User Tools

Site Tools


Translations of this page?:
en:dictionary:igpt_n

Table of Contents

Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms [n]

— —

Info

The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.

Content

Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |

n

na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi

Renderings

na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi (or viheṭhesi): he did not trouble me through [failure to quickly understand] the teaching

Introduction

The Buddha’s objection

On six occasions when disciples died, the Buddha spoke in homage of them, saying that:

• ‘He did not trouble me on account of the teaching.’

na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi. (or viheṭhesi)

Are we meant to understand from this that the Buddha objected to being lengthily questioned on the teachings? Or objected to rude or pestering disciples placing demands on his time and energy? We will show that neither of these are the case, but rather, he was complaining about those who fail to quickly penetrate the teaching. A good example of this would be Sāti:

• Although questioned, interrogated, and examined by those bhikkhus, the bhikkhu Sāti, son of a fisherman, dogmatically grasping and stubbornly adhering to that same odious dogmatic view, asserted:

tadeva pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ thāmasā parāmassa abhinivissa voharati

‘As I understand the teaching explained by the Blessed One, it is this personal viññāṇa that roams and wanders the round of birth and death, not another.

yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati anaññan ti. (MN i 257)

Time and energy consuming teachings

Firstly, all six occasions when our phrase was used involved the Buddha in making himself available as a teacher, even visiting disciples in their homes. So his complaint could not be about offering others his time and energy. Indeed, some of these occasions involved extensive conversations, for example with Puṇṇa (Puṇṇovāda Sutta, MN iii 267) and Pukkusāti (Dhātuvibhaṅga Sutta, MN iii 247). So when the Buddha praised Puṇṇa and Pukkusāti for na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi, it was obviously not in reference to the amount of his time and energy they had consumed.

Two cases of nuisance

In two of our six cases, there was some actual nuisance involved.

1) Firstly, Bāhiya of the Bark Robe demanded an immediate explanation of the teaching when the Buddha was on almsround. Twice he asked, and twice the Buddha refused:

• This is not the right time, Bāhiya. We have entered the village for almsfood.

akālo kho tāva bāhiya. Antaragharaṁ paviṭṭhamhā piṇḍāyā ti. (Uda 7)

Only at the third request did the Buddha comply, standing there with his laden almsbowl.

2) The second potential nuisance was with Pukkusāti, who later confessed lack of respect:

• A transgression overcame me, bhante, in that, foolishly, stupidly, and badly behaved, I presumed to address the Blessed One as ‘friend.’

accayo maṁ bhante accagamā yathābālaṁ yathāmūḷhaṁ yathā akusalaṁ yohaṁ bhagavantaṁ āvusovādena samudācaritabbaṁ amaññissaṁ. (MN iii 246)

Thus, when the Buddha praised Bāhiya and Pukkusāti for na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi, it was obviously not in reference to being pressurised to teach at an inappropriate moment, nor was it in reference to the lack of proper respect that he had been shown. We will see what the Buddha was complaining about when we examine the Kinti Sutta.

Four cases of imperfect discipleship

In only two of our cases, with Puṇṇa and Bāhiya, did the Buddha’s instruction lead to arahantship. The other four cases led to non-returnership or stream-entry, which is considered blameworthy because:

• He who lays down one body and takes up a new body is one I call blameworthy.

yo kho sāriputta imañca kāyaṁ nikkhipati aññañca kāyaṁ upādiyati tamahaṁ saupavajjoti vadāmi. (SN iv 60)

Thus, when the Buddha praised the brahman Brahmāyu, Pukkusāti, Dīghāvu, and Suppabuddha for na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi, it was obviously not in reference to their blameworthiness in failing to attain arahantship before rebirth.

Kinti Sutta

The expression vihesā bhavissati is explained in the Kinti Sutta, which says that when one bhikkhu admonishes another there may be problems for both parties. The possible combination of problems is found in these reflections:

1) I will not be troubled, and the other person will not be distressed, for he is not ill-tempered and resentful, and not strongly opinionated and relinquishes his views readily.

mayhañca avihesā bhavissati parassa ca puggalassa anupaghāto. Paro hi puggalo akkodhano anupanāhī adaḷhadiṭṭhī suppaṭinissaggī.

2) I will not be troubled, but the other person will be distressed, for though he is ill-tempered and resentful, he is not strongly opinionated and relinquishes his views readily.

mayhaṁ kho avihesā bhavissati parassa ca puggalassa upaghāto. Paro hi puggalo kodhano upanāhī adaḷhadiṭṭhī suppaṭinissaggī.

3) I will be troubled, but the other person will not be distressed, for though he is not ill-tempered and resentful, he is strongly opinionated and relinquishes his views reluctantly.

mayhaṁ kho vihesā bhavissati parassa ca puggalassa anupaghāto.
Paro hi puggalo akkodhano anupanāhī daḷhadiṭṭhī duppaṭinissaggī.

4) I will be troubled, and the other person will be distressed, for he is ill-tempered and resentful, and strongly opinionated and relinquishes his views reluctantly.

mayhañca kho vihesā bhavissati parassa ca puggalassa upaghāto.
Paro hi puggalo kodhano upanāhī daḷhadiṭṭhī duppaṭinissaggī. (MN ii 241)

This shows that the Buddha would not be troubled by those who become angry and resentful, but by those who are strongly opinionated and who relinquish their views reluctantly. The same pattern is seen in our six cases, all of which involve individuals who, though not necessarily arahants, nonetheless quickly achieved high spiritual attainments. The six cases are enumerated below.

Thus, vihesā bhavissati means slowness to comprehend a teaching. It shows that what the Buddha appreciated from disciples was quick understanding. This is confirmed when he said:

• If I were to explain the teaching to others and they did not understand, it would be wearisome and troublesome for me.

Ahañceva kho pana dhammaṁ deseyyaṁ pare ca me na ājāneyyuṁ so mama'ssa kilamathe sā mama'ssa vihesā ti. (Vin.1.5)

The six cases: quick understanding of the teaching

The six cases we refer to are these:

  • 1) The brahman Brahmāyu became a non-returner before his death, which occurred within days of meeting the Buddha (MN ii 146).
  • 2) Pukkusāti became a non-returner during his overnight teaching from the Buddha, or on the following morning before his untimely death (MN iii 247).
  • 3) Puṇṇa became an arahant in his first rains residency period after meeting the Buddha (MN iii 270, SN iv 63).
  • 4) Dīghāvu was already a stream-enterer when he asked the Buddha to visit him on his deathbed, and became a non-returner before he died (SN v 346).
  • 5) Bāhiya became an arahant immediately on being exposed to the teaching (Uda 8-9).
  • 6) Suppabuddha became a stream-enterer either while listening to his first discourse on the teaching or immediately thereafter, before his untimely death (Uda 50).

Failure to quickly understand the teaching: conclusion

The six cases suggest that ‘to understand the teaching’ means to achieve at least stream-entry. To ‘quickly understand’ means either:

  • 1) to achieve stream-entry while listening to one’s first discourse, or
  • 2) to achieve non-returnership within days of hearing one’s first discourse, or
  • 3) to achieve arahantship in one’s first rains residency period.

Illustrations

Illustration: na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi, he did not trouble me through [failure to quickly understand] the teaching

Bāhiya of the Bark Robe was wise, bhikkhus. He practised in accordance with the teaching and did not trouble me through [failure to quickly understand] the teaching. Bāhiya of the Bark Robe has passed away to the Untroubled-without-residue.

Paṇḍito bhikkhave bāhiyo dārucīriyo paccapādi dhammassānudhammaṁ na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi. Parinibbuto bhikkhave bāhiyo dārucīriyo ti. (Uda 8-9)

nandi

Renderings

Introduction

Renderings for nandi

Nandi has been called:

Nandi is spiritually fettering

We say nandi is ‘spiritually fettering’ for four reasons:

1) Through its association with saṁyojana (‘bond [to individual existence]’):

• Tethered [to individual existence] by the bond of spiritually fettering delight, Migajāla, a bhikkhu is called ‘one living with a partner.’

nandisaṁyojanasaṁyutto kho migajāla bhikkhu sadutiyavihārī ti vuccati. Taṇhā hissa dutiyā sāssa appahīnā tasmā sadutiya vihārīti vuccati. (SN iv 36)

2) Through its association with upadānaṁ (‘grasping’):

• Spiritually fettering delight in sense impression is grasping.

Yā vedanāsu nandī tadupadānaṁ. (MN i 266)

3) Through its association with saṁyojano (‘bond’):

• Spiritually fettering delight is the bond of the world [by which it is tethered to individual existence].

Nandi saṁyojano loko. (Snp 1109)

4) Through its association with rāgo (‘attachment’):

• When there is spiritually fettering delight, there is attachment.

nandiyā sati sārāgo hoti. (SN iv 36)

The objects of nandi

Spiritually fettering delight is usually associated with attractive objects, but sometimes with hostile attitudes, as follows:

• spiritually fettering delight in sensuous pleasure

• spiritually fettering delight in views

• spiritually fettering delight in individual existence

• spiritually fettering delight in ill will

• spiritually fettering delight in maliciousness

• spiritually fettering delight in the refined material states of awareness

• spiritually fettering delight in personal identity

Dhammanandi: in those who practise the teaching

Spiritually fettering delight has a righteous form, dhammanandi (righteous spiritually fettering delight) that occurs in those who practise the teaching, and, according to this quote, would be equivalent to clinging:

• Thus the teaching explained by me is comparable to a raft, being for the sake of crossing [the flood of suffering], not for the sake of clinging to it. When you know that the teaching explained by me is comparable to a raft, you should abandon even what is righteous, how much more so what is unrighteous.

evameva kho bhikkhave kullūpamo mayā dhammo desito nittharaṇatthāya no gahaṇatthāya. Kullūpamaṁ vo bhikkhave dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānantehi dhammā pi vo pahātabbā pageva adhammā. (MN i 135)

For example, see Illustrations below.

Nandati: not always unwholesome

The verb nandati is not always unwholesome. For example, though an unvirtuous bhikkhu rejoices (nandati) in schism, a sympathetic friend rejoices (nandati) in your good fortune.

Illustrations

Illustration: nandi, spiritually fettering delight

Whatever you know, above, below, across, and also in the middle, having thrust away spiritually fettering delight and attachment regarding these things, your stream of consciousness would not remain in existence.

Yaṁ kiñci sampajānāsi uddhaṁ adho tiriyañcāpi majjhe etesu nandiñca nivesanañca panujja viññāṇaṁ bhave na tiṭṭhe. (Snp 1055)

He takes delight in bodily form, welcomes it, and persists in cleaving to it.

rūpaṁ abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati

In so doing, spiritually fettering delight arises.

tassa rūpaṁ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandi

Spiritually fettering delight in bodily form is grasping.

Yā rūpe nandi tadupādānaṁ. (SN iii 14)

1) And how does one pursue the past? One thinks: ‘Such was my bodily form in the past, and thereby nurtures spiritually fettering delight.

Kathañca bhikkhave atītaṁ anvāgameti. Evaṁrūpo ahosiṁ atītamaddhānanti tattha nandiṁ samanvāneti. (MN iii 188)

2) How does one long for the future? One thinks: ‘May my bodily form be thus in the future, and thereby nurtures spiritually fettering delight.

Katañcānanda anāgataṁ paṭikaṅkhati. Evaṁrūpo siyaṁ anāgatamaddhānanti tattha nandiṁ samanvāneti. (MN iii 188)

What is the noble truth of the origin of suffering?

It is this craving that leads to renewed states of individual existence, accompanied by spiritually fettering delight and attachment, taking delight in this and that, namely craving for sensuous pleasure, craving for states of individual existence, and craving for the cessation of states of individual existence.

yāyaṁ taṇhā ponobhavikā nandirāgasahagatā tatra tatrābhinandinī seyyathīdaṁ kāmataṇhā bhavataṇhā vibhavataṇhā. Idaṁ vuccatāvuso dukkhasamudayo ariyasaccaṁ. (MN iii 251)

nandati

nandati: (main article see: nandi)

Illustration: nandati, rejoice

In this world he rejoices, having passed on he rejoices; the doer of meritorious deeds rejoices in both places. He rejoices in the thought of having done meritorious deeds. He further rejoices having gone to heaven.

Idha nandati pecca nandati katapuñño ubhayattha nandati;
Puññaṁ me katan ti nandati bhiyyo nandati sugatiṁ gato. (Dhp 18)

An enemy does not rejoice in an enemy’s

na bhikkhave sapatto sapattassa

(AN iv 94)

The sympathetic friend is seen as loyal in four ways

• he does not rejoice in your misfortune

abhavenassa na nandati

• he rejoices in your good fortune

An unvirtuous bhikkhu rejoices in schism in the community of bhikkhus

pāpabhikkhu saṅghabhedena nandati. (AN ii 240)

nandasi

nandasi: (main article see: nandi)

Illustration: nandasi, rejoice; nandi, spiritually fettering delight

• Do you rejoice, ascetic?

Nandasi samaṇā ti?

• Having gained what, friend?

Kiṁ laddhā āvuso ti?

• Well, do you grieve, then?

Tena hi samaṇa socasī ti?

• What is lost, friend?

Kiṁ jīyittha āvuso ti?

• Then do you neither rejoice nor grieve, ascetic?

Tena hi samaṇa neva nandasi neva socasī ti?

• That’s it, friend.

Evamāvuso ti.

• I hope you’re rid of spiritual defilement, bhikkhu; I hope no spiritually fettering delight is found in you; I hope when you sit alone that disgruntlement [with the celibate life] does not overwhelm you.

Kacci tvaṁ anigho bhikkhu kacci nandi na vijjati
Kacci taṁ ekamāsīnaṁ arati nābhikīratīti.

• Indeed, I am rid of spiritual defilement, deity; and no spiritually fettering delight is found in me. And when I am sitting alone, disgruntlement [with the celibate life] does not overwhelm me.

Anigho ve ahaṁ yakkha atho nandi na vijjati
Atho maṁ ekamāsīnaṁ arati nābhikīratīti. (SN i 54)

Comment:

If nandi is taken as unqualified ‘delight,’ as it usually is in translation, this would be hard to explain because the Buddha has said he takes delight in the woods (svāhaṁ vane nibbanatho visallo eko rame aratiṁ vippahāyā ti, SN i 180) and said that the wise man should be delighted in the woods (dhīro vanante ramito siyā, Snp 709-710). Venerable Revata said the bhikkhu who would illuminate the Gosinga Grove would be one who takes pleasure and delight in solitary retreat (paṭisallāṇārāmo hoti paṭisallāṇarato MN i 213). Taking delight in solitude (suññāgāre abhirati) is regarded as a supernormal attainment.

dhammanandiyā

dhammanandiyā: (main article see: nandi)

Illustration: dhammanandiyā, righteous spiritually fettering delight

Ānanda, what is the path and practice to abandon the five ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence?

Katamo cānanda maggo katamā paṭipadā pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ pahānāya?

A bhikkhu enters first jhāna; whatever of the khandhas there, he sees as aniccato dukkhato rogato gaṇḍato sallato aghato ābādhato parato palokato suññato anattato.

He averts his mind from those states.

So tehi dhammehi cittaṁ paṭivāpeti

and focuses his mind on the immortal phenomenon

so tehi dhammehi cittaṁ paṭivāpetvā amatāya dhātuyā cittaṁ upasaṁharati

“This is peaceful, this is sublime, namely the quelling of all originated phenomena, the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment, the destruction of craving, the passing away [of originated phenomena], the ending [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled.

etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhākkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānan ti.

Established therein, he attains the destruction of perceptually obscuring states.

So tattha ṭhito āsavānaṁ khayaṁ pāpuṇāti;

If he does not attain the destruction of perceptually obscuring states, then because of

• that righteous attachment,

• that righteous spiritually fettering delight

with the destruction of the five ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence, he arises spontaneously [in the higher planes of existence], there to attain nibbāna-without-residue, never to return from those worlds (anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā). (MN i 435-7, AN iv 421)

nandī

nandī: (main article see: nandi)

Illustration: nandī, spiritually fettering delight

Friends, there are these three types of sense impression. What three? Pleasant sense impression, unpleasant sense impression, and neutral sense impression. These three types of sense impression, friends, are unlasting; whatever is unlasting is intrinsically unsatisfactory. When this was understood, spiritually fettering delight in sense impression no longer remained present in me.’

tisso kho imā āvuso vedanā katamā tisso? Sukhā vedanā dukkhā vedanā adukkhamasukhā vedanā imā kho āvuso tisso vedanā aniccā. Yadaniccaṁ taṁ dukkhan ti viditaṁ. Yā vedanāsu nandī sā na upaṭṭhāsī ti. Evaṁ puṭṭhohaṁ bhante evaṁ vyākareyyanti. (SN ii 53)

nahātaka

Renderings

Introduction

Nahāta: externally bathed or spiritually cleansed

Nahāta can mean externally bathing, or spiritually cleansing:

• By one who has bathed and is getting out (of the water), way should be made for those who are getting into it.

Nahātena uttarantena otarantānaṁ maggo dātabbo. (Vin.2.220-1)

• One’s head washed

• Unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors are cleansed away

Nahātāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā. (MN i 280)

Nahāna, bath, external or inward

Nahāna can likewise be applied both externally and inwardly. When someone told Nandaka, the minister of the Licchavis: ‘It is time for your bath, sir’ (nahānakālo bhante ti) he replied:

• ‘Enough now, I say, with that external bath. This internal bath will suffice, namely, faith in the Blessed One.’

Alaṁ dāni bhaṇe etena bāhirena nahānena. Alamidaṁ ajjhattaṁ nahānaṁ bhavissati yadidaṁ bhagavati pasādo ti. (SN v 390)

Nahātaka: religious connotations

By comparison, nahātaka has only religious connotations, meaning ‘spiritually cleansed’ (Thi 251). The word is never applied to external cleansing, and it always implies arahantship.

Ninhāta and ninhāya: religious connotations

Likewise, ninhāta and ninhāya have only religious connotations. Ninhāta (adj.) is nis + nahāta, where nis means ‘the finishing, completion or vanishing of an action’ (PED sv ni). Ninhāya is not in PED, but it is equivalent to ninhāta, and linked to nahātaka:

1) Ninhāta:

• I have [now] cleansed away all demerit, I am free of [the three] spiritual stains, of purified conduct, pure.

Ninhātasabbapāpomhi nimmalo payato suci. (Tha 348)

2) Ninhāya:

• He has cleansed away all unvirtuous deeds in the whole world, both internally and externally. Amidst devas and men caught up in egocentric conception, he is not caught up in egocentric conception. They call him spiritually cleansed.

Ninhāya sabbapāpakāni ajjhattaṁ bahiddhā ca sabbaloke
Devamanussesu kappiyesu kappaṁ n’eti tamāhu nahātako ti. (Snp 521)

Illustrations

nahātako

nahātako: (main article see: nahātaka)

Illustration: nahātako, spiritually cleansed

And how is a bhikkhu spiritually cleansed?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu nahātako hoti?

Unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors that are defiling, and which lead to renewed states of individual existence, suffering, unpleasant karmic consequences, and future birth, old age, and death are cleansed away.

Nahātāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṅkilesikā ponobhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṁ jātijarāmaraṇīyā. (MN i 280)

Formerly I was Brahmā’s offspring, now I am a Brahman indeed,

Brahmabandhu pure āsiṁ so idānimhi brāhmaṇo

A master of the three final knowledges, fully versed in profound knowledge, one who is blessed with profound knowledge, spiritually cleansed.

Tevijjo sottiyo camhi vedagū camhi nahātako ti. (Thi 290)

Through the cleansing away of seven things a bhikkhu is spiritually cleansed.

Sattannaṁ bhikkhave dhammānaṁ nahātattā nahātako hoti

• the view of personal identity is cleansed away

sakkāyadiṭṭhi nahātā hoti

• doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] is cleansed away

vicikicchā nahātā hoti

• adherence to observances and practices is cleansed away

sīlabbataparāmāso nahāto hoti

• attachment is cleansed away

rāgo nahāto hoti

• hatred is cleansed away

doso nahāto hoti

• undiscernment of reality is cleansed away

moho nahāto hoti

• conceit is cleansed away

māno nahāto hoti. (AN iv 145)

nāccasārī na paccasārī

Renderings

Introduction

Accasārī and paccasārī: occurrence

Accasārī and paccasārī occur in Suttanipāta verses 8-13. Their meaning is unsettled.

Accasārī and paccasārī: meaning

Diṭṭhigata Sutta: oliyantī and atidhāvanti

Interpreting nāccasārī na paccasārī in the light of the Diṭṭhigata Sutta (Iti 43) produces a convincing result. The Diṭṭhigata Sutta opens like this:

• Through acquiescing in two wrong views [of reality], some devas and men hold back, and some overreach.

Dvīhi bhikkhave diṭṭhigatehi pariyuṭṭhitā devamanussā oliyantī eke atidhāvanti eke.

Thus the comparable verbs in the Diṭṭhigata Sutta are:

Diṭṭhigata Sutta: holding back

The Diṭṭhigata Sutta explains holding back, like this:

How do some hold back?

Kathañca bhikkhave oliyanti eke?

Devas and men find enjoyment, pleasure, and satisfaction in individual existence.

bhavārāmā bhikkhave devamanussā bhavaratā bhavasammuditā.

When the teaching is taught to them to put an end to individual existence, their minds do not become energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it.

tesaṁ bhavanirodhāya dhamme desiyamāne na cittaṁ pakkhandati na pasīdati na santiṭṭhati nādhimuccati. Evaṁ kho bhikkhave olīyanti eko. (Iti 44)

Diṭṭhigata Sutta: overreaching

The Diṭṭhigata Sutta explains overreaching, as follows:

How do some overreach?

Kathañca bhikkhave atidhāvanti eke?

Some people are revolted, appalled, and disgusted by individual existence.

bhaveneva kho paneke aṭṭiyamānā harāyamāsā jigucchamānā

They long for the cessation of individual existence

saying that ‘When that [absolute] Selfhood is annihilated, destroyed, and does not exist with the demise of the body at death, this is peaceful, this is sublime, this is reality.

yato kira bho ayaṁ attaṁ kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā ucchijjati vinassati na hoti parammaraṇā etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ etaṁ yathāvantī. (Iti 44)

Conclusion

If atisarati (‘to go too far’) and paṭisarati (‘to stay back’) are equivalent to atidhāvati (‘to overreach’) and oliyati (‘to hold back’), then the Diṭṭhigata Sutta shows accasārin and paccasārin have the following meaning:

  • Accasārin: longing for the cessation of individual existence
  • Paccasārin: being unintent upon the cessation of individual existence

Illustrations

Illustration: nāccasārī na paccasārī, neither longs for the cessation of individual existence nor is unintent upon it

The bhikkhu who neither longs for the cessation of individual existence nor is unintent upon it, and who has overcome this [wretched] entrenched perception, he sheds the [ties to individual existence in the] low plane of existence and the other planes beyond it, as a snake sheds its old, worn-out skin.

Yo nāccasārī na paccasārī sabbaṁ accagamā imaṁ papañcaṁ
So bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ urago jiṇṇamiva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. (Snp 8)

COMMENT:

Imaṁ papañcaṁ: ‘this [wretched] entrenched perception.’ See Glossary sv Papañca. ‘This’ (imaṁ) has ‘a touch of (often sarcastic) characterisation,’ says PED (sv Ayaṁ). DOP (sv Idaṁ) says: ‘such, like that (often implying contempt).’

The bhikkhu who neither longs for the cessation of individual existence nor is unintent upon it, knowing that everything in the world is untrue [to itself], he sheds the [ties to individual existence in the] low plane of existence and the other planes beyond it, as a snake sheds its old, worn-out skin.

Yo nāccasārī na paccasārī sabbaṁ vitathamidanti ñatvā loke
So bhikkhu jahāti orapāraṁ urago jiṇṇamiva tacaṁ purāṇaṁ. (Snp 9)

nāmarūpa

Renderings

Introduction

Nāma: name, countable noun

Nāma means ‘name’:

• Those people whose names are such-and-such are both seen and heard. But when he has died, only a person’s name will live on to be uttered.

