User Tools

Site Tools


Translations of this page?:
en:dictionary:igpt_m

Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms [m]

— —

Info

The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.

Content

Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |

m

manosañcetanāhāro

Renderings

Introduction

Existential nourishment

There are these four kinds of existential nourishment for the maintenance of beings that have been brought into existence and for the assistance of those about to arise [into new existence]

Cattāro… āhārā bhūtānaṁ vā sattānaṁ ṭhitiyā sambhavesīnaṁ vā anuggahāya.

1) physical food, gross or subtle

kabaliṅkāro āhāro oḷāriko vā sukhumo vā

2) secondly, sensation;

3) thirdly, mental intentional effort;

4) fourthly, the stream of consciousness

Comment:

Norman views sambhavesīnaṁ as the future active participle in -esin (Elders Verses I, n.527), to be translated with the words ‘about to.’

Manosañcetanāhāro: red-hot charcoal pit simile

The scriptures hardly clarify the meaning of manosañcetanāhāro. For example, the Puttamaṁsa Sutta says it can be compared to a man being dragged reluctantly towards a red-hot charcoal pit, but it is not clear which aspect of the simile is illustrative of manosañcetanāhāro. We therefore look elsewhere for an explanation.

Sañcetanā: classification systems

Sañcetanā is classified according to either objects or means, as follows:

1) intentional effort in relation to visible objects, audible objects, smellable objects, tasteable objects, tangible objects, and mentally known objects

rūpasañcetanā saddasañcetanā gandhasañcetanā rasasañcetanā phoṭṭhabbasañcetanā dhammasañcetanā. (DN ii 309)

2) intentional effort by way of body, speech, and mind

kāyasañcetanā, vacīsañcetanā manosañcetanā. (SN ii 40)

The latter classification occurs in the following passage:

• When there is the body, then on account of bodily intentional effort, pleasure and pain arise for oneself;

Kāye vā hānanda sati kāyasañcetanāhetu uppajjati ajjhattaṁ sukhadukkhaṁ

• When there is speech, then on account of verbal intentional effort, pleasure and pain arise for oneself;

vācāya vā hānanda sati vacīsañcetanāhetu uppajjati ajjhattaṁ sukhadukkhaṁ

• When there is the mind, then on account of mental intentional effort, pleasure and pain arise for oneself―and with uninsightfulness into reality as the necessary condition.

mane vā hānanda sati manosañcetanāhetu uppajjati ajjhattaṁ sukhadukkhaṁ avijjāpaccayā ca. (SN ii 40)

Manosañcetanāhāro and taṇhā

The Puttamaṁsa Sutta links mental intentional effort to taṇhā, saying that:

• When the existential nourishment of mental intentional effort is profoundly understood, the three kinds of craving are profoundly understood.

manosañcetanāya bhikkhave āhāre pariññāte tisso taṇhā pariññātā honti. (SN ii 100)

Thus manosañcetanā is somehow associated with taṇhā.

Mental intentional effort within taṇhā

Taṇhā is practically an existential nourishment, because ‘when a being has laid down this [wretched human] body but is not yet possessed of another body, I declare that it is fuelled by taṇhā.’ The full quotation is given below in the Illustrations.

That taṇhā implies mental intentional effort is seen in the Taṇhājālinī Sutta (AN ii 212-3) which says that thoughts of ‘I am’ are ‘imbued with taṇhā’ (taṇhāvicaritāni), for example, the thoughts “I am here,” “I am this way” “I am otherwise.” The sutta also lists thoughts which clearly involve mental intentional effort, namely:

  • May I be
  • May I be here
  • May I be this way
  • May I be otherwise.

Mental intentional effort: Mahakaccānabhaddekaratta Sutta

Examples of mental intentional effort are common in the scriptures. For example, the Mahakaccānabhaddekaratta Sutta says:

• How does one long for the future?

Kathañcāvuso anāgataṁ paṭikaṅkhati

• One directs one’s mind to acquire what has not yet been acquired, thinking, ‘May the visual sense and visible objects be thus in the future.’

iti me cakkhuṁ siyā anāgatamaddhānaṁ iti rūpāti appaṭiladdhassa paṭilābhāya cittaṁ paṇidahati. (MN iii 196)

Mental intentional effort and rebirth: the Cetanā Sutta

The four existential nourishments are ‘for the assistance of those about to arise [into new existence],’ and are therefore the basis of rebirth. The Cetanā Sutta illustrates the link between mental intentional effort and rebirth as follows:

• Whatever one is intent upon, conceives of, and identifies with, this becomes the basis for the establishment of one’s stream of consciousness.

yañca bhikkhave ceteti yañca pakappeti yañca anuseti ārammaṇametaṁ hoti viññāṇassa ṭhitiyā

• When there is the basis, there is the establishment of one’s stream of consciousness.

Yañca ārammaṇe sati patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa hoti.

• When one’s stream of consciousness is established and has [egoistically] matured, renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future.

Tasmiṁ patiṭṭhite viññāṇe virūḷhe āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hoti. (SN ii 65)

The sutta says that in ending intentness, conceiving, and identifying, one ends individual existence and rebirth in the future:

• If one is not intent upon, and does not conceive or identify with… there are no renewed states of individual existence and rebirth in the future

Yato ca kho bhikkhave no ceva ceteti no ca pakappeti no ca anuseti… āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti na hoti. (SN ii 65)

Mental intentional effort and rebirth: the Saṅkhāruppatti Sutta

The Saṅkhāruppatti Sutta says:

• In this regard a bhikkhu possesses faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], virtue, learning, generosity, and wisdom. He thinks, ‘Oh, that at the demise of the body at death, I might be reborn in the company of wealthy khattiyas.’ He fixes his mind on that idea, concentrates on it, and develops it. These aspirations and musings of his, when developed and cultivated, lead to his rebirth there.

So taṁ cittaṁ dahati taṁ cittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti taṁ cittaṁ bhāveti. Tassa te saṅkhārā ca viharā ca evaṁ bhāvitā evaṁbahulīkatā tatrūpapattiyā saṁvattanti. (MN iii 99, AN iv 239)

The scriptures therefore show how mental intentional effort ‘maintains beings that have been brought into existence and assists those about to arise [into new existence].’ Therefore mental intentional effort is one of the four nourishments, and is likely the meaning of manosañcetanāhāro.

Illustrations

Illustration: manosañcetanāhāro, existential nourishment of mental intentional effort

And how should the existential nourishment of mental intentional effort (manosañcetanāhāro) be seen?

Kathañca bhikkhave manosañcetanāhāro daṭṭhabbo?

Suppose there is a [red-hot] charcoal pit deeper than a man’s height, filled with glowing coals without flame or smoke. A man would come along wanting to live, not die, yearning for pleasure and loathing pain. Then two strong men would grab him by both arms and drag him towards the [red-hot] charcoal pit.

Seyyathā pi bhikkhave aṅgārakāsu sādhikaporisā puṇṇā aṅgārānaṁ vītaccikānaṁ vītadhūmānaṁ. Atha puriso āgaccheyya jīvitukāmo amaritukāmo sukhakāmo dukkhapaṭikkūlo. Tamenaṁ dve balavanto purisā nānābāhāsu gahetvā taṁ aṅgārakāsuṁ upakaḍḍheyyuṁ.

The man’s

  • intention (cetanā) would be to get away,
  • his desire (patthanā) would be to get away,
  • his resolve (paṇidhi) would be to get away [from the red-hot charcoal pit]

Atha kho bhikkhave tassa purisassa ārakāvassa cetanā ārakā patthanā ārakā paṇidhi

For what reason? Because he knows: ‘I will fall into this [red-hot] charcoal pit and on that account I will meet with death or deadly pain.’

imañcāhaṁ aṅgārakāsuṁ papatissāmi tatonidānaṁ maraṇaṁ vā nigacchāmi maraṇamattaṁ vā dukkhan ti. Evameva khvāhaṁ bhikkhave manosañcetanāhāro daṭṭhabbo ti vadāmi. (SN ii 99-100)

Illustration: manosañcetanāhāro, existential nourishment of mental intentional effort

If there is attachment to the existential nourishment of mental intentional effort, if there is spiritually fettering delight, if there is craving, the stream of consciousness is established there and [egoistically] matures.

manosañcetanāya ce bhikkhave āhāre atthi rāgo atthi nandi atthi taṇhā patiṭṭhitaṁ tattha viññāṇaṁ virūḷhaṁ.

Wherever the stream of consciousness is established and has [egoistically] matured, there is the appearance of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form.

Yattha patiṭṭhitaṁ viññāṇaṁ virūḷhaṁ atthi tattha nāmarūpassa avakkanti.

Where there is the appearance of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form, there is the growth of karmically consequential deeds.

Yattha atthi nāmarūpassa avakkanti atthi tattha saṅkhārānaṁ vuddhi.

Where there is the growth of karmically consequential deeds, renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future.

Yattha atthi saṅkhārānaṁ vuddhi atthi tattha āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti. (SN ii 101)

Illustration: manosañcetanāhāro, existential nourishment of mental intentional effort

If there is no attachment to the existential nourishment of mental intentional effort, if there is no spiritually fettering delight, if there is no craving, the stream of consciousness is not established there and does not grow.

Manosañcetanāya ce bhikkhave āhāre natthi rāgo natthi nandi natthi taṇhā. Appatiṭṭhitaṁ tattha viññāṇaṁ avirūḷhaṁ

Where the stream of consciousness is not established and does not grow, there is the non-appearance of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form.

yattha appatiṭṭhitaṁ viññāṇaṁ avirūḷhaṁ natthi tattha nāmarūpassa avakkanti. (SN ii 101)

Illustration: ‘May I be reborn!’

• ’Bhante, what is the cause and reason for some person here, with the demise of the body at death, being reborn in the company of egg-born magical serpents?”

• ’In this regard, bhikkhu, someone acts ambivalently by way of body, speech, and mind.

kāyena dvayakārī hoti vācāya dvayakāri manasā dvayakāri

‘He has heard: ‘Egg-born magical serpents are long-lived, beautiful, and abound in happiness.’

He thinks: ‘Oh, with the demise of the body at death, may I be reborn in the company of egg-born magical serpents!’

tassa evaṁ hoti: aho vatāhaṁ kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā aṇḍajānaṁ nāgānaṁ sahavyataṁ upapajjeyyan ti.

‘Then, with the demise of the body at death, he is reborn in the company of egg-born magical serpents.

‘This is the cause and reason for some person here, with the demise of the body at death, being reborn in the company of egg-born magical serpents.” (SN iii 242)

Illustration: ‘May I be reborn!’

• ’Bhante, what is the cause and reason for some person here, with the demise of the body at death, being reborn in the company of the devas of the heavenly musician order (gandhabbakāyikā devā)?”

• ’In this regard, bhikkhu, some person practises good conduct of body, speech, and mind. He has heard: ‘The devas of the heavenly musician order are long-lived, beautiful, and abound in happiness.’ He thinks: ‘Oh, with the demise of the body at death, may I be reborn in the company of the devas of the heavenly musician order!’ Then, with the demise of the body at death, he is reborn in the company of the devas of the heavenly musician order.

‘This is the cause and reason for some person here, with the demise of the body at death, being reborn in the company of the devas of the heavenly musician order’. (SN iii 250)

Illustration: fuelled by craving

• Master Gotama, when a flame is flung by the wind and goes some distance, what does Master Gotama declare to be its fuel on that occasion?

• When, Vaccha, a flame is flung by the wind and goes some distance, I declare that it is fuelled by the wind. For on that occasion the wind is its fuel.

• And, Master Gotama, when a being has laid down this [wretched human] body but is not yet possessed of another body, what does Master Gotama declare to be [the being’s] fuel on that occasion?

• When, Vaccha, a being has laid down this [wretched human] body but is not yet possessed of another body, I declare that [the being] is fuelled by craving. For on that occasion craving is [the being’s] fuel.

Yasmiṁ kho vaccha samaye imañca kāyaṁ nikkhipati satto ca aññataraṁ kāyaṁ anuppanno hoti tamahaṁ taṇhūpādānaṁ vadāmi. Taṇhāhissa vaccha tasmiṁ samaye upādānaṁ hotī ti. (SN iv 399)

sañcetanā

sañcetanā: (main article see: manosañcetanāhāro)

Illustration: sañcetanā, intentional effort

Four ways of acquiring a [particular] state of individuality.

Cattārome bhikkhave attabhāvapaṭilābhā. Katame cattāro?

There is the acquiring of a [particular] state of individuality in which one’s own intentional effort has effect, not another’s; another’s intentional effort has effect, not one’s own; both; neither.

atthāvuso attabhāvapaṭilābho yasmiṁ attabhāvapaṭilābhe
attasañcetanā yeva kamati no parasañcetanā.
parasañcetanā yeva kamati no attasañcetanā.
attasañcetanā ceva kamati parasañcetanā ca.
neva attasañcetanā kamati no parasañcetanā. (DN iii 231)

Comment:

Venerable Sāriputta said this meant that where there is the acquiring of a [particular] state of individuality in which one’s own intentional effort has effect, not another person’s, there is a passing away of beings from that group on account of their own intentional effort (attasañcetanāhetu tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhā kāyā cuti hoti). And corresponding statements for the other groups (AN ii 159).

maññati

Renderings

Introduction

Think: rhetorical questions

As a rhetorical introduction to a question, the Buddha would ask what people thought:

  • ‘What do you think, bhikkhus (taṁ kiṁ maññatha bhikkhave)? Is bodily form lasting or unlasting?’ (SN iii 187).
  • ‘What do you think, bhikkhus (taṁ kiṁ maññatha bhikkhave)? Which is the greater, this small stone I have picked up, the size of my hand, or the Himalayas, the king of mountain ranges?’ (MN iii 166).
  • What do you think, Kālāmas (taṁ kiṁ maññatha kālāmā)? Does greed arise for one’s benefit or harm? (AN i 189).

To think

Maññati sometimes means ‘to think’:

• ‘I think such teaching is truly foolish’

maññāmahaṁ momūhameva dhammaṁ. (Snp 840)

• ‘Whoever might think he could pollute the sea with a pot of poison would not be able to do so

samuddaṁ visakumbhena yo maññeyya padūsituṁ. (Vin.2.203)

• Groups of ascetics would sit quietly, hoping that the Buddha ‘might think of approaching’

Think appropriate

Maññati also means ‘to think appropriate.’ When the matted-hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvelā wanted to receive ordination, the Buddha told him to consult his group of five hundred ascetics ‘so that they can do what they think appropriate’ (yathā te maññissanti tathā karissantī ti).’ That is, whether or not to likewise receive ordination (Vin.1.32).

Think of in personal terms

Maññati also means thinking of something in personal terms, or to ‘think “I am.”’ This is the special meaning of maññati. For example, a bhikkhu ‘should not think “I am part of solidness”’ (paṭhaviyā mā maññi). The past participle maññita is used as the corresponding noun. PED (sv Maññita) calls it: ‘illusion, imagination’). We say ‘thinking in personal terms’:

• And what is the way that is appropriate for uprooting all thinking in personal terms (sabbamaññita)? In this regard a bhikkhu does not think of the visual sense in personal terms (na maññati), does not think (na maññati) ‘I am part of the visual sense,’ does not think ‘I am separate from the visual sense,’ does not think the visual sense is “[in reality] mine”

Katamā ca sā bhikkhave sabbamaññitasamugghātasāruppapaṭipadā idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cakkhuṁ na maññati cakkhusmiṁ na maññati cakkhuto na maññati cakkhuṁ meti na maññati. (SN iv 22)

On resorting to brackets

Although translators agree to this special meaning of maññati, ‘thinking in personal terms,’ they usually resort to brackets. For example, Horner says ‘he thinks (of self) in (regard to) extension’ (Horner, MLSN i 4).

Bodhi, too, uses brackets, explaining that maññati is often used to mean ‘the intrusion of the egocentric perspective’ (MLDB n.6). In translating the Mūlapariyāya Sutta he therefore introduces the word ‘himself,’ but in brackets:

• ‘Having perceived earth as earth, he conceives [himself as] earth, he conceives [himself] in earth, he conceives [himself apart] from earth, he conceives earth to be ‘mine.’

paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito saññatvā paṭhaviṁ maññati paṭhaviyā maññati paṭhavito maññati paṭhaviṁ me ti maññati. (Bodhi, MN i 1)

Adding brackets tends to suggest that maññati does not have the full meaning one is giving it. We treat it as if it does.

Illustrations

Illustration: maññati, think of in personal terms; maññati, think ‘I am’; maññati, think

The ignorant Everyman

perceives solidness to be solidness;

paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito sañjānāti

Having done so, he thinks of solidness in personal terms;

paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito saññatvā paṭhaviṁ maññati

He thinks ‘I am part of solidness,’

He thinks ‘I am separate from solidness,’

He thinks that solidness is “[in reality] mine.”

paṭhaviṁ me ti maññati

He takes delight in solidness.

For what reason? He does not profoundly understand it.

Taṁ kissa hetu? Apariññātaṁ tassā ti vadāmi. (Mūlapariyāya Sutta, MN i 1)

Comment:

I render the locative case as ‘part of,’ and the ablative case as ‘separate from’ for the following reasons:

1) The Locative shows the place in or on which a thing or person is, or an action is done and is therefore expressed as in, on, upon, at (PGPL, para601).

2) The primary meaning of the Ablative is expressed by the word ‘from,’ namely separation, and other relations in which the idea of separation is more or less discernible (e.g. he fell from the horse) (PGPL, para 600).

