main article see: karuṇā)

Illustration: anukampī, tenderly concerned

The Buddha told bhikkhus that in whatever way they are spoken to, they should train themselves thus:

‘Neither shall our minds be troubled by this, nor shall we utter unvirtuous words, but we shall abide tenderly concerned for their welfare, with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill, without inner hatred.’

na ceva no cittaṁ vipariṇataṁ bhavissati. Na ca pāpakaṁ vācaṁ nicchāressāma. Hitānukampī ca viharissāma mettacittā na dosantarā. (MN i 126)

Illustration: anukampī, tenderly concerned

He abides tenderly concerned for the welfare of all living beings.

Illustration: anukampī, be tenderly concerned

• Lohicca, do you reside at Sālavatikā?

• Yes, reverend Gotama.

• Well, if anyone said: “The Brahman Lohicca resides at Sālavatikā, and he should enjoy the entire revenue and produce of Sālavatikā, not giving anything to others” would not anyone who spoke like that be a source of danger to your tenants?

evaṁvādi so ye taṁ upajīvanti tesaṁ antarāyakaro vā hoti no vā ti

• He would be a source of danger, reverend Gotama.

Antarāyakaro bho gotama

• And as such, would he be tenderly concerned for their welfare or not?

Antarāyakaro samāno lohicca hitānukampī vā tesaṁ hoti ahitānukampī vā ti

• He would not, reverend Gotama.

Ahitānukampī bho gotama. (DN i 228)

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kalyāṇa

Renderings

Introduction

Kalyāṇa and kusala

Kalyāṇa is close in meaning to kusala, for example here:

• By him are many folk established in the noble practice, namely in practices that are virtuous and spiritually wholesome.

bahu'ssa janatā ariye ñāye patiṭṭhāpitā yadidaṁ kalyāṇadhammatā kusaladhammatā. (AN ii 36)

Kalyāṇa: adjective of puñña

When kalyāṇa is used as the adjective of puñña we call it ‘meritorious.’ For example:

• One should do what is meritorious as a collection for a future life. Meritorious deeds are the support for living beings [when they arise] in the world hereafter.

Tasmā kareyya kalyāṇaṁ nicayaṁ samparāyikaṁ. Puññāni paralokasmiṁ patiṭṭhā honti pāṇinanti. (SN i 93)

Kalyāṇa opposed to pāpa in the context of karmically consequential conduct

When kalyāṇa is opposed to pāpa in the context of karmically consequential conduct, we call the terms ‘meritorious’ and ‘demeritorious.’

• This Venerable is owner of his karmically consequential conduct, inheritor of it, born of it, intimately related to it, has it as his refuge. He is the inheritor of whatever karmically consequential conduct he undertakes whether meritorious or demeritorious.

Kammassako ayamāyasmā kammadāyādo kammayonī kammabandhū kammapaṭisaraṇo. Yaṁ kammaṁ karissati kalyāṇaṁ vā pāpakaṁ vā tassa dāyādo bhavissatī ti. (AN iii 185)

Kalyāṇa opposed to pāpa in the context of virtuousness

Outside the context of karmically consequential conduct we call kalyāṇa and pāpa ‘virtuous’ and ‘unvirtuous.’

• There is no hiding place for the doer of unvirtuous deeds

Natthi loke raho nāma pāpakammaṁ pakubbato.

… You yourself, man, know what is true or false.

Attā te purisa jānāti saccaṁ vā yadi vā musā.

… Indeed, sir, you disdain the virtuous aspect of yourself which witnesses [all that you do]

Kalyāṇaṁ vata bho sakkhi attānaṁ atimaññasi.

… You are [trying to] conceal from yourself unvirtuousness existing within yourself

Yo santaṁ attani pāpaṁ attānaṁ parigūhasi. (AN i 149)

• And the Venerable MahāMoggallāna saw that person sitting in the midst of the assembly of bhikkhus―unvirtuous, of an unvirtuous moral nature, of foul and odious behaviour, secretive in conduct, no ascetic though pretending to be one, not celibate though pretending to be so, spiritually rotten, full of defilement, and morally decayed.

Addasā kho āyasmā mahāmoggallāno taṁ puggalaṁ dussīlaṁ pāpadhammaṁ asucisaṅkassarasamācāraṁ paṭicchannakammantaṁ assamaṇaṁ samaṇapaṭiññaṁ abrahmacāriṁ brahmacārīpaṭiññaṁ antopūtiṁ avassutaṁ kasambujātaṁ majjhe bhikkhusaṅghassa nisinnaṁ. (Uda 52)

• Whatever there is in my family that is suitable for giving, all that I share unreservedly with those who are virtuous and of a virtuous moral nature

appaṭivibhattaṁ sīlavantehi kalyāṇadhammehī ti. (SN v 396-7)

In relation to friendship: virtuous

In relation to friendship, kalyāṇa is linked to the influence people have over others, and can again be rendered ‘virtuous.’

• This is the entire religious life, Ānanda, namely, virtuous friendship, virtuous companionship, virtuous comradeship.

sakalameva hidaṁ ānanda brahmacariyaṁ yadidaṁ kalyāṇamittatā kalyāṇasahāyatā kalyāṇasampavaṅkatā

… When a bhikkhu has a virtuous friend, a virtuous companion, a virtuous comrade, it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate the noble eightfold path.

kalyāṇamittassetaṁ ānanda bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṁ kalyāṇasahāyassa kalyāṇasampavaṅkassa ariyaṁ aṭṭhaṅgikaṁ maggaṁ bhāvessati ariyaṁ aṭṭhaṅgikaṁ maggaṁ bahulīkarissatī ti. (SN i 88-9)

Illustrations

Illustration: kalyāṇa, virtuous

Unvirtuous friendship is an obstacle to virtuous practices.

pāpamittatā sīlānaṁ paripantho. (AN v 136)

Virtuous friendship is a condition that nourishes virtuous practices.

kalyāṇamittatā sīlānaṁ āhāro. (AN v 136)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, virtuous

King Ajātasattu of Magadha has unvirtuous friends, unvirtuous companions, unvirtuous comrades. King Pasenadi of Kosala has virtuous friends, virtuous companions, virtuous comrades.

Rājā bhikkhave māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto pāpamitto pāpasahāyo pāpasampavaṅko. Rājā ca kho bhikkhave pasenadi kosalo kalyāṇamitto kalyāṇasahāyo kalyāṇasampavaṅko. (SN i 83)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, virtuous

By relying upon me as a virtuous friend, Ānanda, beings subject to birth are freed from birth.

Mamaṁ hi ānanda kalyāṇamittaṁ āgamma jātidhammā sattā jātiyā parimuccanti. (SN i 88)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, virtuous

And what is virtuous friendship?

Katamā ca vyagghapajja kalyāṇamittatā:

In whatever village or town the noble young man lives, he consorts with and converses with householders and their sons, old and young alike matured in virtue, and emulates their perfection in faith, virtue, generosity, and wisdom.

idha vyagghapajja kulaputto yasmiṁ gāme vā nigame vā paṭivasati tattha ye te honti gahapati vā gahapatiputto vā daharā vā vuddhasīlino vuddhā vā vuddhasīlā saddhāsampannā sīlasampannā cāgasampannā paññāsampannā tehi saddhiṁ santiṭṭhati sallapati sākacchaṁ samāpajjati.

Insofar as this happens, this is called virtuous friendship.

Yathā rūpānaṁ saddhāsampannānaṁ saddhāsampadaṁ anusikkhati yathārūpānaṁ sīlasampannānaṁ sīlasampadaṁ anusikkhati yathārūpānaṁ cāgasampannānaṁ cāgasampadaṁ anusikkhati yathārūpānaṁ paññāsampannānaṁ paññāsampadaṁ anusikkhati ayaṁ vuccati vyagghapajja kalyāṇamittatā. (AN iv 282)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, virtuous

By him are many folk established in the noble practice, namely in practices that are virtuous and spiritually wholesome.

bahu'ssa janatā ariye ñāye patiṭṭhāpitā yadidaṁ kalyāṇadhammatā kusaladhammatā. (AN ii 36)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, virtuous

’Consent that I may go forth from the household life into the ascetic life.’ Then the parents of those boys consented, thinking, ‘All these boys have the same aspiration. They are bent on what is virtuous.’

Atha kho tesaṁ dārakānaṁ mātāpitaro sabbepi me dārakā samānacchandā kalyāṇadhippāyā ti anujāniṁsu. (Vin.1.77-8)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, virtuous

Whatever there is in my family that is suitable for giving, all that I share unreservedly with those who are virtuous and of a virtuous moral nature

appaṭivibhattaṁ sīlavantehi kalyāṇadhammehī ti. (SN v 396-7)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, virtuousness

What is virtuous?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kalyāṇo

In this regard, some person refrains from:

• killing

pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti

• stealing

adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti

• committing adultery

kāmesu micchācārā paṭivirato hoti

• lying

musāvādā paṭivirato hoti

• speaking maliciously, harshly or frivolous chatter

Pisuṇāvācā paṭivirato hoti. Pharusāvācā paṭivirato hoti. samphappalāpā paṭivirato hoti

• he is not greedy

• he is benevolent

• is of right perception [of reality]

Comment:

This occurs in the context of four statements:

1) What is unvirtuous?

Katamo ca bhikkhave pāpo? Idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti… Micchādiṭṭhiko hoti.

2) What is worse than unvirtuousness?

Katamo ca bhikkhave pāpena pāpataro? Idha bhikkhave ekacco attanā ca pāṇātipātī hoti. Parañca pāṇātipāte samādapeti… Attanā ca micchādiṭṭhiko hoti parañca micchādiṭṭhiyā samādapeti.

3) What is virtuous?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kalyāṇo?

4) What is better than virtuousness?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kalyāṇena kalyāṇataro? Idha bhikkhave ekacco attanā ca pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti parañca pāṇātipātā veramaṇiyā samādapeti… Attanā ca sammādiṭṭhiko hoti parañca sammādiṭṭhiyā samādapeti.

Illustration: kalyāṇa, meritorious

It is this [absolute] Selfhood of mine that speaks and experiences here and there the karmic consequences of meritorious and demeritorious deeds; and this [absolute] Selfhood of mine is everlasting, enduring, eternal, of an unchangeable nature, and will endure like unto eternity itself.

yo me ayaṁ attā vado vedeyyo tatra tatra kalyāṇapāpakānaṁ kammānaṁ vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti. So kho pana me ayaṁ attā nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassatī ti. (MN i 8)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, meritorious

Therefore one should do what is meritorious as a collection for a future life. Meritorious deeds are the support for living beings [when they arise] in the world hereafter.

Tasmā kareyya kalyāṇaṁ nicayaṁ samparāyikaṁ puññāni paralokasmiṁ patiṭṭhā honti pāṇinanti. (SN i 93)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, good

‘These ascetic disciples of the Sakyans’ Son do not even know the calculation of the half months, so how could they know anything else that is good?’

pakkhagaṇanamattampi me samaṇā sakyaputtiyā na jānanti. Kimpanime aññaṁ kicci kālyāṇaṁ jānissantī ti. (Vin.1.117)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, good

In the future there will be bhikkhus who desire good almsfood. They will give up going on almsround;.

piṇḍapāte kalyāṇakāmā. Te piṇḍapāte kalyāṇakāmā samānā riñcissanti piṇḍapātikattaṁ

In the future there will be bhikkhus who desire good abodes. They will give up dwelling at the root of a tree, and secluded abodes in forests and quiet groves;

senāsane kalyāṇakāmā. Te senāsane kalyāṇakāmā samānā riñcissanti rukkhamūlikattaṁ. Riñcissanti araññe vanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni. (AN iii 109)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, good

Those of an inferior disposition come together and unite with those of an inferior disposition; those of a good disposition come together and unite with those of a good disposition.

hīnādhimuttikā sattā hīnādhimuttikehi saddhiṁ saṁsandanti samenti. Kalyāṇādhimuttikā kalyāṇādhimuttikehi saddhiṁ saṁsandanti samenti. (SN ii 154)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, good

He gives with the thought, ‘I will get a good reputation’

kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggacchatī ti dānaṁ deti. (DN iii 258)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, good

A bhikkhu with golden skin is good to look at

Kalyāṇadassano bhikkhu kañcanasannibhattaco. (Snp 551)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, good

He is not a good speaker with a good delivery.

no ca kalyāṇavāco hoti kalyāṇavākkaraṇo. (AN iv 298)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, good

A householder who offered good food gave the community of bhikkhus a continuous food supply of meals consisting of four ingredients.

kalyāṇabhattiko gahapati saṅghassa catukkabhattaṁ deti niccabhattaṁ. (Vin.2.77)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, good

A layperson might establish a robe fund for a bhikkhu who is not a relative, thinking: ‘Having purchased robe material with this fund, I will clothe the bhikkhu so and so.’ If the bhikkhu, uninvited, approaches the layperson with a suggestion regarding the robe out of a desire for something good, saying:

‘It would be good indeed, your reverence, if you clothed me in this or that type of robe purchased with the robe fund,’ it is an offence of nissaggiya pācittiya.

sādhu vata maṁ āyasmā iminā cīvaracetāpantena evarūpaṁ vā evarūpaṁ vā cīvaraṁ cetāpetvā acchādehīti kalyāṇakamyataṁ upādāya nissaggiyaṁ pācittiyan ti

‘Desire for something good’ means wanting what is good quality, wanting what is expensive.

Kalyāṇakamyataṁ upādāyā ti sādhatthīko mahagghatthiko. (Vin.3.216)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, virtuous; good

Nonetheless, one gains a good reputation for having virtuous friends, companions, and comrades.

Atha kho naṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggacchati: kalyāṇamitto purisapuggalo kalyāṇasahāyo kalyāṇasampavaṅko ti. (AN i 126-7)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, good; excellent

He is wise, capable, intelligent, very learned, a brilliant speaker, of excellent intuitive insight, mature, and truly an arahant.

Paṇḍito vyatto medhāvī bahussuto cittakathī kalyāṇapaṭibhāno vuddho ceva arahā ca. (AN iii 58)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, excellent

Those teachings which are excellent in the beginning, the middle, and the end.

ye te dhammā ādikalyāṇā majjhekalyāṇā pariyosānakalyāṇā. (Vin.2.96)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, excellent

I would not say anything about Mahānāma the Sakyan except what is excellent and good.

mahānāma sakkaṁ na kiñci vadāmi aññatra kalyāṇā aññatra kusalā ti. (SN v 374)

Illustration: kalyāṇa, excellent

A bhikkhu who is of excellent virtue, who has excellent practices, and excellent discernment is called one who is fully accomplished in this teaching and training system, one who has fulfilled [the religious life], the unexcelled person

Kalyāṇasīlo bhikkhave bhikkhu kalyāṇadhammo kalyāṇapañño imasmiṁ dhammavinaye kevalī vusitavā uttamapuriso ti vuccati.