Diṭṭhāpi sutāpi te janā yesaṁ nāmamidaṁ pavuccati
Nāmaṁyevāvasissati akkheyyaṁ petassa jantuno. (Snp 808)

• The name Nigrodhakappa was given to that Brahman by you, Blessed One.

Nigrodhakappo iti tassa nāmaṁ tayā kataṁ bhagavā brāhmaṇassa. (Snp 344)

Nāma: immaterial-factors, uncountable noun

Nāma can also mean ‘denomination’:

• What has conquered everything? What is the most extensive thing? What is the one thing that has everything under its control?

Kiṁsu sabbaṁ addhabhavi kismā bhiyyo na vijjati
Kissassa ekadhammassa sabbeva vasamanvagū ti

… Denomination has conquered everything. Denomination is the most extensive thing. Denomination is the one thing that has everything under its control.

nāmaṁ sabbaṁ addhabhavi nāmā bhiyyo na vijjati
Nāmassa ekadhammassa sabbeva vasamanvagū ti. (SN i 39)

Nāma cannot be called ‘name’ here (‘Name is the one thing that has all under its control’). The context requires an uncountable noun.

Nāmarūpam

In nāmarūpam, nāma is defined like this:

• Sense impression, perception, intentional effort, sensation, and the paying of attention, are called nāmaṁ.

Vedanā saññā cetanā phasso manasikāro idaṁ vuccatāvuso nāmaṁ. (MN i 53)

Translators usually call these five factors ‘name,’ which is unfitting. We call the group ‘immaterial factors.’

Illustrations

nāmarūpaṁ

nāmarūpaṁ: (main article see: nāmarūpa)

Illustration: nāmarūpaṁ, immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form

And what is immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form, what is the origination of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form, what is the ending of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form, what is the practice leading to the ending of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form?

Katamaṁ panāvuso nāmarūpaṁ? Katamo nāmarūpasamudayo? Katamo nāmarūpanirodho? Katamā nāmarūpanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ti?.

• Sense impression, perception, intentional effort, sensation, and the paying of attention, are called ‘immaterial-factors.’

Vedanā saññā cetanā phasso manasikāro idaṁ vuccatāvuso nāmaṁ

• The four great material phenomena and any bodily form derived from the four great material phenomena: this is called bodily form

Cattāri ca mahābhūtāni catunnañca mahābhūtānaṁ upādāya rūpaṁ.

• These immaterial factors and this bodily form are called immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form.

Idañca nāmaṁ idañca rūpaṁ idaṁ vuccatāvuso nāmarūpaṁ.

• With the origination of the stream of consciousness comes the origination of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form.

• With the ending of the stream of consciousness comes the ending of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form.

• The practice leading to the ending of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form is the noble eightfold path.

ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo nāmarūpanirodhagāminī paṭipadā. (MN i 53)

When there is what, does immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form arise? What is immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form dependent on?

kimhi nu kho sati nāmarūpaṁ hoti. Kiṁ paccayā nāmarūpan ti.

Then through proper contemplation, there took place in me a realisation through penetrative discernment

Tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo ti

When there is the stream of consciousness, immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form arises. Immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form arises dependent on the stream of consciousness.

viññāṇe kho sati nāmarūpaṁ hoti viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpan ti

“Then it occurred to me:

tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave etadahosi

When there is what, does the stream of consciousness arise? What is the stream of consciousness dependent on?

kimhi nu kho sati viññāṇaṁ hoti. Kiṁ paccayā viññāṇan ti.

Then through proper contemplation, there took place in me a realisation through penetrative discernment

Tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:

When there is immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form, the stream of consciousness arises. The stream of consciousness arises dependent on immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form.

nāmarūpe kho sati viññāṇaṁ hoti nāmarūpapaccayā viññāṇan ti

Then it occurred to me:

tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave etadahosi

The stream of consciousness turns back at immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form; it does not go further.

paccudāvattati kho idaṁ viññāṇaṁ nāmarūpamhā nāparaṁ gacchati

On account of this one can be born, age and die, pass away and be reborn,

Ettāvatā jāyetha vā jīyetha vā mīyetha vā cavetha vā upapajjetha vā

Namely through the stream of consciousness being dependent on immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form; and immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form being dependent on the stream of consciousness.

yadidaṁ nāmarūpapaccayā viññāṇaṁ viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ. (SN ii 104)

nikanti

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: nikanti, hankering

The ascetic undertakes austerities, hankering for gains, honour, and renown

tapassī tapaṁ samādiyati lābhasakkārasilokanikantihetu. (DN iii 44)

I have no fear of death and no hankering for life.

maraṇe me bhayaṁ natthi nikanti natthi jīvite. (Tha 20)

nikantiyā

nikantiyā: (main article see: nikanti)

Illustration: nikantiyā, hankering

If a bhikkhu’s mind is imbued with the perception of [the ever-present possibility of] death, his mind draws back, bends back, and turns away from the hankering for life, and is not attracted to it, and either indifference or loathing is established in him.

Maraṇasaññā paricitena bhikkhave bhikkhuno cetasā bahulaṁ viharato jīvitanikantiyā cittaṁ patilīyati patikuṭati pativaṭṭati na sampasārīyati upekkhā vā paṭikkūlyatā vā saṇṭhāti. (AN iv 48)

niketa

Renderings

Introduction

Permanent abodes

The Buddha was critical of permanent abodes, called niketā:

• Permanent abodes breed spiritual defilement.

niketā jāyate rajo. (Snp 207)

• The mindful exert themselves. They take no delight in permanent abodes. They abandon one home after another like geese leaving a lake.

Uyyuñjanti satimanto na nikete ramanti te
Haṁsā va pallalaṁ hitvā okamokaṁ jahanti te. (Dhp 91)

• The bhikkhus abide like deer, free of bondage [to individual existence], and with no permanent abodes.

Migā viya asaṅgacārino aniketā viharanti bhikkhavo ti. (SN i 199)

Illustrations

Illustration: niketa, permanent abode

How does one wander with a permanent abode?

Kathañca gahapati niketasārī hoti

One is called ‘one who wanders with a permanent abode’ through dwelling with, pursuing, and emotional bondage to the phantasm of a visible object.

rūpanimittaniketavisāravinibandhā kho gahapati niketasārīti vuccati. (SN iii 10)

How does one wander without a permanent abode?

Kathañca gahapati aniketasārī hoti.

The abiding with, pursuing, and emotional bondage to the phantasm of visible objects has been abandoned by the Perfect One, chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, never to arise again in future. Therefore the Perfect One is called one who wanders without a permanent abode.

rūpanimittaniketavisāravinibandhā kho gahapati tathāgatassa pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā. Tasmā tathāgato aniketasārīti vuccati. (SN iii 10)

Comment:

PED says visāra is ‘spreading, diffusion, scattering,’ which does not fit here. We therefore take the meaning of visāra from sara because both stem from the root sṛ. The meaning of sarati is ‘to go, flow, run, move along.’ Sara is ‘going, moving, following’ (PED).

Illustration: niketa, home

The black crow dwelling [and feasting] in its home in the charnel ground.

Apaṇḍaro aṇḍasambhavo sīvathikāya niketacāriko. (Tha 599)

aniketā

aniketā: (main article see: niketa)

Illustration: aniketā, with no permanent abodes

The bhikkhus abide like deer, free of bondage [to individual existence], and with no permanent abodes.

Migā viya asaṅgacārino aniketā viharanti bhikkhavo ti. (SN i 199)

aniketa

aniketa: (main article see: niketa)

Illustration: aniketa, with no permanent abode

Abiding with no permanent abode is always excellent.

Sādhu sadā aniketavihāro. (Tha 36)

With home-life abandoned, wandering with no permanent abode, the sage does not create intimate relationships in the village.

Okaṁ pahāya aniketasārī gāme akubbaṁ muni santhavāni. (Snp 844)

‘What will I eat [tomorrow]?’ ‘Where will I eat [tomorrow]?’ ‘How uncomfortably I slept [last night]!’ ‘Where will I sleep tonight?’ The disciple in training wandering with no permanent abode should eliminate such lamentable thoughts.

Kiṁsū asissāmi kuvaṁ vā asissaṁ dukkhaṁ vata settha kvajja sessaṁ
Ete vitakke paridevaneyye vinayetha sekho aniketacārī. (Snp 970)

niketā

niketā: (main article see: niketa)

Illustration: niketā, permanent abode

Intimate relationships breed fear. Permanent abodes breed spiritual defilement.

Santhavāto bhayaṁ jātaṁ niketā jāyate rajo. (Snp 207)

niketaṁ

niketaṁ: (main article see: niketa)

Illustration: niketaṁ, abode

In whatever former birth, former state of individual existence, former abode, that the Perfect One was a human being, he abandoned malicious speech.

Yampi bhikkhave tathāgato purimaṁ jātiṁ purimaṁ bhavaṁ purimaṁ niketaṁ pubbe manussabhūto samāno pisuṇaṁ vācaṁ pahāya. (DN iii 171)

niketino

niketino: (main article see: niketa)

Illustration: niketino, dwelling

Straight ahead in that direction, king, there is a people on the flank of the Himalayas endowed with wealth and energy, dwelling amongst the Kosalan people.

Ujuṁ janapado rāja himavantassa passato
Dhanaviriyena sampanno kosalesu niketino. (Snp 422)

nicchāta

Renderings

Introduction

Chāta: hungry

Chāta means hungry. For example, ‘hungry dog’ (chātā sunakhaṁ Tha 509).

Nicchātā: free of hunger

Nicchātā can mean ‘free of physical hunger’ (nis + chātā, PED):

• One who is free of the hunger that is due to desire

Sa ve icchāya nicchāto. (Snp 707)

Nicchātā: free of craving

Nicchātā can also mean arahantship (bhikkhu nicchāto parinibbuto ti, Iti 48). Here the commentary says nicchāto means nittaṇho. Bodhi calls it ‘hungerless.’ When Norman follows the commentary he calls it ‘without craving’; otherwise, ‘without hunger’:

• Hungerless and quenched

nicchātā nibbutā. (Bodhi, AN iv 411. Commentary: Nicchātā ti taṇhādiṭṭhicchātānaṁ abhāvena nicchātā)

• Free from hunger, fully quenched

nicchāto parinibbuto. (Bodhi, SN iii 26.) Commentary: Nicchāto ti nittaṇho

• Without craving, quenched.

nicchāto parinibbuto. (Norman, Snp 735. Commentary: Nicchāto ti nittaṇho)

• Without hunger, stilled.

nicchātā upasantā carissasī ti. (Norman, Thi 168. Commentary: Nicchātā ti nittaṇhā.)

Nicchāto ti nittaṇho: on favouring the commentary

We follow the commentary in connecting nicchāto and nittaṇho because the suttas also link the words:

• Having removed [the arrow of] craving together with its origin, one is free of craving.

samūlaṁ taṇhaṁ abbuyha nicchāto. (SN iii 26. Commentary: Nicchāto ti nittaṇho)

• Today I have the arrow [of craving] removed. I am free of craving.

Sājja abbūḷhasallāhaṁ nicchātā. (Thi 53)

Commentary: Sājja abbūḷhasallāhan ti sā ahaṁ ajja sabbaso uddhaṭataṇhāsallā tato eva nicchātā

Illustrations

nicchātā

nicchātā: (main article see: nicchāta)

Illustration: nicchātā, free of craving

Where sensuous pleasures cease, and those who have put an end to sensuous pleasures abide, surely those Venerables are free of craving. They have realised the Untroubled.

Yattha kāmā nirujjhanti ye ca kāme nirodhetvā nirodhetvā viharanti addhā te āyasmanto nicchātā nibbutā. (AN iv 411)

Commentary: Nicchātā ti taṇhādiṭṭhicchātānaṁ abhāvena nicchātā.

In this very lifetime you will live the religious life free of craving, inwardly at peace.

Diṭṭheva dhamme nicchātā upasantā carissasī ti. (Thi 168)

Commentary: Nicchātā ti nittaṇhā.

nicchāto

nicchāto: (main article see: nicchāta)

Illustration: nicchāto, free of craving

By the subsiding of the stream of consciousness, a bhikkhu is free of craving. He has realised the Untroubled.

viññāṇupasamā bhikkhu nicchāto parinibbuto ti. (Snp 735)

Commentary: Nicchāto ti nittaṇho

For one who is free of craving, inwardly at peace, freed from inward distress, I make known the realisation of the Untroubled through having no grasping in this very lifetime.

diṭṭheva dhamme nicchāto nibbuto sītibhūto anupādā parinibbānaṁ paññāpemī ti. (AN v 65)

nidāna

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: nidāna, basis

What is the basis for the arising of sensuous yearnings?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kāmānaṁ nidānasambhavo:

Sensation is the basis for the arising of sensuous yearnings

phasso bhikkhave kāmānaṁ nidānasambhavo. (AN iii 411)

nidānaṁ

nidānaṁ: (main article see: nidāna)

Illustration: nidānaṁ, reason

For whatever the reason

that entrenched perception and conception assail a man

purisaṁ papañcasaññāsaṅkhā samudācaranti

if there is found nothing there to be delighted in, welcomed, or clung to

ettha ce natthi abhinanditabbaṁ abhivaditabbaṁ ajjhositabbaṁ

this is the end of the proclivity to attachment

Illustration: nidānaṁ, basis

Envy and stinginess have what is agreeable and disagreeable as their basis and origin. They are generated and produced by what is agreeable and disagreeable.

Issāmacchariyaṁ kho devānaminda piyāppiyanidānaṁ piyāppiyasamudayaṁ piyāppiyajātikaṁ piyāppiyapabhavaṁ. (DN ii 277)

How could anyone incline to sensuous pleasures who sees the basis of suffering?

Yo dukkhamaddakkhi yato nidānaṁ kāmesu so jantu kathaṁ nameyya. (SN i 117)

Illustration: nidānaṁ, due to

Conduct produced from, born of, due to, originated by greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality is spiritually unwholesome.

Yaṁ bhikkhave lobho… doso… mohapakataṁ kammaṁ mohajaṁ mohanidānaṁ mohasamudayaṁ taṁ kammaṁ akusalaṁ. (AN i 263)

On account of sensuous pleasures, due to sensuous pleasures, as a consequence of sensuous pleasures, simply on account of sensuous pleasures,

kāmahetu kāmanidānaṁ kāmādhikaraṇaṁ kāmānameva hetu

they misconduct themselves by way of body, speech, and mind.

kāyena… vācāya… manasā duccaritaṁ caranti. (MN i 87)

We are now experiencing painful, racking, piercing sense impression because of sensuous pleasure, due to sensuous pleasure.

imehi mayaṁ kāmahetu kāmanidānaṁ dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vediyāmā ti. (MN i 305-6)

Illustration: nidānaṁ, on account of it

Having had that pile of gold coins and bullion loaded onto carts and carried away, you should have it dumped midstream in the river Ganges. For what reason? Because, householder, grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation will surely arise on account of it.

imaṁ hiraññasuvaṇṇassa puñjaṁ sakaṭesu āropetvā nibbāhāpetvā majjhegaṅgāya nadiyā sote osīdāpeyyāsi. Taṁ kissa hetu? Uppajjissanti hi te gahapati tatonidānaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā ti. (MN ii 64)

Illustration: nidānaṁ, on that account

If a man seeking an entrance to hidden treasure suddenly discovers five entrances, elation would arise in him on that account.

Seyyathā pi anuruddhā puriso ekaṁ nidhimukhaṁ gavesanto sakideva pañcanidhimukhāni adhigaccheyya tassa tatonidānaṁ ubbillaṁ uppajjeyya. (MN iii 159)

Suddenly, without reflecting, he would drink the beverage, he would not reject it, and on that account he would meet with death or deadly pain.

So taṁ pānīyakaṁsaṁ sahasā apaṭisaṅkhā piveyya na paṭinissajjeyya so tatonidānaṁ maraṇaṁ vā nigaccheyya maraṇamattaṁ vā dukkhaṁ. (SN ii 110)

nidānā

nidānā: (main article see: nidāna)

Illustration: nidānā, basis

Countless kinds of suffering arise in the world with attachment as their basis.

Upadhinidānā pabhavanti dukkhā ye keci lokasmiṁ anekarūpā. (Snp 1050)

Illustration: nidānā, on that account

For one who engages in wrongful bodily conduct, it is impossible, out of the question, that at death he would arise in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds on that account, for that reason.

Aṭṭhānametaṁ anavakāso yaṁ kāyaduccaritasamaṅgī tannidānā tappaccayā kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ uppajjeyya netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjatī ti. (MN iii 66)

nidāno

nidāno: (main article see: nidāna)

Illustration: nidāno, basis

Attachment has craving as its basis, craving as its origin; it is generated and produced by craving.

upadhi taṇhānidāno taṇhāsamudayo taṇhājātiko taṇhāpabhavo

When there is craving, attachment arises. Without craving, attachment does not arise.

taṇhāya sati upadhi hoti taṇhāya asati upadhi na hotī ti. (SN ii 108)

Illustration: nidāno, source

Where is the source of attachment and hatred?

Rāgo ca doso ca kutonidānā

The source of attachment and hatred is here, [in oneself].

Rāgo ca doso ca itonidāno. (Snp 271-2)

Norman: ‘from this [body] passion and hatred have their origin.’

nidānāni

nidānāni: (main article see: nidāna)

Illustration: nidānāni, bases; nidānaṁ, due to

Greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality are bases for the arising of karmically consequential deeds.

lobho… doso… moho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya.

Karmically consequential conduct produced from greed, born of greed, due to greed, originated by greed bears fruit wherever the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs.

Yaṁ bhikkhave lobhapakataṁ kammaṁ lobhajaṁ lobhanidānaṁ lobhasamudayaṁ yatthassa attabhāvo nibbattati tattha taṁ kammaṁ vipaccati. (AN i 134)

nindā

Renderings

Introduction

Nindā: criticism not blame

Praise and blame are wrongfully used as opposites in English, where praise’s opposite is in fact criticism. The problem is so deeply ingrained that ‘blameworthy’ actually means ‘worthy of criticism,’ and ‘blameless’ means ‘not worthy of criticism.’ To understand ninda, we will first discuss the difference between blame and criticism:

  • Blame answers the question: ‘Who or what is responsible for something bad?’ It involves no should’s or shouldn’ts.
  • Criticism means saying something should have been better, or should or shouldn’t have happened, or be the way it is.

Criticism and blame: illustration

We might either blame the cook (tell him he was responsible), or criticise him (tell him he should have been better). And though we criticise the food (it should have been better), we do not blame it, because it was not responsible.

Considering the Illustrations

Now let us consider the Illustrations to be presented below:

  • 1) When the bhikkhu Kokālika accused bhikkhus of unvirtuous desires (SN i 150), he was saying they should have been better. Therefore he was criticising them. But he was not holding them responsible, so it was not a matter of blame.
  • 2) When in Dhammapada verse 227 a bhikkhu talked too much, people complained. He should have been better. So it is criticism. And although the bhikkhu’s speech could be criticised (it should have been better) it cannot be blamed, because it was not responsible.
  • 3) In Dhammapada verse 309, a man commits adultery. If people criticise him, they would be saying he should not have done it. But if her character is ruined, they could blame him, because he was responsible.

No Pāli word for blame

There is no Pāli word for ‘to blame.’ Buddhadatta’s English to Pāli Dictionary gives three words for blame: upavadati, codeti and nindati. These all in fact mean ‘to criticise’ or ‘to reprove’:

• If a bhikkhu does not fulfil the training in virtue, the Teacher criticises (upavadati) him, his discerning wise companions in the religious life criticise him, the devas criticise him, and he himself even criticises himself.

satthāpi upavadati. Anuvicca pi viññū sabrahmacārī upavadanti. Devatāpi upavadanti. Attāpi attānaṁ upavadati. (MN i 440)

• If a bhikkhu is wanting to reprove another (codetu), having contemplated five principles within himself he may do so:

Codakenupāli bhikkhunā paraṁ codetukāmena pañca dhamme ajjhattaṁ manasikaritvā paro codetabbo. (Vin.2.250)

Illustrations

Illustration: nindā, criticism

Eight worldly conditions whirl around the world [of beings], and the world [of beings] whirls around eight worldly conditions, namely: acquisition and loss, imprestige and prestige, criticism and praise, pleasure and pain.

aṭṭha lokadhammā lokaṁ anuparivattanti loko ca aṭṭha lokadhamme anuparivattati: lābho ca alābho ca ayaso ca yaso ca nindā ca pasaṁsā ca sukhañca dukkhañcā ti. (AN ii 188)

nindiyaṁ

nindiyaṁ: (main article see: nindā)

Illustration: nindiyaṁ, criticism

The bhikkhu Kokālika was reborn in hell for repeatedly criticising Venerables Sāriputta and Moggallāna as follows:

• ’Bhante, Sāriputta and Moggallāna have unvirtuous desires and are dominated by unvirtuous desires.’

pāpicchā bhante sāriputtamoggallānā pāpikānaṁ icchānaṁ vasaṅgatā ti.

The Buddha later reflected:

• ’He who praises one deserving criticism, or criticises one deserving praise, accumulates demerit with his mouth, by which he finds no happiness.

Yo nindiyaṁ pasaṁsati taṁ vā nindati yo pasaṁsiyo
Vicināti mukhena so kaliṁ kalinā tena sukhaṁ na vindati. (SN i 150-153)

aninditā

aninditā: (main article see: nindā)

Illustration: aninditā, beyond criticism

Having eliminated the stain of stinginess together with its origin, they are beyond criticism.

Vineyya maccheramalaṁ samūlaṁ aninditā. (AN ii 63)

nindanti

nindanti: (main article see: nindā)

Illustration: nindanti, criticise; anindito, beyond criticism

[People] criticise one who sits silently. They criticise one who speaks a lot. They even criticise one who speaks moderately. There is no one beyond criticism in the world.

Nindanti tuṇhimāsīnaṁ nindanti bahubhāṇinaṁ
Mitabhāṇimpi nindanti natthi loke anindito. (Dhp 227)

nindaṁ

nindaṁ: (main article see: nindā)

Illustration: nindaṁ, criticism

The man negligently applied [to the practice] who pursues another’s wife meets with four states: the accumulation of demerit; insomnia; thirdly, criticism; fourthly, hell.

Cattāri ṭhānāni naro pamatto āpajjati paradārūpasevī
Apuññalābhaṁ na nikāmaseyyaṁ nindaṁ tatiyaṁ nirayaṁ catutthaṁ. (Dhp 309)

nindāya

nindāya: (main article see: nindā)

Illustration: nindāya, criticism

In the midst of the assembly, engaged in dispute, [each] is desirous of praise, but anxious about the outcome. If his argument is refuted he becomes downcast. Shaken by criticism, he seeks his opponent’s weak spots.

Yutto kathāyaṁ parisāya majjhe pasaṁsamicchaṁ vinighātī hoti
Apāhatasmiṁ pana maṅku hoti nindāya so kuppati randhamesi. (Snp 826)

nipaka

Renderings

Introduction

The problem of nipaka

The meaning of nipaka is unsettled. Translators render it as follows:

Nepakka (nipaka’s noun) is a quality that a good bhikkhu is keen to develop (satinepakke tibbacchando hoti, DN iii 253). Although ‘discernment’ would fit well here as a quality to strive for, could a bhikkhu be fittingly described as eager to develop zeal, or alertness, or intelligence?

Not discernment

Developing the quality of nipaka is considered part of ethical conduct, together with sato (sato ca nipako ca. Etadānuttariyaṁ bhante purisasīlasamācāre DN iii 107). This counts against nipaka being ‘discerning,’ which is part of penetrative discernment not ethical conduct―although this is somewhat unclear in the scriptures, because of the division changes. For example, the Mahāsīhanāda Sutta would place discernment under paññāsampadā (DN i 174), and sato not under sīlasampadā (DN i 172), but under cittasampadā (DN i 173). But nonetheless, the point is clear: however the factors are divided, nipaka is not part of paññā, so it is not discernment.