Illustration: maññati, think of in personal terms; maññati, think ‘I am’; maññati, think

The bhikkhu who is an arahant

fully understands solidness to be solidness

so pi paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito abhijānāti

Fully understanding solidness to be solidness

paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito abhiññāya

he does not think of solidness in personal terms

paṭhaviṁ na maññati

He does not think ‘I am part of solidness’

paṭhaviyā na maññati

He does not think ‘I am separate from solidness’

paṭhavito na maññati

He does not think solidness is “[in reality] mine”

paṭhaviṁ me ti na maññati

He does not take delight in solidness

For what reason? He profoundly understands it, I declare

Taṁ kissa hetu? Pariññātaṁ tassā ti vadāmi. (MN i 4)

Illustration: maññati, think of in personal terms

Man is subject to torment;

ayaṁ loko santāpajāto

Afflicted by sensation,

He calls an illness ‘endowed with personal qualities’;

rogaṁ vadati attato

But whatsoever one thinks of in personal terms

yena yena hi maññati

It is different than [how one thinks of it],

tato taṁ hoti aññathā. (Uda 32)

Illustration: maññati, think of in personal terms; maññati, think ‘I am’

The Perfect One in seeing what is to be seen, does not think of what is seen in personal terms.

tathāgato daṭṭhā daṭṭhabbaṁ diṭṭhaṁ na maññati.

He does not think of what is not seen in personal terms

Adiṭṭhaṁ na maññati.

He does not think of what should be seen in personal terms

Daṭṭhabbaṁ na maññati.

He does not think ‘I am the seer.’

Daṭṭhāraṁ na maññati. (AN ii 25)

Illustration: maññati, think ‘I am’

The Brahman speaks thus:

All states of individual existence are unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, destined to change

sabbe bhavā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā ti.

In so saying

iti vadaṁ brāhmaṇo

• he speaks truth not falsehood saccaṁ

āha no musā

• he does not think ‘I am an ascetic’

so tena na samaṇo ti maññati

• he does not think ‘I am a Brahmanist’

na brāhmaṇo ti maññati

• he does not think ‘I am better’

na seyyo’hamasmī ti maññati

• he does not think ‘I am equal’

na sadiso’hamasmī ti maññati

• he does not think ‘I am worse’

na hīno’hamasmī ti maññati. (AN ii 176-7)

Illustration: maññati, think ‘I am’

If one profoundly understands what can be expressed, and does not think ‘I am the expressor.’

Akkheyyañca pariññāya akkhātāraṁ na maññati

The mind’s deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states] is achieved, the unsurpassed Peaceful State.

Phūṭṭho vimokkho manasā santipadamanuttaraṁ. (Iti 53)

Illustration: maññati, think ‘I am’

The arahant does not think ‘I am something’; he does not think ‘I am somewhere’; he does not think ‘I am due to something.’

na kiñci maññati na kuhiñci maññati na kenaci maññatī ti. (MN iii 45)

Illustration: maññati, think of in personal terms

The Sappurisa Sutta (MN iii 42) compares the common person and the spiritually outstanding person (asappuriso and sappuriso). When the common person (asappuriso) gains first jhāna, he thinks

• ‘I am an attainer of the first jhāna; these other bhikkhus are not’

ahaṁ khomhi paṭhamajjhānasamāpattiyā lābhī ime panaññe bhikkhū na paṭhamajjhānasamāpattiyā lābhino ti

He thereby exalts himself and disparages others

attānukkaṁseti paraṁ vambheti

When a spiritually outstanding person gains jhāna, he thinks:

‘The perception that “It is void of personal qualities” even concerning the attainment of the first jhāna has been spoken of by the Blessed One

paṭhamajjhānasamāpattiyāpi kho atammayatā vuttā bhagavatā.

For whatsoever one thinks of in personal terms, it is different than [how one thinks of it]

yena yena hi maññati tato taṁ hoti aññathā

Comment:

Maññati means ‘think of in personal terms,’ which is seen in the thoughts of the asappuriso, dominated by ahaṁ.

Illustration: maññati, think; maññati, think of in personal terms

See the world [of beings] with its devas entrenched in [attachment to] immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form. It thinks what is void of personal qualities is endowed with personal qualities. It thinks ‘This is true [to its appearance].’

Anattani attamāniṁ passa lokaṁ sadevakaṁ niviṭṭhaṁ nāmarūpasmiṁ idaṁ saccan ti maññati.

But whatsoever they think of in personal terms is different [from how they think of it].

Yena yena hi maññanti tato taṁ hoti aññathā

For it is untrue to itself.

taṁ hi tassa musā hoti

That which is transitory is intrinsically false indeed.

mosadhammaṁ hi ittaraṁ. (Snp 756-7)

maññita

maññita: (main article see: maññati)

Illustration: maññita, thinking in personal terms

‘I am,’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

asmī ti maññitametaṁ

‘I am this,’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

ayamahamasmī ti maññitametaṁ

‘I will be,’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

bhavissan ti maññitametaṁ

‘I will not be,’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

na bhavissan ti maññitametaṁ

‘I will be material,’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

rūpi bhavissanti maññitametaṁ

‘I will be immaterial,’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

arūpī bhavissan ti maññitametaṁ

‘I will be aware,’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

saññībhavissan ti maññitametaṁ

‘I will be unaware,’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

asaññī bhavissan ti maññitametaṁ

‘I will be neither aware nor unaware,’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

nevasaññināsaññī bhavissan ti maññitametaṁ

Thinking in personal terms is an illness, a carbuncle, a [piercing] arrow. Therefore train yourselves with the thought, ‘We will live with minds free of thinking in personal terms’

maññitaṁ bhikkhave rogo maññitaṁ gaṇḍo maññitaṁ sallaṁ tasmātiha bhikkhave amaññamānena cetasā viharissāmāti evaṁ hi vo bhikkhave sikkhitabbaṁ. (SN iv 203)

Illustration: maññita, thinking in personal terms; maññati, think of in personal terms; maññati, think ‘I am’; maññati, think

And what is the way that is appropriate for uprooting all thinking in personal terms?

Katamā ca sā bhikkhave sabbamaññitasamugghātasāruppapaṭipadā

In this regard a bhikkhu does not think of the visual sense in personal terms

cakkhuṁ na maññati

does not think ‘I am part of the visual sense’

cakkhusmiṁ na maññati

does not think ‘I am separate from the visual sense’

cakkhuto na maññati

does not think the visual sense is “[in reality] mine”

cakkhuṁ me ti na maññati. (SN iv 22)

amaññissaṁ

amaññissaṁ: (main article see: maññati)

Illustration: amaññissaṁ, think appropriate

'I was so pleased and satisfied with Master Kassapa's first parable, I wanted to hear his brilliant replies to these other various questions. So I thought it appropriate to treat Master Kassapa as an opponent.

Purimeneva ahaṁ opammena bhoto kassapassa attamano abhiraddho. Api cāhaṁ imāni vicitrāni pañhāpaṭibhānāni sotukāmo evāhaṁ bhavantaṁ kassapaṁ paccanīkaṁ kātabbaṁ amaññissaṁ. (DN ii 352)

mathita

Renderings

Illustrations

mathenti

mathenti: (main article see: mathita)

Illustration: mathenti, distract

Sensuous pleasures―attractive, sweet, and charming―distract the mind through their many different forms.

Kāmā hi citrā madhurā manoramā virūparūpena mathenti cittaṁ. (Snp 50)

Illustration: mathenti, distract

There are many attractive things in the world, on this wide earth. They distract [the mind], it seems, [by promoting] thoughts of lovely objects that are associated with attachment.

Bahūni loke citrāni asmiṁ paṭhavimaṇḍale
Mathenti maññe saṅkappaṁ subhaṁ rāgūpasaṁhitaṁ. (Tha 674)

Illustration: mathenti, distract

Likeable things do not distract his mind, unlikeable things are not considered repulsive. His welcoming and rejecting are scattered, gone to their end, do not exist.

Iṭṭhassa dhammā na mathenti cittaṁ aniṭṭhato no paṭighātameti.
Tassānurodhā athavā virodhā vidhūpitā atthagatā na santi. (AN iv 159-160)

pamathitassa

pamathitassa: (main article see: mathita)

Illustration: pamathitassa, distracted

The craving of a person of distracted thoughts, who is full of attachment and contemplates the loveliness [of the female body] will only develop. Such a person reinforces his bondage [to individual existence].

Vitakkapamathitassa jantuno tibbarāgassa subhānupassino
Bhiyyo taṇhā pavaḍḍhati esa kho daḷhaṁ karoti bandhanaṁ. (Dhp 349)

mathitānaṁ

mathitānaṁ: (main article see: mathita)

Illustration: mathitānaṁ, states of inward distraction

Therefore I say with the destruction, fading away, ending, giving up, and relinquishment of all thinking in personal terms, of all states of inward distraction, all illusions of personal identity, all illusions of personal ownership, and of the proclivity to self-centredness, the Perfect One is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through being without grasping.

Tasmā tathāgato sabbamaññitānaṁ sabbamathitānaṁ sabbaahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayānaṁ khayā virāgā nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā anupādā vimutto ti vadāmī ti. (MN i 486)

mathitā

mathitā: (main article see: mathita)

Illustration: mathitā, distracted

Being distracted by their various gains, they do not attain inward collectedness.

Lābhālābhena mathitā samādhiṁ nādhigacchantī ti. (Tha 102)

mathito

mathito: (main article see: mathita)

Illustration: mathito, oppressed

Just as a noble thoroughbred yoked to a load, enduring a load, oppressed by the excessive burden, does not try to escape from its yoke

Yathā pi bhaddo ājañño dhure yutto dhurassaho
Mathito atibhārena saṁ yugaṁ nātivattati. (Tha 659)

Commentary: saṁ yugan ti attano khandhe ṭhapitaṁ yugaṁ. Saṁ is therefore a possessive pronoun.

Illustration: mathita, churned

The practlce concerning unchurned [milk]

amathitakappo. (Vin.2.301)

Notes:

This practice concerns milk which has passed the stage of being milk but has not arrived at the stage of being cream.

yaṁ taṁ khīraṁ khīrabhāvaṁ vijahitaṁ asampattaṁ dadhibhāvaṁ. (Vin.2.301)

mada

Renderings

Illustrations

mado

mado: (main article see: mada)

Illustration: mado, exuberance

In the youth of beings, there is an exuberance on account of youth, intoxicated with which they misconduct themselves by way of body, speech, and mind.

Atthī bhikkhave sattānaṁ yobbane yobbanamado yena madena mattā kāyena duccaritaṁ caranti vācāya duccaritaṁ caranti manasā duccaritaṁ caranti. (AN iii 72)

In the health of beings, there is an exuberance on account of health, intoxicated with which they misconduct themselves by way of body, speech, and mind.

Atthi bhikkhave sattānaṁ ārogye ārogyamado yena madena mattā kāyena duccaritaṁ caranti vācāya duccaritaṁ caranti manasā duccaritaṁ caranti. (AN iii 72)

In the life of beings, there is an exuberance on account of life, intoxicated with which they misconduct themselves by way of body, speech, and mind.

Atthi bhikkhave sattānaṁ jīvite jīvitamado yena madena mattā kāyena duccaritaṁ caranti vācāya duccaritaṁ caranti manasā duccaritaṁ caranti. (AN iii 72)

Illustration: mado, exuberance

When I reflected thus my exuberance on account of youth was completely abandoned.

Tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave iti paṭisañcikkhato yo yobbane yobbanamado so sabbaso pahīyi. (AN i 146)

When I reflected thus my exuberance on account of health was completely abandoned.

Tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave iti paṭisañcikkhato yo ārogye ārogyamado so sabbaso pahīyi. (AN i 146)

When I reflected thus my exuberance on account of life was completely abandoned.

Tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave iti paṭisañcikkhato yo jīvite jīvitamado so sabbaso pahīyī'ti. (AN i 146)

Illustration: mada, exuberance

Intoxicated with the exuberance on account of youth a bhikkhu gives up the training and returns to lay life.

Yobbanamadamatto vā bhikkhave bhikkhu sikkhaṁ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattati.

Intoxicated with the exuberance on account of health a bhikkhu gives up the training and returns to lay life.

Ārogyamadamatto vā bhikkhave bhikkhu sikkhaṁ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattati

Intoxicated with the exuberance on account of life a bhikkhu gives up the training and returns to lay life.

jīvitamadamatto vā bhikkhave bhikkhu sikkhaṁ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattatī' ti. (AN i 147)

Illustration: mada, exuberance

A sage, living the religious life, abstaining from sexual intercourse, who, though a youth, is not attached in any way, abstaining from [any form of] exuberance and from negligence [in the practice], freed [from individual existence], the wise know him as truly a sage.

Muniṁ carantaṁ virataṁ methunasmā yo yobbane nopanibajjhate kvaci
Madappamādā virataṁ vippamuttaṁ taṁ vāpi dhīrā muniṁ vedayanti. (Snp 218)

madāya

madāya: (main article see: mada)

Illustration: madāya, exuberance

Properly reflecting, you should use almsfood not for fun, not for exuberance, not for the sake of comeliness and good looks, but just for the maintenance and nourishment of this [wretched human] body for restraining its troublesomeness, for supporting the religious life.

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso āhāraṁ āhāreyyāsi neva davāya na madāya na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāya yāvadeva imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā yāpanāya vihiṁsūparatiyā brahmacariyānuggahāya. (MN iii 134)

madamatto

madamatto: (main article see: mada)

Illustration: madamatto, intoxicated

Intoxicated with my superior parentage, wealth, and authority, I walked the earth intoxicated with the form and complexion of my body.

Jātimadena mattohaṁ bhogaissariyena ca
Saṇṭhānavaṇṇarūpena madamatto acārihaṁ. (Tha 423)

madanīyā

madanīyā: (main article see: mada)

Illustration: madanīyā, intoxicating

Sensuous pleasures are intoxicating

madanīyaṁ

madanīyaṁ: (main article see: mada)

Illustration: madanīyaṁ, intoxicating

I see no single visible object so attractive, so sensuous, so intoxicating, so captivating, so infatuating, so obstructive to the reaching of unsurpassed safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence], as the sight of a woman.

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave aññaṁ ekarūpampi samanupassāmi yaṁ evaṁ rajanīyaṁ evaṁ kamanīyaṁ evaṁ madanīyaṁ evaṁ bandhanīyaṁ evaṁ mucchanīyaṁ evaṁ antarāyakaraṁ anuttarassa yogakkhemassa adhigamāya yathayidaṁ bhikkhave itthirūpaṁ. (AN iii 68)

Illustration: madanīyo, intoxicating

The music of the devas was beautiful, attractive, sensuous, lovely, and intoxicating.

vaggu ca rajanīyo ca kamanīyo ca pemanīyo ca madanīyo ca. (AN iv 263)

majjī

majjī: (main article see: mada)

Illustration: majjī, intoxicated; madanīyesu, intoxicating

May my mind not be intoxicated with intoxicating things

Mā me madanīyesu dhammesu cittaṁ majjī ti. (AN ii 120)

manasikāra

Renderings

Illustrations

manasikareyyāsi

manasikareyyāsi: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikareyyāsi, focus on

But if by abiding thus you do not shake off that torpor, then focus on the mental image of light, concentrate on the mental image of day. As by day, so at night; as at night, so by day.

No ce te evaṁ viharato taṁ middhaṁ pahīyetha tato tvaṁ moggallāna ālokasaññaṁ manasikareyyāsi divāsaññaṁ adhiṭṭheyyāsi yathā divā tathā rattiṁ yathā rattiṁ tathā divā. (AN iv 86)

manasikareyya

manasikareyya: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikareyya, focus on

• If a bhikkhu focuses exclusively on the practice of inward collectedness it is likely that his mind will fall into indolence

ekantaṁ samādhinimittaññeva manasikareyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ cittaṁ kosajjāya saṁvatteyya

• If he focuses exclusively on the practice of effort it is likely that his mind will fall into restlessness

ekantaṁ paggahanimittaññeva manasikareyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ cittaṁ uddhaccāya saṁvatteyya

• If he focuses exclusively on the practice of detached awareness it is likely that his mind will be not properly collected for the destruction of perceptually obscuring states

ekantaṁ upekkhānimittaññeva manasikareyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ cittaṁ na sammā samādhiyetha āsavānaṁ khayāya. (AN i 256)

manasikaroto

manasikaroto: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikaroto, focus on

In tasting a tasteable object with mindfulness muddled

rasaṁ bhotvā sati muṭṭhā

Focusing on the agreeable aspect,

piyaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto

One experiences it with a mind of attachment

And persists in cleaving to it.

tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati. (Tha 800)

manasikaroto

manasikaroto: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikaroto, focus on

When a bhikkhu is focusing on an object that arouses unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, hatred, and undiscernment of reality, he should focus on some other meditation object connected with what is spiritually wholesome.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhunā yaṁ nimittaṁ āgamma yaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto uppajjanti pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṁhitāpi dosūpasaṁhitāpi mohūpasaṁhitāpi tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā tamhā nimittā aññaṁ nimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ kusalūpasaṁhitaṁ. (MN i 119)

manasikarotha

manasikarotha: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikarotha, pay attention

Listen, pay careful attention, and I will speak

suṇātha sādhukaṁ manasikarotha bhāsissāmī ti. (Snp 50)

manasikaroma

manasikaroma: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikaroma, pay attention

I will recite the Pātimokkha with one and all of us present.

pātimokkhaṁ uddisissāmi taṁ sabbeva santā

Listen carefully. Pay attention.

sādhukaṁ suṇoma manasikaroma

• Listen carefully [means]: pay attention as a matter of vital concern, apply one’s whole mind to it.

sādhukaṁ suṇomā ti aṭṭhikatvā manasikatvā sabbacetasā samannāharāma

• Pay attention (means): we listen with an undistracted and untroubled mind, inwardly calm.

Manasikaromā ti ekaggacittā avikkhittacittā avisāhaṭa cittā nisāmema. (Vin.1.103)

Illustration: manasikareyya, pay attention

Suppose a young, foolish infant lying on his back, through the negligence of the nurse puts a stick or stone into his mouth.

seyyathā pi bhikkhave daharo kumāro mando uttānaseyyako dhātiyā pamādamanvāya kaṭṭhaṁ vā kaṭhalaṁ vā mukhe āhareyya

The nurse would quickly pay attention and quickly remove it.

tamenaṁ dhāti sīghasīghaṁ manasikareyya sīghasīghaṁ manasikaritvā sighasīghaṁ āhareyya. (AN iii 6)

Illustration: manasikāra, the paying of attention

• All things stem from fondness.