In what way is a bhikkhu of excellent virtue? In this regard a bhikkhu is virtuous, abides restrained [in conduct] within the constraints of the rules of discipline. He is perfect in conduct and sphere of personal application, seeing danger in the slightest wrongdoing, he trains himself by undertaking the rules of the training.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhū kalyāṇasīlo hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhū sīlavā hoti pātimokkhasaṁvarasaṁvuto viharati ācāragocarasampanno aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu.

In what way is a bhikkhu of excellent practices? In this regard a bhikkhu abides given to developing the seven groups of factors conducive to enlightenment.

Kalyāṇadhammo ca kathaṁ hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sattannaṁ bodhipakkhiyānaṁ dhammānaṁ bhāvanānuyogamanuyutto viharati.

In what way is a bhikkhu of excellent discernment? In this regard a bhikkhu through the destruction of perceptually obscuring states, in this very lifetime enters upon and abides in the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, realising it for himself through transcendent insight.

Kalyāṇapañño ca kathaṁ hoti? idha bhikkhave bhikkhū āsavānaṁ khayā anāsavaṁ cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. (Iti 97)

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kāma

Renderings

Introduction

Five varieties of sensuous pleasure

The five varieties of sensuous pleasure (pañcakāmaguṇā) are visible objects, audible objects, smellable objects, tasteable objects, and tangible objects that are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming (iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā).

These pleasures are vile, coarse and ignoble (mīḷhasukhaṁ puthujjanasukhaṁ anariyasukhaṁ). They should not be pursued, developed or cultivated (na sevitabbaṁ na bhāvetabbaṁ na bahulīkātabbaṁ MN i 454).

The five varieties of sensuous pleasure (pañcakāmaguṇā) are sometimes euphemistically called ‘the music of the fivefold ensemble’ (pañcaṅgikena turiyena: SN i 131).

Kāma: sexual pleasure

Kāma strongly implies sexual pleasure (mānusake kāme: SN i 9). There is no other object which so overwhelms a man’s mind as a woman, or a woman’s mind, a man (cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati: AN i 1).

Kāma: not just sex

But kāma is not just sex. After all, the attractiveness of women is more than their sexuality. It is their wealth, virtue, industriousness, and ability to beget children (SN iv 238). And during the pregnancy of the Bodhisatta’s mother, the sensuous thoughts that arose in her mind did not involve men (na bodhisattamātu purisesu mānasaṁ uppajjati kāmaguṇūpasaṁhitaṁ) (DN ii 13).

Likewise for men. When a group of young Licchavis discussed the ‘five treasures,’ the Buddha mocked them for their preoccupation with kāma (kāmaññeva ārabbha antarā kathā udapādi), explaining the five treasures as not just the Woman Treasure, but the Elephant, Horse, Jewel, and Steward Treasures (DN ii 172).

Bhikkhus and sensuous pleasure

Bhikkhus are not allowed the five varieties of sensuous pleasure:

• He for whom the five varieties of sensuous pleasure are allowed, you can definitely conclude that this is not the practice of an ascetic, not the practice of a disciple of the Sakyans’ Son.

Yassa pañcakāmaguṇā kappanti ekaṁsenetaṁ gāmaṇi dhāreyyāsi assamaṇadhammo asakyaputtiyadhammo ti.

Such pleasure is only allowed to those for whom money is allowed:

• Those for whom gold and silver are allowed, the five varieties of sensuous pleasure are allowed.

yassa kho gāmaṇi jātarūparajataṁ kappati pañcapi tassa kāmaguṇā kappanti. (SN iv 326)

Bhikkhus should regard sensuous pleasure like a [red-hot] charcoal pit:

• So, too, when sensuous pleasures are seen by a bhikkhu as similar to a [red-hot] charcoal pit, then sensuous hankering, love, infatuation, and passion for sensuous pleasures do not lurk within him.

Evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno aṅgārakāsūpamā kāmā diṭṭhā honti yathāssa kāme passato yo kāmesu kāmacchando kāmasneho kāmamucchā kāmapariḷāho so nānuseti. (SN iv 188)

Indeed, the undoing (upaddava) of a recluse is, once surrounded by laypeople, reverting to indulgence:

• Being visited by brahmans and householders from town and country, he becomes infatuated, falls in love, succumbs to greed, and reverts to luxury. This is called the teacher who is undone through the undoing of teachers.

So anvāvaṭṭantesu brāhmaṇagahapatikesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca mucchati nikāyamati gedhaṁ āpajjati āvaṭṭati bāhullāya. Ayaṁ vuccatānanda upaddavo ācariyo ācariyūpaddavena. (MN iii 116)

Objects of sensuous pleasure

Objects of sensuous pleasure include:

  • fancy carriages, earrings (MN i 365)
  • palaces and female musicians (MN i 504).
  • fields, property and gold, cattle and horses, slaves, servants, and maids (Snp 769).
  • Heavenly objects of sensuous pleasure includes the company of celestial nymphs (accharā) in the Nandana Grove (MN i 505).
  • For Wheel-turning monarchs such objects include the seven Treasures (MN iii 172).

Allowances in times of sickness

Some items are considered not sensuous pleasures in the case of sickness. For instance, vehicles, sunshades, and sandals are allowed to bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs when they are sick.

Kāma: sensuous yearning

Kāma can also mean ‘sensuous yearning’:

• There are five varieties of sensuous pleasure.

pañcime bhikkhave kāmaguṇā

Visible objects known via the visual sense… tangible objects known via the tactile sense, all of which are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming

cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā… kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā iṭṭhā kantāmanāpā piyarūpā kāmupasaṁhitā rajaniyā.

These however are not sensuous yearnings.

Apica kho bhikkhave nete kāmā

In the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system they are called the varieties of sensuous pleasure.

kāmaguṇā nāmete ariyassa vinaye vuccanti

The sensuous yearning of a man is his thoughts bound up with attachment.

Saṅkapparāgo purisassa kāmo

The world’s attractive things are not sensuous yearning

Nete kāmā yāni citrāni loke

The sensuous yearning of a man is his thoughts bound up with attachment.

Saṅkapparāgo purisassa kāmo

The world’s attractive things remain as they are

Tiṭṭhanti citrāni tatheva loke

The wise eliminate their hankering for them

Athettha dhīrā vinayanti chandan ti. (AN iii 411)

Comment:

We render saṅkapparāgo as ‘thoughts bound up with attachment’ in accordance with the term ‘thoughts bound up with attachment’ (saṅkappā rāganissitā, AN i 280; Tha 760; Dhp 339).

Kāmadhātu: the sensuous plane of existence

So because the low plane of existence is called kāmadhātu, should it be called the sensuous plane of existence? Or the plane of sensuous yearning? For example, Bodhi calls it ‘the sensory realm’ (AN i 223) whereas Woodward and Walshe call it the ‘world of sense-desire’ (AN i 223; DN ii 57). We prefer Bodhi’s term for the following reason:

The Lokāyatika Brāhmaṇa Sutta (AN iv 430) says that in the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system, the five varieties of sensuous pleasure are called ‘the world [of sensuous pleasure]’ (pañcime brāhmaṇā kāmaguṇā ariyassa vinaye loko ti vuccati), and says that if a bhikkhu enters first jhāna, he is called a bhikkhu who has arrived at the end of the world (i.e. arrived at the end of the world [of sensuous pleasure], lokassa antaṁ āgamma).

But just as the jhānas transcend the five varieties of sensuous pleasure, so they are themselves transcended by the immaterial states of awareness, which are said to ‘transcend the refined material states of awareness’ (atikkamma rūpe) (MN i 34). Because the first of these spheres, the sphere of infinite space, is attained by ‘completely transcending refined material states of awareness’ (sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā), it shows that the refined material states of awareness means the four jhānas.

Thus on attaining first jhāna, sensuous mental imagery is ended (paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa kāmasaññā niruddhā hoti, AN iv 409), and in attaining the state of awareness of boundless space, the perception of the refined material states of awareness is ended (ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samāpannassa rūpasaññā niruddhā hoti, AN iv 409). Thus there are three levels of meditative attainment. These three levels correspond to the three states of individual existence (tayo bhavā), namely:

The correspondence between the three levels of meditative attainment and the three states of individual existence is confirmed in connection to rebirth. Those practising first jhāna, which is the first of the refined material meditations, when they die, get reborn in the refined material plane of existence amongst the devas of the Brahmā group (brahmakāyikānaṁ devānaṁ sahavyataṁ upapajjati). Those who practise the state of awareness of boundless space, which is the first of the immaterial meditations, are reborn amongst the immaterial devas in the state of awareness of boundless space (ākāsānañcāyatanūpagānaṁ devānaṁ sahavyataṁ upapajjati).

Thus:

  • the perception of the five varieties of sensuous pleasure corresponds to individual existence in the sensuous plane of existence (kāmadhātu)
  • the refined material states of awareness correspond to the refined material plane of existence.
  • immaterial states of awareness correspond to the immaterial plane of existence.

This shows that kāmadhātu means ‘the sensuous plane of existence,’ not ‘the plane of sensuous yearning.’

Sensuous, adjective

Kāmā is sometimes used as an adjective: ‘sensuous.’

• sensuous hankering for sensuous pleasure

• I do not recall a sensuous thought having ever arisen in me.

nābhijānāmi kāmavitakkaṁ uppannapubbaṁ. (MN iii 125)

Possessions suitable for laymen devoted to sensuous pleasures

When bhikkhus entered a village with their sandals on, people complained, muttered, and grumbled that the bhikkhus were like laymen devoted to sensuous pleasures (seyyathā pi gihī kāmabhogino ti Vin.1.194). This led to the Buddha forbidding bhikkhus entering the village with sandals on. Other similar events led to a many items being grouped as suitable for laymen devoted to sensuous pleasures (gihī kāmabhogino) but not bhikkhus. For example, animal hides (Vin.1.192), gold and silver ointment boxes (Vin.1.203), brightly coloured or beautiful robes (Vin.1.287, 306), jewellery (Vin.2.106), long hair (Vin.2.107), hair-dressing equipment (Vin.2.107), fleece clothes with the fleece outside (Vin.2.108); gold, silver and crystal bowls; ornamented bowl-stands; gold and silver knives (Vin.2.115); gold and silver thimbles (Vin.2.117); attractive waistbands (Vin.2.136); gold and silver buckles (Vin.2.136); large pillows (Vin.2.150).

Activities suitable for laymen devoted to sensuous pleasures, gihī kāmabhogino

Likewise there are activities suitable only for laymen devoted to sensuous pleasures, not bhikkhus: using mirrors (Vin.2.107), wearing make-up (Vin.2.107), singing (Vin.2.107), sharing dishes and cups (Vin.2.123); trimming one’s hair with scissors (Vin.2.134); removing grey hairs (Vin.2.134); learning and teaching metaphysics and worldy knowledge (Vin.2.139); going to see dancing, singing or music (Vin.2.107; Vin.4.267); bathing with perfume (Vin.4.341); using sunshades (Vin.4.337); using vehicles (Vin.4.338); sharing beds (Vin.4.288); going to art galleries, public parks and lakes (Vin.4.298); financial transactions (Vin.3.239); keeping animals (tiracchānagataṁ upaṭṭhāpenti) (Vin.2.267); keeping male and female slaves and servants (dāsaṁ… dāsiṁ… kammakāraṁ… kammakāriṁ upaṭṭhāpenti) (Vin.2.267); engaging in trade (Vin.2.267).

Gihī kāmabhogino: non-celibate laypeople

The Buddha’s lay disciples are divided into four groups, according to the sex and sexuality of their bodies. Here, we call kāmabhogino ‘non-celibate .’ All disciples are ‘clothed in white’ (odātavasanā).

• celibate men lay followers

upāsakā gihī odātavasanā brahmacārino

• non-celibate men lay followers

upāsakā gihī odātavasanā kāmabhogino

• celibate women lay followers,

upāsikā gihiniyo odātavasanā brahmacāriṇiyo

• non-celibate women lay followers

upāsikā gihiniyo odātavasanā kāmabhoginiyo. (MN i 493)

Food and ‘sensuous pleasure’

Although food is pleasant, if it was considered a ‘sensuous pleasure’ the ascetic life would be impossible. It is nonetheless surprising that there are no rules on luxurious foods because the Vatthūpama Sutta (MN i 38) shows that luxurious food is a spiritual obstruction for those with defiled mental states (cittassa upakkilesā) because it says that for the virtuous bhikkhu whose mind is collected (cittaṁ samādhiyati), even if he eats fine almsfood ‘the black grains removed, with various curries and vegetables, that will not be a spiritual obstruction for him’ (nevassa naṁ hoti antarāyāya, MN i 38). This implies that luxurious food is a spiritual obstruction for less accomplished bhikkhus.

Food: the training for bhikkhus

Regarding food, the training in restraint for bhikkhus does not concern the quality of the food but the timing, the quantity, and the bhikkhu’s attitude:

Alcohol

Alcohol is not considered a sensuous pleasure even for Wheel-turning monarchs because, even by laypeople, it is not a pleasure to be enjoyed at all.

Illustrations

Illustration: kāma, sensuous pleasure

In the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system these five varieties of sensuous pleasure are called shackles and bondage [to individual existence].

pañcime kāmaguṇā ariyassa vinaye andū ti pi vuccanti bandhanan ti pi vuccanti. (DN i 245)

kāme

kāme: (main article see: kāma)

Illustration: kāme, sensuous pleasures

A man greedy for fields, for property and gold, cattle and horses, slaves and servants, maids and relatives, and many sensuous pleasures, is overpowered by what is weak.

Khettaṁ vatthuṁ hiraññaṁ vā gavassaṁ dāsaporisaṁ
Thiyo bandhū puthu kāme yo naro anugijjhati
Abalā naṁ baliyanti. (Snp 769-770)

kāmā

kāmā: (main article see: kāma)

Illustration: kāmā, sensuous pleasures

Sensuous pleasures are unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, and destined to change, and from their change and alteration there arises grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation.

Kāmā hi bho aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā tesaṁ vipariṇāmaññathābhāvā uppajjanti sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. (DN i 36)

kāmehi

kāmehi: (main article see: kāma)

Illustration: kāmehi, sensuous pleasures

Secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, he enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]. For him the mental imagery of previous sensuous pleasure ceases.

So vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā kāmasaññā sā nirujjhati. (DN i 182)

Illustration: kāma, sensuous pleasure

Whatever physical and psychological pleasure arises from the five varieties of sensuous pleasure is the sweetness of sensuous pleasures.