Nipaka and sati

Nipaka and nepakka are repeatedly linked to sati. For example:

  • ‘There are bhikkhus who are nipakā nipakavuttino who abide with their minds well established in the [contemplation of the] four bases of mindfulness’ (nipakā nipakavuttino te catusu satipaṭṭhānesu sūpaṭṭhitacittā viharanti MN i 339). Nipakā is therefore a quality of those who practise satipaṭṭhāna.
  • ‘A bhikkhu is mindful. He is possessed of paramount mindfulness and nepakka’ (bhikkhu satimā hoti paramena satinepakkena samannāgato DN iii 267). Here, nepakka is part of satimā hoti.

This suggests that sati and nepakka both mean ‘mindfulness,’ though when the words occur together, we call nepakka ‘awareness’ and nipaka ‘aware.’

Adjective for conduct

Finding the correct word for nipaka is again challenged where it is used as an adjective for ‘conduct.’ Here, ‘mindful’ seems the only way to resolve the translation:

• There are, Kandaraka, bhikkhus in this community of bhikkhus who are disciples in training whose virtue is consistent, whose conduct is consistent, who are mindful, whose conduct is mindful. They abide with their minds well established in the [contemplation of the] four bases of mindfulness.

Santi pana kandaraka bhikkhū imasmiṁ bhikkhusaṅghe sekhā santatasīlā santatavuttino nipakā nipakavuttino. Te catusu satipaṭṭhānesu sūpaṭṭhitacittā viharanti. (MN i 339)

Illustrations

Illustration: nipaka, aware

Come on, friend, abide with sense portals guarded [by mindfulness]. Take mindfulness as your supervisor. Be aware and mindful, and have a mind that is supervised [by mindfulness], a mind under the supervision of mindfulness.

Etha tumhe āvuso indriyesu guttadvārā viharatha ārakkhasatino nipakkasatino sārakkhitamānasā satārakkhena cetasā samannāgatāti. (AN iii 138)

nipako

nipako: (main article see: nipaka)

Illustration: nipako, aware

One who is proficient [in discerning] the telltale signs of the mind, and who knows the sweetness of physical seclusion, being meditative, aware, and mindful, can attain unworldly pleasure.

Cittanimittassa kovido pavivekarasaṁ vijāniya
Jhāyaṁ nipako patissato adhigaccheyya sukhaṁ nirāmisan ti. (Tha 85)

Therefore vigorously apply yourself [to the practice]. Be aware and mindful right here and now. Having heard my word, train yourself in the quenching of the ego.

Tenahātappaṁ karohi idheva nipako sato
Ito sutvāna nigghosaṁ sikkhe nibbānamattano. (Snp 1062)

Abandoning the five hindrances, ever energetic, he enters the jhānas. His mind is concentrated. He is aware and mindful.

Pañcanīvaraṇe hitvā niccaṁ āraddhaviriyo
Jhānāni upasampajja ekodi nipako sato. (AN iii 354)

Illustration: nipako, mindful

One who is not vain or puffed up, who is mindful, whose sense faculties are restrained [from grasping, through mindfulness], looks glorious in rag-robes. He is like a lion in a mountain cave.

Anuddhato acapalo nipako saṁvutindriyo
Sobhati paṁsukūlena sīho va girigabbhare. (Tha 1081)

nipakā

nipakā: (main article see: nipaka)

Illustration: nipakā, aware

Those of peaceful minds, who are aware, mindful, and meditative, rightly see the nature of reality, and long not for sensuous pleasures.

Ye santacittā nipakā satimanto ca jhāyinoSammā dhammaṁ vipassanti kāmesu anapekkhino. (Iti 39)

Illustration: nipakā, mindful

Thus living in unity, being mindful, you will put an end to suffering.

Tato samaggā nipakā dukkhassantaṁ karissathā ti. (Snp 283; AN iv 172)

There are, Kandaraka, bhikkhus in this community of bhikkhus who are disciples in training whose virtue is consistent, whose conduct is consistent, who are mindful, whose conduct is mindful. They abide with their minds well established in the [contemplation of the] four bases of mindfulness.

Santi pana kandaraka bhikkhū imasmiṁ bhikkhusaṅghe sekhā santatasīlā santatavuttino nipakā nipakavuttino. Te catusu satipaṭṭhānesu sūpaṭṭhitacittā viharanti. (MN i 339)

nepakkena

nepakkena: (main article see: nipaka)

Illustration: nepakkena, awareness

A bhikkhu is mindful. He is possessed of paramount mindfulness and awareness. He recalls and recollects what was done and said long ago.

Puna ca paraṁ āvuso bhikkhu satimā hoti paramena satinepakkena samannāgato cirakatampi cirabhāsitampi saritā anussaritā. (DN iii 267)

In this regard a bhikkhu is keenly eager to develop mindfulness and awareness and his dedication to this does not dwindle away in the course of time

Satinepakke tibbacchando hoti āyatiñca satinepakke avigatapemo. (DN iii 253)

nipakassa

nipakassa: (main article see: nipaka)

Illustration: nipakassa, mindful

For one whose āsavas are destroyed, who is mindful and meditative, having reached the end of birth and death, he does not strain for he has reached the Far Shore.

khīṇāsavassa nipakassa jhāyino
Pappuyya jātimaraṇassa antaṁ nāyūhati pāragato hi soti. (SN i 48)

nipakaṁ

nipakaṁ: (main article see: nipaka)

Illustration: nipakaṁ, mindful

If one should find a mindful companion, a wise comrade of good disposition, then, overcoming all adversities, pleased and mindful, one should live the religious life with him.

Sace labhetha nipakaṁ sahāyaṁ saddhiṁ caraṁ sādhuvihāriṁ dhīraṁ
Abhibhuyya sabbāni parissayāni careyya tenattamano satimā. (Snp 45; MN iii 154; Dhp 328; Vin.1.350)

nibbāna

Renderings

Introduction

Nibbāna: not beyond words

To ask whether nibbāna is either something or nothing is a question outside the range of conception (appapañcaṁ papañceti) (AN ii 161). But although nibbāna is beyond conception, it is clearly not beyond words, as is proven by its many epithets.

Nibbāna: the via negativa

Nibbāna can be named in positive terms, ‘what it is,’ the via positiva; or in negative terms, ‘what it is not,’ the via negativa. For example, consider the list of thirty-three epithets at SN iv 368-373. The positives are, for example, the Peaceful (santañca), the Sublime (paṇītañca), the Auspicious (sivañca). The negatives are, for example, the Unoriginated (asaṅkhatañca), the Uninclined (anatañca), freedom from perceptual obscuration (anāsavañca).

But if nibbāna is beyond conception, and therefore unapproachable by the via positiva, we would not have expected this list to include positives, except on one condition: that the positives are concealed negatives. That is, we call nibbāna ‘peaceful’ but mean ‘free of unpeacefulness’; ‘sublime’ but mean ‘free of unsublimeness’; ‘auspicious’ but mean ‘free of inauspiciousness.’ And so on.

Nibbuto: etymology

Nibbuto is two words represented in Sanskrit by nivṛta, quenched, and nirvṛta, motionless, both past participles of vṛ (PED). Thus nibbuto is the extinguishing of fire and also the spiritual quality of an arahant:

• the fire is extinguished

• I am inwardly at peace

nibbuto’ham. (MN ii 237)

Nibbuto means peace not quenching

The two meanings, ‘extinguished’ and ‘inwardly at peace’, are ‘used promiscuously in the one word because of their semantic affinity,’ says PED. Thus, referring to the arahant, nibbuto is sometimes wrongly called ‘quenched’ but the scriptures do not support this. They do not say, for instance, that in arahantship rāgadosamoha or the āsavas are quenched. The Buddha said one should know nibbuto as peace (santī ti nibbutiṁ ñatvā Snp 933) and other suttas support this, linking nibbuto to peaceful qualities, for example:

• inwardly at peace, freed from inward distress

• I obtain inward calm and inward peace

labhāmi paccattaṁ samathaṁ labhāmi paccattaṁ nibbutin ti. (MN i 323)

• Knowing inward peace as Peace

santī ti nibbutiṁ ñatvā. (Snp 933)

Likewise, nibbuto is contrasted with unpeaceful qualities, for example:

• inwardly at peace amidst the violent

• Inwardly at peace amidst those who are tormented [by spiritual defilement]

Therefore in the context of arahantship nibbuto means peace. Our term for this is ‘inwardly at peace’ (adjective) or ‘inward peace’ (nibbuti, noun).

Nibbāna and quenching

Nibbāna shares the vṛ root, and therefore like nibbuto, has two meanings: quenching and the Untroubled.

• the quenching of a lamp

• one who has realised the Untroubled.

The confusion between meanings is made more probable when the scriptures compare the attainment of arahantship (vimokkho) to the quenching (nibbāna) of a flame. For example, the bhikkhunī Paṭācārā said:

• The deliverance of my mind was like the quenching of the lamp.

padīpasseva nibbānaṁ vimokkho ahu cetaso. (Thi 116)

But arahantship does not involve anything being quenched. The nibbāna of arahantship is repeatedly linked elsewhere to ‘destruction.’ For example:

• With the destruction of all forms of craving comes the complete passing away and ending [of originated phenomena], nibbāna

sabbaso taṇhānaṁ khayā asesavirāganirodho nibbānaṁ. (Uda 32-3)

• The destruction of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality: this is called nibbāna.

rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo idaṁ vuccati nibbānan ti. (SN iv 251)

Nibbāna, peace and the Untroubled

Our rendering of nibbāna as ‘the Untroubled’ stems firstly from its relationship to our rendering for nibbuto (‘inwardly at peace’), and secondly from the Attadīpa Sutta (SN iii 43) and the Bhaddāli Sutta (MN i 446). Bodhi translates the Bhaddāli Sutta like this:

• ‘Suppose a horse trainer obtains a fine thoroughbred colt. He first makes him used to wearing the bit. While the colt is being made to get used to wearing the bit, because he is doing something that he has never done before, he displays some writhing, scuffling and trembling, but through constant repetition and gradual practice, he becomes peaceful in that action (so abhiṇhakāraṇā anupubbakāraṇā tasmiṁ ṭhāne parinibbāyati)’. (Bodhi, SN iii 43)

Bodhi says ‘the verb used here is the verbal form of parinibbāna and could be literally, though erroneously, translated, “He attains final Nibbāna in that action” (MLDB n.668). Although ‘peaceful’ indeed suits the context, the via negativist would say ‘untroubled.’

In the Attadīpa Sutta (SN iii 43) a bhikkhu accepts the changeable nature of the five aggregates, and so is not agitated when they change. Therefore he abides happily. The text says sukhaṁ viharaṁ bhikkhu tadaṅganibbuto ti vuccati: ‘a bhikkhu who abides happily is said to be untroubled in that respect,’ meaning with respect to the change of the aggregates. Bodhi, however, says (CDB p.883) ‘a bhikkhu who abides happily is said to be quenched in that respect.’ In the note to this (CDB p.1055 n.56) he says the phrase might have been rendered ‘“one who has attained Nibbāna in that respect” i.e. only in regards to a particular freedom.’ But if he had used ‘peaceful,’ as he did at MN i 446, his translation would have read more naturally: ‘a bhikkhu who abides happily is said to be peaceful in that respect,’ and this would have once again supported our ‘untroubled.’

Two aspects of nibbāna

The scriptures distinguish two aspects of nibbāna:

1) the Untroubled-with-residue saupādisesā nibbānadhātu

2) the Untroubled-without-residue anupādisesā nibbānadhātu

1) The Untroubled-with-residue involves the destruction of rāgadosamoha by the living arahant (tassa yo rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo ayam vuccati saupādisesā nibbānadhātu). Being ’with residue’ means the arahant has unperished sense faculties and therefore continues to experience what is pleasing and displeasing, both pleasure and pain (pañcindriyāni yesaṁ avighātattā manāpāmanāpaṁ paccanubhoti sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti) (Iti 38).

2) The Untroubled-without-residue refers to the passing away of the arahant, for whom sense impression ceases (tassa idheva bhikkhave sabbavedayitāni anabhinanditāni sītibhavissanti), who utterly abandons all modes of being (pahaṁsu te sabbabhavāni tādino, Iti 38- 9).

The Untroubled-without-residue is sometimes called ‘final nibbāna,’ but the idea that the nibbāna at death is somehow more ‘final’ than the Untroubled-with-residue has no support in the scriptures.

Nibbāna and parinibbāna

Parinibbāna is sometimes considered to be the nibbāna attained by the arahant at death, but the scriptures do not support this. For example, consider these passages:

1) I make known the realisation of the Untroubled (parinibbānaṁ) through having no grasping in this very lifetime.

diṭṭheva dhamme… anupādā paññāpemī
ti. (AN v 65)

2) He who has realised the Untroubled (parinibbānagato) via a path made by himself… he is a bhikkhu.

Pajjena katena attanā parinibbānagato… sa bhikkhu. (Snp 514)

The effect of the pari- prefix is explained like this:

• ‘The prefix pari- converts the noun from the expression of a state into the expression of the achievement of that state. Thus nibbāna means the state of release, parinibbāna the attaining of that state’. (Bodhi, CDB p.49)

This rule does not apply to verbs and past participles because the verbs are never expressions of a state, whereas the past participles are always expressions of a state. Our renderings are as follows:

1) Verbs:

2) Past participles:

Parinibbuto: two meanings

Parinibbuto means either:

1) realised the Untroubled, or

2) passed away to the Untroubled-without-residue

Consider the following quotes:

• He has realised the Untroubled. He awaits the inevitable hour [fully consciously and mindfully].

parinibbuto kaṅkhati kālaṁ. (Tha 1218)

• One is free of craving. One has realised the Untroubled.

• Here the Perfect One passed away to the Untroubled-without-residue

idha tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto ti pi. (DN ii 141)

Nibbuto: in verse

In verse, parinibbuto is often abbreviated to nibbuto.

• One who has realised the Untroubled through being without grasping, he is what I call a Brahman.

anupādāya nibbuto tamahaṁ brūmi brāhmaṇaṁ. (Snp 638)

But this point could be argued. For example, the passage would also make sense if rendered ‘One who is inwardly at peace through being without grasping.’ But the mention of Brahman (i.e. arahant) makes our rendering more likely.

Sometimes the context suggests that nibbuto does not mean parinibbuto:

Inwardly at peace amidst the violent

It makes less sense to render this: ‘realised the Untroubled amidst the violent.’

Nibbuti

Nibbuti may or may not imply arahantship. For example:

• A bhikkhu knows that “When I pursue, develop, and cultivate this view, I obtain inward calm and inward peace

imaṁ kho ahaṁ diṭṭhiṁ āsevanto bhāvento bahulīkaronto. [labhāmi paccattaṁ samathaṁ labhāmi paccattaṁ nibbutin ti] (MN i 323)

• All his perceptually obscuring states are destroyed and he attains inward peace

Khīyanti āsavā sabbe nibbutiñcādhigacchatī ti. (Tha 586)

Non-Buddhist ascetics: highest happiness

For non-Buddhist ascetics, nibbāna meant ‘highest pleasure’:

• When the attā is enjoying itself, provided with and possessed of the five varieties of sensuous pleasure, at that point it has attained to the highest pleasure in this lifetime

attā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti ettāvatā kho bho ayaṁ attā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hotī ti. (DN i 36)

Parinibbanti: to pass away to the Untroubled-without-residue

PED and Norman accept the spelling parinibbanti without comment. The word also occurs at AN iv 98; Dhp 126; Iti 93; Snp 765. The commentary to SN iv 128 glosses parinibbanti as parinibbāyanti.

• Those free of perceptually obscuring states pass away to the Untroubled-without-residue.

Illustrations: nibbāna; parinibbāna

nibbānaṁ

nibbānaṁ: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: nibbānaṁ, quenching

The deliverance of his mind [from individual existence] was like the quenching of a lamp

pajjotasseva nibbānaṁ vimokkho cetaso ahūti. (SN i 159)

parinibbānāya

parinibbānāya: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: parinibbānāya, extinguish

A person given to maliciousness has compassion to extinguish it.

vihiṁsakassa purisapuggalassa avihiṁsā hoti parinibbānāya.

A person given to killing has refraining from killing to extinguish it.

pāṇātipātissa purisapuggalassa pāṇātipātā veramaṇī hoti parinibbānāya.

A person given to stealing has refraining from stealing to extinguish it.

adinnādāyissa purisapuggalassa adinnādānā veramaṇī hoti parinibbānāya. (MN i 45)

Illustration: nibbāna, the Untroubled

This, bhikkhu, is a designation for the Untroubled: the elimination of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

Nibbānadhātuyā kho etaṁ bhikkhu adhivacanaṁ rāgavinayo dosavinayo mohavinayo ti. (SN v 8)

Illustration: nibbāna, the Untroubled

The destruction of craving, Rādha, is the Untroubled.

taṇhakkhayo hi rādha nibbānan ti. (SN iii 190)

Illustration: nibbāna, the Untroubled

One is fit to be called a bhikkhu who has realised the Untroubled in this lifetime.

diṭṭhadhammanibbānappatto bhikkhū ti alaṁ vacanāya. (SN ii 18)

Illustration: nibbāna, Untroubled

‘In this regard, Hemaka, in regards to pleasant things which are seen, heard, sensed, or cognised, the dispelling of fondness and attachment is the Untroubled, the Unshakeable State.

Idha diṭṭhasutamutaviññātesu piyarūpesu hemaka
Chandarāgavinodanaṁ nibbānapadamaccutaṁ. (Snp 1086)

nibbānapada

nibbānapada: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: nibbānapada, Untroubled State

Longing for the Untroubled State.

parinibbānaṁ

parinibbānaṁ: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: parinibbānaṁ, passing away to the Untroubled-without-residue

Tonight in the last watch will be the ascetic Gotama’s passing away to the Untroubled-without-residue.

ajjeva rattiyā pacchime yāme samaṇassa gotamassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. (DN ii 149)

parinibbātu

parinibbātu: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: parinibbātu, pass away to the Untroubled-without-residue; parinibbāna, passing away to the Untroubled-without-residue

Bhante, let the Blessed One now pass away to the Untroubled-without-residue! Let the Sublime One now pass away to the Untroubled-without-residue! Now is the time for the Blessed One’s passing away to the Untroubled-without-residue!

Parinibbātu'dāni bhante bhagavā parinibbātu sugato parinibbānakālo'dāni bhante bhagavato ti. (SN v 262)

parinibbutesu

parinibbutesu: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: parinibbutesu, passed away to the Untroubled-without-residue

The assembly [of bhikkhus] appears to me empty now that Sāriputta and Moggallāna have passed away to the Untroubled-without-residue.

parisā suññā viya khāyati parinibbutesu sāriputtamoggallānesu. (SN v 164)

parinibbāyī

parinibbāyī: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: parinibbāyī, one who realises the Untroubled

He is one who realises the Untroubled with effort in this very lifetime

diṭṭheva dhamme sasaṅkhāraparinibbāyī hoti. (AN ii 155)

Illustrations: nibbuta

nibbuto

nibbuto: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: nibbuto, extinguished

Ego completely extinguished.

nibbutaṁ

nibbutaṁ: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: nibbutaṁ, quenched

An iron ball that had been heated all day:

After a time it was cool and quenched.

aparena samayena sītaṁ nibbutaṁ. (DN ii 335)

Illustration: nibbuto, extinguished

When a fire has used up its fuel:

Being without fuel material it is reckoned as extinguished.

anāhāro nibbuto'teva saṅkhaṁ gacchatī ti. (MN i 486-7)

Illustration: nibbuto, go out

I hope, dear, that the fire did not go out.

kacci te tāta aggi na nibbuto ti. (DN ii 340)

Illustration: nibbuto, extinguished

My fire is extinguished.

nibbuto’gini. (Snp 19)

Comment:

‘Fire’ here perhaps means the three fires: the fire of attachment, hatred, undiscernment of reality (rāgaggī dosaggi mohaggi) (DN iii 217).

Illustration: nibbuto, inwardly at peace

Inwardly at peace amidst those who are tormented [by spiritual defilement].

Illustration: nibbuto, inwardly at peace

‘The bhikkhu who in the face of sensuous pleasures lives the religious life with reflectiveness, free of craving, ever mindfully, and inwardly at peace, for him there are no states of spiritual instability.

Kāmesu brahmacariyavā vītataṇho sadā sato
Saṅkhāya nibbuto bhikkhu tassa no santi iñjitā. (Snp 1041)

Illustration: nibbuto, realised the Untroubled

Through the destruction of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality he has realised the Untroubled.

rāgadosamohakkhayā sa nibbuto ti. (DN ii 136)

Comment:

In verse, parinibbuto is often abbreviated to nibbuto.

nibbutā

nibbutā: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: nibbutā, realised the Untroubled

Through knowledge [of things according to reality] the wise have realised the Untroubled.

Aññāya nibbutā dhīrā. (SN i 24)

Comment:

In verse, parinibbuto is often abbreviated to nibbuto.

Illustration: nibbutā, realised the Untroubled

You are freed from inward distress. You have realised the Untroubled.

sītibhūtāsi nibbutā ti. (Thi 16)

Comment:

In verse, parinibbuto is often abbreviated to nibbuto.

anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto

anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto, passed away to the Untroubled-without-residue

Here the Perfect One passed away to the Untroubled-without-residue

idha tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto ti pi. (DN ii 140)

Comment:

Anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto: ‘passed away to the Untroubled in relation to the Untroubled-without-residue.’

Illustrations: nibbuti

nibbutiṁ

nibbutiṁ: (main article see: nibbāna)

Illustration: nibbutiṁ, inward peace

Knowing inward peace as Peace, he should not be negligent in [practising] Gotama’s training system.

Santī ti nibbutiṁ ñatvā sāsane gotamassa napamajjeyya. (Snp 933)

Illustration: nibbutiṁ, inward peace

I will exchange ageing for agelessness, the torment [of spiritual defilement] for inward peace, for supreme inward peace, for unsurpassed safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence].

Ajaraṁ jiramānena tappamānena nibbutiṁ
Nimissaṁ paramaṁ santiṁ yogakkhemaṁ anuttaran ti. (Tha 32)

nibbindati

nibbidā

Renderings

Introduction

With specified objects

Nibbidā and nibbindati often have specified objects. For example:

• disillusioned with bodily form

• disillusionment with old age and death

jarāmaraṇassa ce bhikkhu nibbidāya. (SN ii 18)

With a broad specified object

Sometimes they have a broad specified object e.g. ‘originated phenomena’:

• disillusioned with all originated phenomena

With a broad unspecified object due to abbreviation

Sometimes the object is unspecified due to abbreviation. For example, a bhikkhu who realises the nature of the five aggregates becomes disillusioned with each of them (rūpasmimpi nibbindati… viññāṇasmimpi nibbindati SN iii 21). The sutta continues:

• Being disillusioned, he is unattached. nibbindaṁ virajjati

This nibbindaṁ means ‘being disillusioned with all five aggregates’, which are unspecified due to abbreviation.

With a broad object implied by context

Sometimes a broad object is indicated by the context. For example, in twenty five years since his going forth [into the ascetic life], Venerable Sappadāsa attained not a moment’s inward peace, being oppressed by attachment to sensuous pleasure (kāmarāgena addito). So he picked up a razor in order to cut a vein:

• Then proper contemplation arose in me. The danger [of sensuous pleasure] became apparent [to me]; and disillusionment [with originated phenomena] was firmly established [in me]

Tato me manasikāro yoniso udapajjatha
Ādīnavo pāturahu nibbidā samatiṭṭhatha. (Tha 409)

… Whereupon my mind was liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

tato cittaṁ vimucci. (Tha 410)

Because it led to arahantship, we take the object of nibbidā to be originated phenomena (sabbasaṅkhārā), not just sensuous pleasure.

Rendering a broad object: ‘originated phenomena’ or ‘things’?