Chandamūlakā āvuso sabbe dhammā

• All things arise from the paying of attention.

manasikārasambhavā sabbe dhammā

• Sensation is the origin of all things.

phassasamudayā sabbe dhammā. (AN iv 339)

manasikarotā

manasikarotā: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikarotā, attentive

It is by dealing with him that a man’s integrity is to be known. And that after a long time not a short time, by one who is attentive not otherwise, by one with penetrative discernment, not one who is void of penetrative discernment.

Saṁvohārena bhikkhave soceyyaṁ veditabbaṁ. Tañca kho dīghena addhunā na ittaraṁ. Manasikarotā no amanasikārā paññavatā no duppaññenāti. (AN ii 187)

manasikātuṁ

manasikātuṁ: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikātuṁ, think

In whatever quarter the bhikkhus live quarrelsome, cantankerous, contentious, stabbing each other with verbal daggers it is unpleasant for me to even think about that quarter, let alone visit.

Yassaṁ bhikkhave disāyaṁ bhikkhū bhaṇḍanajātā kalahajātā vivādāpannā aññamaññaṁ mukhasattīhi vitudantā viharanti manasikātumpi me esā bhikkhave disā na phāsu hoti pageva gantuṁ

In whatever quarter the bhikkhus dwell together in unity, on friendly terms, without quarrelling, like milk and water mixed, viewing each other with affection it is pleasant for me to visit that quarter, let alone think about it.

Yassaṁ bhikkhave disāyaṁ bhikkhū samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā khīrodakībhūtā aññamaññaṁ piyacakkhūhi sampassantā viharanti. Gantumpi me esā bhikkhave disā phāsu hoti pageva manasikātuṁ. (AN i 275)

manasikaroto

manasikaroto: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikaroto, contemplating

When contemplating sensuous pleasure a bhikkhu’s mind does not become energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno kāmaṁ manasikaroto kāmesu cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati)

But when contemplating the practice of unsensuousness his mind becomes energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it.

Nekkhammaṁ kho panassa manasikaroto nekkhamme cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati). (AN iii 245)

manasikaroti

manasikaroti: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikaroti, contemplates

A woman contemplates the femininity in herself, the feminine occupation, ways of behaviour, manners, desires, voice, and attractiveness. She is excited by that, she takes delight in that.

Itthi bhikkhave ajjhattaṁ itthindriyaṁ manasikaroti itthikuttaṁ itthākappaṁ itthividhaṁ itthicchandaṁ itthissaraṁ itthālaṅkāraṁ sā tattha rajjati tatrābhiramati.

Being thus excited and delighted, she contemplates the masculinity about her, the masculine occupation, ways of behaviour, manners, desires, voice, and attractiveness. She is excited by that, she takes delight in that.

Sā tattha rattā tatrābhiratā bahiddhā purisindriyaṁ manasikaroti purisakuttaṁ purisākappaṁ purisavidhaṁ purisacchandaṁ purisassaraṁ purisālaṅkāraṁ. Sā tattha rajjati tatrābhiramati. (AN iv 57)

Illustration: manasikāra, contemplating

Bhikkhus, by much contemplating things that are a basis for attachment to sensuous pleasure, unarisen sensuous hankering arises, and arisen sensuous hankering increases and expands.

Kāmarāgaṭṭhāniyānaṁ bhikkhave dhammānaṁ manasikārabahulīkārā anuppanno ceva kāmacchando uppajjati uppanno ca kāmacchando bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṁvattati. (SN v 84)

Illustration: manasikaroti, contemplates

Therein the learned noble disciple carefully and properly contemplates dependent origination thus:

Tatra kho bhikkhave sutavā ariyasāvako paṭiccasamuppādaññeva sādhukaṁ yoniso manasikaroti

‘When there is this, that comes to be. With the arising of this, that arises. Without this, that does not come to be. With the ending of this, that ceases.

iti imasmiṁ sati idaṁ hoti imassuppādā idaṁ uppajjati imasmiṁ asati idaṁ na hoti imassanirodhā idaṁ nirujjhati. (SN ii 65)

manasikarotha

manasikarotha: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikarotha, contemplate

Bhikkhus, contemplate the visual sense properly.

Cakkhuṁ bhikkhave yoniso manasikarotha

Recognise the unlastingness of the visual sense according to reality.

cakkhu aniccatañca yathābhūtaṁ samanupassatha. (SN iv 142)

manasikaroti

manasikaroti: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikaroti, contemplate

The ignorant Everyman contemplates issues that should not be contemplated and does not contemplate issues that should be contemplated

ye dhammā na manasikaraṇīyā te dhamme manasikaroti ye dhammā manasikaraṇīyā te dhamme na manasikaroti

This is how he improperly contemplates

So evaṁ ayoniso manasikaroti

• Was I in the past?

ahosiṁ nu kho ahaṁ atītamaddhānaṁ

• Was I not in the past?

na nu kho ahosiṁ atītamaddhānaṁ

• What was I in the past?

kinnu kho ahosiṁ atītamaddhānaṁ

• How was I in the past?

kathaṁ nu kho ahosiṁ atītamaddhānaṁ

• Having been what, what did I become in the past?

Kiṁ hutvā kiṁ ahosiṁ nu kho ahaṁ atītamaddhānaṁ

• Shall I be in the future?

bhavissāmi nu kho ahaṁ anāgatamaddhānaṁ

• Shall I not be in the future?

na nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṁ

• What shall I be in the future?

kinnu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṁ

• How shall I be in the future?

kathaṁ nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṁ

• Having been what, what shall I become in the future?

kiṁ hutvā kiṁ bhavissāmi nu kho ahaṁ anāgatamaddhānan ti.

• Or else he is uncertain about the present in regard to himself

etarahi vā paccuppannaṁ addhānaṁ ajjhattaṁ kathaṅkathī hoti

• Am I?

ahaṁ nu khosmi

• Am I not?

no nu khosmi

• What am I?

• How am I?

kathaṁ nu khosmi

• Where has this being come from?

ayaṁ nu kho satto kuto āgato

• Where will it go?

so kuhiṁ gāmī bhavissatī ti. (MN i 7-9)

Illustration: manasikaroti, contemplates

He properly contemplates: This is suffering

So idaṁ dukkhan ti yoniso manasikaroti

He properly contemplates: This is the origin of suffering… …

ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo ti yoniso manasikaroti

He properly contemplates: This is the ending of suffering… …

ayaṁ dukkhanirodho ti yoniso manasikaroti

He properly contemplates: This is the practice leading to the ending of suffering.

ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ti yoniso manasikaroti. (MN i 8)

manasikāro

manasikāro: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikāro, paying of attention

Sense impression, perception, intentional effort, sensation, and the paying of attention, are called ‘immaterial-factors.’

Vedanā saññā cetanā phasso manasikāro idaṁ vuccatāvuso nāmaṁ. (MN i 53)

manasikārā

manasikārā: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikārā, contemplation

tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave etadahosi</div>

‘Without what, is there no old age and death? With the ending of what comes the ending of old age and death?’

kimhi nu kho asati jarāmaraṇaṁ na hoti? Tissa nirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodho ti?… jātiyā kho asati jarāmaraṇaṁ na hoti. Jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodho ti.

Then through proper contemplation, there took place in me a realisation through penetrative discernment: ‘When there is no birth, there is no old age and death. With the ending of birth comes the ending of old age and death.’

tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo: jātiyā kho asati jarāmaraṇaṁ na hoti jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodho ti. (SN ii 8-9)

Illustration: manasikārā, contemplation

A certain bhikkhu who had gone for his daytime abiding kept thinking unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts, namely sensuous thought, unbenevolent thought, malicious thought.

so bhikkhu divāvihāragato pāpake akusale vitakke vitakketi. Seyyathīdaṁ kāmavitakkaṁ vyāpādavitakkaṁ vihiṁsāvitakkaṁ.

Then the deva inhabiting that woodland grove… addressed him in verse:

Atha kho yā tasmiṁ vanasaṇḍe adhivatthā devatā… taṁ bhikkhuṁ gāthāhi ajjhabhāsi:

Through improper contemplation you are eaten by your thoughts. Having relinquished what is improper, you should reflect properly.

Ayoniso manasikārā so vitakkehi khajjasi
Ayoniso paṭinissajja yoniso anuvicintaya. (SN i 203)

manasikaroto

manasikaroto: (main article see: manasikāra)

Illustration: manasikaroto, contemplates

When a bhikkhu improperly contemplates, unarisen perceptually obscuring states arise, and arisen perceptually obscuring states increase.

Ayoniso bhikkhave manasikaroto anuppannā ceva āsavā uppajjanti uppannā ca āsavā pavaḍḍhanti.

When a bhikkhu properly contemplates, unarisen āsavas do not arise, and arisen āsavas are abandoned.

Yoniso ca kho bhikkhave manasikaroto anuppannā ceva āsavā na uppajjanti uppannā ca āsavā pahīyanti. (MN i 7)

Illustration: manasikāroti, contemplation

And what is the condition that nourishes mindfulness and full consciousness? Proper contemplation, one should reply…

ko cāhāro satisampajaññassa yoniso manasikārotissa vacanīyaṁ…

And what is the condition that nourishes proper contemplation? Faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], one should reply…

ko cāhāro yoniso manasikārassa saddhātissa vacanīyaṁ. (AN v 118)

Illustration: manasikāra, contemplation

Bhikkhus, whatever factors that are spiritually wholesome, part of what is spiritually wholesome, pertaining to what is spiritually wholesome, they all stem from proper contemplation, emanate from proper contemplation, and proper contemplation is declared to be the chief among them.

Ye keci bhikkhave dhammā kusalā kusalabhāgiyā kusalapakkhiyā sabbe te yoniso manasikāramūlakā yoniso manasikārasamosaraṇā yoniso manasikāro tesaṁ dhammānaṁ aggamakkhāyati.

When a bhikkhu is perfect in proper contemplation, it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate the seven factors of enlightenment.

yoniso manasikārasampannassetaṁ bhikkhave bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṁ satta bojjhaṅge bhāvessati. (SN v 91)

mantabhāṇin

Renderings

Introduction

Mantabhāṇī in the Bahubhāṇi Sutta

The meaning of mantabhāṇī is suggested in the Bahubhāṇi Sutta, where it is the opposite of bahubhāṇī, as follows:

• Bhikkhus, there are these five dangers for a person in speaking profusely. Which five?

Pañcime bhikkhave ādīnavā bahubhāṇiyasmiṁ puggale. Katame pañca.

… He speaks falsely, maliciously, harshly, and frivolously; and with the demise of the body at death, he is reborn in the plane of sub-human existence, in the plane of misery, in the plane of damnation, or in hell.

Musā bhaṇati. Pisunaṁ bhaṇati pharusaṁ bhaṇati samphappalāpaṁ bhaṇati kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ uppajjati.

… Bhikkhus, there are these five advantages for a person whose speech is pithy. Which five?

Pañcime bhikkhave ānisaṁsā mantabhāṇismiṁ puggale. Katame pañca:

… He does not speak falsely, maliciously, harshly, or frivolously; and with the demise of the body at death, he is reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds.

Na musā bhaṇati na pisunaṁ bhaṇati na pharusaṁ bhaṇati na samphappalāpaṁ bhaṇati. Kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjati. (AN iii 254)

Mantabhāṇī in Dhp 363

The meaning of mantabhāṇī is suggested in Dhp 363 where it is linked to restraint in speech, and said to be ambrosial:

• Whatever bhikkhu is restrained in speech, whose speech is pithy, who is not vain, who explains the meaning and significance [of the teaching], his speech is ambrosial.

Yo mukhasaṁyato bhikkhu mantabhāṇī anuddhato
Atthaṁ dhammañca dīpeti madhuraṁ tassa bhāsitaṁ. (Dhp 363)

Mantabhāṇī in Snp 850

The meaning of mantabhāṇī is suggested in Snp 850 where it is linked to sagehood:

• A person who is not ill-tempered, not fearful, not boastful, not fretful, whose speech is pithy, who is not vain, who is restrained in speech: he is truly a sage.

Akkodhano asantāsī avikatthī akukkucco
Mantabhāṇī anuddhato sa ve vācāyato muni. (Snp 850)

Mantabhāṇī and frivolous speech

If mantabhāṇī is the opposite of profuse speech, then its qualities are likely to be found with the abandonment of frivolous speech, which are seen in the following quote:

• He abandons and abstains from frivolous speech, and speaks what is timely, truthful and conducive to spiritual well-being. He speaks what accords with the teaching and discipline. At the right time, he speaks what is worth treasuring, congruous, appropriate, and conducive to spiritual well-being.

samphappalāpaṁ pahāya samphappalāpā paṭivirato hoti kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī nidhānavatiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti kālena sāpadesaṁ pariyantavatiṁ atthasaṁhitaṁ. (AN v 205)

‘Words that are worth treasuring, congruous, appropriate, and conducive to spiritual well-being’ if associated with brevity in speech are all suggestive of pithiness.

Pithy: definition and useage

Pithy means:

  • ‘Having substance and point; tersely cogent’
  • ‘Pithy’ adds to ‘succinct’ or ‘terse’ the implication of richness of meaning or substance (Webster’s).

Pithiness is effective because:

• ‘Men of talents are sooner to be convinced by short sentences than by long preachments, because the short sentences drive themselves into the heart and stay there, while long discourses, though ever so good, tire the attention; and one good thing drives out another, and so on till all is forgotten.’ (Clarissa Harlowe by Samuel Richardson)

mama

Renderings

Introduction

Mama

Mama is the genitive of ahaṁ, i.e. ‘of me.’ The genitive case indicates close connection, not just possession. Therefore it covers a range of concepts such as ‘belonging to me’ or ‘associated with me’ or ‘connected with me.’ It can be rendered as either ‘my’ or ‘mine.’

• My life (life belonging to me) is short

parittaṁ mama jīvitaṁ. (DN ii 120)

• Beckon Ānanda in my name (name connected with me)

mama vacanena ānandaṁ āmantehi. (DN ii 144)

• Listen, lords, to my proposal (proposal connected with me)

• Those eighty-four thousand cities of which Kusāvatī was chief were mine (cities belonging to me)

mama tāni caturāsītinagarasahassāni kusāvatīnagarapamukhāni. (DN ii 196)

• He is sitting on my couch (couch belonging to me)

• They became my disciples (disciples associated with me)

mama yeva sāvakā sampajjanti. (DN ii 284)

me

Me is synonymous with mama. For example:

Rendering doctrinal contexts

But things that are conventionally mine are not [in reality] mine. We word doctrinal contexts accordingly, for example by rendering n’etaṁ mama as ‘This is “not [in reality] mine.”’

The parenthesis ‘[in reality]’ is justified because of mama‘s link to yathābhūtaṁ:

• What is void of personal qualities should be seen according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood”

yadanattā taṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ. (SN iv 1)

Inverted commas

Inverted commas are used in the way we have done because the Buddha would tell bhikkhus to see things as ‘not mine.’ He obviously did not mean that their five aggregates were not his, the Buddha’s (n’etaṁ mama).

If an object either one’s own or another’s is “not [in reality] mine,” then it is not something that anyone, myself or another, could say is “[in reality] mine.” The reflection on n’etaṁ mama thus embraces not just one’s own perspective on the world, but also one’s insight into the perspective of others.

Illustrations

Illustration: mama, of mine

A disciple of mine (mama sāvako) sees each of the five aggregates according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment (yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passati): MN i 234).

Illustration: mama, belonging to me

I am not in any way anything “belonging to anyone”

nāhaṁ kvacani kassaci kiñcanatasmiṁ

And not in any way is there anywhere anything “belonging to me.”

na ca mama kvacani katthaci kiñcanatātthī ti. (MN ii 263-4, AN i 206, AN ii 176-7)

Comment:

The Uposatha Sutta says the particular application of this contemplation is in personal relationships, where usually a man’s parents know him as their son, and he knows them as his parents

ayaṁ amhākaṁ putto ti so pi jānāti ime mayhaṁ mātāpitaro ti.

Similarly, his slaves and servants know him as their master, and he knows them as his slaves and servants

ayaṁ amhākaṁ ayyo ti. So pi jānāti ime mayhaṁ dāsakammakaraporisā ti.

The reflection therefore overcomes the idea that beings possess each other (AN i 206).

Illustration: mama, “[in reality] mine”

I regard these things as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood.”’

n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti samanupassāmi. (MN iii 265)

Illustration: mama, “[in reality] mine”

Whatever bodily form… fields of sensation, past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or sublime, far or near, one perceives all fields of sensation according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood.”

Yaṁ kiñci viññāṇaṁ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā yaṁ dūre santike vā sabbaṁ viññāṇaṁ n’etaṁ. mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti (MN iii 18-9)

mā anussavena

Renderings

Introduction

Kālāma Sutta: for those without faith

The Kālāma Sutta (AN i 188) answers this question: On what basis should religious teachings be abandoned or accepted? The sutta is therefore aimed at people lacking in established religious faith. It was preached twice by the Buddha to such kinds of people, in the Kālāma Sutta and the Bhaddiya Sutta (AN ii 190). It was never preached to disciples with established faith, and it was neither praised nor even mentioned by any of the bhikkhus when speaking amongst themselves, showing that for those with established faith, the Kālāma Sutta is irrelevant. The Sāḷha Sutta is an unusual sutta which we will discuss separately.