Yaṁ kho bhikkhave ime pañcakāmaguṇe paṭicca uppajjati sukhaṁ somanassaṁ ayaṁ kāmānaṁ assādo.

The elimination and abandonment of fondness and attachment regarding sensuous pleasures is the deliverance from sensuous pleasures.

Yo kho bhikkhave kāmesu chandarāgavinayo chandarāgappahānaṁ idaṁ kāmānaṁ nissaraṇaṁ. (MN i 87)

Illustration: kāmā, sensuous pleasures

Sensuous pleasures―attractive, sweet, and charming―distract the mind through their many different forms.

Kāmā hi citrā madhurā manoramā virūparūpena mathenti cittaṁ

Seeing danger in the varieties of sensuous pleasure, I went forth [into the ascetic life], O king.

Ādīnavaṁ kāmaguṇesu disvā tasmā ahaṁ pabbajitomhi rāja. (MN ii 74)

Illustration: kāma, sensuous pleasure

If a bhikkhu on reflection knows that his mind has some dealing with some aspect of the five varieties of sensuous pleasure, then he knows that he has undiscarded fondness and attachment regarding the five varieties of sensuous pleasure.

atthi kho me imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu aññatarasmiṁ vā aññatarasmiṁ vā āyatane uppajjati cetaso samudācāro ti. Evaṁ santametaṁ ānanda bhikkhu evaṁ pajānāti yo kho imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu chandarāgo so me appahīno ti. (MN iii 114)

Illustration: kāmā, sensuous pleasures; kāma, sensuous

So, too, when sensuous pleasures are regarded by a bhikkhu as similar to a [red-hot] charcoal pit, sensuous hankering, love, infatuation, and passion for sensuous pleasures do not lurk within him.

Evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno aṅgārakāsūpamā kāmā diṭṭhā honti yathāssa kāme passato yo kāmesu kāmacchando kāmasneho kāmamucchā kāmapariḷāho so nānuseti. (SN iv 188)

Illustration: kāma, sensuous

Now, Udāyī, the physical and psychological pleasure that arises from the five varieties of sensuous pleasure is called sensuous pleasure.

Yaṁ kho udāyi ime pañcakāmaguṇe paṭicca uppajjati sukhaṁ somanassaṁ idaṁ vuccati kāmasukhaṁ. (MN i 454)

Illustration: kāma, sensuous

Friend, in the eighty years since I went forth [into the ascetic life] I do not recall a sensuous mental image having ever arisen in me.

Asīti me āvuso kassapa vassāni pabbajitassa nābhijānāmi kāmasaññaṁ uppannapubbaṁ. (MN iii 125)

Illustration: kāmā, yearnings

Master Gotama, we have such yearnings, desires, and aspirations as these:

mayaṁ bho gotama evaṁ kāmā evañchandā evaṁ adhippāyā

‘May we dwell in a home crowded with children! May we enjoy Kāsian sandalwood! May we wear garlands, fragrances, and perfumes! May we receive gold and silver! With the demise of the body at death, may we be reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds!’

puttasambādhasayanaṁ ajjhāvaseyyāma. Kāsikacandanaṁ paccanubhaveyyāma mālāgandhavilepanaṁ dhāreyyāma jātarūparajataṁ sādiyeyyāma. Kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjeyyāma. (SN v 353)

kāmayamānassa

kāmayamānassa: (main article see: kāma)

Illustration: kāmayamānassa, yearning; kāmaṁ, sensuous pleasure

If, yearning for sensuous pleasure, it prospers for him, he’s ecstatic, yes, the mortal who gets what he wants.

Kāmaṁ kāmayamānassa tassa ce taṁ samijjhati
Addhā pītimano hoti laddhā macco yadicchati

But yearning and desirous, if that being’s pleasures diminish he is as wounded as if pierced by an arrow.

Tassa ce kāmayānassa chandajātassa jantuno
Te kāmā parihāyanti sallaviddhova ruppati. (Snp 766-7)

Illustration: kāmā, yearning

Bhikkhus, for the most part beings have such yearnings, desires, and aspirations

yebhuyyena bhikkhave sattā evaṁ kāmā evaṁ chandā evaṁ adhippāyā

‘If only unlikeable, unloveable, and displeasing things would diminish and likeable, loveable, and pleasing things would increase!’

aho vata aniṭṭhā akantā amanāpā dhammā parihāyeyyuṁ iṭṭhā kantā manāpā dhammā abhivaḍḍheyyunti. (MN i 309)

kāmemī

kāmemī: (main article see: kāma)

Illustration: kāmemī, yearn for

I want and yearn for the most beautiful girl in this country

ahaṁ yā imasmiṁ janapade janapadakalyāṇī taṁ icchāmi taṁ kāmemī ti. (MN ii 33)

kāmo

kāmo: (main article see: kāma)

Illustration: kāmo, yearning

A man would come along wanting to live, not die, yearning for pleasure and loathing pain.

Atha puriso āgaccheyya jīvitukāmo amaritukāmo sukhakāmo dukkhapaṭikkūlo. (SN ii 99-100)

kāmaṁ

kāmaṁ: (main article see: kāma)

Illustration: kāmaṁ, willingly

Willingly let just my skin, sinews and bone remain, and let the flesh and blood dry up on my body, but my right effort shall not be relaxed so long as I have not attained what can be attained by manly strength, by manly energy, by manly application [to the practice].

kāmaṁ taco ca nahāru ca aṭṭhi ca avasissatu upasussatu sarīre maṁsalohitaṁ yaṁ taṁ purisatthāmena purisaviriyena purisaparakkamena pattabbaṁ na taṁ apāpuṇitvā viriyassa satthānaṁ bhavissatī ti. (MN i 481)

Illustration: kāmā, want

‘Ambaṭṭha, this is a rightful question for you which you may not want to answer.’

ayaṁ kho pana te ambaṭṭha sahadhammiko pañho āgacchati akāmāpi vyākātabbo. (DN i 94)

Illustration: kāmā, desiring

Once a certain bhikkhu had gone for his daytime abiding, he kept thinking unvirtuous, thoughts associated with the household life. Then the deva inhabiting that woodland grove, being tenderly concerned for that bhikkhu, desiring his spiritual well-being (atthakāmā), desiring to stir up in him an earnest attitude [to the practice] (saṁvejetukāmā), approached him and addressed him in verses (SN i 197).

Illustration: kāmā, desire

‘May those desiring gains acquire them; may those desiring merit do meritorious deeds!’

labhantu lābhakāmā puññakāmā karontu pana puññānī ti. (SN ii 198)

kāmabhoginā

kāmabhoginā: (main article see: kāma)

Illustration: kāmabhoginā, devoted to sensuous pleasures

This is hard for you to know, great king, a layman devoted to sensuous pleasures, living in a home crowded with children, using Kāsian sandalwood, wearing garlands, fragrances, and perfumes, accepting gold and silver.

Dujjānaṁ ko panetaṁ mahārāja tayā gihinā kāmabhoginā puttasambādhasayanaṁ ajjhāvasantena kāsikacandanaṁ paccanubhontena mālāgandhavilepanaṁ dhārayantena jātarūparajataṁ sādiyantena. (Uda 65)

kāmabhogino

kāmabhogino: (main article see: kāma)

Illustration: kāmabhogino, devoted to sensuous pleasures

Bhikkhus examined a facial mark in a mirror and in a bowl of water. People complained, muttered, and grumbled that they were like laymen devoted to sensuous pleasures

ādāse pi udakapatte pi mukhanimittaṁ olokenti. Manussā ujjhāyanti khīyanti vipācenti seyyathā pi gihī kāmabhogino ti. (Vin.2.107)

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kāye kāyānupassī viharati

Renderings

Introduction

Three components

Kāye kāyānupassī has three components.

1) A noun in the locative case (kaye)

2) an intermediate noun (kaya)

3) anupassī, which means ‘a contemplator,’ but is functionally a present participle (i.e. ‘contemplating’), and confirmed as such in both DOP and PED (under anupassi).

Threefold structure in other phrases

This threefold structure occurs in other similar phrases:

• He abides contemplating the wretchedness (i.e. the wretched nature) of the body

kāye ādīnavānupassī viharati. (AN v 110)

• He abides contemplating the unloveliness (i.e. the unlovely nature) of the body

kāye asubhānupassī viharati. (AN v 111)

The aspect that is contemplated is seen here to be the nature of the object that is in the locative case. About this, Bodhi says:

• “In each case, the word conjoined with anupassī is the aspect that is contemplated, and the word in the locative case is the sphere in relation to which that aspect is contemplated. Analogously, in kāye kāyānupassī viharati, the kāya conjoined with anupassī is the aspect that is contemplated (the “bodiness” of the body) and the locative kāye is the domain in relation to which that aspect is contemplated” (NDB n.197).

By comparison, in kāye kāyānupassī, the intermediate kaya means body-nature, or, as Bodhi puts it, ‘bodiness.’ This leads to our phrase: ‘he abides contemplating the nature of the body.’

Confirmation: kāye kāyānupassī equals kāye asubhānupassī

Because unloveliness is the nature of the body, it should be possible to demonstrate that kāye kāyānupassī equals kāye asubhānupassī, which would confirm our rendering. That these phrases are equivalent is obvious in the comparison of these two passages:

• In this [wretched human] body there are head hairs… urine. Thus he abides contemplating the unloveliness of this [wretched human] body.

atthi imasmiṁ kāye kesā… muttan ti. Iti imasmiṁ kāye asubhānupassī viharati. (AN v 109)

• In this [wretched human] body there are head hairs… urine. Thus he abides contemplating the nature of the body internally.

atthi imasmiṁ kāye kesā… muttan ti. Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. (DN ii 293)

Illustrations

Illustration: kāye kāyānupassī viharati, abides contemplating the nature of the body

“And how is a bhikkhu mindful?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu sato hoti:

In this regard a bhikkhu abides contemplating the nature of the body, vigorously, fully consciously, and mindfully, having eliminated greed and dejection in regard to the world [of phenomena].

idha bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ

He abides contemplating the nature of sense impressions… the nature of the mind… the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings… In this way a bhikkhu is mindful.

Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati… Citte cittānupassī viharati… Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati… Evaṁ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu sato hoti. (SN v 142)

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ettāvatā

kittāvatā

Renderings

Illustrations

ettāvatā

ettāvatā: (main article see: kittāvatā)

Illustration: ettāvatā, as if

• Suppose some workman said: ‘This is what King Pasenadi of Kosala says!’ Would he be speaking the King's words or giving the King’s advice, as if he were the King or King's chief minister?

evampi rājā pasenadi kosalo āha evampi rājā pasenadī kosalo āhā ti. Api nu so rājabhaṇitaṁ vā bhaṇati rājamantaṁ vā manteti ettāvatā so assa rājā vā rājamahāmatto vā ti?

• No indeed, reverend Gotama (DN i 104-5).

Illustration: ettāvatā, even though

• What do you think, Ambaṭṭha? Suppose a khattiya, for some reason, has been punished and banished from the country or city. In spite of this, would he receive a seat and water from the brahmans?

• He would, reverend Gotama.

• Would they allow him to eat at funeral-rites as a guest?

• They would, reverend Gotama.

• Would they teach him the sacred texts or not?

• They would, reverend Gotama.

• Even though, Ambaṭṭha, the khattiya has reached the extreme of humiliation.

Ettāvatā kho ambaṭṭha khattiyo paramanihīnataṁ patto hoti. (DN i 98-9)

Illustration: ettāvatā, at that point; ettāvatā, only at that point

There is, sir, that [absolute] Selfhood as you describe. That I do not deny. But the [absolute] Selfhood has not at that point attained to the highest pleasure in this lifetime.

atthi kho bho eso attā yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi neso natthī ti vadāmi; no ca kho bho ayaṁ attā ettāvatā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hoti.

… But whensoever the [absolute] Selfhood, secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], only at that point, sir, has the [absolute] Selfhood attained to the highest pleasure in this lifetime.

Yato kho bho ayaṁ attā vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati ettāvatā kho bho ayaṁ attā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hotī ti. (DN i 36)

Illustration: ettāvatā, at this point; kittāvatā, at what point?

• ’Nigrodha, at this point, austerity and asceticism has not reached the peak, the very pith. It has only reached the inner bark.’

Na kho nigrodha ettāvatā tapojigucchā aggappattā ca hoti sārappattā ca api ca kho tacappattā hotī ti

• ’At what point, then, bhante has austerity and asceticism reached the peak, the very pith?’

Kittāvatā ca kho pana bhante tapojigucchā aggappattā ca hoti sārappattā ca. (DN iii 50)

Illustration: ettāvatā, not until this point

He knows that birth is destroyed; the religious life has been fulfilled; what had to be done has been done; there will be no further arising in any state of individual existence.

Khīṇā jāti vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ nāparaṁ itthattāyāti pajānāti.

This, too, is called a footprint of the Perfect One, a scratch mark of the Perfect One, a tusk slash of the Perfect One,

Idampi vuccati brāhmaṇa tathāgatapadaṁ iti pi tathāgatanisevitaṁ iti pi tathāgatārañjitaṁ itipi.

And it is not until this point that a noble disciple can come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is perfectly enlightened; the teaching is well explained by the Blessed One; the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the excellent practice.’

Ettāvatā kho brāhmaṇa ariyasāvako niṭṭhaṁ gato hoti sammāsambuddho bhagavā svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho ti. (MN i 184)

Illustration: kittāvatā, in what ways; ettāvatā, in these ways

In what ways do people explain the [absolute] Selfhood?

Kittāvatā ca ānanda attānaṁ paññapento paññapeti

Either material and limited, or material and unlimited, or immaterial and limited, or immaterial and unlimited.

rūpiṁ vā hi ānanda parittaṁ attānaṁ paññapento paññapeti rūpī me paritto attā ti… arūpiṁ vā hi ānanda anantaṁ attānaṁ paññapento paññapeti arūpī me ananto attā ti.

In these ways people explain the [absolute] Selfhood.

Ettāvatā kho ānanda attānaṁ paññapento paññapeti. (DN ii 65)

Illustration: ettāvatā, in this way

It is not in this way, Ānanda, that the Perfect One is honoured, revered, respected, reverenced, and venerated

Na kho ānanda ettāvatā tathāgato sakkato vā hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. (DN ii 138)

Illustration: ettāvatā, in this way

When a bhikkhu recollects the Buddha, the teaching, and the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples in this way, and detached awareness based on what is spiritually wholesome is established within him, he is pleased about it.

Tassa ce āvuso bhikkhuno evaṁ buddhaṁ anussarato evaṁ dhammaṁ anussarato evaṁ saṅghaṁ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā saṇṭhāti so tena attamano hoti.