In the scriptures, the five aggregates are collectively called either ‘originated phenomena’ (saṅkhārā), or ‘things’ (dhammā), for example in this quote:

• Bodily form… fields of sensation are unlasting

Rūpaṁ bhikkhave aniccaṁ… viññāṇaṁ aniccaṁ

… Bodily form… fields of sensation are void of personal qualities

Rūpaṁ bhikkhave anattā… viññāṇaṁ anattā.

… All originated phenomena (saṅkhārā) are unlasting;

sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā

… All things (dhammā) are void of personal qualities

sabbe dhammā anattā ti. (MN i 228)

Therefore consider again the phrase we used above:

• Being disillusioned, he is unattached.

This could be rendered as either:

1) Being disillusioned [with all things], he is unattached [to all things].

2) Being disillusioned [with originated phenomena], he is unattached [to originated phenomena].

For stylistic reasons we choose the latter, for example in this passage:

• For one who knows and sees things according to reality, there is no need to harbour the aspiration: ‘May I be disillusioned [with originated phenomena] and unattached [to originated phenomena]’:

Yathābhūtaṁ bhikkhave jānato passato na cetanāya karaṇīyaṁ nibbindāmi virajjāmī ti.

… It is quite natural that one who knows and sees things according to reality, is disillusioned [with originated phenomena] and unattached [to originated phenomena].’

Dhammatā esā bhikkhave yaṁ yathābhūtaṁ jānaṁ passaṁ nibbindati virajjati. (AN v 3)

Illustrations

nibbida

nibbida: (main article see: nibbidā)

Illustration: nibbida, disillusionment

He who abides contemplating things conducive to psychological bondage with disillusionment abandons attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

Saṁyojaniyesu bhikkhave dhammesu nibbidānupassī viharanto rāgaṁ pajahati dosaṁ pajahati mohaṁ pajahati. (AN i 51)

nibbidāya

nibbidāya: (main article see: nibbidā)

Illustration: nibbidāya, disillusionment

The noble disciple is

• indifferent to the visual sense of the past,

atītasmiṁ cakkhusmiṁ anapekkho hoti

• he does not long for the visual sense of the future,

anāgataṁ cakkhuṁ nābhinandati

• he applies himself to disillusionment with the visual sense of the present, to non-attachment to it, and to the ending of it

paccappannassa cakkhussa nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti. (SN iv 4)

Illustration: nibbida, disillusionment

An attitude of disillusionment with all originated phenomena will be as present to me as it might in relation to a murderer with a drawn sword

sabbasaṅkhāresu ca me nibbidasaññā paccupaṭṭhitā bhavissati seyyathā pi ukkhittāsike vadhake. (AN iii 443)

nibbindati

nibbindati: (main article see: nibbidā)

Illustration: nibbindati, disillusioned

Bhikkhus, contemplate the visual sense properly. Recognise the unlastingness of the visual sense according to reality.

Cakkhuṁ bhikkhave yoniso manasikarotha cakkhu aniccatañca yathābhūtaṁ samanupassatha

When a bhikkhu, reflecting properly upon the visual sense, recognises the unlastingness of the visual sense according to reality, he is disillusioned with the visual sense.

nibbindathā

nibbindathā: (main article see: nibbidā)

Illustration: nibbindathā, disillusioned

A ‘carbuncle’ is a metaphor for this [wretched human] body made of the four great material phenomena.

'Gaṇḍo ti kho bhikkhave imasseva cātummahābhūtikassa kāyassa adhivacanaṁ

It has nine openings, nine orifices.

tassa nava vanamukhāni nava abhedanamukhāni

Whatever oozes out of them is foul, foul-smelling, and disgusting.

yaṁ kiñci paggharati asuciññeva paggharati duggandhaññeva paggharati jegucchiyaññeva paggharati

Therefore be disillusioned with this [wretched human] body

Tasmātiha bhikkhave imasmiṁ kāye nibbindathā ti. (AN iv 386)

Illustration: nibbidāya, disillusionment [with sensuous pleasure]

Then Yasa, having awoken sooner than usual saw his retinue asleep: one with a lute in her arm, one with a tabor under her chin, one with a drum under her arm, one with dishevelled hair, one who was dribbling, and others who were muttering. One would think it was a charnel ground before one’s eyes (hatthappattaṁ susānaṁ maññe).

Seeing this, the danger [of sensuous pleasure] became apparent to him (disvānassa ādīnavo pāturahosi). His mind was established in disillusionment [with sensuous pleasure] (nibbidāya cittaṁ saṇṭhāsi). (Vin.1.15)

Comment:

This disillusionment did not lead to arahantship, so we do not parenthesise it ‘disillusionment [with originated phenomena].’

Illustration: nibbindati, disillusioned [with originated phenomena]

Bodily form is intrinsically unsatisfactory… fields of sensation are intrinsically unsatisfactory. Seeing thus, the noble disciple is disillusioned with bodily form… fields of sensation.

rūpaṁ bhikkhave… viññāṇaṁ dukkhā. Evaṁ passaṁ bhikkhave sutavā ariyasāvako rūpasmimpi nibbindati… viññāṇasmimpi nibbindati.

Being disillusioned [with originated phenomena], he is unattached [to originated phenomena]. Being unattached [to originated phenomena], he is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

Nibbindaṁ virajjati. Virāgā vimuccati. (SN iii 21)

Illustration: nibbindati, disillusioned [with originated phenomena]

For one who knows and sees things according to reality, there is no need to harbour the aspiration: ‘May I be disillusioned with and unattached [to originated phenomena]’:

Yathābhūtaṁ bhikkhave jānato passato na cetanāya karaṇīyaṁ nibbindāmi virajjāmī ti.

It is natural that one who knows and sees things according to reality, is disillusioned with and unattached [to originated phenomena].’

Dhammatā esā bhikkhave yaṁ yathābhūtaṁ jānaṁ passaṁ nibbindati virajjati. (AN v 3)

nibbindituṁ

nibbindituṁ: (main article see: nibbidā)

Illustration: nibbindituṁ, to be disillusioned

Unlasting are originated phenomena.

evaṁ aniccā bhikkhave saṅkhārā

Unenduring are originated phenomena.

evaṁ addhuvā bhikkhave saṅkhārā

Unconsoling are originated phenomena.

evaṁ anassāsikā bhikkhave saṅkhārā.

It is time enough, bhikkhus, to be disillusioned with all originated phenomena, to be unattached to them, to be liberated from them.

yāvañcidaṁ bhikkhave alameva sabbasaṅkhāresu nibbindituṁ alaṁ virajjituṁ alaṁ vimuccituṁ. (AN iv 101)

Illustration: nibbindituṁ, to be disillusioned

A first point is not to be discerned of beings [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving, roaming and wandering the round of birth and death.

pubbā koṭi na paññāyati avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ sandhāvataṁ saṁsarataṁ.

It is time enough, bhikkhus, to be disillusioned with all originated phenomena, to be unattached to them, to be liberated from them.

Yāvañcidaṁ bhikkhave alameva sabbasaṅkhāresu nibbindituṁ alaṁ virajjituṁ alaṁ vimuccituṁ. (SN ii 181-2)

Illustration: nibbindati, disillusioned; nibbindaṁ disillusioned [with originated phenomena]

The noble disciple is disillusioned with

• pleasant sense impression

sukhāyapi vedanāya nibbindati

• unpleasant sense impression

dukkhāyapi vedanāya nibbindati

• neutral sense impression

adukkhamasukhāyapi vedanāya nibbindati

Being disillusioned [with originated phenomena] he is unattached [to originated phenomena].

Being unattached [to originated phenomena] he is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

nimitta

Renderings

Introduction

Nimitta: phantasm

A phantasm is a mental representation of a sense object that one attaches to and pursues:

• If a bhikkhu sees a visible object via the visual sense,

cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā

… and his mind pursues the phantasm of the visible object,

rūpanimittānusāri viññāṇaṁ hoti

… is tied to the sweetness of the phantasm of the visible object,

… then his mind is called ‘distracted and scattered externally’

bahiddhā viññāṇaṁ vikkhittaṁ visaṭanti vuccati. (MN iii 225)

Nimitta: not ‘mental image’

Visual phantasms could be called ‘mental images,’ but not all phantasms are visual, so ‘image’ is incorrect for nimitta. For example:

• In hearing an audible object via the auditory sense, if his mind pursues the phantasm of the audible object

Sotena saddaṁ sutvā saddanimittānusārī viññāṇaṁ hoti

• In knowing a mentally known object via the mental sense, if his mind pursues the phantasm of the mentally known object

Manasā dhammaṁ viññāya dhammanimittānusāri viññāṇaṁ hoti

Reification: overcome by focusing upon the unabiding phenomenon

Phantasms persist in the mind if sense objects are ‘reified’; that is, if sense objects are seen as real and unchanging. Phantasms are overcome by focusing upon the unabiding phenomenon. This is the end of reification.

• It is impossible, friend, out of the question, that one might develop and cultivate the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] by focusing upon the unabiding [phenomenon], make it one’s vehicle and practice, carry it out, pursue it, and properly undertake it, yet the mind would still pursue phantasms. There is no such possibility.

Aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ animittāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya anuṭṭhitāya paricitāya susamāraddhāya atha ca panassa nimittānusārī viññāṇaṁ bhavissati ti ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

… For this is the liberation from all abiding phenomena, namely the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] by focusing upon the unabiding [phenomenon].

Nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ āvuso sabbanimittānaṁ yadidaṁ animittā cetovimutti. (AN iii 292)

We will discuss the nature of the unabiding phenomenon below.

Nimitta: abiding phenomena

Nimitta can mean ‘abiding phenomenon,’ which means a phenomenon that is regarded as an actual, existing thing instead of an everchanging condition. Abiding phenomena are illusions produced by attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality (rāgo kho bhante nimittakaraṇo doso nimittakaraṇo moho nimittakaraṇo, SN iv 296-7). A meditator can choose to not focus on abiding phenomena, and instead focus on ‘the unabiding phenomenon’ (animitta dhātu MN i 297). For fuller versions of the quotes here, see Illustrations below.

Focusing upon the unabiding phenomenon equals perceiving the passing away and ending [of originated phenomena]

Focusing on the unabiding phenomenon (i.e. the animittadhātu) is equivalent to perceiving the passing away and ending [of originated phenomena]. This can be proven in four steps as follows:

1) Attaining the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] by focusing upon the unabiding [phenomenon] (animittāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā) involves these steps:

• not focusing upon any abiding phenomenon

• focusing upon the unabiding phenomenon

animittāya ca dhātuyā manasikāro. (MN i 297)

2) ‘Any/all abiding phenomena’ (sabbanimittāni) means the senses, their objects, and the phenomena involved in sense impression, as this passage shows:

• He perceives all phenomena (sabbanimittāni) differently. He sees the visual sense differently, he sees visible objects differently… .

sabbanimittāni aññato passati cakkhuṁ aññato passati rūpe aññato passati… mano aññato passati dhamme aññato passati manoviññāṇaṁ aññato passati manosamphassaṁ aññato passati yampidaṁ mano samphassapaccayā uppajjati sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā tampi aññato passati. (SN iv 50)

3) Not focusing upon any abiding phenomenon (sabbanimittānañca amanasikāro) is equivalent to the etaṁ santaṁ reflection, as this passage shows:

• A bhikkhu reflects thus: This is peaceful, this is sublime, namely: the quelling of all originated phenomena, the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment, the destruction of craving, the passing away [of originated phenomena], the ending [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled.

Idhānanda bhikkhu evaṁ manasikaroti: etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhakkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānan ti

… In this way his winning of inward collectedness is such that though he does not contemplate the visual sense or visible object… nor what is seen, heard, sensed, cognised, attained, sought after, thought out by mind, all that he does not contemplate, but yet he still contemplates.

evaṁ kho ānanda siyā bhikkhuno tathārūpo samādhipaṭilābho yathā na cakkhuṁ manasikareyya na rūpaṁ manasikareyya… yampidaṁ diṭṭhaṁ sutaṁ mutaṁ viññātaṁ pattaṁ pariyesitaṁ anuvicaritaṁ manasā tampi na manasikareyya manasi ca pana kareyyā ti. (AN v 321)

4) The etaṁ santaṁ reflection equals the perceptions of non-attachment to and ending [of originated phenomena]. This is obvious in the passage in 3). The following passages also show it:

• And what, Ānanda, is the perception of the passing away [of originated phenomena]?

… In this regard, Ānanda, a bhikkhu… contemplates thus: This is peaceful, this is sublime, namely: the quelling of all originated phenomena, the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment, the destruction of craving, the passing away [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled.

etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhakkhayo virāgo nibbānan ti. (AN v 110)

• What is the perception of the ending [of originated phenomena]?

… In this regard, Ānanda, a bhikkhu… contemplates: This is peaceful, this is sublime, namely: the quelling of all originated phenomena, the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment, the destruction of craving, the ending [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled.

etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhakkhayo nirodho nibbānan ti. (AN v 110)

Thus focusing upon the unabiding phenomenon is equivalent to perceiving the passing away and ending of originated phenomena.

Focusing upon the unabiding phenomenon means the disappearance of personal identity

That the etaṁ santaṁ reflection, and therefore the animittadhātu, is equivalent to the disappearance of the illusions of personal identity and personal ownership, and of the proclivity to self-centredness is indicated in the following passage:

• In this regard a bhikkhu reflects thus: This is peaceful, this is sublime, namely: the quelling of all originated phenomena, the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment, the destruction of craving, the passing away [of originated phenomena], the ending [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled.

Idhānanda bhikkhuno evaṁ hoti etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ sabbasaṅkārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhakkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānanti.

… In this way his winning of inward collectedness would be such that regarding this [wretched human] body together with its consciousness he would have no illusions of personal identity or personal ownership, and no proclivity to self-centredness. Likewise in all external phenomena he would have no illusions of personal identity or personal ownership, and no proclivity to self-centredness.

Evaṁ kho ānanda siyā bhikkhuno tathārūpo samādhipaṭilābho yathā imasmiñca saviññāṇake kāye ahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayā nāssu bahiddhā ca sabbanimittesu ahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayā nāssu

… He would so enter and abide in the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, that he would have no illusions of personal identity or personal ownership, and no proclivity to self-centredness.

yañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ upasampajja viharato ahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayā na honti tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ upasampajja vihareyya. (AN i 133)

Illustrations

nimitte

nimitte: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: nimitte, hint

But though Venerable Ānanda was given such a broad hint by the Blessed One, such an obvious suggestion, he was unable to perceive it.

Evampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṁ. (SN v 259)

nimittaṁ

nimittaṁ: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, boundary mark

I allow you to agree upon a boundary. And thus should it be agreed upon:

anujānāmi bhikkhave sīmaṁ sammannituṁ. Evañca pana bhikkhave sammannitabbā.

First, boundary marks should be announced

Paṭhamaṁ nimittā kittetabbā

A boundary mark consisting of a hillside, a rock, a grove, a tree, a road, an anthill, a river, a body of water.

pabbatanimittaṁ pāsāṇanimittaṁ vananimittaṁ rukkhanimittaṁ magganimittaṁ vammikanimittaṁ nadīnimittaṁ udakanimittaṁ. (Vin.1.106)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, sexual organ

Sexual organ penetrated by a sexual organ, a reproductive organ by a reproductive organ, even if only the diametre of a sesame seed.

yo nimittena nimittaṁ aṅgajātena aṅgajātaṁ antamaso tilaphalamattampi paveseti. (Vin.1.28)

nimittesu

nimittesu: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: nimittesu, phenomena

Knowing and seeing what in this [wretched human] body together with its consciousness and all external phenomena, do the illusion of personal identity, the illusion of personal ownership, and the proclivity to self-centredness not exist?

Kathaṁ pana bhante jānato kathaṁ passato imasmiñca saviññāṇake kāye bahiddhā ca sabbanimittesu ahaṅkāramamaṅkāramānānusayā na hontī ti? . (MN iii 18)

nimittāni

nimittāni: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: nimittāni, phenomena

Through profoundly understanding the whole teaching, he perceives all phenomena differently.

sabbaṁ dhammaṁ pariññāya sabbanimittāni aññato passati

He sees the visual sense differently, he sees visible objects differently… whatever sense impression that arises due to mental sensation… that too he sees differently.

cakkhuṁ aññato passati rūpe… cakkhuviññāṇaṁ… cakkhusamphassaṁ… yampidaṁ cakkhusamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṁ sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā tampi aññato passati. (SN iv 50)

nimittaṁ

nimittaṁ: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, quality

There is the quality of loveliness:

Atthi bhikkhave subhanimittaṁ

Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen sensuous hankering, and the increase and expansion of arisen sensuous hankering.

Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā kāmacchandassa uppādāya uppannassa vā kāmacchandassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya. (SN v 64)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, quality

Avoid the quality of loveliness that is associated with attachment

Nimittaṁ parivajjehi subhaṁ rāgūpasaṁhitaṁ. (SN i 188)

Illustration: nimitta, aspect

In seeing a visible object via the visual sense do not grasp its aspects and features.

Cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā mā nimittaggāhī mānuvyañjanaggāhī. (MN iii 134)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, aspect

In seeing a visible object with mindfulness muddled, focusing on the agreeable aspect,

Rūpaṁ disvā sati muṭṭhā piyaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto. (SN iv 76)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, aspect

Ignoring the aspect of shape but contemplating the aspect of light.

rūpanimittaṁ amanasikaritvā obhāsanimittaṁ manasikaromi. (MN iii 161)

nimittā

nimittā: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: nimittā, attributes

You have the traits, marks, and attributes of a householder

Te hi te gahapati ākārā te liṅgā te nimittā yathā taṁ gahapatissā ti. (MN i 360)

Illustration: nimitta, body marks

Experts in body marks and conformations (i.e. physiognomists)

vyañjananimittakovidā. (DN iii 152)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, telltale signs

Suppose a wise, competent, proficient cook presented a king or a royal minister with various kinds of savoury dishes. Such a cook would notice his master’s telltale signs.

paṇḍito viyatto kusalo sūdo sakassa bhattu nimittaṁ uggaṇhāti:

‘Today this dish pleased my master’ or ‘He reached for this one’ or ‘He took a lot of this one’ or ‘He praised this one’

idaṁ vā me ajja bhattu sūpeyyaṁ ruccati imassa vā abhiharati imassa vā bahuṁ gaṇhāti imassa vā vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati

That cook gains gifts of clothing, wages and bouses. Why? Because that wise, competent, proficient cook notices his master’s telltale signs.

Tathā hi so bhikkhave paṇḍito byatto kusalo sūdo sakassa bhattu nimittaṁ uggaṇhāti. (SN v 151)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, telltale sign

As he abides contemplating the nature of the body, his mind becomes collected, his defilements are abandoned.

Tassa kāye kāyānupassino viharato cittaṁ samādhiyati upakkilesā pahīyanti

He notices that telltale sign.

so taṁ nimittaṁ uggaṇhāti.

That wise, competent, proficient bhikkhu gains pleasant states of meditation in this lifetime and mindfulness and full consciousness. For what reason?

Sakho so bhikkhave paṇḍito viyatto kusalo bhikkhu lābhī ceva hoti diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārānaṁ lābhī hoti satisampajaññassa. Taṁ kissa hetu:

Because that wise, competent, proficient bhikkhu notices the telltale signs of his own mind.

tathā hi so bhikkhave paṇḍito vyatto kusalo bhikkhu sakassa cittassa nimittaṁ uggaṇhātī ti. (SN v 151-2)

nimittassa

nimittassa: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: nimittassa, telltale signs

One who is proficient [in discerning] the telltale signs of the mind.

pubbanimittāni

pubbanimittāni: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: pubbanimittāni, premonitory sign

When a deva is due to pass away from the group of devas, five premonitory signs appear:

pañcassa pubbanimittāni pātubhavanti

his garlands wither, his clothes get dirty, his armpits sweat, his body radiance fades, he no longer enjoys his throne.

mālā milāyanti vatthāni kilissanti kacchehi sedā muccanti kāye dubbaṇṇiyaṁ okkamati sake devo devāsane nābhiramatī ti. (Iti 76-7)

pubbanimittaṁ

pubbanimittaṁ: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: pubbanimittaṁ, preindication

Bhikkhus, this is the foretoken and preindication of the rising of the sun, namely dawn.

Suriyassa bhikkhave udayato etaṁ pubbaṅgamaṁ etaṁ pubbanimittaṁ yadidaṁ aruṇaggaṁ. (SN v 30)

Illustration: pubbanimittaṁ, preindication

So, too, for a bhikkhu this is the foretoken and preindication of the arising of the noble eightfold path, namely virtuous friendship.

evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno ariyassa aṭṭhaṅgikassa maggassa uppādāya etaṁ pubbaṅgamaṁ etaṁ pubbanimittaṁ yadidaṁ kalyāṇamittatā

When a bhikkhu has a virtuous friend, it is to be expected that he will develop this noble eightfold path

Kalyāṇamittassetaṁ bhikkhave bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṁ ariyaṁ aṭṭhaṅgikaṁ maggaṁ bhāvessati. (SN v 30)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, image

A woman or man examining their facial image in a bowl of clear water.

acche vā udapatte sakaṁ mukhanimittaṁ paccavekkhamāno. (AN v 92)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, grounds

There has arisen in me this faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience. That arises with grounds, with a source, with mental factors, with necessary conditions.

uppannaṁ kho me idaṁ upekkhindriyaṁ. Tañca kho sanimittaṁ sanidānaṁ sasaṅkhāraṁ sappaccayaṁ. (SN v 215)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, grounds

Unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors arise with grounds, not without grounds. By abandoning those grounds those unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors do not exist.

Sanimittā bhikkhave uppajjanti pāpakā akusalā dhammā no animittā. Tasseva nimittassa pahānā evaṁ te pāpakā akusalā dhammā na honti. (AN i 82)

samādhinimittaṁ

samādhinimittaṁ: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: samādhinimittaṁ, object of meditation

He carefully concentrates on an object of meditation

sakkaccaṁ samādhinimittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti. (AN i 115)

Illustration: samādhinimittaṁ, meditation object

A bhikkhu fosters a favourable meditation object,

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu uppannaṁ bhaddakaṁ samādhinimittaṁ anurakkhati

• the mental image of a skeleton

• the mental image of a maggot-infested corpse

• the mental image of a discoloured corpse

• the perception of a festering corpse

• the mental image of a cut up corpse

• the mental image of a bloated corpse

Illustration: nimitte, meditation object

That bhikkhu should direct his mind towards some faith inspiring meditation object.

kismiñcideva pasādaniye nimitte cittaṁ paṇidahitabbaṁ. (SN v 156)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, ways of practice

A bhikkhu who is applied to the higher mental states should focus on three ways of practice not exclusively, but from time to time: inward collectedness, effort, and detached awareness

Adhicittamanuyuttena bhikkhave bhikkhunā tīṇi nimittāni kālena kālaṁ manasikātabbāni kālena kālaṁ samādhinimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ kālena kālaṁ paggahanimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ kālena kālaṁ upekkhānimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ.

• If such a bhikkhu focuses exclusively on the practice of inward collectedness it is likely that his mind will fall into indolence

ekantaṁ samādhinimittaññeva manasikareyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ cittaṁ kosajjāya saṁvatteyya

• If he focuses exclusively on the practice of effort it is likely that his mind will fall into restlessness

ekantaṁ paggahanimittaññeva manasikareyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ cittaṁ uddhaccāya saṁvatteyya

• If he focuses exclusively on the practice of detached awareness it is likely that his mind will be not properly collected for the destruction of perceptually obscuring states

ekantaṁ upekkhānimittaññeva manasikareyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ cittaṁ na sammā samādhiyetha āsavānaṁ khayāya. (AN i 256)

nimittāni

nimittāni: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: nimittāni, ways of practice; nimittaṁ, meditation object

A bhikkhu who is applied to the higher mental states should from time to time focus on five ways of practice.

Adhicittamanuyuttena bhikkhave bhikkhunā pañca nimittāni kālena kālaṁ manasikātabbāni. Katamāni pañca?