For those with established faith: irrelevant

For those with established faith the Kālāma Sutta is irrelevant because for disciples with faith (saddhassa sāvakassa) it is in accordance with the teaching (anudhammo) to reflect ‘The Blessed One is the teacher, I am a disciple. The Blessed One knows, I do not know’ (Jānāti bhagavā nāhaṁ jānāmī ti MN i 480). For those with established faith, the Kālāma Sutta is irrelevant, because considering whether the Buddha’s teaching should be abandoned or accepted implies a denial of one’s faith in the Buddha as the Teacher.

The Sāḷha Sutta

The Sāḷha Sutta (AN i 194) describes an occasion when the Kālāma Sutta was preached inappropriately. Firstly, the preacher was Venerable Nandaka, foremost among exhorters of the bhikkhunīs (AN i 25). Sāḷha was the grandson of Visākhā, not to be confused with Sāḷha the Licchavi who visited the Buddha at Kūṭāgārasāla (see Sāḷha Sutta, AN ii 200).

Why Nandaka preached the Kālāma Sutta to Sāḷha is hard to fathom. Sāḷha had asked no questions, and his visit to Nandaka was merely a social call with his friend, Rohana. Not only was Sāḷha free of questions, later events showed he was free of moral sensibility. This would in due course lead him into taking an unhealthy interest in the bhikkhunīs, and on the pretext of being their supporter, repeatedly attempting to seduce the beautiful bhikkhunī Sundarīnandā, till eventually she became pregnant by him and disrobed (Vin.4.211-6).

It can be no surprise, therefore, that the Sāḷha Sutta has a rather different conclusion to the Bhaddiya Sutta and Kālāma Sutta. Whereas those suttas had ended with listeners full of praise and thanks, in the Sāḷha Sutta, while Venerable Nandaka waxed lyrical about exalted fruits of the practice, from Sāḷha and Rohana we hear in appreciation not a word. Bhikkhu Bodhi says that the advice of the Kālāma Sutta ‘can be dangerous if given to those whose ethical sense is undeveloped.’ In the Sāḷha Sutta we have a good example of what exactly that means.

Where the Kālāma Sutta is irrelevant

The Kālāma Sutta is intended for those who have no established religious faith, but who nonetheless, as Bodhi says, are ‘of refined moral sensitivity.’ If this is misunderstood, problems arise. This is most obvious in people who claim to be disciples of the Buddha but have no faith in him, and no shame of wrongdoing, and who therefore easily gravitate to the philosophy of the Kālāma Sutta. Two suttas show the result of this.

The Kīṭāgiri Sutta

In the Kīṭāgiri Sutta (MN i 473) the bhikkhus Assaji and Punabbasuka refused the Buddha’s request that they abandon the evening meal, because by eating all day they claimed they were free of affliction and illness, and enjoyed health, strength and a comfortable abiding. When bhikkhus tried to stop them, they joked: ‘Why should we abandon a benefit visible here and now to pursue a benefit in the future?’ This defence is reminiscent of the Kālāma Sutta: ‘If you yourselves should consider that this leads to benefit and happiness, you should abide by it.’ The Buddha summoned them, roundly castigated them, and concluded:

• ‘Bhikkhus, you have lost your way. Bhikkhus, you are conducting yourselves wrongly. Bhikkhus, how far you have strayed, you worthless men, from this teaching and training system.’

vippaṭipannā'ttha bhikkhave. Micchāpaṭipannā'ttha bhikkhave. Kīvadūrevime bhikkhave moghapurisā apakkantā imasmā dhammavinayā. (MN i 480)

This, then, is the result of applying the philosophy of the Kālāma Sutta, when, as a disciple of the Buddha, one should already be established in faith. As if to confirm the limitations of the Kālāma Sutta, the Buddha told the bhikkhus to reflect that ‘The Blessed One knows, I do not know.’

The Kālāma Sutta says ‘if you yourselves should consider these teachings are blameworthy and denounced by the wise, you should abandon them.’ The admonishment of Assaji and Punabbasuka shows that in certain contexts, one should apply this message to the Kālāma Sutta itself.

The Bhaddāli Sutta

In the second situation, Venerable Bhaddali was another bhikkhu who was apparently swayed by the philosophy of the Kālāma Sutta, again with reference to avoiding the evening meal (Bhaddāli Sutta, MN i 437). Bhaddali’s excuse was ‘I might become anxious and uneasy about it.’ This is reminiscent of the Kālāma Sutta’s advice: ‘If you yourselves should consider these things lead to harm and suffering you should abandon them.’

The Buddha criticised Bhaddali for not simply following the bhikkhu’s code of conduct as laid down, and said that the faith most bhikkhus had for the Buddha was such that, if asked by him to ‘be a plank for me across the mud’ they would simply obey. He said Bhaddali had no faith at all in the Buddha, and was therefore not even a saddhānusārī. He was an empty, hollow wrongdoer (ritto tuccho aparaddho).

This shows that the problem with following ‘what one knows for oneself’ lies in the fact that religious practice is often uncomfortable, and the advice in the Kālāma Sutta to follow what one considers beneficial is rather easily confused with following what one considers pleasant. Bhikkhu Bodhi calls it ‘that egregious old tendency to interpret the Dhamma according to whatever notions are congenial to oneself.’

It is pertinent to recall the words of the bhikkhu who said:

• ‘When I live as I please, spiritually unwholesome factors flourish, spiritually wholesome factors fade. But when I apply myself to what is unpleasant, spiritually unwholesome factors fade, spiritually wholesome factors flourish. How about if I applied myself to what is unpleasant?’

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu iti paṭisañcikkhati 'yathāsukhaṁ kho me viharato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti kusalā dhammā parihāyanti. Dukkhāya pana me attānaṁ padahato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti. Yannūnāhaṁ dukkhāya attānaṁ padaheyyan ti. (MN ii 225)

Mā anussavena: what is the verb?

Mā anussavena is commonly translated: ‘Do not go by oral tradition.’ The verb ‘go’ is assumed because the verb is apparently missing. But the sentence does indeed have a verb, because the sutta concerns the question, on what basis should religious teachings be abandoned or accepted. The verbs ‘abandon’ and ‘accept’ occur when the Buddha tells the Kālāmas that under certain circumstances this is what they should do (atha tumhe kālāmā pajaheyyātha… atha tumhe kālāmā upasampajja vihareyyātha). These, then, are the verbs to use instead of ‘go.’

Dhammā: teachings

Another problem with the Kālāma Sutta is how to render dhammā because it has two fields of application. In one case, it means ‘teachings,’ and is equivalent to vādaṁ in the following passage, which we have divided into Question and Answer:

Question:

• There are some ascetics and Brahmanists, bhante, who visit Kesaputta. They expound and explain only their own teachings (sakaṁyeva vādaṁ); the teachings of others (parappavādaṁ) they despise, revile, and pull to pieces. Some other ascetics and Brahmanists too, bhante, come to Kesaputta. They also expound and explain only their own teachings; the teachings of others they despise, revile, and pull to pieces.

Te sakaṁyeva vādaṁ dīpenti jotenti parappavādaṁ pana khuṁsenti vambhenti paribhavanti omakkhiṁ karonti

… Bhante, there is unsureness, there is doubt in us concerning them. Which of these reverend ascetics and Brahmanists spoke the truth and which falsehood?”

Tesaṁ no bhante amhākaṁ hoteva kaṅkhā hoti vicikicchā. Ko su nāma imesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ saccaṁ āha ko musā ti?

Answer:

• Kālāmas, if you yourselves should consider:

Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanāva jāneyyātha

… These teachings (dhammā) are unwholesome;

ime dhammā akusalā

… these teachings are blameworthy;

ime dhammā sāvajjā

… these teachings are denounced by the wise;

ime dhammā viññugarahitā

… when followed and taken up

ime dhammā samattā samādinnā

… these teachings lead to harm and suffering,”

ahitāya dukkhāya saṁvattantīti

… you should abandon them.

atha tumhe kālāmā pajaheyyātha. (AN i 189)

Dhammā: six phenomena

In the other case, dhammā is used in reference to six phenomena: greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality (lobho doso moho) and their opposites, non-greed, non-hatred, and discernment of reality (alobho adoso amoho). The sutta calls these phenomena dhammā which we render as ‘factors.’

• ’What do you think, Kālāmas? Are these factors spiritually wholesome, or spiritually unwholesome?’

Taṁ kiṁ maññatha kālāmā ime dhammā kusalā vā akusalā vā ti?

• ’Spiritually unwholesome, bhante’

Akusalā bhante. (AN i 189-191)

Two lists of reasons

Another problem with the Kālāma Sutta is that there are two lists:

1) ten reasons for not abandoning teachings, and

2) ten reasons for not accepting teachings

But the two lists are identical, where it would make more sense if they were not. For example, mā anussavena means teachings should not be abandoned or accepted merely because of their relationship to an oral tradition. But this would be clearer if mā anussavena was phrased either positively or negatively, as follows:

  • Do not [abandon religious teachings merely] because they do not accord with an oral tradition.
  • Do not [accept and abide by religious teachings merely] because they accord with an oral tradition.

We say ‘merely because’ because the Kālāma Sutta is not about whether teachings should be abandoned or accepted, but on what basis and for what reason this should happen. By all means, abandon teachings, but not merely because they do not accord with an oral tradition etc.

If you yourselves should consider: yadā attanāva jāneyyātha

We deal with this issue elsewhere, sv Jāneyyāti, where we note that the prominent phrase in the sutta is often translated by ignoring the optative tense, saying:

• When you know for yourselves: 'These things are unwholesome… then you should abandon them.

Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanāva jāneyyātha ime dhammā akusalā… atha tumhe kālāmā pajaheyyātha. (AN i 190)

But to propose that the Buddha is saying an untrained disciple could really know for himself what things are unwholesome would negate the rationale for a religious training system. We suggest that this excerpt is more accurately and more rationally translated with ‘should consider.’ The context obliges one to translate yadā as ‘if’ not ‘when’:

• Kālāmas, if you yourselves should consider: “These teachings are unwholesome… you should abandon them.

Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanāva jāneyyātha ime dhammā akusalā… atha tumhe kālāmā pajaheyyātha. (AN i 190)

For further notes, see sv Jāneyyāti.

The Buddha’s attitude to self-reliance

To what degree the Buddha expected self-reliance from his disciples is obvious in these two quotes:

1) So long as in relation to spiritually wholesome factors, [what should be done] by a bhikkhu is not done, neither with the help of faith [in the perfection of the Buddha’s transcendent insight], nor with the help of shame of wrongdoing, nor with the help of fear of wrongdoing, nor with the help of energetic application [to the practice], nor with the help of wisdom, that bhikkhu should be looked after by me.

Evameva kho bhikkhave yāvakīvañca bhikkhuno saddhāya akataṁ hoti kusalesu dhammesu hiriyā akataṁ hoti kusalesu dhammesu ottappena akataṁ hoti kusalesu dhammesu viriyena akataṁ hoti kusalesu dhammesu paññāya akataṁ hoti kusalesu dhammesu anurakkhitabbo tāva me so bhikkhave bhikkhu hoti.

But when [what should be done] by a bhikkhu is done, either with the help of faith [in the perfection of the Buddha’s transcendent insight], or with the help of shame of wrongdoing, or with the help of fear of wrongdoing, or with the help of energetic application [to the practice], or with the help of wisdom, I am unconcerned about him, thinking: 'The bhikkhu can now look after himself. He will not be negligently applied [to the practice].’

Yato ca kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno saddhāya kataṁ hoti kusalesu dhammesu hiriyā kataṁ hoti kusalesu dhammesu ottappena kataṁ hoti kusalesu dhammesu viriyena kataṁ hoti kusalesu dhammesu paññāya kataṁ hoti kusalesu dhammesu anapekkho dānāhaṁ bhikkhave tasmiṁ bhikkhusmiṁ homi Attaguttodāni bhikkhu nālaṁ pamādāyā ti. (AN iii 6)

2) Therefore, Ānanda, dwell spiritually self-reliant, with yourself as your refuge, with no other refuge, relying completely on the teaching, with the teaching as your refuge, with no other refuge. How do you do this?

Tasmātihānanda attadīpā viharatha attasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā dhammadīpā dhammasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā. Kathañcānanda bhikkhu attadīpo viharati attasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo dhammadīpo dhammasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo:

… In this regard a bhikkhu abides contemplating the nature of the body, vigorously, fully consciously, and mindfully, having eliminated greed and dejection in regard to the world [of phenomena].

idhānanda bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.

… He abides contemplating the nature of sense impressions… the nature of the mind… the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings

Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.

… Thus a bhikkhu abides spiritually self-reliant, with himself as his refuge, with no other refuge, relying completely on the teaching, with the teaching as his refuge, with no other refuge.

Evaṁ kho ānanda bhikkhu attadīpo viharati attasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo dhammadīpo dhammasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo.

… Those bhikkhus, either now or after my passing, who abide spiritually self-reliant, with themselves as their refuge, with no other refuge; relying completely on the teaching, with the teaching as their refuge, with no other refuge; it is these bhikkhus, Ānanda, who will be for me foremost amongst those desirous of the training.

Ye hi keci ānanda etarahi vā mamaccaye vā attadīpā viharissanti attasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā dhammasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā tamatagge me te ānanda bhikkhu bhavissanti ye keci sikkhākāmāti. (SN v 154)

Illustrations

Illustration: mā anussavena, Do not [abandon religious teachings merely] because they do not accord with an oral tradition.

[merely] because they do not accord with a religious lineage.

[merely] because they do not accord with popular opinion.

[merely] because they do not accord with the scriptural collections.

[merely] because they do not accord with logical reasoning.

[merely] because they not accord with inferential reasoning.

[merely] because they do not accord with reasoned cogitation.

[merely] because of a considered disapproval of some view.

[merely] because of their implausibility.

[merely] because the expounding ascetic is not your teacher.

mā samaṇo no garū ti

Kālāmas, if you yourselves should consider:

Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanāva jāneyyātha

“These teachings are unwholesome;

ime dhammā akusalā

these teachings are blameworthy;

ime dhammā sāvajjā

these teachings are denounced by the wise;

ime dhammā viññugarahitā

when followed and taken up

ime dhammā samattā samādinnā

these teachings lead to harm and suffering,”

ahitāya dukkhāya saṁvattantīti

you should abandon them.

atha tumhe kālāmā pajaheyyātha. (AN i 189)

Illustration: mā anussavena, Do not [accept and abide by religious teachings merely] because they accord with an oral tradition.

[merely] because they accord with a religious lineage.

[merely] because they accord with popular opinion.

[merely] because they accord with the scriptural collections.

[merely] because they accord with logical reasoning.

[merely] because they accord with inferential reasoning.

[merely] because they accord with reasoned cogitation.

[merely] because of a considered approval of some view.

[merely] because of their plausibility.

[merely] because the expounding ascetic is your teacher.

mā samaṇo no garū ti

Kālāmas, if you yourselves should consider:

Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanāva jāneyyātha

“These teachings are wholesome;

ime dhammā kusalā

these teachings are blameless;

ime dhammā anavajjā

these teachings are praised by the wise;

ime dhammā viññuppasatthā

when followed and taken up

ime dhammā samattā samādinnā

these teachings lead to benefit and happiness,”

hitāya sukhāya saṁvattantīti

you should accept and abide by them.

atha tumhe kālāmā upasampajja vihareyyātha. (AN i 190)

māna

Renderings

Introduction

Conceit: abandoned at non-returnership

Non-returners have abandoned conceit (māna):

• Abandon one thing, bhikkhus, conceit, and I guarantee you non-returnership.

Mānaṁ bhikkhave ekadhammaṁ pajahatha ahaṁ vo pāṭibhogo anāgāmitāyā ti. (Iti 3)

Non-returners have not abandoned self-centredness (māna or asmimāna):

Mblockquote> • Friends, even though a noble disciple has abandoned the five ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence (pañcorambhāgiyāni saṁyojanāni), still, in regard to the five grasped aggregates, there remains within him (hotiyeva) a residual self-centredness (anusahagato asmī ti māno). (SN iii 130) </blockquote>

Self-centredness is sometimes discriminated from conceit by being called asmimāna or asmī ti māno.

Self-centredness: abandoned by the arahant

The destruction of self-centredness is associated with arahantship:

• The elimination of self-centredness is happiness supreme

Asmimānassa vinayo etaṁ ve paramaṁ sukhan ti. (Uda 10)

• In one who perceives the voidness of personal qualities [in all things], self-centredness is uprooted. He realises the Untroubled in this very lifetime.

anattasaññi asmimānasamugghātaṁ pāpuṇāti diṭṭheva dhamme nibbānaṁ ti. (Uda 37)

Conceit: extolling oneself and despising others

Conceit is associated with extolling oneself and despising others:

• Whoever extols himself and despises others, considering them inferior due to his own conceit, one should know him as a wretch.

Yo cattānaṁ samukkaṁse pare ca mavajānāti
Nihīno sena mānena taṁ jaññā vasalo iti. (Snp 132)

Conceit and arrogance

Conceit is sometimes paired with arrogance:

• being conceited and arrogant

• He speaks with conceit and arrogance

Self-centredness

Self-centredness implies the notion “I am”:

• The notion “I am” is… an acquiescence in self-centredness.

Asmī ti… mānagatametaṁ. (SN iv 202-3)

Here asmī ti is equated with mānagatametaṁ. This shows that asmimāno is a compound of two equivalent terms, and that asmimāno means simply māno.

Vidhā means mānavidhā

Self-centredness (māna) has three modes (tisso vidhā). This is proven by comparing the Vidhā Sutta (SN v 56) and Theragāthā verse 428. What the former calls vidhā, the latter calls mānavidhā.

The Vidhā Sutta says there are three modes [of self-centredness] (tisso vidhā), namely:

• ‘I am better’ mode [of self-centredness]

seyyo’hamasmī ti vidhā

• ‘I am equal’ mode [of self-centredness]

sadiso’hamasmī ti vidhā

• ‘I am worse’ mode [of self-centredness]

hīno’hamasmī ti vidhā. (SN v 56)

Theragāthā verse 428 says:

• Self-conceit and self-contempt have been abandoned and completely abolished [by me].