In this way, much has been accomplished by the bhikkhu.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso bhikkhuno bahukataṁ hoti. (MN i 186-7)

Illustration: kittāvatā, in what way; ettāvatā, in this way

In what way do the disciples of a teacher who lives secludedly not likewise train themselves in seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Kittāvatā nu kho āvuso satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṁ nānusikkhanti?

… In this way the disciples of a teacher who lives secludedly do not likewise train themselves in seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Ettāvatāvuso satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṁ nānusikkhanti. (MN i 14)

Illustration: kittāvatā, in what way; ettāvatā, in this way

In what way, bhante, can a bhikkhu abide at ease while living in a monastic community?

Kittāvatā nu kho bhante bhikkhu saṅghe viharanto phāsuṁ vihareyyāti.

When a bhikkhu is himself perfect in virtue but does not exhort others in regard to higher virtue. In this way, Ānanda, a bhikkhu can dwell at ease while living in a monastic community.

Yato kho ānanda bhikkhu attanā sīlasampanno hoti no ca paraṁ adhisīle sampavattā. Ettāvatā pi kho ānanda bhikkhu saṅghe viharanto phāsuṁ vihareyyā ti. (AN iii 132-3)

Illustration: kittāvatā, in what way; ettāvatā, in this way

• ’Bhante, in what way, stated briefly, is a bhikkhu liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through the destruction of craving

Kittāvatā nu kho bhante bhikkhu saṅkhittena taṇhāsaṅkhayavimutto hoti …

In this way, stated briefly, Lord of the Devas, is a bhikkhu liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through the destruction of craving

Ettāvatā kho devānaminda bhikkhu saṅkhittena taṇhāsaṅkhayavimutto hoti. (MN i 251)

Illustration: ettāvatā, this much

Subha said the virtue of some ascetics and Brahmanists was less impressive than the bhikkhus, and added that if any of those ascetics and Brahmanists discovered the virtue of the bhikkhus in themselves they would exclaim:

‘This much is enough. This much is sufficient. The goal of our asceticism has been reached. There is nothing more to be done.’

alamettāvatā katamettāvatā anuppatto no sāmaññattho natthi no kiñci uttariṁ karaṇiyan ti. (DN i 207)

Illustration: ettāvatā, this much

Is this much enough, your majesty? Will this much do, your majesty? Is this much to be offered, your majesty?

alamettāvatā mahārāja katamettāvatā mahārāja pūjitamettāvatā mahārājāti. (DN ii 176)

Illustration: ettāvatā, thus far and no further

Pausing at the door before entering his meditation chamber, King Mahāsudassana exclaimed:

‘May sensuous thought stop! May unbenevolent thought stop! May malicious thought stop!’

tiṭṭha kāmavitakka tiṭṭha vyāpādavitakka tiṭṭha vihiṁsāvitakka

‘Thus far and no further, sensuous thought! Thus far and no further, unbenevolent thought! Thus far and no further, malicious thought!’

ettāvatā kāmavitakka ettāvatā vyāpādavitakka ettāvatā vihiṁsāvitakkā ti. (DN ii 186)

Illustration: ettāvatā, thus far

Pañcasikha approached the Indasāla Cave with his lute, then thought, ‘Thus far is neither too far from nor too near to the Blessed One, and he will hear my voice;’ and so he began to sing.

Upasaṅkamitvā ettāvatā me bhagavā neva atidūre bhavissati na accāsanena saddañca me sossatī ti. (DN ii 265)

Illustration: ettāvatā, in view of

When Subha sent a messenger to invite Venerable Ānanda to visit, Ānanda said he had just taken medicine, but if he had the time and opportunity he would visit the following day.

Atthi me ajja bhesajjamattā pītā. Appevanāma svepi upasaṅkameyyāma kālañca samayañca upādāyāti

The messenger reported this to Subha and added:

‘Therefore, in view of this arrangement the Reverend Ānanda will probably take the opportunity to come tomorrow.'

Ettāvatā pi kho bho katameva etaṁ yato so bho bhavaṁ ānando okāsamakāsi svātanāyapi upasaṅkamanāyā ti. (DN i 205)

Comment:

PED says yato… ettāvatā means ‘because… therefore.’

Illustration: ettāvatā, on account of this

Then it occurred to me:

tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave etadahosi

The stream of consciousness turns back at immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form; it does not go further.

paccudāvattati kho idaṁ viññāṇaṁ nāmarūpamhā nāparaṁ gacchati

On account of this one can be born, age and die, pass away and be reborn

Ettāvatā jāyetha vā jīyetha vā mīyetha vā cavetha vā upapajjetha vā

Namely through the stream of consciousness being dependent on immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form; and immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form being dependent on the stream of consciousness.

yadidaṁ nāmarūpapaccayā viññāṇaṁ viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ. (SN ii 104)

Illustration: ettāvatā, on account of this; ettāvatā, thus far

Therefore, this is the indispensible condition, the source, the origin, the necessary condition of the stream of consciousness, namely immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form.

Tasmātihānanda eseva hetu etaṁ nidānaṁ esa samudayo esa paccayo viññāṇassa yadidaṁ nāmarūpaṁ

On account of this one can be born, age and die, pass away and be reborn.

Ettāvatā kho ānanda jāyetha vā jīyetha vā mīyetha vā cavetha vā upapajjetha vā

Thus far extends the ways of verbal designation,

Thus far extends the ways of conventional expression,

Thus far extends the ways of intimation,

Thus far extends the sphere of discernment,

Thus far the round of rebirth revolves and personal existence is to be discerned,

ettāvatā vaṭṭaṁ vattati itthattaṁ paññāpanāya

namely immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form together with the stream of consciousness,

yadidaṁ nāmarūpaṁ saha viññāṇena

which continue through mutual conditionality.

Illustration: kittāvatā, by virtue of what attributes (vs. evaṁ and vs. kathaṁ… idha)

• By virtue of what attributes is someone who is not vigorously applied [to the practice] and unafraid of wrongdoing incapable of reaching enlightenment, incapable of realising the Untroubled, incapable of reaching unsurpassed safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence]?”

Kittāvatā nu kho āvuso anātāpī hoti anottāpī abhabbo sambodhāya abhabbo nibbānāya abhabbo anuttarassa yogakkhemassa adhigamāya?

• In this regard, friend, a bhikkhu thinks:

‘If unarisen unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors arise in me, this would lead to my harm,’ but he does not vigorously apply himself [to the practise].

Idhāvuso bhikkhu anuppannā me pāpakā akusalā dhammā uppajjamānā anatthāya saṁvatteyyunti na ātappaṁ karoti

… In this way he is someone not vigorously applied [to the practice].

Evaṁ kho āvuso anātāpī hoti.

In what way is someone unafraid of wrongdoing.

Kathañcāvuso anottāpī hoti?

In this regard, friend, a bhikkhu thinks:

If unarisen unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors arise in me, this would lead to my harm,’ but he is unafraid of wrongdoing.

Idhāvuso bhikkhu anuppannā me pāpakā akusalā dhammā uppajjamānā anatthāya saṁvatteyyunti na ottapati. (SN ii 195-6)

Illustration: kittāvatā, by virtue of what attributes; ettāvatā, by virtue of these attributes

‘Bhante, by virtue of what attributes are the aggregates called aggregates?’

Kittāvatā pana bhante khandhānaṁ khandhādhivacanaṁ hotī ti?

By virtue of these attributes the aggregates called aggregates.’

Ettāvatā kho bhikkhu khandhānaṁ khandhādhivacanaṁ hotī ti. (MN iii 16-17)

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds; ettāvatā, on these grounds

Right perception [of reality], right perception [of reality],’ is said, friend. On what grounds does a noble disciple have right perception [of reality]?

Sammādiṭṭhi sammādiṭṭhī ti āvuso vuccati kittāvatā nu kho āvuso ariyasāvako sammādiṭṭhi hoti.

When a noble disciple discerns what is spiritually unwholesome, the origin of what is spiritually unwholesome, what is spiritually wholesome, and the origin of what is spiritually wholesome,

Yato kho āvuso ariyasāvako akusalañca pajānāti akusalamūlañca pajānāti. Kusalañca pajānāti kusalamūlañca pajānāti

On these grounds a noble disciple has right perception [of reality].

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso ariyasāvako sammādiṭṭhi hoti. (MN i 46)

On these grounds a noble disciple has

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso ariyasāvako

right perception [of reality]

sammādiṭṭhi hoti

has a perception [of reality] that is correct

has unshakeable faith in the [excellence of the] teaching

dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato

and has fathomed this true teaching

āgato imaṁ saddhamman ti. (MN i 47)

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds?

On grounds [of what attainment], friend Kālāma, having realised this state for yourself through transcendent insight and abiding in it, do you make it known to others?

kittāvatā no āvuso kālāma imaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedesī ti.

In reply he declared [that he had realised] the state of awareness of nonexistence.

Evaṁ vutte bhikkhave āḷāro kālāmo ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ pavedesi.

In no short time, I quickly realised that state for myself through transcendent insight and abided in it.

So kho ahaṁ bhikkhave nacirasseva khippameva taṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsiṁ. (MN i 164-6)

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds; ettāvatā, on these grounds

‘Insightfulness into reality’ is spoken of, bhante.

vijjā vijjā ti bhante vuccati

What now, bhante, is insightfulness into reality, and on what grounds is one possessed of insight into reality?’

katamā nu kho bhante vijjā kittāvatā ca vijjāgato hotī ti?

‘Bhikkhus, whatsoever is the knowledge of suffering [according to reality], of the origin of suffering, the ending of suffering, and of the practice leading to the ending of suffering, is called insightfulness into reality, and it is on these grounds that one is possessed of insight into reality.’

Yaṁ kho bhikkhu dukkhe ñāṇaṁ dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṁ dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṁ ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhu vijjā ettāvatā ca vijjāgato hoti. (SN v 430)

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds; ettāvatā, on these grounds

• ’One perfect [in the development of] the [six] sense faculties’ is said. bhante.’ On what grounds, bhante, is one perfect [in the development of] the [six] sense faculties?

indriyasampanno indriyasampannoti bhante vuccati kittāvatā nu kho bhante indriyasampanno hotī ti?

• If, bhikkhu, one abides contemplating the arising and disappearance of the faculty of sight… the faculty of mental cognisance, one is disillusioned with the faculty of mental cognisance

Cakkhundriye ce bhikkhu udayabbayānupassī viharanto cakkhundriye nibbindati… manindriye ce bhikkhu udayabbayānupassī viharanto manindriye nibbindati.

… Being disillusioned [with originated phenomena], one is unattached [to originated phenomena]. Being unattached [to originated phenomena] one is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

nibbindaṁ virajjati virāgā vimuccati.

… On these grounds one is perfect [in the development of] the [six] sense faculties.

ettāvatā kho bhikkhu indriyasampanno hotī ti. (SN iv 140)

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds? (vs. evaṁ)

• Bhante, it is said: ‘Individual existence. Individual existence

bhavo bhavo ti bhante vuccati.

On what grounds is there individual existence?

kittāvatā nu kho bhante bhavo hotī ti?

• For beings [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving the stream of consciousness is established in the low plane of existence

avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ hīnāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ

… In this way renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future

evaṁ āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hoti.

Thus, Ānanda, is there individual existence

Evaṁ ko ānanda bhavo hotī ti. (AN i 223-4)

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds? (vs. yasmā… tasmā)

‘Void [of personal qualities] is the world [of phenomena]’: on what grounds, bhante, is this said?

suñño loko suñño loko ti bhante vuccati kittāvatā nu kho bhante suñño loko ti vuccatī ti?

Because, Ānanda, it is void of an [absolute] Selfhood and of what could belong to an [absolute] Selfhood, therefore it is said that the world [of phenomena] is void [of personal qualities].

Yasmā ca kho ānanda suññaṁ attena vā attaniyena vā tasmā suñño loko ti vuccati. (SN iv 54)

Illustration: kittāvatā, in reference to what; ettāvatā, in reference to this

In reference to what was tranquillity spoken of by the Blessed One?

Passaddhi passaddhī ti āvuso vuccati kittāvatā nu kho āvuso passaddhi vuttā bhagavatāti?

Secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, a bhikkhu enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Idhāvuso bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

It is in reference to this that tranquillity is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso passaddhi vuttā bhagavatā pariyāyena… . (AN iv 456)

Illustration: kittāvatā, in reference to what (vs. what, yaṁ)

‘World [of phenomena]’ is said, bhante. In reference to what was it said?

loko loko ti bhante vuccati kittāvatā nu kho bhante loko ti vuccatī ti.

Whatever is destined to decay is called ‘the world [of phenomena]’ in the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system.

Yaṁ kho ānanda palokadhammaṁ ayaṁ vuccati ariyassa vinaye loko. (SN iv 53)

Illustration: kittāvatā, in reference to what (vs. tasmā)

• Fields of sensation, fields of sensation, is said, friend. In reference to what was it said?

Viññāṇaṁ viññāṇan ti āvuso vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho āvuso viññāṇan ti vuccatī ti?

• One knows, one knows. Therefore fields of sensation is said.

Vijānāti vijānātī ti kho āvuso tasmā viññāṇan ti vuccati. (MN i 292-3)

@

vippaṭisāra

kukkucca

Renderings

Introduction

Kukkucca: fretting

When Venerable Anuruddha complained that for all his meditation skill, his mind was still not released from the āsavas, Venerable Sāriputta called this kukkucca, fretting (AN i 281). The subsiding of fretting is therefore linked to arahantship. This association is confirmed in the following verse:

• Serve with other food and drink the one who is spiritually perfected, the great Seer, one whose āsavas are destroyed, whose fretting has subsided, for he is the [unsurpassed] field for one looking for merit.

Aññena ca kevalinaṁ mahesiṁ khīṇāsavaṁ kukkuccavūpasantaṁ
Annena pānena upaṭṭhahassu khettaṁ hi taṁ puññapekkhassa hoti. (Snp 481)

Kukkucca: scrupulousness

When a sick bhikkhu refused to use a vehicle out of respect of the bhikkhus’ discipline, it was from scrupulousness (kukkuccāyanto Vin.1.191).

Kukkucca: remorse

When, through sickness, Venerable Vakkali was unable to visit the Buddha, he felt remorseful about it (kukkuccaṁ, SN iii 120).

When they break their precepts bhikkhus feel remorseful (kukkuccaṁ SN iii 120). This is linked to vippaṭisāro (being conscience-stricken) and attā sīlato upavadatī (reproaching oneself in regard to virtue).