When a bhikkhu is focusing on some meditation object that arouses unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, hatred, and undiscernment of reality

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhunā yaṁ nimittaṁ āgamma yaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto uppajjanti pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṁhitāpi dosūpasaṁhitāpi mohūpasaṁhitāpi.

• then he should focus on some other meditation object connected with what is spiritually wholesome.

tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā tamhā nimittā aññaṁ nimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ kusalūpasaṁhitaṁ

• then he should examine the danger of those thoughts, that they are spiritually unwholesome, blameworthy, and have an unpleasant karmic consequence

tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā tesaṁ vitakkānaṁ ādīnavo upaparikkhitabbo itipime vitakkā akusalā itipime vitakkā sāvajjā itipime vitakkā dukkhavipākāti

• then he should arouse unmindfulness and inattention towards those thoughts

tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā tesaṁ vitakkānaṁ asati amanasikāro āpajjitabbo.

• then he should pay attention to the dynamic quality of those thoughts

tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā tesaṁ vitakkānaṁ vitakkasaṅkhārasaṇṭhānaṁ manasikātabbaṁ

• then he should beat down, restrain, crush mind with the mind

tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā dante’bhidantamādhāya jivhāya tāluṁ āhacca cetasā cittaṁ abhiniggaṇhitabbaṁ abhinippīḷetabbaṁ abhisantāpetabbaṁ.

• Thus, those unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, hatred, and undiscernment of reality are abandoned.

ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṁhitāpi dosūpasaṁhitāpi mohūpasaṁhitāpi te pahīyanti. (MN i 118-122)

Illustration: nimittaṁ, practice

There are the practice of inward calm, the practice of inward composure:

Atthi bhikkhave samathanimittaṁ avyagganimittaṁ

Much proper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of inward collectedness and the perfection through spiritual cultivation of the arisen enlightenment factor of inward collectedness.

tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā samādhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya uppannassa vā samādhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūriyā. (SN v 66)

Illustration: nimittānaṁ, perception of any abiding phenomenon; animittāya dhātuyā, the unabiding phenomenon

Two necessary conditions for the attainment of the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] by focusing upon the unabiding [phenomenon]

dve kho āvuso paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā

• not focusing upon any abiding phenomenon

• focusing upon the unabiding phenomenon

animittāya ca dhātuyā manasikāro

Three necessary conditions for the persistence of the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] by focusing upon the unabiding [phenomenon]

Tayo kho āvuso paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā ṭhitiyā

• not focusing upon any abiding phenomenon

sabbanimittānañca amanasikāro

• focusing upon the unabiding phenomenon,

animittāya ca dhātuyā manasikāro

• a prior aspiration [for its persistence]

To emerge, there must be

• focusing upon the perception of all abiding phenomena

sabbanimittānañca manasikāro

• not focusing upon the unabiding phenomenon

animittāya ca dhātuyā amanasikāro. (MN i 297)

Illustration: nimitta, perception of any abiding phenomenon

In this regard, by not focusing upon any abiding phenomenon, a bhikkhu enters and abides in the inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].

Idha bhante bhikkhu sabbanimittānaṁ amanasikārā animittaṁ cetosamādhiṁ upasampajja viharati

This is called the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] by focusing upon the unabiding [phenomenon]…

ayaṁ vuccati bhante animittā cetovimutti… . (SN iv 296-7)

Illustration: nimitta, abiding phenomenon

Attachment, bhante, is a producer of abiding phenomena. Hatred is a producer of abiding phenomena. Undiscernment of reality is a producer of abiding phenomena.

rāgo kho bhante nimittakaraṇo doso nimittakaraṇo moho nimittakaraṇo. (SN iv 296-7)

animitto cetosamādhi

animitto cetosamādhi: (main article see: nimitta)

Illustration: animitto cetosamādhi, inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena]; nimittānaṁ, any abiding phenomenon; nimittā, phantasm

Venerable MahāMoggallāna said this:

‘Here, friends, while I was alone in solitary retreat, a reflection arose in my mind thus: ‘It is said, “inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena]; inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].” What now is the inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena]?’

Animitto cetosamādhi animitto cetosamādhīti vuccati katamo nu kho animitto cetosamādhī ti

Then, friends, it occurred to me:

Tassa mayhaṁ āvuso etadahosi

In this regard a bhikkhu, by not focusing upon any abiding phenomenon,

Idha bhikkhu sabbanimittānaṁ amanasikārā

enters and abides in the inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].

animittaṁ cetosamādhiṁ upasampajja viharati

This is called the inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].

ayaṁ vuccati animitto cetosamādhī ti.

Then, friends, by not focusing upon any abiding phenomenon,

So khvāhaṁ āvuso sabbanimittānaṁ amanasikārā

I entered and dwelt in inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].

animittaṁ cetosamādhiṁ upasampajja viharāmi

While I abided therein my mind pursued phantasms.

tassa mayhaṁ āvuso iminā vihārena viharato nimittānusārī viññānam hoti

Then, friends, the Blessed One came to me by means of psychic power and said:

Atha kho maṁ āvuso bhagavā iddhiyā upasaṅkamitvā etadavoca

‘Moggallāna, Moggallāna, do not be negligent, brahman, in [practising] inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].

moggallāna moggallāna mā brāhmaṇa animittaṁ cetosamādhiṁ pamādo

  • Steady your mind in inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena]

    animittena cetosamādhismiṁ cittaṁ saṇṭhapehi

  • Concentrate your mind in inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena]

    animittena cetosamādhismiṁ cittaṁ ekodiṁ karohi

  • Compose your mind in inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena]

animitte cetosamādhismiṁ cittaṁ samādahāti. (SN iv 263-269)

Comment:

At DN iii 249, it says that one who has developed animitta cetovimuttī, it is impossible, out of the question, that his mind would pursue phantasms. So, Moggallāna’s attainment must have been weakly developed.

niyāma

Renderings

Introduction

PED: definition

PED says niyāma means ‘way, way to an end or aim, esp. to salvation, right way (sammattaniyāma); method, manner. practice.’

Niyāma: abbreviation

Niyāma is an abbreviation that occurs only in verse. The expanded form seen in prose is: niyāmaṁ kusalesu dhammesu sammattaṁ. Bodhi apparently agrees, because, commenting on SN i 196, he says ‘Niyāma here no doubt represents sammattaniyāma,’ which is the abbreviation used in prose.

Niyāma: in verse

In verse, niyāma occurs in the following ways:

• They have reached and realised the way [of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors].

• One who has realised the way [of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors]

Niyāma: in prose

In prose, niyāma occurs in the following ways:

• They have entered the way of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors

okkamati niyāmaṁ kusalesu dhammesu sammattaṁ. (AN i 121)

• to enter the way of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors

niyāmaṁ okkamituṁ kusalesu dhammesu sammattaṁ. (AN iii 175-6)

• one who has entered the way of rightness [comprised of spiritually wholesome factors]

• he could enter the way of rightness [comprised of spiritually wholesome factors]

Conclusion

From this we see:

1) Niyāma is always ‘entered’ in prose, and always ‘realised’ in verse.

2) In prose, niyāma is always associated with ‘rightness’ (sammatta), and in translating verse, this term should be parenthesised.

2) Where, in prose, kusalesu dhammesu is missing, it should be parenthesised.

‘Way of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors’: tautology

‘Rightness’ (sammatta) is defined as the tenfold path:

• There are these ten factors of rightness. Which ten? The tenfold path of right factors.

Dasa ime bhikkhave sammattā. Katame dasa: sammādiṭṭhi sammā saṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi sammāñāṇaṁ sammāvimutti. (AN v 240)

‘What is spiritually wholesome’ (kusala) is defined in the same way:

• What is spiritually wholesome? The tenfold path of right factors.

katamañca bhikkhave kusalaṁ. Sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi sammāñāṇaṁ sammāvimutti. (AN v 241)

Therefore ‘the way of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors’ is tautological.

Illustrations

Illustration: niyāma, the way [of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors]

Indeed, for the sake of many the Sage attained enlightenment, for the bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs who have reached and realised the way [of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors].

Bahūnaṁ vata atthāya bodhiṁ ajjhagamā muni
Bhikkhūnaṁ bhikkhunīnañca ye niyāmagataddasā. (SN i 196)

Comment

Bodhi says: ‘Niyāma here no doubt represents sammattaniyāma.’

sammattaniyāmaṁ

sammattaniyāmaṁ: (main article see: niyāma)

Illustration: sammattaniyāmaṁ, the way of rightness [comprised of spiritually wholesome factors]

One who has faith in [the significance of] these teachings and is intent on them is called a ‘faith follower,’ one who has entered the way of rightness [comprised of spiritually wholesome factors], entered the plane of spiritually outstanding people, transcended the plane of the common man.

Yo bhikkhave ime dhamme evaṁ saddahati adhivuccati ayaṁ vuccati saddhānusārī okkanto sammattaniyāmaṁ sappurisabhumiṁ okkanto vītivatto puthujjanabhumiṁ. (SN iii 225)

Illustration: sammattaniyāmaṁ, the way of rightness [comprised of spiritually wholesome factors],

That without being well-adapted to and patient [with originated phenomena] he could enter the way of rightness [comprised of spiritually wholesome factors] is impossible

Anulomikāya khantiyā asamannāgato sammattaniyāmaṁ okkamissatī ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (AN iii 441)

niyāmaṁ kusalesu dhammesu sammattaṁ

niyāmaṁ kusalesu dhammesu sammattaṁ: (main article see: niyāma)

Illustration: niyāmaṁ kusalesu dhammesu sammattaṁ, the way of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors

If one is possessed of five factors, though one listens to the teaching it is not possible to enter the way of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors. Which five? … if one is aggressive and hardhearted towards the teacher

suṇantopi saddhammaṁ abhabbo niyāmaṁ okkamituṁ kusalesu dhammesu sammattaṁ. Katamehi pañcahi… dhammadesake āhatacitto hoti khilajāto. (AN iii 175-6)

Illustration: niyāmaṁ kusalesu dhammesu sammattaṁ, the way of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors

The explanation of the teaching is made available for the sake of the person who will enter the way of rightness comprised of spiritually wholesome factors only if he gets to see the Perfect One and hear the teaching and discipline, and will not do so if he fails to see the Perfect One and hear the teaching and discipline.

Tatra bhikkhave yvāyaṁ puggalo labhanto'va tathāgataṁ dassanāya no alabhanto labhanto'va tathāgatappaveditaṁ dhammavinayaṁ savaṇāya no alabhanto okkamati niyāmaṁ kusalesu dhammesu sammattaṁ. Imaṁ kho bhikkhave puggalaṁ paṭicca dhammadesanā anuññātā. (AN i 122)

niyyāna

Renderings

Introduction

Niyyānaṁ bhavati: to march forth

In its unexalted sense, niyyāna means ‘going out, departure,’ says PED, as here:

• The king will march forth; the king will not march forth;

raññaṁ niyyānaṁ bhavissati. Raññaṁ aniyyānaṁ bhavissati. (DN i 9)

Niyyāna: salvation

For brahmans niyyāna was the highest attainment, meaning union with Brahmā, i.e. ‘salvation’:

• This indeed is the direct path, the straight way, which leads to salvation, which leads the one who practises it to union with Brahmā.

ayameva ujumaggo ayamañjasāyano niyyāṇiko niyyāti takkarassa brahmasahavyatāya. (DN i 235)

Niyyāna: deliverance [from suffering]

For Buddhists niyyāna has three associations:

1) freedom from suffering (dukkhā pamuccati)

2) inward peace (upasama)

3) enlightenment (sambodha)

These associations support us calling niyyāna ‘deliverance [from suffering].’

1) This I tell you: This deliverance [from suffering] for the world [of beings] has been declared to you [by me] in accordance with truth. In this way [the world of beings] is released from suffering.

Etaṁ lokassa niyyānaṁ akkhātaṁ vo yathātathaṁ
Etaṁ vo ahamakkhāmi evaṁ dukkhā pamuccati. (Snp 172)

2) Where a teacher is not perfectly enlightened, the teaching is ill-proclaimed, ill-expounded, and does not lead to deliverance [from suffering], or to inward peace. It is expounded by one who is not perfectly enlightened.

satthā ca hoti asammāsambuddho dhammo ca durakkhāto duppavedito aniyyāniko anupasamasaṁvattaniko asammāsambuddhappavedito. (DN iii 120)

3) These teachings which are wholesome, noble, and which lead to deliverance [from suffering] and to enlightenment.

Ye te bhikkhave kusalā dhammā ariyā niyyānikā sambodhagāmino. (Snp 139)

Niyyānika and saṁsāra

PED says niyyānika means ‘leading out (of saṁsāra),’ but niyyānika cannot be rendered as such because it is never in the suttas directly linked to saṁsāra.

Illustrations

niyyānaṁ

niyyānaṁ: (main article see: niyyāna)

Illustration: niyyānaṁ, deliverance [from suffering]

What is that grasping because of which the world [of beings] suffers hardship? Being asked about deliverance [from suffering], tell me how [the world of beings] is released from suffering.

Katamaṁ taṁ upādānaṁ yattha loko vihaññati
Niyyānaṁ pucchito brūhi kathaṁ dukkhā pamuccati. (Snp 170)

niyyānikā

niyyānikā: (main article see: niyyāna)

Illustration: niyyānikā, lead to deliverance [from suffering]

But, Ānanda, in regard to those thoughts which are noble, and which lead to deliverance [from suffering], and lead the one who practises them to the complete destruction of suffering, that is to say unsensuous thought, benevolent thought, compassionate thought, he thinks: 'I will think thoughts like these.'

Ye ca kho ime ānanda vitakkā ariyā niyyānikā niyyanti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāya. Seyyathīdaṁ nekkhamma vitakko avyāpādavitakko avihiṁsāvitakko iti evarūpe vitakke vitakkessāmī ti. (MN iii 113-4)

Illustration: niyyānikā, lead to deliverance [from suffering]

The seven factors of enlightenment when developed and cultivated are noble and lead to deliverance [from suffering], and lead the one who practises them to the complete destruction of suffering.

Ime kho bhikkhave satta bojjhaṅgā bhāvitā bahulīkatā ariyā niyyānikā niyyanti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāyāti. (SN v 82)

nirodha

Renderings

Introduction

Nirodha: ending not cessation

PED says nirodha ‘is synonymous with nibbāna and parinibbāna; it may be said to be even a stronger expression as far as the active destruction of the causes of life is concerned.’ Nirodha is therefore better represented in ‘ending’ than ‘cessation,’ though some translators prefer to call it ‘stopping’:

• This is the stopping of anguish.

ayaṁ dukkhanirodho ti. (Horner, MN i 9)

• This is the stopping of misery

Nirodho plus named object

Nirodha always means the ending of something; it never means just ‘ending.’ This is most obvious, of course, when it has a named object. For example, the Rahogata Sutta describes the ‘successive ending of originated phenomena,’ calling it anupubbasaṅkhārānaṁ nirodho:

• The successive ending of originated phenomena is explained by me.

mayā anupubbasaṅkhārānaṁ nirodho akkhāto

… For one who attains first jhāna, speech is ended.

paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa vācā niruddhā hoti

… For one who attains second jhāna, thinking and pondering are ended…

dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa vitakkavicārā niruddhā honti…

… For one who attains the ending of perception and sense impression, perception and sense impression are ended.

saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ samāpannassa saññā ca vedanā ca niruddhā honti

… For a bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed, attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality are ended.

Khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno rāgo niruddho hoti doso niruddho hoti moho niruddho hoti. (Rahogata Sutta, SN iv 217)

Nirodho means ‘ending of the five aggregates’

Sometimes nirodha occurs without a named object. This has always been perplexing, because it once led Venerable Ānanda to question the Buddha on the matter:

• ’Bhante, it is said, ‘Ending, ending.’ Through the ending of what things is ending spoken of?’

Nirodho nirodho ti bhante vuccati katamesānaṁ kho bhante dhammānaṁ nirodhā nirodho ti vuccatī ti?

• ’Bodily form, Ānanda, is unlasting, originated, and dependently arisen. It is destined to be destroyed, to disappear, to pass away, to cease. Through its ending, ending is spoken of.

Rūpaṁ kho ānanda aniccaṁ saṅkhataṁ paṭiccasamuppannaṁ khayadhammaṁ vayadhammaṁ virāgadhammaṁ nirodhadhammaṁ. Tassa nirodhā nirodho ti vuccati

The same is said about the other aggregates, and the sutta concludes:

• ’It is through the ending of these things, Ānanda, that ending is spoken of.’

Imesaṁ kho ānanda dhammānaṁ nirodho nirodho ti vuccatī ti. (SN iii 24)

Thus if nirodha has no designated object, then this sutta says the five aggregates are the object. Other suttas support this principle, though in slightly different terms, as we will see.

Nirodho means ‘ending of originated phenomena’

The Anupubbanirodha Sutta (AN iv 456) describes the same steps as the Rahogata Sutta, but calls it anupubbanirodho not anupubbasaṅkhārānaṁ nirodho, where nirodha (ending) is therefore an abbreviation for saṅkhārānaṁ nirodha (ending of originated phenomena). The conclusion to the sutta should therefore be parenthesised accordingly:

• It is in reference to this that the successive ending [of originated phenomena] is spoken of by the Blessed One.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso anupubbanirodho vuttā bhagavatā. (AN iv 456)

Nirodho means ‘ending of perception and sense impression’

The Sattadhātu Sutta (SN ii 151) links nirodha to ‘ending of perception and sense impression’. Because this is likewise the final step in the Rahogata Sutta, we can be sure that nirodha again means the ending of originated phenomena:

• The phenomenon of the ending of perception and sense impression is a phenomenon attained with the ending [of originated phenomena].

yāyaṁ bhikkhu saññāvedayitanirodhadhātu ayaṁ dhātu nirodhaṁ paṭicca paññāyatī ti. (Sattadhātu Sutta, SN ii 151)

Thus although unnamed objects of nirodha can be explained differently, for example as the five aggregates, or as originated phenomena, the scriptures consistently agree that nirodha always has an object, and is never simply ‘ending.’

Step-by-step ending, and continuous ending

When the Rahogata Sutta describes the ‘successive ending of originated phenomena,’ it is step-by-step ending:

• For one who attains first jhāna, speech is ended. For one who attains second jhāna, thinking and pondering are ended.

paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa vācā niruddhā hoti dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa vitakkavicārā niruddhā honti… (Rahogata Sutta, SN iv 217).

But nirodha can also mean ending as a continuous process:

• In this regard, some person in relation to the visual sense abides contemplating ending, perceiving ending, experiencing ending continuously, without a break, uninterruptedly, intent upon it mentally, penetrating it with penetrative discernment

idha bhikkhave ekacco puggalo cakkhusmiṁ nirodhānupassī viharati nirodhasaññī nirodhapaṭisaṁvedī satataṁ samitaṁ abbokiṇṇaṁ cetasā adhimuccamāno paññāya pariyogāhamāno. (AN iv 146)

The goal of practice: ending

Where nirodha is the goal of one’s practice, nibbida is often included in the formula, as follows:

• The noble disciple is indifferent to the visual sense of the past, he does not long for the visual sense of the future, he applies himself to disillusionment with the visual sense of the present, to non-attachment to it, and to the ending of it.

sutavā ariyasāvako atītasmiṁ cakkhusmiṁ anapekkho hoti; anāgataṁ cakkhuṁ nābhinandati paccappannassa cakkhussa nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti. (SN iv 4)

• Devas and men find enjoyment, pleasure, and satisfaction in individual existence. When the teaching is taught to them to put an end to individual existence, their minds do not become energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it.

bhavārāmā bhikkhave devamanussā bhavaratā bhavasammuditā. Tesaṁ bhavanirodhāya dhamme desiyamāne na cittaṁ pakkhandati na pasīdati na santiṭṭhati nādhimuccati. (Iti 44)

Practising for the ending of objects

The idea of practising for the ending of objects is shown in the following two quotes to involve not delighting (anabhinanditāni):

1) Just as an oil lamp burns because of oil and a wick, and with the exhaustion of the oil and wick it is extinguished through lack of fuel, so too, bhikkhus… a bhikkhu knows that with the demise of the body, and with the ending of life, all sense impression being not delighted in will be dissipated right here in this world.

Seyyathā pi bhikkhave telañca paṭicca vaṭṭiñca paṭicca telappadīpo jhāyeyya tasseva telassa ca vaṭṭiyā ca pariyādānā anāhāro nibbāyeyya; evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu… kāyassa bhedā uddhaṁ jīvitapariyādānā idheva sabbavedayitāni anabhinanditāti sītibhavissantīti pajānātī' ti. (SN iv 213-4)

2) And what is the vanishing of bodily form… of fields of sensation?

rūpassa atthaṅgamo… viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo

In this regard, one does not take delight in, welcome, or persist in cleaving.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu nābhinandati nābhivadati nājjhosāya tiṭṭhati. (SN iii 13-15)

Ablative nirodhā: ‘from’ or ‘with’

The ablative nirodhā occurs in the reverse sequence of paṭiccasamuppāda (called paṭiloma at Uda 2). The Ablative shows motive, cause, reason, and can be translated by ‘for,’ ‘on account of,’ ‘by reason of,’ ‘through’ (PGPL, 600 xi). We render it as ‘with.’ For example:

• With (=on account of) the ending of birth comes the ending of old age and death.

Jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodho ti. (SN ii 8-9)

• With (=on account of) the ending of nourishment, what is brought about is destined to cease

Tadāhāranirodhā yaṁ bhūtaṁ taṁ nirodhadhamman ti. (SN ii 48)

Ablative nirodhā: ‘to put an end to’

The ablative ‘shows motive, cause, reason,’ says Duroiselle (para 600, xi), therefore nirodhā/nirodhāya can mean ‘to put an end to.’ For example:

• To put an end to craving for states of individual existence, allow me to go forth [into the ascetic life].

Bhavataṇhāya nirodhā anujānātha pabbajissāmi. (Thi 458)

• To put an end to attachment, two things should be developed. Which two? Inward calm and insightfulness.

Rāgassa bhikkhave nirodhāya dve dhammā bhāvetabbā. Katame dve? Samatho ca vipassanā ca. (AN i 100)

Other examples are given below.

Illustrations

nirodhāya

nirodhāya: (main article see: nirodha)

Illustration: nirodhāya, to put an end to

A person overpowered and overcome by suffering roams abroad in search of someone who knows a spell or two to put an end to this suffering

dukkhena abhibhūto pariyādinna citto bahiddhā pariyeṭṭhiṁ ājjati ko ekapadaṁ dipadaṁ pajānāti imassa dukkhassa nirodhāyā ti. (AN iii 416)

Illustration: nirodhāya, to put an end to

While the teaching is being explained to someone to put an end to personal identity…

yassa kassaci sakkāya nirodhāya dhamme desiyamāne. (MN i 435)

Illustration: nirodhāya, to put an end to

And applying himself in what way, carpenter, is he doing so to put an end to spiritually unwholesome thoughts?

Kathaṁ paṭipanno ca thapati akusalānaṁ saṅkappānaṁ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti. (MN ii 28)

nirujjhanti

nirujjhanti: (main article see: nirodha)

Illustration: nirujjhanti, cease; nirodhetvā, to put an end to

Where sensuous pleasures cease, and those who have put an end to sensuous pleasures abide, surely those Venerables are free of craving. They have realised the Untroubled.

Yattha kāmā nirujjhanti ye ca kāme nirodhetvā nirodhetvā viharanti addhā te āyasmanto nicchātā nibbutā. (AN iv 410)

nirodhetabbaṁ

nirodhetabbaṁ: (main article see: nirodha)

Illustration: nirodhetabbaṁ, to be stopped

One who thinks that thinking and pondering can be stopped might as well think he could catch the wind in a net, or arrest the flow of the river Ganges with his fist.

vātaṁ vā so jālena bādhetabbaṁ maññeyya yo vitakkavicāre nirodhetabbaṁ maññeyya sakamuṭṭhinā vā so gaṅgāya sotaṁ āvāretabbaṁ maññeyyāti. (SN iv 298)

Illustration: nirodhāya, ending

This is called a bhikkhu who is applying himself to the complete destruction of suffering, and to the ending of old age and death.

Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave bhikkhu sabbaso sammā dukkhakkhayāya paṭipanno hoti jarāmaraṇanirodhāya. (SN ii 81)

nirodho

nirodho: (main article see: nirodha)

Illustration: nirodho, ending

With the ending of sense impression comes the ending of craving.

vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho ti. (DN ii 34)

Illustration: nirodho, ending

With the ending of birth comes the ending of old age and death.

Jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodho ti. (SN ii 8-9)

Illustration: nirodho, ending

The ending of individual existence is the Untroubled.

Illustration: nirodha, ending

This is the practice leading to the ending of personal identity.

Ayaṁ kho pana bhikkhave sakkāya nirodhagāminī paṭipadā.(MN iii 284)

Illustration: nirodho, ending of originated phenomena; niruddhā hoti, is ended

Ānanda, I have taught the successive ending of originated phenomena.

anupubbasaṅkhārānaṁ nirodho akkhāto

For one who attains:

• first jhāna, speech is ended.

vācā niruddhā hoti

• second jhāna, thinking and pondering are ended.

vitakkavicārā niruddhā honti

• third jhāna, rapture is ended.

pīti niruddhā hoti

• fourth jhāna, breathing is ended.

assāsapassāsā niruddhā honti

• the state of awareness of boundless space, the perception of the refined material states of awareness is ended.

rūpasaññā niruddhā hoti

• the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, the perception of the state of awareness of boundless space is ended.

ākāsānañcāyatanasaññā niruddhā hoti

• the state of awareness of nonexistence, the state of awareness of boundless consciousness is ended.

viññāṇañcāyatanasaññā niruddhā hoti

• the ending of perception and sense impression, perception and sense impression are ended.

saññā ca vedanā ca niruddhā honti

• For a bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed, attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality are ended.

khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno rāgo niruddho hoti doso niruddho hoti moho niruddho hoti. (SN iv 217)

Illustration: nirodho, ending [of originated phenomena]

The three phenomena leading to deliverance.

tisso nissaraṇiyā dhātuyo

• The deliverance from sensuous pleasure, namely the practice of unsensuousness.

kāmānametaṁ nissaraṇaṁ yadidaṁ nekkhammaṁ

• The deliverance from refined material states of awareness, namely immaterial states of awareness.

rūpānametaṁ nissaraṇaṁ yadidaṁ āruppaṁ

• from whatever is brought about, originated, dependently arisen, the ending [of originated phenomena] is the deliverance.

yaṁ kho pana kiñci bhūtaṁ saṅkhataṁ paṭiccasamuppannaṁ nirodho tassa nissaraṇaṁ. Ime tayo dhammā duppaṭivijjhā. (DN iii 275)

nirodhaṁ

nirodhaṁ: (main article see: nirodha)

Illustration: nirodhaṁ, ending [of originated phenomena]

Those beings who have reached the refined material plane of existence and those living in the immaterial plane of existence, if they do not discern the ending [of originated phenomena] they [continue to] come back to renewed states of individual existence.

ye ca rūpūpagā sattā ye ca āruppavāsino
nirodhaṁ appajānantā āgantāro punabbhavaṁ.

Those who profoundly understand the refined material states of awareness and are not stuck in the immaterial states of awareness, with the ending [of originated phenomena], they are liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] and abandon death.

ye ca rūpe pariññāya arūpesu asaṇṭhitā
nirodhe ye vimuccanti te janā maccuhāyino ti. (Iti 62)

Illustration: nirodha, ending [of originated phenomena]

And what, Ānanda, is the perception of the ending [of originated phenomena]?

In this regard, Ānanda, a bhikkhu having gone to the wilderness, or the root of a tree, or a solitary abode, contemplates thus:

‘This is peaceful, this is sublime, namely:

etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ

• the quelling of all originated phenomena

• relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment

• the destruction of craving,

• the ending [of originated phenomena],

• the Untroubled.’

Illustration: nirodhaṁ, ending; nirujjhati, cease

• Therefore that supreme state of deliverance should be known

se āyatane veditabbe

where the visual sense ceases and perception of visible objects passes away.

yattha cakkhuñca nirujjhati rūpasaññā ca virajjati

where the auditory sense ceases and perception of audible objects passes away…

where the mental sense ceases and perception of mentally known objects passes away.

yattha mano ca nirujjhati dhammasaññā ca virajjati se āyatane veditabbeti

Venerable Ānanda:

• This was stated by the Blessed One, friends, with reference to the ending of the six senses.

Saḷāyatananirodhaṁ no etaṁ āvuso bhagavatā sandhāya bhāsita. (SN iv 98)

Comment:

Saḷāyatananirodhaṁ means nibbāna at AN ii 161-2 (channaṁ āvuso phassāyatanānaṁ asesavirāganirodhā papañcanirodho). Venerable Ānanda indicates it has the same meaning here. This justifies us calling āyatane ‘that supreme state of deliverance.’

Comment:

Se āyatane is an Eastern form of Pāli. Discussed by Bodhi: CDB p.1414 n.102).

nirodhā

nirodhā: (main article see: nirodha)

Illustration: nirodhā, ending

He abides contemplating unlastingness in relation to the body and pleasant sense impression

so kāye ca sukhāya ca vedanāya aniccānupassī viharati

• their disappearance

• their passing away

• their ending

• their relinquishment

Illustration: nirodha, ending

Sāriputta, friend, it is through seeing and fully understanding the ending of the visual sense, the visual field of sensation, and things known through the visual field of sensation, that I regard these things as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood.”’

Cakkhusmiṁ āvuso sāriputta cakkhuviññāṇe cakkhuviññāṇaviññātabbesu dhammesu nirodhaṁ disvā nirodhaṁ abhiññāya cakkhuṁ cakkhuviññāṇaṁ cakkhuviññāṇaviññātabbe dhamme n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti samanupassāmi. (MN iii 265)

Illustration: nirodha, ending

I will breathe in… I will breathe out contemplating

unlastingness [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]

aniccānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati

passing away [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]

virāgānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati

ending [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]

nirodhānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati

relinquishment [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]

paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati

Illustration: nirodhaṁ, ending

For one who sees the origination of the world [of phenomena] according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment

lokasamudayañca kho kaccāna yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato

there is no view of nonexistence in regards to the world [of phenomena]

yā loke natthitā sā na hoti.

And for one who sees the ending of the world [of phenomena] according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment

lokanirodhaṁ kho kaccāna yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato

there is no view of existence in regards to the world [of phenomena]

yā loke atthitā sā na hoti. (SN ii 17)

nirodhāya

nirodhāya: (main article see: nirodha)

Illustration: nirodhāya, ending

The noble disciple is indifferent to the visual sense of the past, he does not long for the visual sense of the future, he applies himself to disillusionment with the visual sense of the present, to non-attachment to it, and to the ending of it.

sutavā ariyasāvako atītasmiṁ cakkhusmiṁ anapekkho hoti; anāgataṁ cakkhuṁ nābhinandati paccappannassa cakkhussa nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti. (SN iv 4)

Illustration: nirodhāya, ending

He is applied to the practice of disillusionment with states of individual existence, to non-attachment to states of individual existence, and to the ending of states of individual existence.

bhavānaṁ yeva nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti. (AN ii 177)

Illustration: nirodhāya, ending

They are applying themselves to disillusionment with sense impression, to non-attachment to it, and to the ending of it

vedanāya nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipannā. (SN iii 60)

Illustration: nirodhāya, ending

All states of individual existence are unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, destined to change.

sabbe bhavā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā ti.

In fully understanding the truth of this saying one is applying oneself to disillusionment with states of individual existence, to non-attachment to states of individual existence, and to the ending of states of individual existence

Api ca yadeva tattha saccaṁ tadabhiññāya bhavānaṁ yeva nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti. (AN ii 176-7)

Illustration: nirodhāya, ending

If a bhikkhu is applying himself to disillusionment with old age and death, to non-attachment to it, and to the ending of it, he is fit to be called a bhikkhu who is practising in accordance with the teaching.

Jarāmaraṇassa ce bhikkhu nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti dhammānudhammapaṭipanno bhikkhū ti alaṁ vacanāya. (SN ii 18)

Illustration: nirodha, ending [of originated phenomena]

In this regard a bhikkhu, properly reflecting, develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness which conduces to seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], to non-attachment [to originated phenomena], to the ending [of originated phenomena], and which results in the relinquishment [of the whole phenomenon of attachment].

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu paṭisaṅkhā yoniso satisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti vivekanissitaṁ virāganissitaṁ nirodhanissitaṁ vossaggapariṇāmiṁ. (MN i 11)

Illustration: nirodhāya, the ending [of originated phenomena]

Bhante, whatever pleasure and joy is due to blows and wounds does not conduce to disillusionment [with originated phenomena], to non-attachment [to originated phenomena], to the ending [of originated phenomena], to inward peace, to transcendent insight, to enlightenment, nor to the Untroubled.

So kho me bhante vedapaṭilābho somanassapaṭilābho sadaṇḍāvacaro sasatthāvacaro na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṁvattati. (DN ii 285)

nirujjhati

nirujjhati: (main article see: nirodha)

Illustration: nirujjhati, ceases

Heat is generated and fire manifests from the rubbing together of two fire-sticks,

usmā jāyati tejo abhinibbattati.

but when the sticks are separated and laid aside the heat ceases and subsides;

yā tajjā usmā sā nirujjhati sā vūpasammati. (SN v 212)

Illustration: nirujjhati, ceases

Just as with a little twig fire, one flame arises and another ceases,

seyyathā pi āvuso sakalikaggissa jhāyamānassa aññāva acci uppajjati aññāva acci nirujjhati. (AN v 9)

niruddho hoti

niruddho hoti: (main article see: nirodha)

Illustration: niruddho hoti, is ended

For a bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed, attachment is ended, hatred is ended, undiscernment of reality is ended.

khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno rāgo niruddho hoti doso niruddho hoti moho niruddho hoti. (SN iv 217)

nirodhiko

nirodhiko: (main article see: nirodha)

Illustration: nirodhiko, destructive

Attachment produces spiritual blindness, uninsightfulness, ignorance [of things according to reality], is destructive of penetrative discernment, vexatious, and not conducive to the Untroubled.

Rāgo kho āvuso andhakaraṇo acakkhukaraṇo aññāṇakaraṇo paññānirodhiko vighātapakkhiko anibbānasaṁvattaniko. (AN i 216-7)

nivesana

Renderings

Introduction

Attachment of the mind: views and egocentric thoughts

The Sundarikabhāradvāja Sutta says:

• ‘He who has abandoned the attachment of the mind [to views and egocentric thoughts], in whom there is no possessiveness at all, not grasping anything in either this world or the world beyond: the Perfect One is worthy of the oblation.

Nivesanaṁ yo manaso ahāsi pariggahā yassa na santi keci
Anupādiyāno idha vā huraṁ vā tathāgato arahati pūraḷāsaṁ. (Snp 470)

That the attachment of the mind is to views and egocentric thoughts is supported by the commentary and the suttas:

1) Commentary: taṇhādiṭṭhinivesanaṁ. The notion “I am” and other egocentric thoughts are imbued with taṇhā, says the Taṇhājālinī Sutta (AN ii 212-3).

2) ‘Objects of attachment’ is linked in the following quote to views and thoughts that are regarded as personal.

• One who is blessed with profound knowledge has no conceit about any view or thought because he does not regard them as endowed with personal qualities. Such a person is not to be gauged by his conduct, nor by his learning. He is not attracted to objects of attachment.

Na vedagū diṭṭhiyāyako na mutiyā sa mānameti na hi tammayo so
Na kammunā no pi sutena neyyo anupanīto sa nivesanesu. (Snp 846)

Illustrations

nivesanaṁ

nivesanaṁ: (main article see: nivesana)

Illustration: nivesanaṁ, residence

He went to the residence of Kaligodha the Sakyan lady.

yena kāligodhāya sākiyāniyā nivesanaṁ tenupasaṅkami. (SN v 396)

nivesanañca

nivesanañca: (main article see: nivesana)

Illustration: nivesanañca, attachment

Whatever you know, above, below, across, and also in the middle, having thrust away spiritually fettering delight and attachment regarding these things.

Yaṁ kiñci sampajānāsi uddhaṁ adho tiriyañcāpi majjhe etesu nandiñca nivesanañca panujja. (Snp 1055)

nivesanesu

nivesanesu: (main article see: nivesana)

Illustration: nivesanesu, attachments

Therefore a man rejects or accepts a doctrine simply in accordance with his attachments.

Tasmā naro tesu nivesanesu nirassati ādiyati ca dhammaṁ. (Snp 785)

anivesano

anivesano: (main article see: nivesana)

Illustration: anivesano, attachment

One should be free of attachment.

Illustration: nivesanesu, objects of attachment

He is not attracted to objects of attachment.

anupanīto sa nivesanesu. (Snp 846)

nivesanāni

nivesanāni: (main article see: nivesana)

Illustration: nivesanāni, objects of attachment

Having understood all objects of attachment, and not desiring any of them

Aññāya sabbāni nivesanāni anikāmayaṁ aññatarampi tesaṁ. (Snp 210)

nissita

nissāya

nissaya

Renderings

Introduction

Diṭṭhinissaya means diṭṭhi

PED says diṭṭhinissaya means ‘the foundation of speculation.’ But the scriptures treat diṭṭhinissaya as a synonym of diṭṭhi. For example, in this passage nānādiṭṭhi (in nānādiṭṭhikā) is synonymous with nānādiṭṭhinissaya:

• At that time there were a number of non-Buddhist ascetics living around Sāvatthī. And they were of various dogmatic views, various persuasions, various inclinations, attached to various dogmatic views… ’

nānādiṭṭhikā nānākhantikā nānārucikā nānādiṭṭhinissayanissitā. (Uda 67)

Similarly, in the next passage, when the Buddha asked what are the diṭṭhinissayā about the past, he answered in terms of doctrines and views (evaṁ vādino evaṁ diṭṭhino), as if in English one might answer a question about viewpoints in terms of views. The passage is this:

• Cunda, what are those views connected with the past that I have explained to you as they should be explained? There are certain ascetics and Brahmanists whose doctrine and dogmatic view is this: ‘The attā and loko are eternal; this alone is true, all else is false.’

Katame ca te cunda pubbantasahagatā diṭṭhinissayā ye vo mayā vyākatā yathā te vyākātabbā? Santi kho cunda eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁ vādino evaṁ diṭṭhino sassato attā ca loko ca idameva saccaṁ moghamaññan ti. (DN iii 137)

Other translators

Some translators render diṭṭhinissaya as ‘dependence on view’ or ‘support of views,’ with convoluted results. For instance, consider this passage:

• ’Bhikkhus, you might best rely on that dogmatic view, relying on which there would not arise grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation. But do you see any such view?’

Taṁ bhikkhave diṭṭhinissayaṁ nisseyyātha yaṁsa diṭṭhinissayaṁ nissayato na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. Passatha no tumhe bhikkhave taṁ diṭṭhinissayaṁ yaṁsa diṭṭhinissayaṁ nissayato na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā ti.

• ’No, bhante.’

No hetaṁ bhante

• ’Good, bhikkhus. I also see no such view relying on which there would not arise grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation.’

Sādhu bhikkhave. Ahampi kho taṁ bhikkhave diṭṭhinissayaṁ na samanupassāmi yaṁsa diṭṭhinissayaṁ nissayato na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. (MN i 137-8)

Horner translates the last sentence as: ‘Neither do I see that dependence on view by depending on which dependence of view there would not arise grief, suffering, anguish, lamentation, despair’ (MLSN i 177).

Pitfalls

The negatives of the nissaya nissāya nissita group are associated with a range of pitfalls. For instance, issita means ‘giving offence.’ Its negative is anissita (i.e. ‘an-issita’ not ‘a-nissita’):

• Not causing offence, not tormenting others, one who has realised the Untroubled, a bhikkhu would not abuse anyone.

Anissito aññamaheṭhayāno parinibbuto na upavadeyya kañciti. (SN iv 179)

The following passage has been quietly misleading us for centuries:

• Venerable Visākha was instructing the bhikkhus with speech that was polished, well enunciated, articulate, making the meaning clear, comprehensive, not causing offence.

poriyā vācāya vissaṭṭhāya anelagalāya atthassa viññāpaniyā pariyāpannāya anissitāyā ti. (SN ii 280; AN ii 51)

However, Buddhaghosa’s commentary says the speech was ‘unattached to the round of rebirth’ (vaṭṭaṁ anissitāya) (PTS: AAN iii 90). Another translator simply says the bhikkhu’s speech was ‘unattached.’

The correct root of a negative is easier to recognise when paired with its positive. For instance, if ‘issāya’ means ‘of envy,’ anissāya clearly means ‘of non-envy’ (an-issāya). For example, here:

• Possessed of two qualities one lives miserably: envy and stinginess.

issāya ca macchariyena ca.

• Possessed of two qualities one lives happily: non-envy and non-stinginess.

anissāya ca amacchariyena ca. (AN i 94)

Humour

Nissita’s different meanings make it an easy source of humour. For instance the Buddha said that Brahmanists and householders are helpful in providing bhikkhus with robe material, almsfood, abodes, and therapeutic requisites; and bhikkhus are helpful in return by explaining the teaching. He said householders and ascetics are each supported by the other (aññoññanissitā Iti 111). A bhikkhu preacher might well remind his audience that this does not mean householders and ascetics are ‘each attached to each other’ (aññoññanissitā) but instead they both should try to ‘each not give offence to each other’ (aññoññanissitā).

Illustrations: nissaya

Illustration: nissaya, rich resources

And how is a shopkeeper endowed with rich resources?

Kathañca bhikkhave pāpaṇiko nissayasampanno hoti

The shopkeeper becomes known to wealthy householders as capable of providing interest on loans. They offer him money, telling him to trade with it, support his family, and pay it back with interest in due course. (AN i 117)

Illustration: nissaya, rich resources

And how is a bhikkhu endowed with rich resources?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu nissayasampanno hoti:

From time to time a bhikkhu approaches those bhikkhus who are learned, to whom the tradition has been handed down, experts in the teaching and discipline and summaries, and asks and interrogates them ‘How is that, bhante? What does that mean?’ Thus those Venerables can reveal what is hidden and clarify what is obscure, and dispel his unsureness about various matters that are cause for unsureness. (AN i 118)

Illustration: nissaya, spiritual resources

On what grounds, bhante, is a bhikkhu endowed with spiritual resources?

Kittāvatā nu kho bhante bhikkhu nissayasampanno hotī ti.

If, either with the help of faith [in the perfection of the Buddha’s transcendent insight], or with the help of shame of wrongdoing, or with the help of fear of wrongdoing, or with the help of energetic application [to the practice], or with the help of wisdom, a bhikkhu abandons what is spiritually unwholesome and develops what is spiritually wholesome, that which is spiritually unwholesome is indeed abandoned.

saddhañce… hiriñce… ottappañce… viriyañce… paññañce bhikkhu bhikkhu nissāya akusalaṁ pajahati kusalaṁ bhāveti pahīnamevassa taṁ akusalaṁ hoti.

When he is established (patiṭṭhāya) in these five states, there are four other things spiritually supported by which a bhikkhu should abide

cattāro dhammā upanissāya vihātabbā.

In this regard a bhikkhu judges that:

• one thing should be followed.

• one thing should be endured.

• one thing should be avoided.

• one thing should be dispelled.

• Thus is a bhikkhu endowed with spiritual resources.

nissayasampanno hotī ti. (AN iv 353-4)

nissayaṁ

nissayaṁ: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissayaṁ, formal spiritual support

In the eighty years since I went forth [into the ascetic life], I do not recall having ever offered anyone formal spiritual support.

Asīti me āvuso vassāni pabbajitassa nābhijānāmi nissayaṁ dātā. (MN ii 126)

Illustration: nissayaṁ, formal spiritual support

Ānanda, friend, the Blessed One has established a standard of ten years formal discipleship under a teacher.

bhagavatā āvuso ānanda paññattaṁ dasavassāni nissāya vatthuṁ

One of ten years’ standing can offer formal spiritual support.

dasavassena nissayaṁ dātuṁ. (Vin.1.80)

nissayo

nissayo: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissayo, formal spiritual support

If he is possessed of five factors, formal spiritual support may be offered by a bhikkhu.

bhikkhunā nissayo dātabbo

If he is possessed of the aggregate of a finished disciple’s virtuous practices, inward collectedness, penetrative discernment, liberation [from perceptually obscuring states], and the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

asekhena sīlakkhandhena… samādhikkhandhena… paññākkhandhena… vimuttikkhandhena… vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandhena samannāgato hoti. (AN iii 271)

nissayaṁ karoti

nissayaṁ karoti: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissayaṁ karoti, be attached

Having abandoned whatever he was clinging to

being free of grasping

He is not attached even to knowledge.

ñāṇe pi so nissayaṁ no karoti. (Snp 800)

Comment:

Norman says ‘he should not depend even upon knowledge.’ But how can one not depend on knowledge?

nissayatā

nissayatā: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissayatā, attachment

A person for whom there is no attachment, who, knowing the nature of reality, is not attached; and who has no craving for either individual existence or the cessation of individual existence.

Yassa nissayatā natthi ñatvā dhammaṁ anissito
Bhavāya vibhavāya vā taṇhā yassa na vijjati. (Snp 856)

This is someone I call inwardly at peace. He is indifferent to sensuous pleasures. Spiritual shackles are not found in him. He has overcome attachment [to the world of phenomena].

Taṁ brūmi upasanto ti kāmesu anapekkhinaṁ
Ganthā tassa na vijjanti atāri so visattikaṁ. (Snp 857)

Comment:

Norman says ‘no stage of dependence, knowing the doctrine is not dependent.’

nissayesu

nissayesu: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissayesu, states of attachment

One who is free of attachment does not tremble.

Anissito na calati

But one who is attached,

Grasping states of individual existence in this world or another

Does not transcend the round of birth and death.

Recognising this danger,

That there is great peril in states of attachment,

Then, unattached, free of grasping, the bhikkhu should mindfully fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism.

Anissito anupādāno sato bhikkhu paribbaje ti. (Snp 752-3)

Comment:

Norman says: ‘Knowing this peril, that “There is great fear in dependences,” a bhikkhu should wander, not dependent nor grasping.’ But anissito and anupādāno appear as synonyms, which makes ‘unattached, not grasping’ more likely than ‘not dependent nor grasping.’

Illustrations: upanissaya

upanissayo

upanissayo: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: upanissayo, basic resources

Leftover scraps as almsfood,

Uttiṭṭhapiṇḍo uñcho ca

Discarded cloth [for rag-robes],

These are indeed fitting for me,

Etaṁ kho mama sāruppaṁ

The basic resources of the ascetic life.

upanissaya

upanissaya: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: upanissaya, necessary condition

For a virtuous person, perfect in virtue, right inward collectedness is endowed with its necessary condition.

Sīlavato bhikkhave sīlasampannassa upanissayasampanno hoti sammāsamādhi. (AN iii 20)

Illustration: upanissayo, spiritual support

Which four things greatly help (bahukārā)?

• a suitable abiding place

• the spiritual support of spiritually outstanding people

• a rightly directed disposition

• the previous performance of meritorious deeds

pubbe ca katapuññatā. (DN iii 276)

Illustrations: nissāya

nissāya

nissāya: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissāya, beside

The Blessed One stood beside the lowest step of the staircase.

Atha kho bhagavā pacchimaṁ sopāṇakaḷeparaṁ nissāya aṭṭhāsi. (MN ii 92)

Illustration: nissāya, beside

He entered the hall and sat down beside the central pillar facing east.

santhāgāraṁ pavisitvā majjhimaṁ thambhaṁ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisīdi. (MN i 354)

Comment:

The Buddha would not lean against the pillar, because when he goes indoors ‘he does not bend his body backwards’ (MN ii 138).