Atimāno ca omāno pahīnā susamūhatā

• Self-equation has been eradicated. All modes of self-centredness have been struck down.

Asmimāno samucchinno sabbe mānavidhā hatā ti. (Tha 428)

In comparing the two quotes, we can say:

In Theragāthā verse 428, mānavidhā consists of

1) atimāno

2) omāno

3) asmimāno

In the Vidhā Sutta, tisso vidhā consists of three corresponding elements:

1) seyyo’hamasmī

2) hīno’hamasmī

3) sadiso’hamasmī

This shows that:

1) Vidhā is an abbreviation for mānavidhā. Therefore vidhā means ‘modes [of self-centredness]’ not just ‘modes’ (as PED).

2) ‘I am better’ mode [of self-centredness] (seyyo’hamasmī ti) equals ‘self-conceit’ (atimāno)

3) ‘I am worse’ mode [of self-centredness] (hīno’hamasmī ti) equals ‘self-contempt’ (omāno)

4) ‘I am equal’ mode [of self-centredness] (sadiso’hamasmī ti) equals ‘self-equation’ (asmimāno).

Equation is ‘the act of regarding as equal’ (WordWeb).

Illustrations

māno

māno: (main article see: māna)

Illustration: māno, conceit

Let both householders and ascetics think this was done by me. Let them be under my will in whatever their duties. Such is the intent of the fool. His desire and conceit grow.

Mameva kataṁ maññantū gihī pabbajitā ubho
Mameva ativasā assu kiccākiccesu kismiñci
Iti bālassa saṅkappo icchā māno ca vaḍḍhati. (Dhp 74)

mānaṁ

mānaṁ: (main article see: māna)

Illustration: mānaṁ, conceit

Having struck down conceit, humble-minded, one should venerate the arahants, those freed from inward distress, who have done what needed to be done, free of perceptually obscuring states, unsurpassed.

Arahante sītibhūte katakicce anāsave
Nihacca mānaṁ atthaddho te namassa anuttare. (SN i 178)

maññanā

maññanā: (main article see: māna)

Illustration: maññanā, conceit

• Because of diversity in quests there is diversity in gains.

pariyesanānānattaṁ paṭicca uppajjati lābhanānattaṁ

• Because of diversity in gains there is diversity in conceit.

lābhanānattaṁ paṭicca uppajjati maññanānānattaṁ. (DN iii 289)

Illustration: māno, conceit

Conceit, O brahman, is your shoulder-load.

Māno hi te brāhmaṇa khāribhāro. (SN i 169)

ātimāna

ātimāna: (main article see: māna)

Illustration: ātimāna, arrogance; mānātimāna, conceit and arrogance

And those that were beautiful despised those that were ugly, thinking: We are more beautiful than them; they are more ugly than us.

Tattha ye te sattā vaṇṇavanto te dubbaṇṇe satte atimaññanti mayametehi vaṇṇavantatarā amhehete dubbaṇṇatarā ti

And because of their arrogance due to beauty, being conceited and arrogant, the savoury earth disappeared.

tesaṁ vaṇṇātimānappaccayā mānātimānajātikānaṁ bhūmipappaṭako antaradhāyi. (DN iii 87)

Illustration: māna, self-centredness (i.e. arahant); maññanaṁ, self-centredness

There are no spiritual shackles for one who has abandoned self-centredness.

Pahīṇamānassa na santi ganthā

His spiritual shackles and self-centredness are all destroyed.

Vidhūpitā mānaganthassa sabbe

Though the one of great wisdom has transcended self-centredness he might still say ‘I speak,’

So vītivatto maññanaṁ sumedho ahaṁ vadāmī ti pi so vadeyya

and he might say ‘They speak to me.’

Mamaṁ vadantī ti pi so vadeyya

Proficient, understanding conventional terminology, he makes use of such terms merely for the purposes of communication.

Loke samaññaṁ kusalo viditvā vohāramattena so vohareyyā ti. (SN i 14-15)

Illustration: māna, self-centredness (i.e. arahant)

He has destroyed craving, obliterated the tie to individual existence, and through rightly penetrating self-centredness, has put an end to suffering.

acchecchi taṇhaṁ vāvattayi saṁyojanaṁ sammā mānābhisamayā antamakāsi dukkhassa. (AN iii 247)

asmimānaṁ

asmimānaṁ: (main article see: māna)

Illustration: asmimānaṁ, self-centredness

Bhikkhus, when the perception of the unlastingness [of the five aggregates] is developed and cultivated… it completely uproots self-centredness

aniccasaññā bhikkhave bhāvitā bahulīkatā… sabbaṁ asmimānaṁ samūhanati. (SN iii 155)

asmimāno

asmimāno: (main article see: māna)

Illustration: asmimāno, self-centredness

And how is the bhikkhu a Noble One whose banner is lowered, whose burden [of the five grasped aggregates] is laid down, who is emancipated [from individual existence]?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu ariyo pannaddhajo pannabhāro visaṁyutto hoti?

In this regard a bhikkhu has abandoned self-centredness.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno asmimāno pahīno hoti. (MN i 139)

Illustration: māna, self-centredness

The notion “I am” is

Asmī ti bhikkhave

• a matter of spiritual instability

• a matter of mental turmoil

• a matter of entrenched perception

• an acquiescence in self-centredness

adhimāna

adhimāna: (main article see: māna)

Illustration: adhimāna, over-estimation

He declares his [attainment of] arahantship from over-estimation

adhimānena aññaṁ vyākaroti. (AN v 162)

middha

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: middha, torpor

Whatever lethargy there is, is a spiritual hindrance; whatever torpor there is, is also a spiritual hindrance. Thus what is concisely called the hindrance of lethargy and torpor becomes twofold by this method of exposition.

Yadapi bhikkhave thīnaṁ tadapi nīvaraṇaṁ. Yadapi middhaṁ tadapi nīvaraṇāṁ. Thīnamiddhanīvaraṇanti itihidaṁ uddesaṁ gacchati. Tadamināpetaṁ pariyāyena dvayaṁ hoti. (SN v 110)

middhassa

middhassa: (main article see: middha)

Illustration: middhassa, torpor

There are disgruntlement [with the celibate life], sloth, languor, drowsiness after meals, mental sluggishness. Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen lethargy and torpor, and the increase and expansion of arisen lethargy and torpor.

Atthi bhikkhave arati tandi vijambhitā bhattasammado cetaso ca līnattaṁ. Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā thīnamiddhassa uppādāya uppannassa vā thīnamiddhassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya. (SN v 102-3)

middhaṁ

middhaṁ: (main article see: middha)

Illustration: middhaṁ, torpor

If, while he is walking, any greed in a bhikkhu is done away with, any ill will, any lethargy and torpor, any restlessness and anxiety, any doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] is done away with;

Carato ce pi bhikkhave bhikkhuno abhijjhā vigatā hoti vyāpādo vigato hoti thīnamiddhaṁ vigataṁ hoti uddhaccakukkuccaṁ vigataṁ hoti vicikicchā pahīṇā hoti.

if unflagging energy is aroused; if unmuddled mindfulness is established; if his body is tranquil and peaceful; if his mind is collected and concentrated

Āraddhaṁ hoti viriyaṁ asallīnaṁ upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā passaddho kāyo asāraddho samāhitaṁ cittaṁ ekaggaṁ

then a bhikkhu walking like this is said to be constantly and continuously afraid of wrongdoing, and vigorously, energetically, and resolutely applied [to the practice].

carampi bhikkhave bhikkhu evambhūto ātāpī ottappī satataṁ samitaṁ āraddhaviriyo pahitatto ti vuccati. (Iti 118-9)

</div>

Illustration: middhaṁ, torpor

Are you nodding, Moggallāna? Are you nodding, Moggallāna? Yes, bhante.

Pacalāyasi no tvaṁ moggallāna pacalāyasi no tvaṁ moggallānā ti. Evaṁ bhante ti.

(1) In which case, whatever state of perception you are abiding in when torpor arises in you, do not focus on that perception, do not cultivate it. It is possible that by abiding in this way, that the torpor will be abandoned.

Tasmātiha tvaṁ moggallāna yathā saññino te viharato taṁ middhaṁ okkamati taṁ saññaṁ mā manasākāsi taṁ saññaṁ mā bahulamakāsi. Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ moggallāna vijjati yaṁ te evaṁ viharato taṁ middhaṁ pahīyetha.

(2) If the torpor is unabandoned, then think about the teaching, ponder it, examine it, as you have heard and memorised it. It is possible that by abiding in this way, that the torpor will be abandoned.

No ce te evaṁ viharato taṁ middhaṁ pahīyetha tato tvaṁ moggallāna yathā sutaṁ yathāpariyattaṁ dhammaṁ cetasā anuvitakkeyyāsi anūvicāreyyāsi manasānupekkheyyāsi. Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ te evaṁ viharato taṁ middhaṁ pahīyetha.

(3) If the torpor is unabandoned, then recite the teaching in detail as you have heard and memorised it. It is possible that by abiding in this way, that the torpor will be abandoned.

No ce te evaṁ viharato taṁ middhaṁ pahīyetha tato tvaṁ moggallāna yathāsutaṁ yathāpariyattaṁ dhammaṁ vitthārena sajjhāyaṁ kareyyāsi. Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ te evaṁ viharato taṁ middhaṁ pahīyetha.

(4) If the torpor is unabandoned, then tug your ears and massage your limbs. It is possible that by abiding in this way, that the torpor will be abandoned.

No ce te evaṁ viharato taṁ middhaṁ pahīyetha tato tvaṁ moggallāna ubho kaṇṇasotāni āviñjeyyāsi pāṇinā gattāni anumajjeyyāsi. Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ te evaṁ viharato taṁ middhaṁ pahīyetha.

(5) If the torpor is unabandoned, then get up from your seat (uṭṭhāyāsanā) and, after washing your eyes out with water (udakena akkhīni anumajjitvā), look around in all directions and upward to the lunar mansions and the glittering stars (disā anuvilokeyyāsi nakkhattāni tārakarūpāni ullokeyyāsi). It is possible that by abiding in this way, that the torpor will be abandoned.

(6) If the torpor is unabandoned, then focus on the mental image of light (ālokasaññaṁ manasikareyyāsi), concentrate on the mental image of day (divāsaññaṁ adhiṭṭheyyāsi). As by day, so at night; as at night, so by day (yathā divā tathā rattiṁ yathā rattiṁ tathā divā). Thus with an attitude open and unclouded, you should make your mind radiant (iti vivaṭena cetasā apariyonaddhena) (sappabhāsaṁ cittaṁ bhāveyyāsi). It is possible that by abiding in this way, that the torpor will be abandoned

(7) If the torpor is unabandoned, then perceiving the constant nature of reality (pacchāpuresaññī), concentrate on pacing back and forth (caṅkamaṁ adhiṭṭheyyāsi), your senses inwardly immersed (antogatehi indriyehi), your mind not straying outwards (abahigatena mānasena). It is possible that by abiding in this way, that the torpor will be abandoned.

(8) If the torpor is unabandoned, then, mindful and fully conscious, lie down on your right side in the lion’s posture with your feet placed together, having contemplated the idea of rising. When you awaken, get up quickly, with the thought, ‘I will not abide given to the pleasures of sleep, languor, and torpor.’ That is how you should train yourself.

No ce te evaṁ viharato taṁ middhaṁ pahīyetha tato tvaṁ moggallāna dakkhiṇena passena sīhaseyyaṁ kappeyyāsi pāde pādaṁ accādhāya sato sampajāno uṭṭhānasaññaṁ manasikaritvā. Paṭibuddheneva te moggallāna khippaṁyeva paccuṭṭhātabbaṁ: na seyyasukhaṁ na phassasukhaṁ na middhasukhaṁ anuyutto viharissāmiti. Evaṁ hi te moggallāna sikkhitabbaṁ. (AN iv 85-86)

Illustration: middhaṁ, torpor

It is now fifty-five years since I adopted the practice of sleeping in the sitting position, and twenty-five years since torpor was abolished in me.

Pañcapaññāsavassāni yato nesajjiko ahaṁ
Pañcavīsativassāni yato middhaṁ samūhataṁ. (Tha 904)

middho

middho: (main article see: middha)

Illustration: middho, torpor

Whether standing, walking, seated or lying down, as long as he was free of torpor he would concentrate on this [practice] mindfully. They call this a divine abiding.

Tiṭṭhaṁ caraṁ nisinno vā sayāno vā yāvatassa vigatamiddho
Etaṁ satiṁ adhiṭṭheyya brahmametaṁ vihāraṁ idhamāhu. (Snp 151)

vippamutta

mutta

Renderings

Introduction

Mutta and vippamutta: with objects

Mutta and vippamutta can mean ‘freed/free from/of some object’ or ‘freed/free from/of [bondage to] some object’:

• By not grasping one is freed from the Maleficent One.

anupādiyamāno mutto pāpimato ti. (SN iii 73)

• When one’s mind is free of these five defilements

Yato ca kho bhikkhave cittaṁ imehi pañcahi upakkilesehi vippamuttaṁ hoti. (AN iii 16-17)

• Free of [bondage to] the six senses and their objects

Mutta and vippamutta: when linked to saṅgā and bandhanā

When mutta and vippamutta are linked to saṅgā and bandhanā they mean ‘free of bondage [to individual existence]’, because both saṅgā and bandhanā mean ‘bondage [to individual existence].’ See Glossary sv Saṅga and Bandhana.

• One who is free of bondage [to individual existence]

• Free of bondage [to individual existence].

Mutta and vippamutta: objectless

Where mutta and vippamutta are not linked to an object, various word associations show that ‘individual existence’ is again the object:

• Freed [from individual existence], I free [others] from bondage [to individual existence]

mutto mocemi bandhanā. (AN iv 340)

• Freed [from individual existence] among those bound [to individual existence]

• He is freed [from individual existence], emancipated [from individual existence].

That the object of bandhanā, baddhesu, and visaṁyutto is likewise ‘individual existence,’ we have shown sv Baddha, Bandhana, and Saṁyutta.

Illustrations: mutta

muttā

muttā: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: muttā, freed

I am well freed, gloriously freed through my freedom from three crooked things: my mortar, my pestle, and my hunchbacked husband. I am freed from birth and death. The conduit to renewed states of individual existence has been abolished.

Sumuttā sādhu muttāmhi tīhi khujjehi muttiyā
Udukkhalena musalena patinā khujjakena ca
Muttāmhi jātimaraṇā bhavanetti samūhatā ti. (Tha 11)

mutto

mutto: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: mutto, freed

I am indeed freed from that unpleasant self-mortifying practice. It is good indeed that I am freed from that useless, unpleasant, self-mortifying practice.

mutto vatamhi tāya dukkarakārikāya. Sādhu mutto vatamhi tāya anatthasaṁhitāya dukkarakārikāya. (SN i 103)

muttaṁ

muttaṁ: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: muttaṁ, freed

He did not take delight in her arrival; he did not grieve at her departure; Saṅgāmajiṁ, free of bondage [to individual existence], he is what I call a Brahman.

Āyantiṁ nābhinandati pakkamantiṁ na socati.
Saṅgā saṅgāmajiṁ muttaṁ tamahaṁ brūmi brāhmaṇan ti. (Uda 6)

Illustration: mutto, freed

One freed from the place of execution

One who has been freed from a burning house

ādittāva gharā mutto. (Tha 712)

Illustration: muttaṁ, freed

One who is completely freed from attachment.

muttaṁ rāgehi sabbaso. (MN ii 144)

muttassa

muttassa: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: muttassa, freed [from individual existence]

I am the disciple of the Blessed One who has overcome the bonds [to individual existence], who is freed [from individual existence].

Saṅgātigassa muttassa bhagavato tassa sāvako'hamasmi. (MN i 386)

mutti

mutti: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: mutti, freedom

The complete passing away and ending of this same craving, the giving up and relinquishment of it, the freedom from it, the letting go of it, is called the ending of suffering.

Yo tassāyeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti anālayo ayaṁ vuccatāvuso dukkhanirodho. (MN i 49)

muttiṁ

muttiṁ: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: muttiṁ, freedom [from individual existence]

Bhikkhus, I will teach you freedom [from individual existence] and the path leading to freedom [from individual existence]. Please listen.

muttiñca vo bhikkhave desissāmi muttigāmiñca maggaṁ taṁ suṇātha.

What is freedom [from individual existence]?

Katamañca bhikkhave muttiṁ:

The destruction of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality. This is called freedom [from individual existence].

yo bhikkhave rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave muttiṁ. (SN iv 372)

Illustrations: vippamutta

vippamutto

vippamutto: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: vippamutto, free of

He is free of dogmatic views.

Sa vippamutto diṭṭhigatehi. (Snp 913)

vippamuttassa

vippamuttassa: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: vippamuttassa, free of

For one who is free of love there is neither grief nor fear.

Pemato vippamuttassa natthi soko kuto bhayaṁ. (Dhp 213)

vippamutto

vippamutto: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: vippamutto, free of

Free of things conducive to psychological bondage,

vippamuttā

vippamuttā: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: vippamuttā, freed from

Whatever ascetics and Brahmanists have said that deliverance from individual existence is through [states of] individual existence

bhavena bhavassa vippamokkhamāhaṁsu

None of them, I declare, are freed from individual existence

sabbe te avippamuttā bhavasmā ti vadāmi. (Uda 32-3)

Illustration: vippamutto, freed from

He is also [forever] freed from the four states of misery

Catūhapāyehi ca vippamutto. (Sn 230-232)

Illustration: vippamutto, freed from [bondage to]

One of purified wisdom who has utterly transcended egocentric conception in regards to things of the past and future, who is free of [bondage to] the six senses and their objects: he would properly fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism in the world.

Atītesu anāgatesu cā pi kappātīto aticca suddhipañño
Sabbāyatanehi vippamutto sammā so loke paribbajeyya. (Snp 373)

Illustration: vippamuttā, freed [from individual existence]

Those who roam the world, spiritually self-reliant, liberated from the perception of existence, freed [from individual existence] in every respect.