Kukkucca: anxiety

Sometimes kukkucca is the anxiety associated with the thought ‘I hope I have not fallen into an offence’: Tesaṁ kukkuccaṁ ahosi. Bhagavatā sikkhāpadaṁ paññattaṁ. Kacci nu kho mayaṁ pārājikaṁ āpattiṁ āpannā ti (Vin.3.34). See Illustrations.

Kukkucca: guilt

When bhikkhus impatiently recited the Pātimokkha instead of waiting for the other bhikkhus to arrive, knowing it was wrongful to do so, they recited it ‘guiltily’ (kukkuccapakatā Vin.1.131).

Vippaṭisāra: uneasiness

An example of uneasiness is found in the assertion that a Perfect One exists after death (hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti), or does not exist. This is a matter of uneasiness (vippaṭisāro eso, AN iv 68-9) presumably because any theory of the Buddha either existing or not existing after death is philosophically disasterous.

Kukkuccaṁ plus vippaṭisāro: remorseful and conscience-stricken

When kukkuccaṁ occurs in combination with vippaṭisāro the pair of terms can mean either ‘remorseful and conscience-stricken’ or ‘anxious and uneasy.’ For example, when a chief minister became angry with the bhikkhus, and insulted them, he was remorseful and conscience-stricken about it (ahudeva kukkuccaṁ ahu vippaṭisāro Vin.1.223).

• But soon after the Blessed One had departed, that chief minister, young in faith, became remorseful and conscience-stricken and thought: It is a loss for me, not a gain; it is unfortunate for me, not fortunate, that I, angry and displeased, wanting to insult the bhikkhus, went round filling their bowls and saying: ‘Eat it or take it away’. Now, have I made much merit or demerit?

Atha kho tassa taruṇappasannassa mahāmattassa acirapakkantassa bhagavato ahudeva kukkuccaṁ. Ahu vippaṭisāro alābhā vata me na vata me lābhā dulladdhaṁ vata me na vata me suladdhaṁ yohaṁ kupito anattamano āsādanāpekkho bhikkhūnaṁ patte pūrentā agamāsiṁ 'bhuñjatha vā haratha vā' ti. Kinnu kho mayā bahuṁ pasutaṁ puññaṁ vā apuññaṁ vā ti. (Vin.1.223)

Kukkuccaṁ plus vippaṭisāro: anxiety and uneasiness

But when Venerable Assaji found he could no longer attain inward collectedness, he became anxious and uneasy (anappakaṁ kukkuccaṁ anappako vippaṭisāro) because he thought it would ruin him:

• As I do not attain that inward collectedness, bhante, it occurs to me: ‘May I not waste away!’

Tassa mayhaṁ bhante taṁ samādhiṁ appaṭilabhato evaṁ hoti no ca khvāhaṁ parihāyāmī ti. (SN iii 125)

Illustrations: kukkucca

kukkuccakā

kukkuccakā: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: kukkuccakā, scrupulous

When bhikkhus walked for almsfood badly behaved, those bhikkhus who were of few needs, content [with what is paltry and easily gotten], conscientious, scrupulous, and desirous of training complained, muttered, and grumbled:

ye te bhikkhū appicchā santuṭṭhā lajjino kukkuccakā sikkhākāmā te ujjhāyanti khiyanti vipācenti. (Vin.1.44)

kukkuccāyanto

kukkuccāyanto: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: kukkuccāyanto, scrupulous

When a bhikkhu walking to Sāvatthī became ill, people invited him to use a vehicle. He replied:

• ‘A vehicle is objected to by the Blessed One,’ and being scrupulous, refused it.

Alaṁ āvuso paṭikkhittaṁ bhagavatā yānan ti. Kukkuccāyanto yānaṁ nābhīruhi. (Vin.1.191)

kukkuccasmiṁ

kukkuccasmiṁ: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: kukkuccasmiṁ, fretting

‘Anuruddha, friend, when you say “With purified divine vision surpassing that of men, I survey the thousandfold multi-universe system,” that is your self-centredness.

‘When you say “My… mind is collected and concentrated,” that is your vanity.

‘When you say “But for all that my mind is not liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping,” that is your fretting.

Yampi te āvuso anuruddha evaṁ hoti atha ca pana me na anupādāya āsavehi cittaṁ vimuccatī ti idante kukkuccasmiṁ. (AN i 282)

kukkuccā

kukkuccā: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: kukkuccā, fretting

He should be meditative, not wandering about. He should desist from fretting.

Jhāyī na pādalolassa virame kukkuccā. (Snp 925)

kukkuccāya

kukkuccāya: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: kukkuccāya, anxiety

Why recite these lesser and minor training rules? They only lead to anxiety, vexation, and perplexity.

kiṁ panimehi khuddisante vā sikkhāpadehi uddiṭṭhehi yāvadve kukkuccāya vihesāya vilekhāya saṁvattanti. (Vin.4.143)

kukkuccaṁ

kukkuccaṁ: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: kukkuccaṁ, anxiety

Bhikkhus became anxious over various matters (kismiñci kismiñci ṭhāne kukkuccaṁ uppajjati), wanting to know what was permitted (kinnu kho bhagavatā anuññātaṁ) or forbidden (kiṁ ananuññātan ti) in ‘various situations’ (kismiñci kismiñci ṭhāne) (Vin.1.251).

kukkuccassa

kukkuccassa: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: kukkuccassa, anxiety

There is inward unpeacefulness. Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen restlessness and anxiety, and the increase and expansion of arisen restlessness and anxiety.

Atthi bhikkhave cetaso avūpasamo. Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādāya uppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya. (SN v 103-106)

Illustration: kukkuccaṁ, anxious

A certain bhikkhu having had sex with a monkey became anxious, thinking, ‘The Blessed One has established a training rule. I hope I have not fallen into a pārājika offence.

aññataro bhikkhu makkaṭiyā methunaṁ dhammaṁ patisevi. Tassa kukkuccaṁ ahosi. Bhagavatā sikkhāpadaṁ paññattaṁ. Kacci nu kho ahaṁ pārājikaṁ āpattiṁ āpanno ti. (Vin.3.34)

Illustration: kukkuccaṁ, anxious

Once when a bhikkhu was ill the bhikkhus heated him and he died. They became anxious, thinking, ‘The Blessed One has established a training rule. I hope we have not fallen into a pārājika offence.’

Tena kho pana samayena aññataro bhikkhu gilāno hoti. Taṁ bhikkhū sedesuṁ. So bhikkhu kālamakāsi tesaṁ kukkuccaṁ ahosi. Kacci nū kho mayaṁ pārājikaṁ āpattiṁ āpannā ti. (Vin.3.82)

Illustration: kukkucca, guiltily

In a certain residence several resident bhikkhus, four or more, collect together on an Observance day. They know that there are other resident bhikkhus who have not arrived. Thinking, ‘It is allowable for us to carry out the Observance, it is not unallowable,’ they guiltily perform the Observance and recite the Pātimokkha.

aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahuposathe sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti cattāro vā atirekā vā. Te jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatā ti. Te kappateva amhākaṁ uposatho kātuṁ? Nāmhākaṁ na kappatī ti kukkuccapakatā uposathaṁ karonti. Pātimokkhaṁ uddisanti. (Vin.1.131)

Illustrations: vippaṭisāra

vippaṭisāro

vippaṭisāro: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: vippaṭisāro, matter of uneasiness

The assertion that a Perfect One exists after death, or does not exist, or both exists and does not exist, or neither exists nor not exists (Hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti) is an

• acquiescence in dogmatism

• acquiescence in craving

• acquiescence in mental imagery

• matter of thinking in personal terms

• matter of entrenched perception

• acquiescence in grasping

• and a matter of uneasiness

vippaṭisāro eso. (AN iv 68-9)

vippaṭisārī

vippaṭisārī: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: vippaṭisārī, conscience-stricken; kukkuccaṁ, anxious

A certain bhikkhu intending to have sex with a woman was conscience-stricken at the mere touch.

Tena kho pana samayena aññataro bhikkhu itthiyā methunaṁ dhammaṁ patisevissāmiti chupitamatte vippaṭisārī ahosī.

He became anxious, thinking, ‘The Blessed One has established a training rule. I hope I have not fallen into a pārājika offence.’

Tassa kukkuccaṁ ahosi. (Vin.3.37)

vippaṭisāraṁ

vippaṭisāraṁ: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: vippaṭisāraṁ, uneasy conscience

'It might be, Ānanda, that someone might arouse an uneasy conscience in Cunda the metalworker [by telling him]: “It is a loss for you, friend Cunda, it is unfortunate for you that the Perfect One died after taking his last meal from you!”

Siyā kho panānanda cundassa kammāraputtassa koci vippaṭisāraṁ upadaheyya tassa te āvuso cunda alābhā tassa te dulladdhaṁ yassa te tathāgato pacchimaṁ piṇḍapātaṁ bhuñjitvā parinibbuto ti. (DN ii 135-6)

avippaṭisārissa

avippaṭisārissa: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: avippaṭisārissa, uneasy conscience

For one who is virtuous, perfect in virtue, there is no need to harbour the aspiration: ‘May freedom from an uneasy conscience arise in me.

Sīlavato bhikkhave sīlasampannassa na cetanāya karaṇīyaṁ avippaṭisāro me uppajjatū ti.

It is quite natural that one who is virtuous, perfect in virtue, freedom from an uneasy conscience arises in him.

Dhammatā esā bhikkhave yaṁ sīlavato sīlasampannassa avippaṭisāro uppajjati. (AN v 2)

vippaṭisārino

vippaṭisārino: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: vippaṭisārino, regret

Meditate, Cunda! Do not be negligently applied [to the practice] lest you regret it later!

Jhāyatha cunda mā pamādattha. Mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha. (MN i 46)

Illustration: anxiety and uneasiness

kukkuccaṁ

kukkuccaṁ: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: kukkuccaṁ, anxious; vippaṭisāro, and uneasy

’Bhante, I am not willing to eat at a single session; for if I did, I might become anxious and uneasy about it.’

Ekāsanabhojanaṁ hi me bhante bhuñjato siyā kukkuccaṁ siyā vippaṭisāro ti. (MN i 437-8)

Illustration: kukkucca, anxious; vippaṭisārino, and uneasy

• ’I hope, Assaji, you are not anxious or uneasy about anything.’

Kacci te assaji na kiñci kukkuccaṁ na koci vippaṭisāro ti

• ’In fact, bhante, I am very anxious and uneasy.’

Taggha me bhante anappakaṁ kukkuccaṁ anappako vippaṭisāro ti

• ’I hope, Assaji, you have nothing to reproach yourself about in regard to virtue.’

Kacci pana taṁ assaji attā sīlato na upavadatī ti

• ’I have nothing, bhante, to reproach myself about in regard to virtue.’

Na kho maṁ bhante attā sīlato upavadatī ti

• ’Then, Assaji, what is there to be anxious and uneasy about?’

• ’Formerly, bhante, when I was ill I dwelt with my bodily form tranquillised. Now I do not attain that inward collectedness. As I do not attain that inward collectedness, bhante, it occurs to me: “May I not waste away!”’

Pubbeva khvāhaṁ bhante gelaññe passambhetvā kāyasaṅkhāre viharāmi. Sohaṁ taṁ samādhiṁ nappaṭilabhāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ bhante taṁ samādhiṁ appaṭilabhato evaṁ hoti no ca khvāhaṁ parihāyāmī ti. (SN iii 125)

Illustration: remorseful and conscience-stricken

kukkuccaṁ ahu vippaṭisāro

kukkuccaṁ ahu vippaṭisāro: (main article see: kukkucca)

Illustration: kukkuccaṁ ahu vippaṭisāro, remorseful and conscience-stricken

When a chief minister became angry with the bhikkhus, he became remorseful and conscience-stricken about it.

ahudeva kukkuccaṁ ahu vippaṭisāro. (Vin.1.223)

Illustration: kukkuccaṁ ahu vippaṭisāro, remorseful and conscience-stricken

• ‘Bhante, on one occasion, while the Blessed One instructed the bhikkhus with a talk on the training rules, I became impatient and irritated, thinking: ‘This ascetic is too stringent.’

ahudeva akkhanti ahu appaccayo adhisallikhatevāyaṁ samaṇo ti.

‘Afterwards I became remorseful and conscience-stricken about it.

ahudeva kukkuccaṁ ahu vippaṭisāro. (AN i 237)

Illustration: kukkuccaṁ ahu vippaṭisāro, remorseful and conscience-stricken

• ’I hope, Vakkali, you are not remorseful or conscience-stricken about anything.’

Kacci te vakkali na kiñci kukkuccaṁ na koci vippaṭisāro ti

• ’In fact, bhante, I am very remorseful and conscience-stricken.’

Taggha me bhante anappakaṁ kukkuccaṁ anappako vippaṭisāro ti

• ’I hope, Vakkali, you have nothing to reproach yourself about in regard to virtue.’

Kacci pana taṁ vakkali attā sīlato na upavadatī ti

• ’I have nothing, bhante, to reproach myself about in regard to virtue.’

Na kho maṁ bhante attā sīlato upavadatī ti

• ’Then, Vakkali, what is there to be remorseful and conscience-stricken about?.’

No ce kira vakkali attā sīlato upavadati atha kiñca te kukkuccaṁ ko ca vippaṭisāro ti?

• ’For a long time, bhante, I have wanted to come to see the Blessed One, but I haven’t had strength enough to do so’

Cirapaṭikāhaṁ bhante bhagavantaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamitukāmo natthi ca me kāyasmīṁ tāvatikā balamattā yāvatāhaṁ bhagavantaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkameyyan ti. (SN iii 121)

Illustration: kukkuccaṁ ahu vippaṭisāro, remorseful and conscience-stricken

After having had sex Venerable Sudinna was remorseful and conscience-stricken

Atha kho āyasmato sudinnassa ahudeva kukkuccaṁ ahu vippaṭisāro. (Vin.3.19)

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kulaputta

Renderings

Introduction

Kulaputta: sonship, youth, and high social background

DOP says kulaputta means either

1) the son of a good or noble family

2) a noble youth.

So -putta does not necessarily mean ‘son.’ We will see that it more often indicates ‘youth.’ In some cases it indicates a high social background (‘of the genteel classes’). That -putta indicates youth but not boyhood is our next point.

Kulaputta: youth not boyhood, part 1

Although -putta means youth, it does not mean boyhood. For example, when Venerable Anuruddha is called kulaputta at MN i 205, he would have been at least 35 years old for the following reasons:

1) At that time he was an arahant (MN i 205).

2) Tha 904 says it took him 30 years to overcome torpor (middhaṁ samūhataṁ), which is therefore when he attained arahantship, because only arahants have completely abandoned lethargy and torpor (thīnamiddhanīvaraṇaṁ, SN v 327).