Illustration: nissāya, in

The lion thought:

‘How about if I were to make my lair in a certain woodland grove?

aññataraṁ vanasaṇḍaṁ nissāya āsayaṁ kappeyyaṁ).’

‘Then I could emerge from my lair in the evening… and make for the cattle pasture’. (DN iii 23)

Illustration: nissāya, in

Then Venerable MahāMoggallāna stationed himself in the eastern quarter and sat cross-legged in the air above that brahmā.

Atha kho āyasmā mahāmoggallāno puratthimaṁ disaṁ nissāya tassa brahmuno uparivehāsaṁ pallaṅkena nisīdi. (SN i 144)

Illustration: nissāya, in/near

Suppose there is a flayed cow. If it stands near a wall (kuḍḍañce nissāya), the creatures living in the wall (kuḍḍanissītā pāṇā) would nibble her. If near a tree (rukkhañce nissāya), the creatures living in the tree (rukkhanissitā pāṇā); if in water (udakañce nissāya), the creatures living in the water (udakanissitā pāṇā); if in the open air (ākāsañce nissāya), the creatures living in the open air (ākāsanissitā pāṇā).

Wherever that flayed cow stands in or near to (nissāya tiṭṭheyya), the creatures living there (tannissitā tannissitā pāṇā) would nibble her

Yaññadeva hi sā bhikkhave gāvī niccammā nissāya tiṭṭheyya ye tannissitā tannissitā pāṇā te naṁ khādeyyuṁ. (SN ii 99)

nissāya nissāya

nissāya nissāya: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissāya nissāya, right next to

Āḷāra Kālāma went and sat under a tree. Then, bhante, five hundred carts went rumbling by right next to him.

Atha kho bhante pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni āḷāraṁ kālāmaṁ nissāya nissāya atikkamiṁsu. (DN ii 130)

Illustration: nissāya, upon

Homage to you, O best of men. We do not know what you are meditating upon.

namo te purisuttama yassa te nābhijānāma yampi nissāya jhāyasī ti. (SN iii 91)

Illustration: nissāya, supported by

Two sheaves of reeds might stand supported by each other

dve naḷakalāpiyo aññamaññaṁ nissāya tiṭṭheyyuṁ. (SN ii 114)

Illustration: nissāya, with the support of

At the four gates of his city, King Seri gave gifts to the needy. His wives asked:

‘Your majesty gives gifts but we do not give gifts. It would be good if, with your majesty’s support, we too might give gifts and perform acts of merit.’

sādhu mayampi devaṁ nissāya dānāni dadeyyāma puññāni kareyyāmā ti. (SN i 58)

Illustration: nissāya, with the support of

May those of unvirtuous desires, with the support of a faction, not create a schism in the community of bhikkhus.

mā pāpicchā pakkhaṁ nissāya saṅghaṁ bhindeyyuṁ. (SN ii 218)

Illustration: nissāya, with the help of

How about if I collected grass, twigs, branches, and leaves, and bound them together into a raft, and with the help of that raft and making an effort with my hands and feet, I got safely across to the far shore.

taṁ kullaṁ nissāya hatthehi ca pādehi ca vāyamamāno sotthinā pāraṁ uttareyyanti. (MN i 135)

Illustration: nissāya, with the help of

… In this regard, with the help of and by means of the neutral attitude that is undiversified, associated with undiversity, abandon and transcend the neutral attitude that is diversified, associated with diversity

Tatra bhikkhave yā'yaṁ upekkhā ekattā ekattasitā taṁ nissāya taṁ āgamma yā'yaṁ upekkhā nānattā nānattasitā taṁ pajahatha taṁ samatikkamatha.

… With the help of and by means of the perception that “It is void of personal qualities” abandon and transcend the neutral attitude that is undiversified, associated with undiversity.

Atammayataṁ bhikkhave nissāya atammayataṁ āgamma yā'yaṁ upekkhā ekattā ekattasitā taṁ pajahatha taṁ samatikkamatha. (MN iii 220)

Illustration: nissāya, with the help of

With the help of the reflection ‘It does not exist,’ cross the flood [of suffering].

natthī ti nissāya tarassu oghaṁ. (Snp 1070)

Illustration: nissāya, with the help of

Friend, the brahman Dhanañjāni plunders brahman householders with the help of the king, and plunders the king with the help of brahman householders.

Dhanañjāni āvuso brāhmaṇo rājānaṁ nissāya brāhmaṇagahapatike vilumpati. Brāhmaṇagahapatike nissāya rājānaṁ vilumpati. (MN ii 185)

Illustration: nissāya, with the help of

This [wretched human] body has come into being through food, sister.

• With the help of food, food must be abandoned.

Āhāraṁ nissāya āhāro pahātabbo

This [wretched human] body has come into being through craving.

• With the help of craving, craving must be abandoned.

Taṇhaṁ nissāya taṇhā pahātabbā. (AN ii 145)

Illustration: nissāya, with the help of

Brahmanists and householders are helpful in providing bhikkhus with robe material, almsfood, abodes, and therapeutic requisites. Bhikkhus are very helpful in explaining the teaching, and proclaiming the religious life in its complete purity.

Bahukārā bhikkhave brāhmaṇagahapatikā tumhākaṁ ye vo paccupaṭṭhitā cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhārehi. Tumhepi bhikkhave bahukārā brāhmaṇagahapatikānaṁ

Thus the religious life is lived with the help of each other for the sake of crossing the flood [of suffering], and for making a complete end of suffering.

Evamidaṁ bhikkhave aññamaññaṁ nissāya brahmacariyaṁ vussati oghassa nittharaṇatthāya sammā dukkhassa antakiriyāyā ti. (Iti 111)

Illustration: nissāya, with the help of

If a bhikkhu gains inward collectedness, gains mental concentration with the help of desire, this is called inward collectedness based on desire.

Chandaṁ ce bhikkhave bhikkhu nissāya labhati samādhiṁ labhati cittassekaggataṁ ayaṁ vuccati chandasamādhi. (SN v 268)

Illustration: nissāya, physically/spiritually relying on

The mighty sal trees physically relying on the Himalayas, the king of mountain ranges (himavantaṁ bhikkhave pabbatarājaṁ nissāya) grow in three ways: in branches, leaves and foliage; in bark and shoot; in softwood and pith.

Likewise, spiritually relying on the head of a family who has faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment] (saddhaṁ kulapatiṁ nissāya), the folk in his house grow in three ways: faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], virtue, and penetrative discernment. (AN i 152)

Illustration: nissāya nissāya, by one support or another

The Blessed One, bhante, has indeed explained to us the crossing of the flood [of suffering] by one support or another.

Nissāya nissāya kira no bhante bhagavatā oghassa nittharaṇā akkhātā. (MN ii 265)

Illustration: nissāya, dependent upon

Whatever creatures there are which assume the four postures, all assume the four postures dependent upon the earth, established upon the earth

sabbe te paṭhaviṁ nissāya paṭhaviyaṁ patiṭṭhāya.

So, too, dependent upon virtue, established upon virtue, a bhikkhu develops and cultivates the seven factors of enlightenment.

Evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu sīlaṁ nissāya sīle patiṭṭhāya satta bojjhaṅge bhāveti satta bojjhaṅge bahulīkaroti. (SN v 78)

Illustration: nissāya, dependent upon

When seeds and plants, whatever their kind, grow and reach maturity, all do so dependent upon the earth, established upon the earth.

sabbe te paṭhaviṁ nissāya paṭhaviyaṁ patiṭṭhāya. (MN i 230)

yaṁ nissāya

yaṁ nissāya: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: yaṁ nissāya, by reason of which

A bhikkhu with psychic power and mental mastery could, if he wished, focus on the solidness of that wooden log. How is that? There is the Solidness Phenomenon in that log of wood, by reason of which a bhikkhu with psychic power and mental mastery could focus on its solidness.

Ākaṅkhamāno āvuso bhikkhu iddhimā cetovasippatto amuṁ dārukkhandhaṁ paṭhavītveva adhimucceyya. Taṁ kissa hetu? Atthi āvuso amumhi dārukkhandhe paṭhavīdhātu yaṁ nissāya bhikkhu iddhimā cetovasippatto amuṁ dārukkhandhaṁ paṭhavītveva adhimucceyya. (AN iii 340-1)

Illustration: nissāya, for the sake of

Bhikkhus, there are five types of rag-robe wearers (paṁsukulikā), the best of whom undertakes the practice simply:

• for the sake of fewness of needs

appicchataṁ yeva nissāya

• for the sake of being content [with what is paltry and easily gotten]

santuṭṭhiṁ yeva nissāya

• for the sake of erasing defilements

sallekhaṁ yeva nissāya

• for the sake of physical seclusion

pavivekaṁ yeva nissāya

• for the sake of frugality

idamatthitaṁ yeva nissāya. (AN iii 219)

Illustration: nissāya, formal discipleship under a teacher

Ānanda, friend, the Blessed One has established a standard of ten years of formal discipleship under a teacher.

bhagavatā āvuso ānanda paññattaṁ dasavassāni nissāya vatthuṁ

One of ten years’ standing can offer formal spiritual support.

dasavassena nissayaṁ dātuṁ. (Vin.1.80)

Illustration: nissāya, in formal discipleship under

Bhante, be my teacher

acariyo me bhante hohī

I will live in formal discipleship under the Venerable.

Ayasmato nissāya vacchāmi. (Vin.1.60-61)

Illustrations: upanissāya

upanissāya

upanissāya: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: upanissāya, in

A bhikkhu lives in some quiet grove. While living there, his unestablished mindfulness does not become established.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu aññataraṁ vanapatthaṁ upanissāya viharati. Tassa taṁ vanapatthaṁ upanissāya viharato anupaṭṭhitā ceva sati na upaṭṭhāti. (MN i 104)

Illustration: upanissāya, near, in

A bhikkhu lives near some city… in some country… spiritually supported by some man

Idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu aññataraṁ nagaraṁ upanissāya viharati… aññataraṁ janapadaṁ upanissāya viharati… aññataraṁ puggalaṁ upanissāya viharati. (MN i 106)

Illustration: upanissāya, nearby

Bhikkhus, once there was a great lake in a forest with bull elephants living nearby.

Bhūtapubbaṁ bhikkhave araññāyatane mahāsarasi taṁ nāgā upanissāya viharanti. (SN ii 269)

Illustration: upanissāya, beside

The independent Brahmās approached the Blessed One and stood, one beside each doorpost.

Atha kho subrahmā ca paccekabrahmā suddhāvāso ca paccekabrahmā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu. Upasaṅkamitvā paccekaṁ dvārabāhaṁ upanissāya aṭṭhaṁsu. (SN i 146)

Illustration: upanissāya, in and around

Ānanda, go to all the bhikkhus who live in and around Rājagaha, and summon them to the assembly hall.

gaccha tvaṁ ānanda yāvatikā bhikkhū rājagahaṁ upanissāya viharanti te sabbe upaṭṭhānasālāyaṁ sannipātehī ti. (DN ii 76)

Illustration: upanissāya, spiritually supported by

There are four things spiritually supported by which a bhikkhu should abide

cattāro dhammā upanissāya vihātabbā.

In this regard a bhikkhu judges that:

• one thing should be followed.

• one thing should be endured.

• one thing should be avoided.

• one thing should be dispelled.

In this way a bhikkhu is endowed with spiritual resources

evaṁ kho bhikkhū bhikkhu nissayasampanno hotī ti. (AN iv 353-4)

Illustration: upanissāya, physically relying on; spiritually relying on

Just as the trees in a mighty forest physically relying on (upanissāya) a rocky mountain might become forest giants,

Yathāpi pabbato selo araññasmiṁ brahāvane
Taṁ rukkhā upanissāya vaḍḍhante te vanappatī.

Likewise in this world, spiritually relying on (upanissāya) the head of a family who has faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], His children, wife and relatives spiritually mature.

Tatheva sīlasampannaṁ saddhaṁ kulapatiṁ idha
Upanissāya vaḍḍhanti puttadārā ca bandhavā. (AN i 152)

Illustration: upanissāya, spiritually supported by

You should abide spiritually supported by one thing: diligence in [cultivating] spiritually wholesome factors.

Eko dhammo upanissāya vihātabbo appamādo kusalesu dhammesu. (SN i 89)

Illustration: upanissāya, spiritually supported by

He lives spiritually supported by the five powers of a disciple in training: the powers of faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], shame of wrongdoing, fear of wrongdoing, energetic application [to the practice], and wisdom.

So imāni pañca sekhabalāni upanissāya viharati: saddhābalaṁ hiribalaṁ ottappabalaṁ viriyabalaṁ paññābalaṁ. (AN ii 151)

Illustration: upanissāya, spiritually supported by

How about if I honoured, respected and abided spiritually supported by this very teaching to which I have fully awakened?

Yannūnāhaṁ yvāyaṁ dhammo mayā abhisambuddho tameva dhammaṁ sakkatvā garukatvā upanissāya vihareyyanti. (SN i 139)

Illustration: upanissāya, in spiritual discipleship under

What ascetic or Brahmanist can I honour and respect and dwell under in spiritual discipleship?

Kannu khvāhaṁ samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā sakkatvā garukatvā upanissāya vihareyyan ti. (SN i 139)

Illustration: upanissāya, in spiritual discipleship under

One lives in spiritual discipleship under the Teacher or a companion in the religious life of the standing of a teacher

satthāraṁ vā upanissāya viharati aññataraṁ vā garuṭṭhāniyaṁ sabrahmacāriṁ. (DN iii 284-5)

Illustration: upanissāya, in spiritual discipleship under

Soon I shall have lived in spiritual discipleship under the Blessed One for three years.

yadagge ahaṁ mahāli bhagavantaṁ upanissāya viharāmi na ciraṁ tīṇi vassāni. (DN i 152)

Illustration: upanissāya, dependent on

Desire arises in the world dependent on what they call ‘pleasing’ and ‘displeasing.’

Sātaṁ asātanti yamāhu loke tamupanissāya pahoti chando. (Snp 867)

Illustration: upanissāya, dependent on

Dependent on ascetic practices and self-mortification, or on what is seen, heard, sensed, [or cognised], with raised voices they wail for spiritual purity, not free of craving for various states of individual existence.

Tapūpanissāya jigucchitaṁ vā atha vāpi diṭṭhaṁ vā sutaṁ mutaṁ vā
Uddhaṁsarā suddhimanutthunanti avītataṇhāse bhavābhavesu. (Snp 901)

Illustrations: nissita

nissitaṁ

nissitaṁ: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissitaṁ, embedded in

He indeed removed from me the arrow [of craving], hard to discern, embedded in my heart;

Abbuhi vata me sallaṁ duddasaṁ hadayanissitaṁ. (Thi 52)

Illustration: nissitaṁ, immersed in

Whoever you know to be of such a kind, immersed in worldly life (gehanissitaṁ), of unvirtuous desires, thoughts, conduct, and sphere of personal application, all of you unitedly shun him. (Snp 280-281)

nissitā

nissitā: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissitā, living in

The creatures living in the grass and wood will meet with calamity and disaster

ye tiṇakaṭṭhanissitā pāṇā te anayavyasanaṁ āpajjeyyuṁ. (SN ii 152)

Illustration: nissitā, living in

Suppose there is a flayed cow. If it stands near a wall, the creatures living in the wall (kuḍḍanissītā pāṇā) would nibble her. (SN ii 99)

Illustration: nissitaṁ, conduces to

So, too, dependent upon virtue, established upon virtue, a bhikkhu develops and cultivates the seven factors of enlightenment.

Evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu sīlaṁ nissāya sīle patiṭṭhāya satta bojjhaṅge bhāveti satta bojjhaṅge bahulīkaroti.

How does he do this?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu sīlaṁ nissāya sīle patiṭṭhāya satta bojjhaṅge bhāveti satta bojjhaṅge bahulīkaro ti?

In this regard a bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness (… detached awareness) which conduces to seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], to non-attachment [to originated phenomena], to the ending [of originated phenomena], and which results in the relinquishment [of the whole phenomenon of attachment].

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu satisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti (… upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti) vivekanissitaṁ virāganissitaṁ nirodhanissitaṁ vossaggapariṇāmiṁ.

In this way, dependent upon virtue, established upon virtue, a bhikkhu develops and cultivates the seven factors of enlightenment.

Evaṁ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu sīlaṁ nissāya sīle patiṭṭhāya satta bojjhaṅge bhāveti satta bojjhaṅge bahulīkarotī ti.

Comment:

There are five reasons why nissitaṁ does not mean ‘supported by.’

1) Given that the sutta says the bojjhaṅgā are brought to development through virtue, it would be discordant in the same sutta to say that the bojjhaṅgā are ‘supported by’ viveka virāga and nirodha.

2) What the bojjhaṅgā are ‘supported by’ is explained in the Bojjhaṅgasaṁyuttaṁ: virtue (SN v 63), listening to the teaching (SN v 67), developing the [contemplation of the] four bases of mindfulness (SN v 73), virtuous friendship (SN v 78), proper contemplation (SN v 79), and diligence [in the practice] (SN v 91).

3) The Nibbidā Sutta (SN v 82) says seven factors of enlightenment when developed and cultivated lead to ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānaya saṁvattanti. This list makes it clear that virāga and nirodha are goals of the practice, not supports for it.

4) The factors of the eightfold path are similarly called vivekanissitaṁ virāganissitaṁ nirodhanissitaṁ vossaggapariṇāmiṁ (SN v 54). To propose that social activites like right speech, right conduct and right means of livelihood are ‘supported by’ or ‘based upon’ viveka virāga and nirodha is obviously untrue.

5) Bodhi says that ‘the terms ‘seclusion’ (viveka), ‘dispassion’ (virāga), and ‘cessation’ (nirodha) may all be understood as referring to Nibbāna. Their use in this context signifies that the development of the enlightenment factors is directed to Nibbāna’ (MLDB p.1172 n.48).

Illustration: nissitaṁ, conduce to

The black crow dwelling [and feasting] in its home in the charnel ground arouses mindfulness in me regarding the body that conduces to non-attachment [to originated phenomena].

Apaṇḍaro aṇḍasambhavo sīvathikāya niketacāriko uppādayātava me satiṁ sandehasmiṁ virāganissitaṁ. (Tha 599)

nissito

nissito: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissito, on account of

The wise call that thing a spiritual shackle if, on account of it, one regards other people as inferior.

Taṁ vāpi ganthaṁ kusalā vadanti yaṁ nissito passati hinamaññaṁ. (Snp 798)

Illustration: nissitā, supported by

If I were to direct this detached awareness so purified and refined to the state of awareness of boundless space, and to develop my mind accordingly, then this detached awareness of mine, supported by that, fuelled by it, would remain for a very long time.

imaṁ ce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁparisuddhaṁ evaṁpariyodātaṁ ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ evaṁ ayaṁ upekkhā tannissitā tadupādānā ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭheyya. (MN iii 243)

Illustration: nissito, supported by

Alone and unsupported, Sakyan, I am not able to cross the great flood [of suffering].

Eko ahaṁ sakka mahantamoghaṁ anissito no visahāmi tārituṁ

Tell me, All-Seeing Eye, a basis [for spiritual development] (ārammaṇaṁ) supported by which I might cross this [wretched] flood [of suffering].

Ārammaṇaṁ brūhi samantacakkhu yaṁ nissito oghamimaṁ tareyyaṁ. (Snp 1073)

Illustration: nissitā, supported by

Householders and ascetics alike, each supported by the other, both fathom the true teaching; both attain unsurpassed safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence]:

sāgārā anagārā ca ubho aññoññanissitā; ārādhayanti saddhammaṁ yogakkhemaṁ anuttaraṁ. (Iti 111)

Illustration: nissito, relies on

By three means, a brigand robs, plunders, burgles, and ambushes.

Tīhi bhikkhave aṅgehi samannāgato mahācoro sandhimpi chindati nillopampi harati ekāgārikampi karoti paripanthe pi tiṭṭhati.

He relies on the inaccessible, the impenetrable, and the powerful.

visamanissito ca hoti gahananissito ca hoti balavanissito ca hoti.

How does a brigand rely on the inaccessible?

Kathañca bhikkhave mahācoro visamanissito hoti.

He relies on impassible rivers and mountains hard to climb.

idha bhikkhave mahācoro nadīviduggaṁ vā nissito hoti pabbatavisamaṁ vā.

How does a brigand rely on the impenetrable?

Kathañca bhikkhave mahācoro gahananissito hoti.

He relies on jungles of grass or trees, or thickets, or woodland groves.

idha bhikkhave mahācoro tiṇagahanaṁ vā nissito hoti rukkhagahanaṁ vā gedhaṁ vā pana vanasaṇḍaṁ.

How does a brigand rely on the powerful?

Kathañca bhikkhave mahācoro balavanissito hoti

He relies on kings or kings’ ministers (rājānaṁ vā rājamahāmattānaṁ vā nissito hoti), thinking that if anyone accuses him, these people will say what is useful in defence, and they do so.

idha bhikkhave mahācoro rājānaṁ vā rājamahāmattānaṁ vā nissito hoti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: sace maṁ koci kiñci vakkhati ime me rājāno vā rāja mahāmattā vā pariyodhāya atthaṁ bhaṇissantī ti.

In the same way, an unvirtuous bhikkhu possessed of three qualities (tīhi dhammehi samannāgato) wanders about hurting and injuring himself; he is blameworthy, criticised by the wise, and begets much demerit. What are the three?

In this regard, an unvirtuous bhikkhu relies on the crooked, the impenetrable and the powerful.

visamanissito ca hoti gahananissito ca balavanissito ca.

How does an unvirtuous bhikkhu rely on the crooked?

Kathañca bhikkhave pāpabhikkhu visamanissito hoti.

In this regard, an unvirtuous bhikkhu is possessed of crookedness in deeds of body, speech, and mind.

idha bhikkhave pāpabhikkhu visamena kāyakammena… vacīkammena… manokammena samannāgato hoti.

How does an unvirtuous bhikkhu rely on the impenetrable?

Kathañca bhikkhave pāpabhikkhu gahananissito hoti

In this regard, the unvirtuous bhikkhu has a wrong view [of reality]. He is possessed of an unenlightening doctrine.

idha bhikkhave pāpabhikkhu micchādiṭṭhiko hoti antaggāhikāya diṭṭhiyā samannāgato

How does an unvirtuous bhikkhu rely on the powerful?

Kathañca bhikkhave pāpabhikkhu balavanissito hoti

He relies on kings or kings’ ministers thinking that if anyone accuses him, the kings or kings’ ministers will defend him. And they do so.

idha bhikkhave pāpabhikkhu rājānaṁ vā rājamahāmattānaṁ vā nissito hoti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: sace maṁ koci kiñci vakkhati ime me rājāno vā rājamahāmattā vā pariyodhāya atthaṁ bhaṇissantī ti. (AN i 153-5)

Illustration: nissitaṁ, associated with

Whoever thinks such thoughts as are unvirtuous and associated with the household life is following a wrong path.

Yo vitakkaṁ vitakketi pāpakā gehanissitaṁ kummaggaṁ paṭipanno so. (Iti 117)

Illustration: nissitaṁ, associated with

With the destruction, fading away, ending, giving up, and relinquishment of clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification associated with the Solidness Phenomenon, I know that my mind is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

ye ca paṭhavīdhātunissitā upayūpādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā tesaṁ khayā virāgā nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā vimuttaṁ me cittanti pajānāmi. (MN iii 31)

Illustration: nissitā, associated with

What is the neutral attitude that is diversified, associated with diversity?

Katamā ca bhikkhave upekkhā nānattā nānattasitā:

There is a neutral attitude associated with visible objects, audible objects… mentally known objects.

atthi bhikkhave upekkhā rūpesu atthi saddesu atthi gandhesu atthi rasesu atthi phoṭṭhabbesu.

What is the neutral attitude that is undiversified, associated with undiversity?