Ye attadīpā vicaranti loke akiñcanā sabbadhi vippamuttā. (Snp 501)

vippamuttaṁ

vippamuttaṁ: (main article see: mutta)

Illustration: vippamuttaṁ, freed [from individual existence]

Behold him, one of profound wisdom, one who sees the subtle meaning of the teaching, liberated from the perception of existence, liberated [from individual existence] in the sensuous plane of existence, freed [from individual existence] in every respect, a great seer following the path of divinity.

Gambhīrapaññaṁ nipuṇatthadassiṁ akiñcanaṁ kāmabhave asattaṁ
Taṁ passatha sabbadhi vippamuttaṁ dibbe pathe kamamānaṁ mahesiṁ. (Snp 176)

muditā

Renderings

Introduction

Parisā Sutta: muditā brahmavihāra

The Parisā Sutta (AN i 243) shows that muditā is a joy associated with living in harmony with others. It says that in whatever community the bhikkhus dwell together in unity, on friendly terms, without quarrelling, like milk and water mixed, viewing each other with affection, such a community is called united.

Idha bhikkhave yassaṁ parisāyaṁ bhikkhū samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā khīrodakībhūtā aññamaññaṁ piyacakkhūhi sampassantā viharanti. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave samaggā parisā.

The sutta says when bhikkhus dwell like this, they beget much merit.

Yasmiṁ bhikkhave samaye bhikkhū samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā khīrodakībhūtā aññamaññaṁ piyacakkhūhi sampassantā viharanti bahuṁ bhikkhave bhikkhū tasmiṁ samaye puññaṁ pasavanti.

At such time they dwell in a divine abiding, that is to say, in the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through muditā (muditāya cetovimuttiyā).

Brahmaṁ bhikkhave vihāraṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhū viharanti yadidaṁ muditāya cetovimuttiyā.

The sutta says that in one who is glad, rapture arises (pamuditassa pīti jāyati). The sutta therefore treats muditā and gladness (pamudita) as synonyms (i.e. …yadidaṁ muditāya cetovimuttiyā. Pamuditassa pīti jāyati…).

Pamuditassa more usually follows pāmojjaṁ. For example, when a bhikkhu realises the five hindrances have been abandoned within him, ‘gladness arises. In one who is glad, rapture arises’: tassime pañca nīvaraṇe pahīṇe attani samanupassato pāmojjaṁ jāyati. Pamuditassa pīti jāyati (DN i 204). This suggests that muditā is close in meaning to pāmojjaṁ gladness.

The phrases ‘on friendly terms, without quarrelling, like milk and water mixed, viewing each other with affection’ support muditā being rendered ‘[unlimited] warmhearted joy.’ This is confirmed in the Cūḷagosiṅga Sutta.

The Cūḷagosiṅga Sutta

Venerable Anuruddha, living with Venerables Nandiya and Kimbila, was asked by the Buddha:

• But, Anuruddha, how do you abide in unity, on friendly terms, without quarrelling, like milk and water mixed, viewing each other with affection?

Yathākathaṁ pana tumhe anuruddhā samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā khīrodakībhūtā aññamaññaṁ piyacakkhūhi sampassantā viharathāti?

• Bhante, as to that:

1) I reflect: ‘It is a gain for me, it is a great gain for me, that I am living with such companions in the religious life.

Idha mayhaṁ bhante evaṁ hoti: lābhā vata me suladdhaṁ vata me yohaṁ eva rūpehi sabrahmacārīhi saddhiṁ viharāmī ti.

2) I maintain loving conduct of body, speech, and mind, both openly and privately towards those venerable ones.

Tassa mayhaṁ bhante imesu āyasmantesu mettaṁ kāyakammaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ āvī ceva raho ca mettaṁ vacīkammaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ āvī ceva raho ca mettaṁ manokammaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ āvī ceva raho ca.

3) I think ‘How about if I set aside my own wishes and lived according to the wishes of these venerables?’ And so I do so.

Tassa mayhaṁ bhante evaṁ hoti yannūnāhaṁ sakaṁ cittaṁ nikkhipitvā imesaṁyeva āyasmantānaṁ cittassa vasena vatteyyan ti. So kho ahaṁ bhante sakaṁ cittaṁ nikkhipitvā imesaṁyeva āyasmantānaṁ cittassa vasena vattāmi

4) Though we have different bodies, bhante, we assuredly have only one mind.

Nānā hi kho no bhante kāyā ekañca pana maññe cittan ti. (MN i 206)

This again supports muditā being rendered as ‘[unlimited] warmhearted joy,’ i.e. joy unlimited by rāgo, doso and moho.

Unlimitedness: the ‘[unlimited]’ parenthesis.

The practices of mettā, karuṇā, muditā and upekkhā are sometimes called the four divine abidings (cattāro brahmavihārā, DN ii 196) and sometimes the four unlimited states (catasso appamaññā, DN iii 223). Practising them together is called the ‘unlimited liberation [from the āsavas]’ (appamāṇā cetovimutti, SN iv 296).

The Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN i 298) and Godatta Sutta (SN iv 296) say the ‘makers of limitation’ (pamāṇakaraṇo) are rāgo doso and moho (rāgo kho āvuso pamāṇakaraṇo doso pamāṇakaraṇo moho pamāṇakaraṇo). Therefore the four brahmavihāras should be practised unlimited by rāgo doso and moho, and should be parenthesised accordingly.

Arati: disgruntlement [with the celibate life]

The Dasuttara Sutta says disgruntlement [with the celibate life] can be overcome by [unlimited] warmhearted joy:

• For this is the liberation from disgruntlement [with the celibate life] namely the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] warmhearted joy.

nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ āvuso aratiyā yadidaṁ muditā cetovimuttī ti.

The sutta says if the practice of [unlimited] warmhearted joy is developed and cultivated, it is impossible, out of the question, that disgruntlement [with the celibate life] would plague one’s mind. There is no such possibility.

arati cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassati netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (DN iii 249)

Overcoming disgruntlement: Saṅkhadhama Sutta

The Saṅkhadhama Sutta describes in more detail the practice of muditā:

• The noble disciple abides pervading one quarter with a mind of [unlimited] warmhearted joy, likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, in all directions, everywhere, he abides pervading the whole world [of beings] with a mind of [unlimited] warmhearted joy, vast, exalted, unlimited, free of unfriendliness and hostility.

muditāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharati tathā dutiyaṁ tathā tatiyaṁ tathā catutthiṁ; iti uddhamadhotiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbatthatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ muditāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena avyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati. (SN iv 322)

This meditation can be practised in either a quiet room or deep solitude. For example, King Mahāsudassana practised muditā in his golden-gabled chamber sitting on a silver couch (DN ii 188). The Buddha practised it in a quiet grove sitting on a bundle of grass (AN i 183). Thus although the Parisā Sutta says muditā arises where the bhikkhus dwell together in unity, it does not mean that the formal practice of muditā involves the company of others.

Muditā: cure for envy?

The Visuddhimagga says the function of muditā ‘resides in being unenvious’ (Chapter 9, paragraph 95) and ‘is always in the sense of gladness at others’ success’ (p.309 n.10). But if muditā meant unenviousness, it would surely have featured in the cure of odious envy (pāpikā issā) expounded in the Kāya Sutta (AN v 40) which says when an envious person sees a fortunate layperson or bhikkhu, he is envious about it:

  • ‘Oh that this grain, silver and gold did not belong to this householder!’
  • ‘Oh that this Venerable did not receive a good supply of requisites.’

The sutta says envy is abandoned not through muditā but through seeing envy over and over again with discernment (paññāya disvā disvā pahātabbā).

If envy can be considered part of aversion (āghāto), then again muditā is not for overcoming envy, says the Āghātapaṭivinaya Sutta (AN iii 185), saying that three ways of dispelling aversion involve developing mettā, karuṇā, and upekkhā, but not muditā: Yasmiṁ bhikkhave puggale āghāto jāyetha mettā… karuṇā… upekkhā tasmiṁ puggale bhāvetabbā (AN iii 185).

Cultivating pāmojjaṁ gladness

We said above that muditā is close in meaning to pāmojjaṁ. Therefore we might understand how to develop it by examining pāmojjaṁ.

1) Gladness (pāmojjaṁ) is associated with virtuous conduct. For one who is virtuous (sīlavato) there is no need to harbour the aspiration: ‘May freedom from an uneasy conscience (avippaṭisāro) arise in me. It is quite natural that this should happen (dhammatā esā bhikkhave yaṁ sīlavato sīlasampannassa avippaṭisāro uppajjati). For one free from an uneasy conscience, there is no need to harbour the aspiration: ‘May gladness arise in me.’ It is quite natural that this should happen (AN v 2).

2) Gladness is associated with physical seclusion (divā pavivekāya rattiṁ paṭisallānāya). Abiding thus diligently, gladness arises (evaṁ appamattassa viharato pāmujjaṁ jāyati, SN v 398).

3) Gladness is associated with faith inspiring meditation objects (tassa kismiñcideva pasādaniye nimitte cittaṁ paṇidahato pāmujjaṁ jāyati, SN v 156). This means reflecting on the Buddha, the teaching, the community of disciples, one’s own virtue, and on how one has the virtuous qualities of the devas. As one reflects like this, one’s mind becomes serene and gladness arises (cittaṁ pasīdati pāmujjaṁ uppajjati AN i 207).

4) Gladness is associated with abandoning the five hindrances. Seeing that the five hindrances are abandoned, one becomes glad (pāmojjaṁ jāyati); glad, rapture arises (pamuditassa pīti jāyati DN i 74).

5) Gladness is associated with righteous conversations (labhati ca tatonidānaṁ pītipāmujjaṁ): conversations on faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], virtue, learning, generosity, and wisdom (saddhākathā sīlakathā bāhusaccakathā cāgakathā paññākathā, AN iii 181).

6) Gladness is associated with grasping the meaning and truth of the teaching dhamme atthappaṭisaṁvedī ca hoti dhammapaṭisaṁvedī ca. This gives rise to gladness (pāmujjaṁ jāyati) This can happen either in the process of

Six principles of cordiality: dhammā sārāṇīyā

Cultivating muditā likely involves the six principles of cordiality, because they are the key to harmonious relationships: chayime bhikkhave dhammā sārāṇīyā piyakaraṇā garukaraṇā saṅgahāya avivādāya sāmāggiyā ekībhāvāya saṁvattanti (MN i 322).

These principles are:

1-3) Maintaining loving conduct of body, speech, and mind, both openly and privately towards one’s companions in the religious life.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno mettaṁ kāyakammaṁ… vacīkammaṁ… manokammaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ hoti sabrahmacārīsu āvī ceva raho ca.

4) Sharing one’s gains with one’s virtuous companions in the religious life without reservation, including even the contents one’s almsbowl.

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu ye te lābhā dhammikā dhammaladdhā antamaso pattapariyāpannamattampi tathārūpehi lābhehi appaṭivibhattabhogī hoti sīlavantehi sabrahmacārīhi sādhāraṇa bhogī.

5) Maintaining virtues that are pure and conducive to inward collectedness both openly and privately together with one’s companions in the religious life.

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu yāni tāni sīlāni akhaṇḍāni acchiddāni asabalāni akammāsāni bhujissāni viññuppasatthāni aparāmaṭṭhāni samādhisaṁvattanikāni tathārūpesu sīlesu sīlasāmaññagato viharati sabrahmacārīhi āvī ceva raho ca.

6) But the chief, the most cohesive, the most unifying of these principles is [having a shared] view that is noble, and which leads to deliverance [from suffering], and which leads the one who practises it to the complete destruction of suffering.’

Imesaṁ kho bhikkhave channaṁ sārāṇīyānaṁ dhammānaṁ etaṁ aggaṁ etaṁ saṅgāhikaṁ etaṁ saṅghātanikaṁ yadidaṁ yāyaṁ diṭṭhi ariyā niyyātikā niyyāti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāya. (MN i 322)

We parenthesise ‘[having a shared]’ because the sutta affirms this previously, by saying that:

• Whatever view is noble, and which leads to deliverance [from suffering], and which leads the one who practises it to the complete destruction of suffering, a bhikkhu abides united in a view such as this with his companions in the religious life, both in public and in private

bhikkhu yāyaṁ diṭṭhi ariyā niyyānikā niyyāti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāya tathārūpāya diṭṭhiyā diṭṭhisāmaññagato viharati sabrahmacārīhi āvī ceva raho ca. (MN i 322)

Limits of muditā

The Saṅkhadhama Sutta says the essential practice of muditā involves pervading the whole world [of beings] with a mind of [unlimited] warmhearted joy. But [unlimited] warmhearted joy does not mean unconditionally [unlimited] warmhearted joy because the scriptures say that establishing community harmony involves firstly excluding troublesome individuals. The Dhammacariya Sutta says:

• Then winnow the chaff, those who are not ascetics but consider themselves so. Having banished those of unvirtuous desires, conduct, and sphere of personal application, live in unity, mindfully, the pure with the pure. Thus living in unity, being mindful, you will put an end to suffering.

Tato palāpe vāhetha assamaṇe samaṇamānine
Niddhamitvāna pāpicche pāpaācāragocare
Suddhā suddhehi saṁvāsaṁ kappayavho patissatā
Tato samaggā nipakā dukkhassantaṁ karissathā ti. (Snp 282-283)

Secondly, one needs a zealous gatekeeper. When the three arahants, Venerables Anuruddha, Nandiya, and Kimbila were living together in the Gosinga Sāla-tree Wood, their utmost harmony was shielded by a zealous gatekeeper who so diligently defended the place against visitors, that when on one occasion the Buddha dared enter uninvited, he was swiftly rebuked: ‘Do not enter this grove, ascetic! There are three noble young men here seeking their Soul. Do not disturb them!’

mā samaṇa etaṁ dāyaṁ pāvisi sant’ettha tayo kulaputtā attakāmarūpā viharanti mā tesaṁ aphāsumakāsī ti. (MN i 206)

The problem with muditā

The Parisā Sutta alludes to a potential problem with muditā by suggesting that [unlimited] warmhearted joy may mean less time for solitude and meditation. It says the ‘assembly that is foremost’ (aggavatī parisā) is better than a ‘harmonious assembly’ (samaggā parisā) because it is dedicated to solitude and to applying energy for the sake of spiritual attainment (paviveke pubbaṅgamā viriyaṁ ārabhanti appattassa pattiyā (AN i 243).

Comparing muditā with mettā and karuṇā

The fragility of muditā is not seen in mettā and karuṇā, which remain operational under great stress:

• Bhikkhus, even if thugs should sever your limbs one by one with a two-handled saw, he whose mind was thereby filled with hatred would not on that account be a practiser of my training system.

Ubhatodaṇḍakena pi ce bhikkhave kakacena corā ocarakā aṅgamaṅgāni okanteyyuṁ tatrāpi yo mano padūseyya na me so tena sāsanakaro.

… In this regard, you should train yourselves thus: ‘Neither shall our minds be troubled by this, nor shall we utter unvirtuous words, but we shall abide tenderly concerned for their welfare, with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill, without inner hatred.’

Tatrāpi vo bhikkhave evaṁ sikkhitabbaṁ: na ceva no cittaṁ vipariṇataṁ bhavissati. Na ca pāpakaṁ vācaṁ nicchāressāma. Hitānukampī ca viharissāma mettacittā na dosantarā. (MN i 129)

The practice of muditā seems more successful where incompatible individuals live apart. Mettā may be strengthened where they live together. But muditā is nonetheless an ego-dissolving exercise in which one can live with others like milk and water, and allows one to joyously overlook or endure their idiosyncracies.

Illustrations

Illustration: muditā, [unlimited] warmhearted joy

Now at such time as the bhikkhus dwell in unity, on friendly terms, without quarrelling, like milk and water mixed, viewing each other with affection, at such time they beget much merit. At such time they dwell in a divine abiding: that is to say, in the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] warmhearted joy. (AN i 243)

Illustration: muditā, [unlimited] warmhearted joy

The noble disciple abides pervading one quarter with a mind of [unlimited] warmhearted joy, likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, in all directions, everywhere, he abides pervading the whole world [of beings] with a mind of [unlimited] warmhearted joy. (SN iv 322)

Illustration: muditā, [unlimited] warmhearted joy

If the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] warmhearted joy is developed and cultivated, it is impossible, out of the question, that disgruntlement [with the celibate life] would plague your mind. There is no such possibility.

aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ muditāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya anuṭṭhitāya paricitāya susamāraddhāya atha ca panassa arati cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (DN iii 248)

Illustration: muditā, [unlimited] warmhearted joy

The liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] warmhearted joy has the state of awareness of boundless consciousness as its culmination.

viññāṇañcāyatanaparamāhaṁ bhikkhave muditā cetovimuttiṁ vadāmi. (SN v 120)

mūla

Renderings

Illustrations

mūlaṁ

mūlaṁ: (main article see: mūla)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

“‘A carbuncle,’ bhikkhus, is a metaphor for this [wretched human] body made of the four great material phenomena, arisen from parents, and fed on rice and gruel. It is unlasting, and is liable to be injured, abraded, broken, and demolished.

Gaṇḍo ti kho bhikkhave imassetaṁ cātummahābhūtikassa kāyassa adhivacanaṁ mātāpettikasambhavassa odanakummāsūpacayassa aniccucchādana-parimaddana-bhedana-viddhaṁsanadhammassa.

The origin of the carbuncle, is a metaphor for craving

Gaṇḍamūlan ti kho bhikkhave taṇhāyetaṁ adhivacanaṁ.

When a bhikkhu has abandoned craving, so it is chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, never to arise again in future, in such a case the bhikkhu has extirpated the origin of the carbuncle not extirpated before

Yato kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno taṇhā pahīnā hoti ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā. Evaṁ kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno apalikhataṁ gaṇḍamūlaṁ palikhataṁ hoti. (SN iv 83)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

And what, friends, is spiritually unwholesome

katamaṁ panāvuso akusalaṁ

killing is spiritually unwholesome

And what is the origin of what is spiritually unwholesome (akusalamūlaṁ)?