3) His age at ordination is uncertain, but given that his brother informed him of the duties that would fall to him if he remained a layperson, he was likely between 5-20 years old (Vin.2.180-1).

Kulaputta: youth not boyhood, part 2

That kulaputta means youth not boyhood is also obvious in the Licchavikumāra Sutta, which says this:

• Mahānāma, in whatever kulaputta five qualities are found―whether he is a consecrated noble king, a country gentleman, an army general, a village headman, a guildmaster, or someone who exercises personal authority over various families―only growth [in spiritually wholesome factors] is to be expected for him, not a falling away [from them]. What five?

Yassa kassaci mahānāma kulaputtassa pañcadhammā saṁvijjanti yadi vā rañño khattiyassa muddhābhisittassa yadi vā raṭṭhikassa pettanikassa yadi vā senāya senāpatikassa yadi vā gāmagāmikassa yadi vā pūgagāmaṇikassa ye vā pana kulesu paccekādhipaccaṁ kārenti vuddhiyeva pāṭikaṅkhā no parihāni. Katame pañca? . (AN iii 76)

If army generals and village headmen are kulaputtas, then kulaputta does not mean boyhood. We also see that kulaputta is associated with the gentry, which suggests the rendering ‘noble young man.’

Kulaputto: of noble ancestry

Although Ambaṭṭha considered himself a brahman, the Buddha said he was in fact descended from a slavegirl (dāsiputto DN i 92). Ambaṭṭha’s friends initially defended him, saying he was of pure ancestry (sujāto) and a kulaputto. But on discovering the truth, they said he was of impure ancestry (dujjāto), an akulaputto, descended from a slave (dāsiputto).

So, according to brahmans, kulaputto was an exalted term associated with the most prestigious members of their group, the sujāto, and incompatible with slavish forebears. Kulaputta therefore means ‘of noble ancestry.’

The significance of sujāto can be seen in the following conversation, where it is the first quality expected of a brahman who is a master of threefold Vedic knowledge:

• ’In what way, brahman, do brahmans declare a brahman to be a master of threefold Vedic knowledge?’

Yathākathaṁ pana brāhmaṇa brāhmaṇā brāhmaṇaṁ tevijjaṁ paññāpentī ti?

• In this regard, Master Gotama, a brahman is of pure ancestry (sujāto hoti) on both sides of his family, of pure descent, unimpeachable and irreproachable with respect to birth as far back as the seventh generation.

Idha pana bho gotama brāhmaṇo ubhato sujāto hoti mātito ca pitito ca saṁsuddhagahaṇiko yāva sattamā pitāmahāyugā akkhitto anupakkuṭṭho jātivādena. (AN i 166)

Kulaputto: member of the gentry

Related to noble ancestry is gentility. When Venerable Upananda asked a certain great merchant (aññataro seṭṭhiputto) to give him one of his two robes, the man replied:

• But, bhante, for us who are members of the gentry, it is awkward to walk around with only one piece of cloth.

Amhākaṁ kho bhante kulaputtānaṁ kismiṁ viya ekasāṭakaṁ gantuṁ. (Vin.3.211)

Comment:

We call seṭṭhiputto ‘great merchant’ not ‘son of a great merchant,’ taking -putto as pleonastic.

Kulaputto: sons of genteel families

Related to noble ancestry and gentility is a delicate upbringing. For example, Anuruddha the Sakyan had three palaces. When his brother invited him to become a bhikkhu, he complained:

• But I have been delicately nurtured, I am not able to go forth from the household life into the ascetic life.

Ahaṁ kho sukhumālo. Nāhaṁ sakkomi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajituṁ. (Vin.2.180)

The Buddha helped such individuals by providing them with sufficient clothing. He reflected:

• Even those in this teaching and training system who are sons of genteel families and susceptible to cold, afraid of cold, even these are able to keep themselves going with three robes.

yepi kho te kulaputtā imasmiṁ dhammavinaye pabbajitā sītālukā sītabhīrukā tepi sakkonti ticīvarena yāpetu. (Vin.1.288)

Kulaputto: sons of aristocratic families

In relation to ‘highly distinguished,’ we give kulaputtā the meaning ‘sons of the aristocratic families’:

• Now at that time highly distinguished sons of the aristocratic families of Magadha were living the religious life under the Blessed One.

Tena kho pana samayena abhiññātā abhiññātā māgadhakā kulaputtā bhagavati brahmacariyaṁ caranti. (Vin.1.43)

Kulaputta: spiritual nobility

When Venerables Anuruddha, Nandiya, and Kimbila were living together in the Gosinga Sāla-tree Wood, their utmost harmony was shielded by a zealous gatekeeper who so diligently defended the place against visitors, that when on one occasion the Buddha dared enter uninvited, he was told ‘Do not enter this grove, ascetic! There are three kulaputtas here seeking their Soul. Do not disturb them!’

mā samaṇa etaṁ dāyaṁ pāvisi sant’ettha tayo kulaputtā attakāmarūpā viharanti mā tesaṁ aphāsumakāsī ti, MN i 206).

The gatekeeper would hardly have meant this with social connotations ‘There are three member of the gentry living here,’ and kulaputta here seems to imply spiritual nobility. We have seen above that this sense is not just for bhikkhus. We render it as ‘noble young man.’

Kulaputta versus moghapurisā: noble young man

That the elevated connotations of kulaputto extend to the spiritual sphere can be discerned when the Buddha contrasted kulaputtā and moghapurisā:

• Thus do noble young men (kulaputtā) declare their [attainment of] arahantship. The matter is spoken of without any reference to themselves.

evaṁ kho bhikkhave kulaputtā aññaṁ vyākaronti attho ca vutto attā ca anupanīto.

… Yet there are some worthless men (moghapurisā) here who apparently declare [that they have attained] arahantship for fun.

Atha ca pana idhekacce moghapurisā hasamānakā maññe aññaṁ vyākaronti. (AN iii 359)

Kulaputta versus ‘persons’ (puggalā)

Similarly, Gaṇaka Moggallāna contrasted kulaputtā with puggalā:

a) persons (puggalā) without faith who have gone forth from the household life into the ascetic life merely for the sake of a livelihood

puggalā assaddhā jīvikatthā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajitā

b) noble young men (kulaputtā) who have gone forth from the household life into the ascetic life out of faith

kulaputtā saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajitā. (MN iii 6)

Illustrations

kulaputto

kulaputto: (main article see: kulaputta)

Illustration: kulaputto, noble young man

By whatever profession a noble young man makes his living, whether counting, accountancy, calculation, farming, trading, animal husbandry, archery, or in the royal service, or whatever the profession may be, he is exposed to cold and heat.

kulaputto yena sippaṭṭhānena jīvikaṁ kappeti yadi muddāya yadi gaṇanāya yadi saṅkhānena yadi kasiyā yadi gorakkhena yadi issatthena yadi rājaporisena yadi sippaññatarena sītassa purakkhato uṇhassa purakkhato. (MN i 85)

kulaputtānaṁ

kulaputtānaṁ: (main article see: kulaputta)

Illustration: kulaputtānaṁ, noble young men

It is fitting for all you noble young men who have gone forth from the household life into the ascetic life to take delight [in the celibate life].

etaṁ kho anuruddhā tumhākaṁ patirūpaṁ kulaputtānaṁ saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajitānaṁ yaṁ tumhe abhirameyyātha brahmacariye

As you are still endowed with the blessing of youth, black-haired young men in the prime of life, you could have been indulging in sensuous pleasures.

Yena tumhe anuruddhā bhadrena yobbanena samannāgatā paṭhamena vayasā susu kālakesā kāme paribhuñjeyyātha. (MN i 463)

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akusala

akusala see kusala.

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kusala

Renderings

Introduction

Rendering akusala and kusala

Rendering akusala and kusala as spiritually unwholesome or wholesome is justified by their association with defilement and purity, with uninsightfulness and insightfulness, as seen in the following passages:

1) He has been struck down by unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors that are defiling, and which lead to renewed states of individual existence, suffering, unpleasant karmic consequences, and future birth, old age, and death.

avadhiṁsu naṁ pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṅkilesikā ponobhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṁ jātijarāmaraṇiyā. (MN iii 116)

2) Even so did I see the danger, degradation, and defilement in spiritually unwholesome factors, and in spiritually wholesome factors and in the practice of unsensuousness, I saw the advantage and associated purity.

Evameva kho ahaṁ bhikkhave addasaṁ akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ ādīnavaṁ okāraṁ saṅkilesaṁ kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ nekkhamme ānisaṁsaṁ vodānapakkhaṁ. . (MN i 115)

3) There are these three kinds of spiritually unwholesome thoughts that produce spiritual blindness, uninsightfulness, ignorance [of things according to reality], and are destructive of penetrative discernment, vexatious, and not conducive to the Untroubled. Which three?

Tayo'me bhikkhave akusalavitakkā andhakaraṇā acakkhukaraṇā aññāṇakaraṇā paññānirodhikā vighātapakkhikā anibbānasaṁvattanikā. Katame tayo? . (Iti 82)

• There are these three kinds of spiritually wholesome thoughts that produce insightful vision, knowledge [of things according to reality], lead to the development of discernment, are undistressing, and are conducive to the Untroubled. Which three?

Tayo'me bhikkhave kusalavitakkā anandhakaraṇā cakkhukaraṇā ñāṇakaraṇā paññāvuddhikā avighatapakkhikā nibbānasaṁvattanikā katame tayo? . (Iti 82)

Essence of akusala: five hindrances

The essence of akusala is found in the five hindrances, because:

• If one were to say of anything ‘a spiritually unwholesome heap,’ it is about the five hindrances that one could rightly say this.

Akusalarāsī ti bhikkhave vadamāno pañcanīvaraṇe sammā vadamano vadeyya.

Each of the five hindrances is called:

• a spiritual obstruction, a spiritual hindrance, a spiritual defilement, a weakener of penetrative discernment.

āvaraṇā nīvaraṇā cetaso upakkilesā paññāya dubbalīkaraṇā. (SN v 95)

Essence of kusala: four bases of mindfulness

The essence of kusala is found in four bases of mindfulness, because:

• If one were to say of anything ‘a spiritually wholesome heap,’ it is about the [contemplation of the] four bases of mindfulness that one could rightly say this.

Kusalarāsī ti bhikkhave vadamāno cattāro satipaṭṭhāne sammā vadamāno vadeyya. (SN v 145-6)

The [contemplation of the] four bases of mindfulness is called:

• the one-destination path for the purification of beings

ekāyano ayaṁ bhikkhave maggo sattānaṁ visuddhiyā. (SN v 142)

Kusala and akusala: conduct of body, speech, and mind

1) Akusala is found in conduct like frivolous speech (samphappalāpo akusalaṁ) and killing (pāṇātipāto akusalaṁ).

2) Refraining from such conduct is kusala (samphappalāpā veramaṇī kusalaṁ).

3) Akusala is found in mental conduct:

• Sensuous thought, unbenevolent thought, malicious thought. These are called spiritually unwholesome thoughts.

kāmasaṅkappo vyāpādasaṅkappo vihiṁsāsaṅkappo ime vuccanti thapati akusalasaṅkappā.

4) Refraining from such conduct is kusala:

• Unsensuous thought, thought of goodwill, compassionate thought. These are called spiritually wholesome thoughts

nekkhammasaṅkappo avyāpādasaṅkappo avihiṁsāsaṅkappo ime vuccanti thapati kusalasaṅkappā. (MN ii 28)

Kusala and akusala: mental states

Akusala is found in mental states:

• Greed is spiritually unwholesome

• Ill will is spiritually unwholesome

• Wrong view [of reality] is spiritually unwholesome

Kusala is found in their opposites.

• Non-greed is spiritually wholesome

• Goodwill is spiritually wholesome

• Right perception [of reality] is spiritually wholesome

People and objects: not kusala or akusala

Therefore people and objects (apart from mental objects) are not spiritually wholesome or unwholesome. Neither, in themselves, are religious teachings, which instead we call ‘wholesome’ and ‘unwholesome’:

• Kālāmas, if you yourselves should consider: “These teachings are wholesome… you should accept and abide by them.

Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanā'va jāneyyātha ime dhammā kusalā… atha tumhe kālāmā upasampajja vihareyyātha (AN i 190)

• Kālāmas, if you yourselves should consider: “These teachings are unwholesome… you should abandon them.

Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanāva jāneyyātha ime dhammā akusalā… atha tumhe kālāmā pajaheyyātha. (AN i 190)

But the practice of religious teachings is a different matter:

• Wrong view [of reality], wrong thought, wrong speech, wrong conduct, wrong means of livelihood, wrong endeavour, wrong mindfulness, wrong inward collectedness, wrong knowledge [of things according to reality], wrong liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]: this is called spiritually unwholesome.

Micchādiṭṭhi micchāsaṅkappo micchāvācā micchākammanto micchāājīvo micchāvāyāmo micchāsati micchāsamādhi micchāñāṇaṁ micchāvimutti idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave akusalaṁ. (AN v 241)

• Right perception [of reality], right thought, right speech, right conduct, right means of livelihood, right endeavour, right mindfulness, right inward collectedness, right knowledge [of things according to reality], right liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]: this is called spiritually wholesome.

Sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi sammāñāṇaṁ sammāvimutti idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave kusalan ti. (AN v 241)

Illustrations

kusalaṁ

kusalaṁ: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: kusalaṁ, welfare

He asked after his comfort and welfare.

Sukhañca kusalaṁ pucchi. (Snp 981)

kusalā

kusalā: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: kusalā, wholesome

These teachings which are wholesome, noble, and which lead to deliverance [from suffering] and to enlightenment.

Ye te bhikkhave kusalā dhammā ariyā niyyānikā sambodhagāmino. (Snp 139)

Illustration: kusalā, wholesome

Kālāmas, if you yourselves should consider: “These teachings are wholesome… you should accept and abide by them.

Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanā'va jāneyyātha ime dhammā kusalā… atha tumhe kālāmā upasampajja vihareyyātha (AN i 190)

akusalehi

akusalehi: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: akusalehi, unwholesome

A person whose spiritual qualities are wholly black and unwholesome

samannāgato hoti ekanta kāḷakehi akusalehi dhammehī. (AN iv 11-13)

akusalā

akusalā: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: akusalā, unwholesome

Kālāmas, if you yourselves should consider: “These teachings are unwholesome… you should abandon them.

Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanāva jāneyyātha ime dhammā akusalā… atha tumhe kālāmā pajaheyyātha. (AN i 190)

Illustration: kusalaṁ, good

[He would reflect:] “Since I received something, that is alright,” or “Since I received nothing, that is good.”

Alatthaṁ yadidaṁ sādhu nālatthaṁ kusalaṁ iti

Being the same in either event, he [would] return to that same tree.

Ubhayeneva so tādī rukkhaṁvupanivattati. (Snp 712)

Illustration: kusalā, good/excellent

I would not say anything about Mahānāma the Sakyan except what is excellent and good.

mahānāma sakkaṁ na kiñci vadāmi aññatra kalyāṇā aññatra kusalā ti. (SN v 374)

COMMENT

Kalyāṇā and kusalā are synonyms here. Both could be rendered ‘excellent’ or ‘good.’

Illustration: kusalā, the wise

One should not dispute. Spiritual purity is not attained thereby, say the wise.

na hi tena suddhiṁ kusalā vadanti. (Snp 830)

kusalo

kusalo: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: kusalo, well behaved

Whoever in this world amongst those living the religious life has attained the [supreme] attainment, who is well behaved always, who understands the teaching, who is attached to nothing, who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], and in whom there are no states of repugnance, he is one of good conduct.

Yo idha caraṇesu pattipatto kusalo sabbadā ājānāti dhammaṁ
Sabbattha na sajjati vimutto paṭighā yassa na santi caraṇavā so. (Snp 536)

Illustration: kusalo, proficient

In a moment I can fashion the bodily forms of 100,000 people. I am proficient in supernormal transformations. I am master of psychic power.

Ahaṁ vikubbanāsu kusalo vasībhūtomhi iddhiyā. (Tha 1194)

Illustration: kusalo, proficient

A meditator (jhāyī) can be:

• proficient in attaining inward collectedness but improficient in maintaining inward collectedness

samādhismiṁ samāpattikusalo hoti na samādhismiṁ ṭhitikusalo.

• proficient in maintaining inward collectedness but improficient in emerging from inward collectedness

samādhismiṁ ṭhitikusalo hoti na samādhismiṁ vuṭṭhānakusalo. (SN iii 264-269)

Illustration: kusalo, proficient

Someone declares his arahantship. The Perfect One or his disciple who is a meditator, proficient in attaining inward collectedness, proficient in reading others’ minds, proficient in reading the habits of others’ minds, closely examines, questions and talks with him.

tathāgato vā tathāgatasāvako vā jhāyī samāpattikusalo paracittakusalo paracittapariyāyakusalo samanuyuñjati samanugāhati samanubhāsati. (AN v 155)

kusalena

kusalena: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: kusalena, proficient

With [the assistance of] the enlightened kinsman of the Sun clan, who is proficient in methods of teaching, having applied myself properly [to the eightfold path] I removed my mind from states of individual existence

Upāyakusalenāhaṁ buddhenādiccabandhunā
Yoniso paṭipajjitvā bhave cittaṁ udabbahinti. (Tha 158)

Illustration: kusalaṁ, spiritually wholesome; kusalaṁ, spiritual proficiency

An individual endowed with which ten qualities is one whom I describe as being perfect in what is spiritually wholesome, of the highest spiritual proficiency, an invincible ascetic who has attained the supreme attainment?

sampannakusalaṁ paramakusalaṁ uttamapattipattaṁ samaṇaṁ ayojjhaṁ

The one possessed of the right perception [of reality] of a finished disciple… the right liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] of a finished disciple.

asekhāya sammādiṭṭhiyā samannāgato hoti… asekhāya sammāvimuttiyā samannāgato hoti. (MN ii 29)

akusala

akusala: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: akusala, improficient

Then that poor tailor, having kneaded mud and made bricks, erected wattle and daub walls. But because he was improficient, the piling was crooked and the wall fell down.

Atha kho so daḷiddo tunnavāyo sāmaṁ cikkhallaṁ madditvā iṭṭhakāyo cinitvā kuḍḍaṁ uṭṭhāpesi. Tena akusalakena citā vaṅkā bhitti paripati. (Vin.2.159)

Illustration: kusalo, knowledgeable

On what grounds, bhante, can a bhikkhu be called knowledgeable about elements of existence?

Kittāvatā pana bhante dhātukusalo bhikkhu ti alaṁ vacanāyā ti.

There are these eighteen elements of sensation, Ānanda:

Aṭṭhārasa kho imā ānanda dhātuyo:

The phenomenon of sight… phenomenon of the mental field of sensation.

cakkhudhātu… manoviññāṇadhātu ti

Through knowing and seeing these eighteen elements of sensation [according to reality], Ānanda, a bhikkhu can be called knowledgeable about elements of existence.

Imā kho ānanda aṭṭhārasa dhātuyo yato jānāti passati ettāvatā pi kho ānanda dhātukusalo bhikkhū ti alaṁ vacanāyā ti. (MN iii 62)

akusalo

akusalo: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: akusalo, unknowledgeable

A cowherd cannot help his herd to prosper if he does not know about bodily form, and is unknowledgeable about physical characteristics

na rūpaññū hoti na lakkhaṇa kusalo hoti. (AN v 359)

Illustration: kusalo, knowledgeable; akusalo, ignorant

‘The man ignorant of the path’ represents the common man.

puriso amaggakusalo ti kho tissa puthujjanassetaṁ adhivacanaṁ

‘The man knowledgeable about the path’ represents the Perfect One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One.

Puriso maggakusalo ti kho tissa tathāgatassetaṁ adhivacanaṁ arahato sammāsambuddhassa. (SN iii 108-9)

Illustration: kusalo, pandit

Maintaining their own dogmatic views, contentious, different [so-called] pandits say: “Whoever knows this knows Perfect Truth. Whoever rejects it is not spiritually perfected.”

Sakaṁ sakaṁ diṭṭhiṁ paribbasānā vigayha nānā kusalā vadanti
Yo evaṁ jānāti sa vedi dhammaṁ idaṁ paṭikkosamakevalī so. (Snp 978)

Illustration: kusalo, expert

Bhante, I am well known as a charioteer, and an expert in the parts of a chariot. All the parts of a chariot are well known to me.

Ahaṁ hi bhante rathiko saññato kusalo rathassa aṅgapaccaṅgānaṁ sabbāni me rathassa aṅgapaccaṅgāni suviditāni. (MN i 395-6)

akusale

akusale: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: akusale, badly behaved

Bhante, a transgression overcame us, in that, foolishly, stupidly, and badly behaved, we suspended a pure bhikkhu, not an offender, without cause, without reason.

accayo no bhante accagamā yathā bāle yathā mūḷhe yathā akusale ye mayaṁ suddhaṁ bhikkhuṁ anāpattikaṁ avatthusmiṁ akāraṇe ukkhipimha. (Vin.1.315)

akusalaṁ

akusalaṁ: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: akusalaṁ, badly behaved

‘A transgression overcame me, bhante, in that, foolishly, stupidly, and badly behaved, I deprived my father of life―a righteous man, a righteous king―for the sake of sovereign rulership.’

Accayo maṁ bhante accagamā yathābālaṁ yathāmūḷhaṁ yathā akusalaṁ yo’haṁ pītaraṁ dhammikaṁ dhammarājānaṁ issariyassa kāraṇā jīvitā voropesiṁ. (DN i 85)

kusalesu

kusalesu: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: kusalesu, spiritually wholesome

Also, bhante, the Blessed One’s teaching concerning spiritually wholesome factors is unsurpassed.

Aparaṁ pana bhante etadānuttariyaṁ yathā bhagavā dhammaṁ deseti kusalesu dhammesu.

That is, these spiritually wholesome factors: the [contemplation of the] four bases of mindfulness, the four modes of right inward striving, the four paths to psychic power, the five spiritual faculties, the five spiritual powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, the eightfold path.

Tatrime kusalā dhammā seyyathīdaṁ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā cattāro sammappadhānā cattāro iddhipādā pañcindriyāni pañca balāni satta bojjhaṅgā ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. (DN iii 102)

Illustration: kusala, spiritually wholesome; akusala, spiritually unwholesome

Three spiritually unwholesome ways of thought: sensuous thought, unbenevolent thought, and malicious thought.

Tayo akusalavitakkā: kāmavitakko vyāpādavitakko vihiṁsāvitakko.

Three spiritually wholesome ways of thought: unsensuous thought, benevolent thought, compassionate thought.

Tayo kusalavitakkā: nekkhammavitakko avyāpādavitakko avihiṁsāvitakko. (DN iii 215)

akusalehi

akusalehi: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: akusalehi, spiritually unwholesome

Secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, a bhikkhu enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Idhāvuso visākha bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (MN i 303)

akusalā

akusalā: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: akusalā, spiritually unwholesome

In seeing a visible object via the visual sense, do not grasp its aspects and features. Since by abiding with the faculty of sight unrestrained [from grasping, through mindfulness], greed, dejection, and unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors would pursue you.

Cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā mā nimittaggāhino ahuvattha mānuvyañjanaggāhino yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ cakkhundriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ. (SN iv 178)

Illustration: kusala, spiritually wholesome

‘Having gone forth [into the ascetic life] in search of what is spiritually wholesome, seeking the supreme state of sublime peace, I approached Āḷāra Kālāma.’

So evaṁ pabbajito samāno kiṁkusalagavesī anuttaraṁ santivarapadaṁ pariyesamāno yena āḷāro kālāmo tenupasaṅkamiṁ. (MN i 163)

Illustration: akusala, spiritually unwholesome

How is a bhikkhu an ascetic?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu samaṇo hoti?

He has quieted down unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors that are defiling, and which lead to renewed states of individual existence, suffering, unpleasant karmic consequences, and future birth, old age, and death.

Samitāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṅkilesikā ponobhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṁ jātijarāmaraṇīyā. (MN i 280)

Illustration: akusala, spiritually unwholesome

There are these three kinds of spiritually unwholesome thinking (akusalavitakkā). Which three?

• thinking concerned with not wanting to be despised;

• thinking concerned with gains, honour, and renown

• thinking concerned with feeling sorry for others

kusalānaṁ

kusalānaṁ: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: kusalānaṁ, spiritually wholesome; akusalānaṁ, spiritually unwholesome

If, friends, one could enter and abide amidst spiritually unwholesome factors and dwell happily in this very lifetime, without distress, vexation, and anguish, and if, with the break up of the body, after death, one could expect the realm of happiness, then the Blessed One would not praise the abandonment of spiritually unwholesome factors.

Akusale cāvuso dhamme upasampajja viharato diṭṭhe ceva dhamme sukho vihāro abhavissa avighāto anupāyāso apariḷāho kāyassa ca bhedā parammaraṇā sugati pāṭikaṅkhā nayidaṁ bhagavā akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānaṁ vaṇṇeyya.

But because one who enters and abides amidst spiritually unwholesome factors abides in misery in this very lifetime, with distress, vexation, and anguish, and because he can expect [rebirth in] the plane of misery with the demise of the body at death, the Blessed One praises the abandonment of spiritually unwholesome factors.

Yasmā ca kho āvuso. Akusale dhamme upasampajja viharato diṭṭheva dhamme dukkho vihāro savighāto saupāyāso sapariḷāho kāyassa ca bhedā parammaraṇā duggati pāṭikaṅkhā tasmā bhagavā akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānaṁ vaṇṇeti.

“If, friends, one who enters and abides amidst spiritually wholesome factors would abide in misery in this very lifetime, with distress, vexation, and anguish, and if, with the demise of the body at death, he could expect [rebirth in] the plane of misery, then the Blessed One would not praise the undertaking of spiritually wholesome factors.

Kusale cāvuso dhamme upasampajja viharato diṭṭhe ceva dhamme dukkho vihāro abhavissa savighāto saupāyāso sapariḷāho kāyassa ca bhedā parammaraṇā duggati pāṭikaṅkhā nayidaṁ bhagavā kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ upasampadaṁ vaṇṇeyya

But because one who enters and abides amidst spiritually wholesome factors abides happily in this very lifetime, without distress, vexation, and anguish, and because he can expect the realm of happiness with the demise of the body at death, the Blessed One praises the undertaking of spiritually wholesome factors.”

Yasmā ca kho āvuso kusale dhamme upasampajja viharato diṭṭhe ceva dhamme sukho vihāro avighāto anupāyāso apariḷāho kāyassa ca bhedā parammaraṇā sugati pāṭikaṅkhā tasmā bhagavā kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ upasampadaṁ vaṇṇetī ti. (SN iii 8-9)

Illustration: kusalaṁ, spiritually wholesome; kusala, what is spiritually wholesome

And what is spiritually wholesome (katamañcāvuso kusalaṁ)?

• refraining from killing is spiritually wholesome

pāṇātipātā veramaṇī kusalaṁ

• refraining from stealing is spiritually wholesome

adinnādānā veramaṇī kusalaṁ

• refraining from sexual misconduct is spiritually wholesome

kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī kusalaṁ

• refraining from lying is spiritually wholesome

musāvādā veramaṇī kusalaṁ

• refraining from malicious speech is spiritually wholesome

pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī kusalaṁ

• refraining from harsh speech is spiritually wholesome

pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī kusalaṁ

• refraining from frivolous speech is spiritually wholesome

samphappalāpā veramaṇī kusalaṁ

• non-greed is spiritually wholesome

• goodwill is spiritually wholesome

• right perception [of reality] is spiritually wholesome

And what is the origin of what is spiritually wholesome

• Non-greed is an origin of what is spiritually wholesome.

• Non-hatred is an origin of what is spiritually wholesome.

• Discernment of reality is an origin of what is spiritually wholesome.

Illustration: akusalā, spiritually unwholesome; kusala, what is spiritually wholesome

When a bhikkhu is focusing on some meditation object that arouses unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, hatred, and undiscernment of reality, then he should focus on some other meditation object connected with what is spiritually wholesome.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhunā yaṁ nimittaṁ āgamma yaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto uppajjanti pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṁhitāpi dosūpasaṁhitāpi mohūpasaṁhitāpi tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā tamhā nimittā aññaṁ nimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ kusalūpasaṁhitaṁ. (MN i 119)

Illustration: kusalaṁ, spiritually wholesome; akusalaṁ, spiritually unwholesome

What is spiritually unwholesome?

Katamañca bhikkhave akusalaṁ

The tenfold path of wrong factors.

micchādiṭṭhi micchāsaṅkappo micchāvācā micchākammanto micchāājīvo micchāvāyāmo micchāsati micchāsamādhi micchāñāṇaṁ micchāvimutti.

This is called spiritually unwholesome

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave akusalaṁ.

What is spiritually wholesome?

katamañca bhikkhave kusalaṁ

The tenfold path of right factors.

sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi sammāñāṇaṁ sammāvimutti.