Greed is an origin of what is spiritually unwholesome.

Hatred is an origin of what is spiritually unwholesome.

Undiscernment of reality is an origin of what is spiritually unwholesome.

And what is spiritually wholesome (kusalaṁ)?

Refraining from killing is spiritually wholesome pāṇātipātā veramaṇī kusalaṁ

And what is the origin of what is spiritually wholesome (kusalamūlaṁ)?

Non-greed is an origin of what is spiritually wholesome.

Non-hatred is an origin of what is spiritually wholesome.

Discernment of reality is an origin of what is spiritually wholesome.

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

Attachment is the origin of suffering

upadhi dukkhassa mūlan ti. (MN i 453-4)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

Having removed [the arrow of] craving together with its origin,

samūlaṁ taṇhaṁ abbuyha

One is free of craving. One has realised the Untroubled.

Comment:

Craving arises from seeing things the wrong way, which is therefore its origin, as follows:

• Whatever ascetics and Brahmanists at present regard that in the world which is agreeable and pleasing as lasting, as essentially substantial, as endowed with personal qualities, as unailing, as free of danger: they nurture craving.

Yepi hi keci bhikkhave etarahi samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā yaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ taṁ niccato passanti sukhato passanti attato passanti ārogyato passanti khemato passanti te taṇhaṁ vaḍḍhenti

• Whatever ascetics and Brahmanists at present regard that in the world which is agreeable and pleasing as unlasting, as intrinsically unsatisfactory, as void of personal qualities, as an illness, as full of danger: they abandon craving.

Yepi hi ke ci bhikkhave etarahi samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā yaṁ loko piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ taṁ aniccato passanti dukkhato passanti anattato passanti rogato passanti bhayato passanti. Te taṇhaṁ pajahanti. (SN ii 110-112)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

Having eliminated the stain of stinginess together with its origin, they are beyond criticism.

Vineyya maccheramalaṁ samūlaṁ aninditā. (AN ii 63)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

A wise person should completely destroy the origin of entrenched conception, the notion “I am.”

mūlaṁ papañcasaṅkhāya mantā asmī ti sabbamuparundhe. (Snp 916)

mūlā

mūlā: (main article see: mūla)

Illustration: mūlā, origin

The perceptually obscuring states develop, the origin of individual existence, leading to renewed states of individual existence.

Tassa vaḍḍhanti āsavā bhavamūlā bhavagāmino ti. (Tha 98; SN iv 76)

Illustration: mūla, essence

I will expound for your benefit a systematic exposition on the essence of the whole teaching.

Sabbadhammamūlapariyāyaṁ vo bhikkhave desessāmi. (MN i 1)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, essence

One should devote oneself to one of great learning. One should not allow the teaching to be lost. It is the essence of the religious life. Therefore one should be an expert in the teaching.

Bahussutaṁ upāseyya sutañca na vināsaye
Taṁ mūlaṁ brahmacariyassa tasmā dhammadharo siyā. (Tha 1027)

mūlāni

mūlāni: (main article see: mūla)

Illustration: mūlāni, root

These are the roots of trees. These are the solitary abodes. Meditate, bhikkhus. Do not be negligently applied [to the practice].

Etāni bhikkhave rukkhamūlāni etāni suññāgārāni jhāyatha bhikkhave mā pamādattha. (SN iv 368-373)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, root

If the community of bhikkhus, not having investigated that case, not having got to the root of it, achieves concord, that concord is unrighteous.

saṅgho taṁ vatthuṁ avinicchinitvā amūlā mūlaṁ gantvā saṅghasāmaggiṁ karoti adhammikā sā upāli saṅghasāmaggī ti

If the community of bhikkhus, having investigated the case, having got to the root of it, achieves concord in the community of bhikkhus, that concord is righteous

saṅgho taṁ vatthuṁ vinicchinitvā mūlā mūlaṁ gantvā saṅghasāmaggiṁ karoti, dhammikā sā upāli saṅghasāmaggī ti. (Vin.1.358)

mūlajātā

mūlajātā: (main article see: mūla)

Illustration: mūlajātā, rooted

When one’s faith in the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment] is settled, rooted, and established, and described in these terms, words, and phrases, then one’s faith is said to be supported by reasons, rooted in vision [of things according to reality], and firm. It is not shakeable by any ascetic, Brahmanist, deva, māra, or brahmā, or by anyone in the world.

Yassa kassa ci bhikkhave imehi ākārehi imehi padehi imehi vyañjanehi tathāgate saddhā niviṭṭhā hoti mūlajātā patiṭṭhitā ayaṁ vuccatī bhikkhave ākāravatī saddhā dassanamūlikā daḷhā asaṁhāriyā samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṁ. (MN i 320)

mūlakā

Renderings

Illustrations

mūlakā

mūlakā: (main article see: mūlakā)

Illustration: mūlakā, stem from

All things stem from fondness.

chandamūlakā āvuso sabbe dhammā. (AN iv 339)

Illustration: mūlakā, stem from

Bhikkhus, these three types of sense impression are born of sensation, stem from sensation…

tisso imā bhikkhave vedanā phassajā phassamūlakā. (SN iv 215)

Bodhi: these three feelings are born of contact, rooted in contact

Illustration: mūlakā, stem from

Whatever bad bourns there are in this world or in the world beyond, all stem from uninsightfulness into reality

Yā kācimā duggatiyo asmiṁ loke paramhi ca avijjāmūlakā sabbā. (Iti 35)

Woodward: All rooted are in ignorance.

Illustration: mūlakā, stem from

Nine conditions that stem from craving:

nava taṇhāmūlakā dhammā

Because of craving, search.

taṇhaṁ paṭicca pariyesanā

Because of search, acquisition

pariyesanaṁ paṭicca lābho. (AN iv 401)

Bodhi: nine things rooted in craving

Illustration: mūlakā, stem from

These five grasped aggregates stem from fondness

Ime kho bhikkhu pañcupādānakkhandhā chandamūlakā ti. (SN iii 100-1)

Illustration: mūlakā, stem from

Bhante, for us the teachings stem from the Blessed One.

bhagavammūlakā no bhante dhammā. (AN iv 157)

Illustration: mūlakā, stem from

Whatever spiritually wholesome factors there are, they all stem from diligence [in the practice].

ye keci kusalā dhammā sabbe te appamādamūlakā. (SN v 42)

Illustration: mūlakā, stem from

Bhikkhus, whatever factors that are spiritually wholesome, part of what is spiritually wholesome, pertaining to what is spiritually wholesome, they all stem from proper contemplation

ye keci bhikkhave dhammā kusalā kusalabhāgiyā kusalapakkhiyā sabbe te yoniso manasikāramūlakā. (SN v 91)

Illustration: mūlakā, stem from

All spiritually unwholesome factors stem from uninsightfulness into reality.

ye keci akusalā dhammā sabbe te avijjāmūlakā. (SN ii 263)

mettā

Renderings

Introduction

Four unlimited states

The practices of mettā, karuṇā, muditā and upekkhā are sometimes called the four divine abidings (cattāro brahmavihārā, DN ii 196) and sometimes the four unlimited states (catasso appamaññā, DN iii 223). Practising them together is called the ‘unlimited liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]’ (appamāṇā cetovimutti, SN iv 296).

The makers of limitation

The Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN i 298) and Godatta Sutta (SN iv 296) say the ‘makers of limitation’ (pamāṇakaraṇo) are rāgo, doso and moho (rāgo kho āvuso pamāṇakaraṇo doso pamāṇakaraṇo moho pamāṇakaraṇo). Therefore the four brahmavihāras should be practised unlimited by rāgo doso and moho.

Mettā overcomes resentment, hatred, and ill will

Mettā is for overcoming resentment, hatred, and ill will:

1) When resentment has arisen for someone, one can develop [unlimited] goodwill for him. Thus can one dispel aversion for that person.

Yasmiṁ bhikkhave puggale āghāto jāyetha mettā tasmiṁ puggale bhāvetabbā. Evaṁ tasmiṁ puggale āghāto paṭivinetabbo. (AN iii 185)

2) To abandon hatred, [unlimited] goodwill should be developed.

Dosassa pahānāya mettā bhāvetabbā. (AN iii 446)

3) I do not see any other single thing of such power to prevent the arising of ill will, if not already arisen, or, if arisen, to cause its abandonment, as the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] goodwill.

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave aññaṁ ekadhammampi samanupassāmi yena anuppanno vā vyāpādo nuppajjati uppanno vā vyāpādo pahīyati yathayidaṁ bhikkhave mettā cetovimutti. (AN i 4)

Benefits of mettā

Mettā leads 1) to ‘the Exquisite’ (i.e. fourth jhāna. See IGPT sv Subha), and 2) to non-returnership:

1) Bhikkhus, the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] goodwill has the Exquisite as its culmination, I declare, for a wise bhikkhu here who has not penetrated to a superior liberation.

Subhaparamāhaṁ bhikkhave mettā cetovimuttiṁ vadāmi idha paññassa bhikkhuno uttariṁ vimuttiṁ appaṭivijjhato. (SN v 119)

2) Thus developed, the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] goodwill leads to non-returnership for a wise bhikkhu here who has not penetrated to a more exalted liberation.

Evaṁ bhāvitā kho bhikkhave mettācetovimutti anāgāmitāya saṁvattati idha paññassa bhikkhuno uttariṁ vimuttiṁ appaṭivijjhato. (AN v 300)

Arousing faith with mettā

The Buddha suffused others with [unlimited] goodwill (mettena cittena pharati) to arouse faith in them. Two examples:

1) ‘It would not be hard, Ānanda, for the Perfect One to arouse faith in this teaching and training system in Roja the Malla.’ Then the Blessed One, having suffused Roja the Malla with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill rising from his seat, entered his dwelling. Then Roja the Malla, suffused by the Blessed One with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill, even as young calves follow their mothers, having approached dwelling after dwelling, compound after compound, asked the bhikkhus: ‘Where, bhante, is the Blessed One staying just now, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One? For I long to see the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One’.

Na kho taṁ ānanda dukkaraṁ tathāgatena yathā rojo mallo imasmiṁ dhammavinaye pasīdeyyā ti. Atha kho bhagavā rojaṁ mallaṁ mettena cittena pharitvā uṭṭhāyāsanā vihāraṁ pāvisi. Atha kho rojo mallo bhagavatā mettena cittena phuṭṭho seyyathā pi nāma gāvī taruṇavacchā, evameva vihārena vihāraṁ pariveṇena pariveṇaṁ upasaṅkamitvā bhikkhū pucchati: kahannu kho bhante etarahi so bhagavā viharati arahaṁ sammā sambuddho? Dassanakāmā hi mayaṁ taṁ bhagavantaṁ arahantaṁ sammāsambuddhan ti. (Vin.1.247)

2) ‘Bhante, this elephant Nālāgiri approaching on this carriage road is an uncontrollable mankiller. Bhante, may the Blessed One turn back, may the Sublime One turn back.’… Then the Blessed One suffused the elephant Nālāgiri with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill. Then the elephant Nālāgiri, suffused by the Blessed One with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill, lowered his trunk, approached the Blessed One, and stood in front of him…And so it was in this way that the elephant Nālāgiri became tamed.

ayaṁ bhante nālāgiri hatthi caṇḍo manussaghātako imaṁ racchaṁ paṭipanno. Paṭikkamatu bhante bhagavā paṭikkamatu sugato ti… Atha kho bhagavā nālāgiriṁ hatthiṁ mettena cittena phari. Atha kho bhagavā nālāgiriṁ hatthiṁ mettena cittena eri. Atha kho nālāgiri hatthi bhagavatā mettena cittena phuṭo soṇḍaṁ oropetvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā bhagavato purato aṭṭhāsi… Tathā danto ca pana nālāgiri hatthi ahosi. (Vin.2.195)

Mettā and unlimitedness

The unlimitedness of mettā (i.e. mettā unlimited by rāgo doso and moho) is seen in this quote:

• Bhikkhus, even if thugs should sever your limbs one by one with a two-handled saw, he whose mind was thereby filled with hatred would not on that account be a practiser of my training system.

Ubhatodaṇḍakena pi ce bhikkhave kakacena corā ocarakā aṅgamaṅgāni okanteyyuṁ tatrāpi yo mano padūseyya na me so tena sāsanakaro.

… In this regard, you should train yourselves thus: ‘Neither shall our minds be troubled by this, nor shall we utter unvirtuous words, but we shall abide tenderly concerned for their welfare, with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill, without inner hatred.’

Tatrāpi vo bhikkhave evaṁ sikkhitabbaṁ: na ceva no cittaṁ vipariṇataṁ bhavissati. Na ca pāpakaṁ vācaṁ nicchāressāma. Hitānukampī ca viharissāma mettacittā na dosantarā. (MN i 129)

Sabbatthatāya not sabbattatāya

Sabbatthatāya is a long-standing issue in the scriptures because of its alternative spelling, sabbattatāya, which Bodhi renders as ‘to all as to himself,’ as follows:

• … everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness

sabbadhi sabbatthatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā… pharitvā viharati. (Bodhi, MN i 38)

Horner translates it as ‘in every way’:

• he dwells having suffused the whole world everywhere, in every way, with a mind of friendliness. (Horner, MN i 38)

The phrase sabbadhi sabbatthatāya also occurs at Uda 33 where the phrase ‘to all as to himself’ (sabbattatāya) is clearly inappropriate:

• Whatever states of individual existence there are in any way, anywhere (‘to all as to himself’), all these states of individual existence are unlasting

ye hi keci bhavā sabbadhi sabbatthatāya sabbe te bhavā aniccā. (Uda 33)

The Vipassana Research Institute consistently favours sabbattatāya over sabbatthatāya, except at one place, the just quoted Uda 33, where they take sabbatthatāya, thereby acknowledging the decisiveness of the quote.

Although the Buddha Jayanti Version consistently favours sabbattatāya, including at Uda 33, it consistently notes that sabbatthatāya is a variant reading.

The PED does not recognise sabbattatāya as a word, only sabbatthatāya whose meaning is ‘the state of being everywhere.’ The PED says that atthata is the past participle of attharati, meaning ‘spread, covered, spread over with.’ Likewise, DOP recognises atthata but not attata.

Therefore we take atthata (everywhere) as the correct spelling, and translate as follows:

• in all directions, everywhere, he abides pervading the whole world [of beings] with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill.

sabbadhi sabbatthatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā… viharati. (SN iv 323)

Pervading [unlimited] goodwill: world [of beings]

When one abides pervading the whole world with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill (sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā… pharitvā), what does ‘world’ mean? Other suttas, and clues in the sutta itself show that mettā should be pervaded to the ‘world [of beings],’ a practice which would therefore include devas.

Metta: adjective and adverb

For the adjective, we render metta as ‘loving.’ In one case below we say ‘lovingly.’

Illustrations

mettaṁ

mettaṁ: (main article see: mettā)

Illustration: mettaṁ, loving

A bhikkhu maintains loving conduct of body, both openly and privately to those bhikkhus who are senior, long gone forth [into the ascetic life] who are fathers of the community of bhikkhus, leaders of the community of bhikkhus.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu ye te bhikkhu therā rattaññū cirapabbajitā saṅghapitaro saṅghaparināyakā tesu mettaṁ kāyakammaṁ paccupaṭṭhāpeti āvī ceva raho ca. (AN v 353)

mettena

mettena: (main article see: mettā)

Illustration: mettena, loving

For a long time, Ānanda, you have offered the Perfect One loving conduct of body, beneficent, pleasant, unselfish, beyond measure.

Dīgharattaṁ kho te ānanda tathāgato paccupaṭṭhito mettena kāyakammena hitena sukhena advayena appamāṇena. (DN ii 144)

Illustration: mettena, loving

For twenty-five years I served the Blessed One with loving conduct of body, like a shadow never leaving him.

Paṇṇavīsati vassāni bhagavantaṁ upaṭṭhahiṁ
Mettena kāyakammena chāyā va anapāyinī. (Tha 1041)

metta

metta: (main article see: mettā)

Illustration: metta, loving

King Pasenadi of Kosala prostrated his head to the Blessed One’s feet, covered them with kisses and caressed them with his hands, pronouncing his name:

• ‘Bhante, I am King Pasenadi of Kosala! Bhante, I am King Pasenadi of Kosala!’

• ’But, great king, considering what good reason do you show such profound humility and pay such loving homage to this [wretched human] body of mine?’

Kaṁ pana tvaṁ mahārāja atthavasaṁ sampassamāno imasmiṁ sarīre evarūpaṁ paramanipaccākāraṁ karosi mettupahāraṁ upadaṁsesī ti?

• Out of gratitude and thankfulness I show such profound humility and pay such loving homage to the Blessed One.

Kataññutaṁ kho ahaṁ bhante kataveditaṁ sampassamāno bhagavati evarūpaṁ paramanipaccākāraṁ karomi mettupahārāṁ upadaṁsemi. (AN v 65)

Illustration: mettā, lovingly

The Teacher will be lovingly venerated by me through my practice [in accordance with the teaching]

Satthā ca me pariciṇṇo bhavissati mettāvatāyā tī. (AN iii 443)

Comment:

Pariciṇṇo mayā satthā: the Teacher has been [lovingly] venerated by me [through my practice in accordance with the teaching]. See Glossary sv Pariciṇṇo mayā satthā.

Illustration: mettā, state of [unlimited] goodwill

The Blessed One, bhante, abides in a state of [unlimited] goodwill.

bhagavā hi bhante mettāvihārī ti. (MN i 369-371)

mettacitto

mettacitto: (main article see: mettā)

Illustration: mettacitto, mind of [unlimited] goodwill

He nurses the patient for worldly benefits not with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill.