This is called spiritually wholesome

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave kusalan ti. (AN v 241)

Illustration: kusala, spiritually wholesome

Bhikkhus, there are these four streams of merit, streams of what is spiritually wholesome, conditions that nourish happiness. What four?

puññābhisandā kusalābhisandā sukhassāhārā

In this regard, a noble disciple has unshakeable faith in the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment]… in the [excellence of the] teaching… in the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples… possesses the virtues dear to the Noble Ones

ariyasāvako buddhe… dhamme… saṅghe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti… ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti. (SN v 391)

akusalehi

akusalehi: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: akusalehi, spiritually unwholesome

He is emancipated from unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors that are defiling and which lead to renewed states of individual existence, suffering, unpleasant karmic consequences, and future birth, old age, and death.

Visaṁyutto pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi saṅkilesikehi ponobhavikehi sadarehi dukkhavipākehi āyatiṁ jātijarāmaraṇikehi. (AN ii 12)

kusalānaṁ

kusalānaṁ: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: kusalānaṁ, spiritually wholesome

It is by the undertaking of spiritually wholesome factors that this merit increases.

Kusalānaṁ bhikkhave dhammānaṁ samādānahetu evamidaṁ puññaṁ pavaḍḍhati. (DN iii 58)

Illustration: akusalaṁ, spiritually unwholesome; kusalaṁ, spiritually wholesome

Conduct produced from, born of, due to, originated by greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality is spiritually unwholesome and blameworthy.

yaṁ bhikkhave lobhapakataṁ… dosapakataṁ… mohapakataṁ kammaṁ mohajaṁ mohanidānaṁ mohasamudayaṁ taṁ kammaṁ akusalaṁ taṁ kammaṁ sāvajjaṁ

It has unpleasant karmic consequences and leads to the [further] origination of karmically consequential conduct. It does not lead to the ending of karmically consequential conduct.

taṁ kammaṁ dukkhavipākaṁ taṁ kammaṁ kammasamudayāya saṁvattati. Na taṁ kammaṁ kammanirodhāya saṁvattati.

Conduct produced from, born of, due to, originated by non-greed, non-hatred, and discernment of reality is spiritually wholesome and blameless.

yaṁ bhikkhave alobho… adoso… amohapakataṁ kammaṁ amohajaṁ amohanidānaṁ amohasamudayaṁ. Taṁ kammaṁ kusalaṁ taṁ kammaṁ anavajjaṁ

It has pleasant karmic consequences and leads to the ending of karmically consequential conduct. It does not lead to the origination of karmically consequential conduct.

taṁ kammaṁ sukhavipākaṁ taṁ kammaṁ kammanirodhāya. Na taṁ kammaṁ kammasamudayāya saṁvattati. (AN i 263)

kusalesu

kusalesu: (main article see: kusala)

Illustration: kusalesu, spiritually unwholesome

He was resolute in applying himself to spiritually wholesome factors… By undertaking that karmically consequential conduct, heaping it up, lavishly and abundantly, with the demise of the body at death he was reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds.

daḷhasamādāno ahosi kusalesu dhammesu… so tassa kammassa katattā upacitattā ussannattā vipulantā kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjati. (DN iii 145-6)

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kevalin

Renderings

Introduction

Brahmacariyassa kevalin

In translating the genitive/dative case in brahmacariyassa kevalin we follow the instrumental case suggested in Norman’s rendering, which at Tha 679 is ‘perfected in living the holy life.’ Our solution is ‘through living the religious life,’ as follows:

• One who has abandoned birth and death is spiritually perfected through living the religious life.

Pahīnajātimaraṇo brahmacariyassa kevalī. (AN i 162; AN ii 23)

Illustrations

kevalī

kevalī: (main article see: kevalin)

Illustration: kevalī, spiritually perfected

He who set rolling the Wheel of the Teaching having overcome [Māra and his army], spiritually perfected, tenderly concerned for all beings.

Yo dhammacakkaṁ abhibhuyya kevalī pavattayī sabbabhūtānukampī. (AN ii 9)

Comment:

Other suttas show how abhibhuyya should be parenthesised:

• having overcome Māra and his army

Māraṁ sasenaṁ abhibhuyya (Iti 41)

• having overcome Māra’s tie [that ties one to renewed states of individual existence].

kevalinaṁ

kevalinaṁ: (main article see: kevalin)

Illustration: kevalinaṁ, spiritually perfected

The one who is spiritually perfected, the great Seer, one whose āsavas are destroyed, whose fretting has subsided.

kevalinaṁ mahesiṁ khīṇāsavaṁ kukkuccavūpasantaṁ. (SN i 167; Snp 82)

Illustration: kevalī, spiritually perfected

Maintaining their own dogmatic views, contentious, different [so-called] pandits say: “Whoever knows this knows Perfect Truth. Whoever rejects it is not spiritually perfected.”

Sakaṁ sakaṁ diṭṭhiṁ paribbasānā vigayha nānā kusalā vadanti
Yo evaṁ jānāti sa vedi dhammaṁ idaṁ paṭikkosamakevalī so. (Snp 978)

Illustration: kevalī, spiritually perfected

‘Those who assert a doctrine different from this have strayed from spiritual purity. They are not spiritually perfected.’ Non-Buddhist ascetics each say this because they are passionately attached to their own dogmatic views.

Aññaṁ ito yābhivadanti dhammaṁ aparaddhā suddhimakevalī te
Evampi titthiyā puthuso vadanti sandiṭṭhirāgena hi tebhirattā. (Snp 891)

brahmacariyassa kevalī

brahmacariyassa kevalī: (main article see: kevalin)

Illustration: brahmacariyassa kevalī, spiritually perfected through living the religious life

He who knows the mind purified [of the five hindrances], who is completely freed from attachment, and who has abandoned birth and death is spiritually perfected through living the religious life.

Cittaṁ visuddhaṁ jānāti muttaṁ rāgehi sabbaso
Pahīnajātimaraṇo brahmacariyassa kevalī. (MN ii 144)

Comment:

Mind purified [of the five hindrances] (cittaṁ visuddhaṁ) is justified by this quote

• Having abandoned the [five] hindrances, [be] pure

nīvaraṇāni pahāya visuddho. (Tha 1222)

kevalino

kevalino: (main article see: kevalin)

Illustration: kevalino, spiritually perfected

Those who roam the world who are truly liberated [from individual existence], liberated from the perception of existence, spiritually perfected, with egos restrained.

Ye ve asattā vicaranti loke akiñcanā kevalino yatattā. (Snp 490)

Illustration: kevalino, spiritually perfected

Those who are liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] are spiritually perfected.

ye suvimuttā te kevalino

Those who are spiritually perfected, the round of rebirth for them is not to be discerned.

ye kevalino vaṭṭaṁ tesaṁ natthi paññāpanāya. (SN iii 63)

Illustration: kevalī, spiritually perfected

A bhikkhu who has abandoned five factors and is possessed of five factors, in this teaching and training system is called spiritually perfected, one who has fulfilled [the religious life], the unexcelled person.

Pañcaṅgavippahīno bhikkhave bhikkhu pañcaṅgasamannāgato imasmiṁ dhammavinaye kevalī vusitavā uttamapuriso ti vuccati

In what way has a bhikkhu abandoned five factors?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu pañcaṅgavippahīno hoti

In this regard, abandoned by a bhikkhu are sensuous hankering, ill will, lethargy and torpor, restlessness and anxiety, and doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]. In this way a bhikkhu has abandoned five factors.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno kāmacchando pahīno hoti vyāpādo pahīno hoti thīnamiddhaṁ pahīnaṁ hoti uddhacchakukkuccaṁ pahīnaṁ hoti vicikicchā pahīnā hoti evaṁ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu pañcaṅgavippahīno hoti.

In what way is a bhikkhu possessed of five factors?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu pañcaṅgasamannāgato hoti:

In this regard a bhikkhu is possessed of the aggregate of a finished disciple’s virtuous practices, inward collectedness, penetrative discernment, liberation [from perceptually obscuring states], and the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu asekhena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato hoti asekhena samādhikkhandhena samannāgato hoti asekhena paññākkhandhena samannāgato hoti asekhena vimuttikkhandhena samannāgato hoti asekhena vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandhena samannāgato hoti evaṁ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu pañcaṅgasamannāgato hoti.

A bhikkhu who has abandoned five factors and is possessed of five factors, in this teaching and training system is called spiritually perfected, one who has fulfilled [the religious life], the unexcelled person.

Pañcaṅgavippahīno bhikkhave bhikkhu pañcaṅgasamannāgato imasmiṁ dhammavinaye kevalī vusitavā uttamapurisoti vuccatī ti. (AN v 16)

Illustration: kevalino, fully accomplished

We are fully accomplished in whatever [knowledge] is taught by masters of threefold Vedic knowledge. We are experts in linguistics and grammar. We match our teachers in recitation.

Tevijjānaṁ yadakkhātaṁ tatra kevalino’smase
Padakasmā veyyākaraṇā jappe ācariyasādisā. (Snp 595; MN ii 196)

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kovida

Renderings

Illustrations

kovidā

kovidā: (main article see: kovida)

Illustration: kovidā, experts

Experts in body marks and conformations (i.e. physiognomists)

Illustration: kovidā, knowledgeable

Knowledgeable about the fruit of conduct

kovidaṁ

kovidaṁ: (main article see: kovida)

Illustration: kovidaṁ, knowledgeable

One who is knowledgeable about birth and death

kovido

kovido: (main article see: kovida)

Illustration: kovido, knowledgeable

Our teacher is knowledgeable about the Deathless.

satthā no amatassa kovido. (Tha 21)

Illustration: kovido, knowledgeable

He is knowledgeable about the path to safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence].

So yogakkhemassa pathassa kovido ti. (Tha 69)

Illustration: kovidaṁ, knowledgeable

Knowledgeable about what is the Path and what is not the Path

Illustration: kovido, knowledgeable

The Blessed One is the knower of the Path, the finder of the Path, knowledgeable about the Path.

maggaññu maggavidū maggakovido. (MN iii 8)

Illustration: kovidā, knowledgeable

The enlightenened, those knowledgeable about merit, praise this kind of sacrifice.

Yañña metaṁ pasaṁsanti buddhā puññassa kovidā. (AN ii 44)

Illustration: kovido, knowledgeable

Knowledgeable about the teaching of spiritually outstanding people

Illustration: kovido, knowledgeable

Knowledgeable about the aspects of an offence and its removal

Illustration: kovidā, proficient [in discerning] <blockquote>Proficient [in discerning] the ways of others’ minds.

</blockquote> Illustration: kovido, proficient [in discerning]

One who is proficient [in discerning] the telltale signs of the mind.

Illustration: kovido, proficient

I am a master of the three final knowledges. I am an outstanding meditator, proficient in [attaining] inward calm.

Tevijjohaṁ mahājhāyī cetosamathakovido. (Tha 112)

Illustration: kovido, proficient

Then he, proficient and knowledgeable in questions, asked me [the Boy’s] Questions.

Tato pañhe apucchi maṁ pañhānaṁ kovido vidū. (Tha 482)

Illustration: kovido, proficient

Proficient in the use of conventional expressions and vocabulary

Illustration: kovido, proficient

Proficient in analysis

vibhaṅgakovido. (Vin.1.359)

Illustration: kovido, proficient

Proficient at obstructing his opponents

Illustration: kovidā, ignorant

I do not approve of their teachings; they are ignorant of the Buddha’s teaching.

na tesaṁ dhammaṁ rocemi na te dhammassa kovidā. (SN i 133)

akovido

akovido: (main article see: kovida)

Illustration: akovido, ignorant

The ignorant Everyman, who has no regard for the Noble Ones and is ignorant of and uninstructed in their teaching

assutavā puthujjano ariyānaṁ adassāvī ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinīto. (SN iv 286-7)

akovidā

akovidā: (main article see: kovida)

Illustration: akovidā, ignorant

But simpletons ignorant of the teaching do not understand it even in its presence.

Santike na vijānanti magā dhammassa akovidā. (SN iv 128)

akovide

akovide: (main article see: kovida)

Illustration: akovide, ignorant

The fire of undiscernment of reality burns those who are undiscerning of reality, who are ignorant of the noble teaching.

mohaggi pana sammūḷhe ariyadhamme akovide. (Iti 92)

Illustration: akovidā, ignorant

Those people are ignorant of the teaching who think he is a fool, the one who is a healer of both himself and the other.

Ubhinnaṁ tikicchantaṁ taṁ attano ca parassa ca
Janā maññanti bālo ti ye dhammassa akovidā. (Tha 444)

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kvaci

Renderings

Introduction

Tautology: ‘all directions anywhere’

Kvaci means ‘anywhere’ (PED), but it is commonly paired with another locative adverb so it becomes redundant. For instance, ‘all directions anywhere’:

• On traversing all directions with the mind one finds no one anywhere more beloved oneself.

Sabbā disā anuparigamma cetasā
Nevajjhagā piyataramattanā kvaci. (Uda 47)

Tautology: ‘in any place anywhere’

Or ‘in any place anywhere’ in the mocking, ironic, improbable verse:

• If there exists any place anywhere where without work one won’t decline, that indeed is the Untroubled’s path.

Sace atthi akammena koci kvaci na jīvati nibbānassa hi so maggo. (SN i 218)

Emphasis: ‘in any way’

Sometimes kvaci implies the emphasis, ‘in any way’:

1) Though a youth, he is not attached in any way.

yo yobbane nopanibajjhate kvaci. (Snp 218)

2) May attachment to charming things of any kind never in any way or in any place surge within me;

Mā me kvacani katthaci kiñcana rajanīyesu dhammesu rāgo udapādi. (AN iii 170)

Other renderings: DOP and Bodhi

DOP seems to reject the emphatic effect of kvacani, because it explains it as ‘somewhere, anywhere, in or regard to anything.’ But Bodhi accepts it, saying ‘Let no lust at all arise in me anywhere in any way regarding things provocative of lust’ (NDB p.762).

Illustrations

kvacani, in any way

• I am not in any way anything “belonging to anyone”

nāhaṁ kvacani kassaci kiñcanatasmiṁ

… And not in any way is there anywhere anything “belonging to me.”

na ca mama kvacani katthaci kiñcanatātthī ti. (MN ii 263-4, AN i 206, AN ii 176-7)

Comment:

The Uposatha Sutta (AN i 206) says the particular application of this contemplation is in personal relationships, where:

1) a man’s parents know him as their son, and he knows them as his parents

ayaṁ amhākaṁ putto ti so pi jānāti ime mayhaṁ mātāpitaro ti.

2) a man’s slaves and servants know him as their master, and he knows them as his slaves and servants

ayaṁ amhākaṁ ayyo ti. So pi jānāti ime mayhaṁ dāsakammakaraporisā ti.

This reflection therefore helps overcome the idea that beings possess each other.

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