āmisantaro gilānaṁ upaṭṭhahati no mettacitto. (AN iii 144)

mettaṁ cittaṁ

mettaṁ cittaṁ: (main article see: mettā)

Illustration: mettaṁ cittaṁ, mind of [unlimited] goodwill

• Being not tenderly concerned for their welfare, would he have a mind of [unlimited] goodwill or of enmity?

ahitānukampissa mettaṁ vā tesu cittaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ hoti sapattakaṁ vā ti

• Enmity, Master Gotama.

Sapattakaṁ bho gotama. (DN i 228)

Illustration: mettacitto, mind of [unlimited] goodwill

I am one with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill.

mettacitto’hamasmi. (MN i 18)

mettacitta

mettacitta: (main article see: mettā)

Illustration: mettacitta, a mind of [unlimited] goodwill

In what way in protecting others does one protect oneself? By developing patience, compassion, a mind of [unlimited] goodwill, and sympathy.

Kathañca bhikkhave paraṁ rakkhanto attānaṁ rakkhati: khantiyā avihiṁsāya mettacittatāya anuddayatāya. (SN v 169)

mettena cittena

mettena cittena: (main article see: mettā)

Illustration: mettena cittena, mind of [unlimited] goodwill

Surely that bhikkhu did not pervade the four royal families of snakes with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill. For if that bhikkhu had done so, then that bhikkhu when bitten by a snake, would certainly not have died.

Nahanūna so bhikkhave bhikkhu cattāri ahirājakulāni mettena cittena phari. Sace hi so bhikkhave bhikkhu cattāri ahirājakulāni mettena cittena phareyya na hi so bhikkhave bhikkhu ahinā daṭṭho kālaṁ kareyya. (AN ii 72; Vin.2.110)

Illustration: mettena cittena, mind of [unlimited] goodwill

Bhikkhus, some might speak to you with speech that is: timely or untimely; true or untrue; gentle or harsh; conducive or unconducive to your spiritual well-being; spoken with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill or with inner hatred.

Kālena vā bhikkhave pare vadamānā vadeyyuṁ akālena vā. Bhūtena vā… abhūtena vā. Saṇhena vā… pharusena vā. Atthasaṁhitena vā… anatthasaṁhitena vā. Mettacittā vā… dosantarā vā. (MN i 126)

On all occasions you should train yourselves thus: ‘Neither shall our minds be troubled by this, nor shall we utter unvirtuous words, but we shall abide tenderly concerned for their welfare, with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill, without inner hatred.’

na ceva no cittaṁ vipariṇataṁ bhavissati na ca pāpakaṁ vācaṁ nicchāressāma. Hitānukampī ca viharissāma mettacittā na dosantarā.

We shall abide pervading that person with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill,

tañca puggalaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā pharitvā viharissāma.

With this as our basis [for spiritual development]

we shall abide pervading the whole world [of beings] with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill, vast, exalted, unlimited, free of unfriendliness and hostility.

sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena avyāpajjhena pharitvā viharissāmāti.

Thus bhikkhus should you train yourselves. (MN i 126)

moghapurisa

Renderings

Introduction

Mogha: false

Where mogha is the opposite of sacca, we render it as ‘false’:

• This alone is true. All else is false.

idameva saccaṁ moghamaññan ti. (MN i 498)

On this basis, moghapurisa would be ‘a false man’ or ‘an untrue man.’

Mogha: in vain

But in many contexts mogha means ‘in vain’:

• The going forth [into the ascetic life] of all those noble young men was not in vain or barren, but fruitful and productive.

iti kho pana sabbesaṁ yeva tesaṁ kulaputtānaṁ amoghā pabbajjā ahosi avañjhā saphalā saudrayā ti. (DN ii 251)

On this basis a moghapurisa would be, for example, futile, unavailing, incompetent, ineffectual, or useless. But ‘vain’ means something else, and its synonyms seem harsh. Our ‘worthless’ is in accordance with other admonishments, which including ‘empty’ and ‘hollow’:

• Bhaddali, on that occasion, were you not an empty, hollow wrongdoer?

Nanu tvaṁ bhaddāli tasmiṁ samaye ritto tuccho aparaddho ti. (MN i 440)

Worthless defined

Worthless means:

  • contemptible, despicable (Webster’s)
  • without merit (Collins)
  • having no good qualities or useful skills (Oxford)

Illustrations

mogha

mogha: (main article see: moghapurisa)

Illustration: mogha, in vain

One is not a senior [bhikkhu] [just] because one’s head is grey. If one has matured [just] in age one is called ‘aged in vain.’

Na tena thero hoti yenassa palitaṁ siro
Paripakko vayo tassa moghajiṇṇo ti vuccati. (Dhp 260)

moghaṁ

moghaṁ: (main article see: moghapurisa)

Illustration: moghaṁ, in vain

One who has faith in the community of disciples and purified vision [of things according to reality]: they say he is not poor. His life is not [lived] in vain.

Saṅghe pasādo yassatthi ujubhūtañca dassanaṁ
Adaḷiddoti taṁ āhu amoghaṁ tassa jīvitaṁ. (SN v 385)

Illustration: moghaṁ, in vain

Surely the useful religious life which Kappa lived was not in vain.

yad atthiyaṁ brahmacariyaṁ acari kappāyano kaccissa taṁ amoghaṁ. (Snp 354)

Illustration: moghaṁ, in vain

Hearing your voice, best of seers, I have faith [in you]. Truly my question was not in vain.

Esa sutvā pasīdāmi vaco te isisattama
Amoghaṁ kira me puṭṭhaṁ. (Snp 356)

Illustration: moghaṁ, in vain

Should make one’s day lived not in vain, whether by a little or by much.

Amoghaṁ divasaṁ kayirā appena bahukena vā. (Tha 451)

Illustration: moghaṁ, in vain

I listened desirously; my listening was not in vain.

sotamodhesimatthiko
Taṁ me amoghaṁ savanaṁ. (Tha 995-6)

Illustration: moghaṁ, in vain

The three final knowledges are attained. The Buddha’s training system is not [undertaken] in vain.

Tisso vijjā anuppattā amoghaṁ buddhasāsanaṁ. (Thi 150)

mogho

mogho: (main article see: moghapurisa)

Illustration: mogho, in vain

Your instruction was not in vain: I am your trained student.

Amogho tuyhamovādo antevāsimhi sikkhito ti. (Tha 334)

Illustration: mogho, false

My past acquired self was at the time my only true one; the future and present ones were false.

yo me ahosi atīto attapaṭilābho sveva me attapaṭilābho tasmiṁ samaye sacco ahosi mogho anāgato mogho paccuppanno. (DN i 201)

moghapurisā

moghapurisā: (main article see: moghapurisa)

Illustration: moghapurisā, worthless man

Thus do noble young men declare their [attainment of] arahantship. The matter is spoken of without any reference to themselves. Yet there are some worthless men here who apparently declare [that they have attained] arahantship for fun.

evaṁ kho bhikkhave kulaputtā aññaṁ vyākaronti attho ca vutto attā ca anupanīto. Atha ca pana idhekacce moghapurisā hasamānakā maññe aññaṁ vyākaronti. (AN iii 359)

Illustration: moghapurisā, worthless man

Bhikkhus, you have lost your way. Bhikkhus, you are conducting yourselves wrongly. Bhikkhus, how far you have strayed, you worthless men, from this teaching and training system.

Vippaṭipannā'ttha bhikkhave. Micchāpaṭipannā'ttha bhikkhave. Kīvadūrevime bhikkhave moghapurisā apakkantā imasmā dhammavinayā. (MN i 480)

moghapuriso

moghapuriso: (main article see: moghapurisa)

Illustration: moghapuriso, worthless man

When I am explaining the teaching, this worthless man does listen to it with eager ears, paying attention to it as a matter of vital concern, applying his whole mind to it.

Nacāyaṁ moghapuriso mayā dhammaṁ desiyamāne aṭṭhikatvā manasikatvā sabbacetaso samannāharitvā ohitasoto dhammaṁ suṇātī ti. (MN i 445)

Illustration: moghapurisa, worthless man

Worthless man, to whom indeed have you known me to explain the teaching that way?

Kassa nu kho nāma tvaṁ moghapurisa mayā evaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāsi?. (MN i 258)

moghapurisassa

moghapurisassa: (main article see: moghapurisa)

Illustration: moghapurisassa, worthless man

This worthless man must have absolutely no sympathy, tender concern, or compassion for living beings.

Na hi nāma bhikkhave tassa moghapurisassa pāṇesu anuddayā anukampā avihesā bhavissati. (Vin.3.42)

moghapurisena

moghapurisena: (main article see: moghapurisa)

Illustration: moghapurisena, worthless man

The ascetic Potaliputta’s question should have been analysed before being answered. Samiddhi, the worthless man, answered it without qualification.

Iminā ca ānanda samiddhinā moghapurisena potaliputtassa paribbājakassa vibhajjavyākaraṇīyo pañho ekaṁsena vyākato ti. (MN iii 208-9)

Illustration: moghapuriso, worthless man

I do not see any other single person who so acts for the harm and unhappiness of the manyfolk, for the ruin, harm, and suffering of devas and men as Makkhali, that worthless man.

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave aññaṁ ekapuggalampi samanupassāmi yo evaṁ bahujanāhitāya paṭipanno bahujanāsukhāya bahuno janassa anatthāya ahitāya dukkhāya devamanussānaṁ yathayidaṁ bhikkhave makkhalī moghapuriso. (AN i 33)

moghapurisānaṁ

moghapurisānaṁ: (main article see: moghapurisa)

Illustration: moghapurisānaṁ, worthless persons

And, by listening to such talk, any worthless persons’ unsureness or uncertainty about the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment] will be abandoned.

Yesampi hi sāriputta moghapurisānaṁ bhavissati tathāgate kaṅkhā vā vimati vā tesamimaṁ dhammapariyāyaṁ sutvā yā tathāgate kaṅkhā vā vimati vā sā pahīyissatī ti. (DN iii 116)

moha

Renderings

Introduction

Moha: not ‘delusion’

Because moha is related to muyhati, to be deluded, it is therefore usually known as ‘delusion.’ However, this would imply that moha is:

  • ‘a belief that has no evidence in fact’ (www. vocabulary.com).
  • ‘a mistaken or unfounded opinion or idea’ (WordWeb)

Moha: ‘undiscernment of reality’

In this essay we will show that:

1) moha is antonymous to paññā

2) moha is synonymous with avijjā

3) moha is associated with aññāṇa

4) moha occurs in those who are ariyadhamme akovide

These four terms are shown in the Glossary to mean:

1) paññā: penetrative discernment

2) avijjā: uninsightfulness into reality

3) aññāṇa: ignorance [of things according to reality]

4) ariyadhamme akovide: those who are ignorant of the noble teaching

These associations suggest that moha means uninsightfulness, which, to discriminate it, we will call ‘undiscernment of reality.’

Moha equals avijjā

Moha equals avijjā (i.e. uninsightfulness into reality):

• ‘What do you think, Sāḷha, is there discernment of reality?’―‘Yes, bhante’―‘I call it insightfulness into reality.’

Taṁ kiṁ maññatha sāḷhā atthi amoho ti? Evambhante. Vijjā ti kho ahaṁ sāḷhā etamatthaṁ vadāmi. (AN i 195)

• This uninsightfulness into reality is indeed undiscernment of reality whereby this wandering the round of birth and death goes on for a long time.

Avijjā hāyaṁ mahāmoho yenidaṁ saṁsitaṁ ciraṁ. (Snp 730)

Moha and avijjā: same relationship to āsavas

Moha and avijjā both have the same relationship to perceptually obscuring states (āsavā):

Moha: It is through the abandonment of perceptually obscuring states that one is discerning of reality.

Āsavānaṁ hi aggivessana pahānā asammūḷho hoti. (MN i 250)

Avijjā: With the ending of perceptual obscuration comes the ending of uninsightfulness into reality

Moha: associated with aññāṇa

Moha is associated with ignorance [of things according to reality] (aññāṇapakkhā):

• Whatever spiritual shackles there are in the world, [or] paths of undiscernment of reality, [or] whatever is associated with ignorance [of things according to reality], [or] whatever bases for doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] there are, when they reach the Perfect One they vanish.

Ye keci ganthā idha mohamaggā aññāṇapakkhā vicikicchaṭṭhānā
Tathāgataṁ patvā na te bhavanti. (Snp 347)

Moha: opposed to paññā

Moha is opposed to paññā, penetrative discernment:

• To abandon undiscernment of reality, penetrative discernment should be developed.

Mohassa pahānāya paññā bhāvetabbā. (AN iii 446)

• They extinguish… the fire of undiscernment of reality with the penetrative discernment that leads to the profound understanding [and destruction of the great masses of greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality].

nibbāpenti… mohaggiṁ pana paññāya yāyaṁ nibbedhagāminī. (Iti 93)

lobhakkhandhaṁ dosakkhandhaṁ mohakkhandhaṁ (SN v 88). See Illustration for notes on this quote.

Moha and ariyadhamme akovide

Moha occurs in those who are ariyadhamme akovide, i.e. ignorant of the noble teaching:

• The fire of undiscernment of reality burns those who are undiscerning of reality, who are ignorant of the noble teaching.

Mohaggi pana sammūḷhe ariyadhamme akovide. (Iti 92)

Negative of moha

When ‘lack of moha’ is a noun, we call it ‘discernment of reality’:

• Conduct produced from, born of, due to, originated by discernment of reality is spiritually wholesome and blameless.

Yaṁ bhikkhave amohapakataṁ kammaṁ amohajaṁ amohanidānaṁ amohasamudayaṁ. Taṁ kammaṁ kusalaṁ taṁ kammaṁ anavajjaṁ taṁ kammaṁ. (AN i 263)

Illustrations

moho

moho: (main article see: moha)

Illustration: moho, undiscernment of reality

What is the cause and reason that unarisen undiscernment of reality arises, or that arisen undiscernment of reality increases and expands?

Ko panāvuso hetu ko paccayo yena anuppanno vā moho uppajjati uppanno vā moho bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṁvattatī ti?

Improper contemplation, one should reply.

Ayoniso manasikārotissa vacanīyaṁ. (AN i 200)

Illustration: moho, undiscernment of reality

What is the cause and reason that unarisen undiscernment of reality does not arise, or that arisen undiscernment of reality is abandoned?

Ko panāvuso hetu ko paccayo yena anuppanno vā moho nuppajjati uppanno vā moho pahiyyatī ti.

Proper contemplation, one should reply.

Yoniso manasikārotissa vacanīyaṁ. (AN i 201)

Illustration: moho, undiscernment of reality

Bhikkhus, there are three bases for the arising of karmically consequential deeds. What three?

Tīṇi'māni bhikkhave nidānāni kammānaṁ samudayāya. Katamāni tīṇi

Greed is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds. Hatred is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds. Undiscernment of reality is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

lobho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya doso nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya moho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya. (AN i 134)

Illustration: moho, undiscernment of reality

• They extinguish… the fire of undiscernment of reality with the penetrative discernment that leads to the profound understanding [and destruction of the great masses of greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality].

nibbāpenti… mohaggiṁ pana paññāya yāyaṁ nibbedhagāminī. (Iti 93)

COMMENT:

Nibbedhagāminī: ‘leads to the profound understanding [and destruction of the great masses of greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality]’: Nibbijjhati means ‘to pierce,’ which we call ‘to profoundly understand.’ At SN v 88 nibbijjhati is linked to padāleti (to destroy), and to lobhakkhandhaṁ dosakkhandhaṁ mohakkhandhaṁ (‘the great masses of greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality’).

Illustration: moho, undiscernment of reality

For a bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed, attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality are ended.

khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno rāgo niruddho hoti doso niruddho hoti moho niruddho hoti. (SN iv 217)

avītamohā

avītamohā: (main article see: moha)

Illustration: avītamohā, undiscerning of reality; moha, undiscernment of reality

In the theatre or arena, among beings who are undiscerning of reality, who are bound [to individual existence] by the bondage of undiscernment of reality, an actor entertains them with confusing things that excite them even more strongly to undiscernment of reality.

Pubbe kho gāmaṇi sattā avītamohā mohabandhanabaddhā tesaṁ naṭo raṅgamajjhe samajjamajjhe ye dhammā mohanīyā te upasaṁharati bhiyyo samohāya. (SN iv 307)

mūḷho

mūḷho: (main article see: moha)

Illustration: mūḷho, undiscerning of reality; moha, undiscernment of reality

A person who is undiscerning of reality does not know what is beneficial, nor see what is righteous.

Mūḷho atthaṁ na jānāti mūḷho dhammaṁ na passati

Blinding darkness then prevails when undiscernment of reality overcomes a person.

Andhantamaṁ tadā hoti yaṁ moho sahate naraṁ.

But one who abandons undiscernment of reality is not deluded by deluding things.

Yo ca mohaṁ pahatvāna mohaneyye na muyhati

He puts an end to all undiscernment of reality like the sun dispels the night.

Mohaṁ vihanti so sabbaṁ ādiccovudayaṁ taman ti. (Iti 84)

vītamoho

vītamoho: (main article see: moha)

Illustration: vītamoho, free of undiscernment of reality

The bhikkhu who neither longs for the cessation of individual existence nor is unintent upon it, knowing that everything is untrue [to itself], being free of undiscernment of reality, he sheds the [ties to individual existence in the] low plane of existence and the other planes beyond it, as a snake sheds its old, worn-out skin.

Yo nāccasārī na paccasārī sabbaṁ vitathamidanti vītamoho
So bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ urago jiṇṇamiva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. (Snp 13)

Info & meta data

[open]

[close]

  • You are given to add additional sources/Dictionaries. Consider the use of page_templates if wishing to include a certain dictionary to many pages. Edits of Dictionary content can be made in the paticulary source file.

Edits

Open tasks:

Johann 2019/09/22 + 10/04

meta data

en/dictionary/igpt_m.txt · Last modified: 2019/11/08 10:34 by Johann