Katamā ca bhikkhave upekkhā ekattā ekattasitā.

There is a neutral attitude associated with the state of awareness of boundless space, associated with the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, associated with the state of awareness of nonexistence, associated with the state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception.

atthi bhikkhave upekkhā ākāsānañcāyatananissitā atthi viññāṇañcāyatananissitā atthi ākiñcaññāyatananissitā atthi nevasaññānāsaññāyatananissitā. (MN iii 220)

Comment:

Here nissitā and sitā are synonyms.

Illustration: nissitaṁ, associated with

Friends, I have treated the Solidness Phenomenon as void of personal qualities, and the Solidness Phenomenon as having no [absolute] Selfhood associated with it.

paṭhavīdhātuṁ kho ahaṁ āvuso na attato upagacchiṁ na ca paṭhavīdhātunissitaṁ attānaṁ. (MN iii 32)

Illustration: nissitā, bound up with

Thoughts bound up with attachment are the winds which carry along a man with a wrong view [of reality].

Vāhā vahanti duddiṭṭhiṁ saṅkappā rāganissitā. (Dhp 339)

Illustration: nissitā, based on

It is a loss for me, not a gain; it is unfortunate for me, not fortunate, that when I recollect the Buddha, the teaching, and the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples in this way, detached awareness based on what is spiritually wholesome is not established within me.

upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhātī ti. (MN i 186)

Illustration: nissito, based on

The devas envy the bhikkhu who collects his food on almsround, who is self-reliant, not supported by a patron, but not if it is based on desire for praise and fame.

Piṇḍapātikassa bhikkhuno attabharassa anaññaposino
Devā pihayanti tādino no ce saddasilokanissito ti. (Uda 31)

Illustrations: nissita, attached

Introduction

In the following group of contexts, I take nissita to mean ‘attached’ not ‘dependent’ for two reasons:

1) Because nissita is frequently linked to other words implying grasping: upādāya, upādiyati, chandarāgaṁ, paṭibaddho, and saṁyutto. For example:

• One who is attached, grasping states of individual existence in this world or another does not transcend the round of birth and death

nissito ca upādiyaṁ
Itthabhāvaññathābhāvaṁ saṁsāraṁ nātivattati. (Snp 752)

• And he (practising satipaṭṭhāna mindfulness) abides unattached, not grasping anything in the world

anissito ca viharati na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. (DN ii 292)

2) Secondly, certain of these contexts do not support ‘dependent.’ For instance, it seems more sensible to say a bhikkhu is free of attachment to nourishment of all kinds (sabbāhāramanissito: Snp 749) than to say he is not dependent on them. Being not attached to food does not mean not dependent. Similarly, it seems more sensible to say a bhikkhu is not attached to the past (pubbamantamanissito: Snp 849) than to say he is not dependent on the past, as Norman puts it.

nissitena

nissitena: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: nissitena, attached

These two aspects of the Untroubled were made known by the Seer, free of attachment, and of excellent qualities.

Duve imā cakkhumatā pakāsitā
Nibbānadhātu anissitena tādinā.(Iti 39)

Illustration: nissito, attached

Having abandoned whatever is beloved or unbeloved, being without grasping, one who is not attached to anything at all, who is free of things conducive to psychological bondage, he would properly fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism in the world.

Hitvāna piyañca appiyañca anupādāya anissito kuhiñci
Saṁyojaniyehi vippamutto sammā so loke paribbajeyya. (Snp 363)

anissito

anissito: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: anissito, free of attachment

He sees no substantial reality in objects of attachment.

Na so upadhīsu sārameti

Having eliminated his fondness and attachment regarding objects of attachment,

Ādānesu vineyya chandarāgaṁ

He is free of attachment, not needing to be led by others,

So anissito anaññaneyyo

He would properly fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism in the world.

Sammā so loke paribbajeyya. (Snp 364)

Illustration: nissitā, attached

Those doctrines, at variance with each other, to which ascetics and Brahmanists are attached; .

Ye keci'me vādapathā puthussitā yannissitā samaṇabrāhmaṇā ca. (AN ii 9)

Illustration: anissito, free of attachment

Knowing the nature of reality, he is free of attachment.

ñatvā dhammaṁ anissito. (Snp 947)

Illustration: anissito, unattached

And he (practising satipaṭṭhāna mindfulness) abides unattached, not grasping anything in the world.

Anissito ca viharati na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. (DN ii 292)

Illustration: nissita, attached

There is trembling in one who is attached.

There is no trembing in one who is free of attachment.

Anissitassa calitaṁ natthi. (MN iii 266)

Illustration: nissitaṁ, attached

Therefore, householder, you should train yourself [with this reflection]: ‘I will not grasp the visual sense; my mind will not be attached to the visual sense.

Tasmātiha te gahapati evaṁ sikkhitabbaṁ na cakkhuṁ upādiyissāmī na ca me cakkhunissitaṁ viññāṇaṁ bhavissatī ti. (MN iii 259)

Illustration: nissitaṁ, attached to

When the devas with Inda, Brahmā, and Pajāpati seek a bhikkhu who is liberated in mind (vimuttacittaṁ), they do not find [anything of which they could say]

‘The stream of consciousness of the Perfect One is attached to this’

idaṁ nissitaṁ tathāgatassa viññāṇan ti.

For what reason? The Perfect One is untraceable even in this lifetime, I declare.

Taṁ kissa hetu diṭṭhevāhaṁ bhikkhave dhamme tathāgataṁ ananuvejjo ti vadāmi. (MN i 140)

Illustration: nissitaṁ, attached to

If he takes delight in that detached awareness, welcomes it, and persists in cleaving to it then the mind is attached to it. That is grasping.

So taṁ upekkhaṁ abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati tassa taṁ upekkhaṁ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato tannissitaṁ hoti viññāṇaṁ tadupādānaṁ. (MN ii 265)

kiṁ nissitā

kiṁ nissitā: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: kiṁ nissitā, for what reason

For what reason have seers, men, khattiyas, and brahmans, so many of them, offered gifts to devas here in the world. I ask you, Blessed One. Tell me this.

Kiṁ nissitā isayo manujā khattiyā brāhmaṇā devatānaṁ
Yaññamakappayiṁsu puthūdha loke pucchāmi taṁ bhagavā brūhi me taṁ. (Snp 1043)

These many seers, men, khattiyas, and brahmans who offered gifts to devas here in the world, Puṇṇaka, being tied to old age, offered gifts hoping for states of individual existence in this world [or another].

Ye kecime isayo manujā khattiyā brāhmaṇā devatānaṁ
Yaññamakappayiṁsu puthūdha loke āsiṁsamānā puṇṇaka itthabhāvaṁ
Jaraṁ sitā yaññamakappayiṁsu. (Snp 1044)

Illustrations: upanissita

upanissitā

upanissitā: (main article see: nissaya)

Illustration: upanissitā, attached

The religious philosophers outside this [training system] are attached to dogmatic views.

Ito bahiddhā pāsaṇḍā diṭṭhiyo upanissitā. (Thi 184)

Illustration: upanissitā, attached

The investigating sage knowing that these [so-called pandits] are attached, and knowing their states of attachment [according to reality], knowing this, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], he does not dispute.

Ete ca ñatvā upanissitā ti ñatvā muni nissaye so vīmaṁsi
Ñatvā vimutto na vivādameti. (Snp 877)

nekkhamma

Renderings

Introduction

Etymology

The derivation of nekkhamma is uncertain. PED says it may be derived from:

1) Nikkhamati ‘to go forth from, to come out of, to get out, issue forth, depart’ (PED).

2) Nikkāma: ‘without craving or lust, desireless’ (PED).

But in actual useage it contrasts sensuousness. This suggests a derivation from Nikkāma in the meaning ‘without sensuous pleasure.’ This fits the following quotes:

1) Three spiritually unwholesome ways of thought: sensuous thought, unbenevolent thought, malicious thought. Three spiritually wholesome ways of thought: unsensuous thought, benevolent thought, compassionate thought.

Tayo akusalasaṅkappā: kāmasaṅkappo vyāpādasaṅkappo vihiṁsāsaṅkappo. Tayo kusalasaṅkappā: nekkhammasaṅkappo avyāpādasaṅkappo avihiṁsāsaṅkapo. (DN iii 215)

2) The deliverance from sensuous pleasure, that is, the practice of unsensuousness.

kāmānametaṁ nissaraṇaṁ yadidaṁ nekkhammaṁ. (DN iii 275)

Renunciation and the practice of unsensuousness

Nekkhamma is usually called ‘renunciation,’ which implies the renouncing of things unnecessary to the religious life. But nekkhamma must surely involve not having those things in the first place. It seems better represented by the term ‘the practice of unsensuousness.’ These terms fit with the way in which nekkhamma is paired in the suttas.

Paired with seclusion from sensuous pleasure

Nekkhamma is paired in the scriptures with:

• seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

• being withdrawn from human fellowship

• deliverance from sensuous pleasure

• freedom from attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality

khayā rāgassa vītarāgattā… khayā dosassa vītadosattā… khayā mohassa vītamohattā nekkhammādhimutto hoti. (AN iii 377)

See Illustrations for fuller quotations.

Paired against enjoyment of sensuous pleasure

Nekkhamma is paired against:

• enjoying sensuous pleasure

• sensuous yearning

kāmadhātu: Chayimā ānanda dhātuyo kāmadhātu nekkhammadhātu vyāpādadhātu avyāpādadhātu vihiṁsādhātu avihiṁsādhātu. (MN iii 62)

• taking delight in human fellowship

• eating as much as one’s belly will hold, giving oneself over to the pleasures of sleep, languor, and torpor

nahanūna me āyasmanto imassa nekkhammasukhassa… yassāhaṁ nekkhamma sukhassa… nikāmalābhī assaṁ akicchalābhī akasiralābhī tathā hi me āyasmanto yāvadatthaṁ udarāvadehakaṁ bhuñjitvā seyyasukhaṁ passasukhaṁ middhasukhaṁ anuyuttā viharanti. (AN iv 343)

• fondness and attachment

See Illustrations for full quotes.

Illustrations

Illustration: nekkhamma, unsensuousness; nekkhamma, unsensuous

Because of the phenomenon of unsensuousness, unsensuous mental imagery arises, unsensuous thought, unsensuous hankering, unsensuous passion, unsensuous quests.

Nekkhammadhātuṁ bhikkhave paṭicca uppajjati nekkhammasaññā. Nekkhammasaññaṁ paṭicca uppajjati nekkhammasaṅkappo. Nekkhammasaṅkappaṁ paṭicca uppajjati nekkhammacchando. Nekkhammacchandaṁ paṭicca uppajjati nekkhammapariḷāho. Nekkhammapariḷāhaṁ paṭicca uppajjati nekkhammapariyesanā.

Engaged in unsensuous quests the learned noble disciple conducts himself rightly in three ways: by body, speech, and mind.

Nekkhammapariyesanaṁ bhikkhave pariyesamāno sutavā ariyasāvako tīhi ṭhānehi sammā paṭipajjati: kāyena vācāya manasā. (SN ii 152)

Illustration: nekkhamma, unsensuousness

There are these six phenomena:

Chayimā ānanda dhātuyo

sensuous yearning phenomenon, unsensuousness phenomenon

ill will phenomenon, goodwill phenomenon

maliciousness phenomenon, compassion phenomenon

Illustration: nekkhamma, the practice of unsensuousness

A bhikkhu, secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]… fourth jhāna.

Idhūdāyi bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati… catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

This is called the pleasure of the practice of unsensuousness, the pleasure of meditative seclusion, the pleasure of inward peace, the pleasure of enlightenment. This pleasure should be pursued, developed, and cultivated, I declare. It should not be feared.

Idaṁ vuccati nekkhammasukhaṁ pavivekasukhaṁ upasamasukhaṁ sambodhasukhaṁ āsevitabbaṁ bhāvetabbaṁ bahulīkātabbaṁ. Na bhāyitabbaṁ etassa sukhassāti vadāmi. (MN i 454)

Comment:

Vivekajaṁ: ‘born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].’ See Glossary sv Viveka.

Illustration: nekkhamma, the practice of unsensuousness

Indeed, Ānanda, there is no possibility that a bhikkhu who takes pleasure and delight in company, who is given to the enjoyment of company, taking pleasure and delight in human fellowship, given to the enjoyment of human fellowship, can be one who attains at will, without trouble, without difficulty, that which is the pleasure of the practice of unsensuousness, the pleasure of meditative seclusion, the pleasure of inward peace, the pleasure of enlightenment.

So vatānanda bhikkhu saṅgaṇikārāmo saṅgaṇikārato saṅgaṇikārāmataṁ anuyutto gaṇārāmo gaṇarato gaṇasammudito. Yaṁ taṁ nekkhammasukhaṁ pavivekasukhaṁ upasamasukhaṁ sambodhasukhaṁ tassa sukhassa nikāmalābhī bhavissati akicchalābhī akasiralābhīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

But a bhikkhu who dwells alone, withdrawn from human fellowship, may well be one who attains at will, without trouble, without difficulty, that which is the pleasure of the practice of unsensuousness, the pleasure of meditative seclusion, the pleasure of inward peace, the pleasure of enlightenment.

Yo ca kho so ānanda bhikkhu eko gaṇasmā vūpakaṭṭho viharati. Tassetaṁ bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṁ: yaṁ taṁ nekkhammasukhaṁ pavivekasukhaṁ upasamasukhaṁ sambodhasukhaṁ1 tassa sukhassa nikāmalābhī bhavissati akicchalābhī akasiralābhīti ṭhānametaṁ vijjati. (MN iii 110)

Illustration: nekkhamma, the practice of unsensuousness

Sensuous pleasure, a vile pleasure, the pleasure of the common man, an ignoble pleasure, this is a state associated with pain, distress, vexation, and anguish. It is a wrong practice. Therefore it is defiled.

Tatra bhikkhave yamidaṁ kāmasukhaṁ mīḷhasukhaṁ pothujjanasukhaṁ anariyasukhaṁ sadukkho eso dhammo saupaghāto saupāyāso sapariḷāho micchāpaṭipadā. Tasmā eso dhammo saraṇo.

But the pleasure of the practice of unsensuousness, the pleasure of meditative seclusion, the pleasure of inward peace, the pleasure of enlightenment, this is a state not associated with pain, distress, vexation, and anguish. It is a right practice. Therefore it is undefiled.

Tatra bhikkhave yamidaṁ nekkhammasukhaṁ pavivekasukhaṁ upasamasukhaṁ sambodhisukhaṁ adukkho eso dhammo anupaghāto anupāyāso apariḷāho sammāpaṭipadā. Tasmā eso dhammo araṇo. (MN iii 236)

Illustration: nekkhamma, the practice of unsensuousness

When you are assembled and met together and abide given to company, I think that surely you are unable to attain the pleasure of the practice of unsensuousness, the pleasure of meditative seclusion, the pleasure of inward peace, the pleasure of enlightenment which I can.

Tumbhākampi kho nāgita saṅgamma samāgamma saṅgaṇikavihāraṁ anuyuttānaṁ viharataṁ evaṁ hoti: nahanūna me āyasmanto imassa nekkhammasukhassa pavivekasukhassa upasamasukhassa sambodhasukhassa nikāmalābhino assu akicchalābhino akasiralābhino yassāhaṁ

Or I see bhikkhus joking and merry making by poking one another with their fingers and think the same thing.

Idhāhaṁ nāgita bhikkhū passāmi aññamaññaṁ aṅgulipatodakehi sañjagghante saṅkīḷante. Tassa mayhaṁ nāgita evaṁ hoti

Or I see bhikkhus after eating as much as their bellies will hold, giving themselves over to the pleasures of sleep, languor, and torpor, and think the same thing.

Idhāhaṁ nāgita bhikkhū passāmi yāvātthaṁ udarāvadehakaṁ bhuñjitvā seyyasukhaṁ passasukhaṁ middhasukhaṁ anuyutte viharante. Tassa mayhaṁ nāgita evaṁ hoti…. (AN iv 342-3)

Illustration: nekkhamma, the practice of unsensuousness

Some might say that the arahant is intent on the practice of unsensuousness out of faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment]

saddhāmattakaṁ nūna ayamāyasmā nissāya nekkhammādhimutto ti.

But the arahant is intent on the practice of unsensuousness due to freedom from attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality

khayā rāgassa vītarāgattā… dosassa vītadosattā… mohassa vītamohattā nekkhammādhimutto hoti. (MN i 302)

Illustration: nekkhamma, the practice of unsensuousness

Fondness and attachment regarding the visual sense… the mental sense is a spiritual defilement.

yo bhikkhave cakkhusmiṁ… manasmiṁ chandarāgo cittasse’so upakkileso

When a bhikkhu has abandoned the spiritual defilement in these six cases, his mind inclines to the practice of unsensuousness.

yato kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno imesu chasu ṭhānesu cetaso upakkileso pahīno hoti nekkhammaninnaṁ cassa cittaṁ hoti. (SN iii 232)

Illustration: nekkhamma, the practice of unsensuousness

A mind trained in the practice of unsensuousness becomes wieldy in regard to those things that are to be known through transcendent insight.

nekkhammaparibhāvitaṁ cittaṁ kammaniyaṁ khāyati abhiññā sacchikaraṇiyesu dhammesū ti. (SN iii 232)

nekkhammena

nekkhammena: (main article see: nekkhamma)

Illustration: nekkhammena, the practice of unsensuousness

Indeed, there is no possibility that Prince Jayasena, living amidst sensuous pleasure, enjoying sensuous pleasure, being consumed by sensuous thought, tormented by sensuous passion, eager in the quest for sensuous pleasure, could know or see or realise that which can be known, seen, attained and realised through the practice of unsensuousness.

So vata yaṁ taṁ nekkhammena ñātabbaṁ nekkhammena daṭṭhabbaṁ nekkhammena pattabbaṁ nekkhammena sacchikātabbaṁ taṁ vata jayaseno rājakumāro kāmamajjhe vasanto kāme paribhuñjanto kāmavitakkehi khajjamāno kāmapariḷāhena pariḍayhamāno kāmapariyesanāya ussuko ñassati vā dakkhiti vā sacchi vā karissatīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (MN iii 130)

nekkhammaṁ

nekkhammaṁ: (main article see: nekkhamma)

Illustration: nekkhammaṁ, the practice of unsensuousness

In this regard, when a bhikkhu is contemplating sensuous pleasure, his mind is not energised, nor does it becomes serene, settled, intent upon it. But when contemplating the practice of unsensuousness his mind becomes energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno kāmaṁ manasikaroto kāmesu cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati). Nekkhammaṁ kho panassa manasikaroto nekkhamme cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati).

When his mind is well-directed, well-developed, has completely emerged from sensuous pleasure, been liberated and emancipated from it, then whatever vexatious and anguishing perceptually obscuring states that arise due to pursuing sensuous pleasure, he is freed from them. He does not experience that sense impression. This is called deliverance from sensuous pleasure.

Tassa taṁ cittaṁ sugataṁ subhāvitaṁ suvuṭṭhitaṁ suvimuttaṁ suvisaṁyuttaṁ kāmehi; ye ca kāmapaccayā uppajjanti āsavā vighātapariḷāhā mutto so tehi na so taṁ vedanaṁ vediyati. Idamakkhātaṁ kāmānaṁ nissaraṇaṁ. (AN iii 245)

Illustration: nekkhammaṁ, the practice of unsensuousness

If one such as he ends up going forth [into the ascetic life], the practice of unsensuousness being his aspiration and delight, being prudent, best of men he’ll be, peerless, never more to be reborn.

Sace ca pabbajjamupeti tādiso nekkhammachandābhirato vicakkhaṇo
Aggo na so gacchati jātu khambhataṁ naruttamo esahi tassa dhammatā ti. (DN iii 147)

Illustration: nekkhamma, the practice of unsensuousness

In that case, the bhikkhu, mentally inclining, verging, and drifting towards seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], psychologically withdrawn [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], taking delight in the practice of unsensuousness, is one whose words are exclusively connected with religious inspiration.

Tatra bhikkhu vivekaninnena cittena vivekapoṇena vivekapabbhārena vavakaṭṭhena nekkhammābhiratena aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti. (AN iv 233)

no c’assa no ca me siyā

Renderings

Introduction

Assa and siyā: renderings

Assa and siyā are optative forms of atthi, meaning either:

1) ‘if he were or should be’ (PGPL, section 510).

2) ‘it might be’ (DOP, sv atthi).

Assa: alternative renderings

Assa can also be rendered as:

1) ‘it would be’ i.e. the conditional simple tense. For example:

• ‘May the Blessed One live for a long time, free of sickness and illness! That would be for the welfare and happiness of the manyfolk’

tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya. (DN ii 225)

2) ‘it would have been’ i.e. the conditional perfect progressive tense. For example, if the Buddha were to die prematurely, Venerable Sāriputta said he would think:

• ‘If the Blessed One had lived for a long time, that would have been for the welfare and happiness of the manyfolk’

sace hi bhagavā ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭheyya tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya. (SN ii 274)

Ca/ca connective

1) The truncated c’ in the first line of the formula stands for ca not ce because it is part of the ca/ca connective. This usually means ‘and… and,’ but not here as we will see.

2) Bodhi says ‘The commentaries take the truncated particle c’ to represent ce, “if,” and interpret the two parts of the formula as conditionals’ (NDB note 1532). Thus he says the commentaries would render the opening phrase: ‘If it had not been, it would not be mine.’

3) Bodhi says ‘I dissent from the commentaries on the meaning of c’, which I take to represent ca (=“and”). The syntax of the phrase as a whole requires this.’ By which he means the syntax of a ca/ca connective requires this. Bodhi thus assumes the ca/ca connective has but one meaning: ‘and… and.’ But Norman says: ‘ca in the sense of “if” is common in Pāli’ (EVI n.37).

Ca and the conditional sense

PED says ca has four meanings:

(a) indefinite sense (with a demonstrative pronoun) e.g. yañ ca kho ceteti: whatever he thinks.

(b) connective sense: ‘and, then, now.’

(c) disjunctive sense: ‘but.’

(d) conditional sense: ‘if,’ ‘might,’ ‘may.’

Examples of conditional ca are as follows:

Examples of conditional ca: ‘if’

PED gives an example of ca in its conditional sense (‘if’), which is especially noteworthy because it is part of a ca/ca connective:

• If Sakka will give me a wish, that wish will be granted

Sakko ca me varaṁ dajjā so ca labbhetha me varo. (J.5.216)

Examples of conditional ca: ‘if’

• If there were no deed that produced karmic consequences in the sensuous plane of existence would individual existence in the sensuous plane of existence be discerned?

Kāmadhātuvepakkañca ānanda kammaṁ nābhavissa api nu kho kāmabhavo paññāyethā ti? (AN i 223)

Examples of conditional ca: ‘might there not be’

• Come now, bhikkhus, let me invite you (to censure me): might there not be any deed of mine (na ca me kiñci), either bodily or verbal, which you would censure?

Handadāni bhikkhave pavārayāmi vo na ca me kiñci garahatha kāyikaṁ vā vācasikaṁ vā ti.

• Bhante, there is no deed of the Blessed One, either bodily or verbal, that we would censure.

na kho mayaṁ bhante bhagavato kiñci garahāma kāyikaṁ vā vācasikaṁ vā. (SN i 190)

Examples of conditional ca: ‘May I not waste away!’

• Formerly, bhante, when I was ill I dwelt with my bodily form tranquillised. Now I do not attain that inward collectedness. As I do not attain that inward collectedness, bhante, it occurs to me: ‘May I not waste away! (no ca khvāhaṁ parihāyāmī ti).

Pubbeva khvāhaṁ bhante gelaññe passambhetvā kāyasaṅkhāre viharāmi. Sohaṁ taṁ samādhiṁ nappaṭilabhāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ bhante taṁ samādhiṁ appaṭilabhato evaṁ hoti no ca khvāhaṁ parihāyāmī ti. (SN iii 125)

The trailer phrase

Occasionally a trailer phrase is added to the no c’assa formula, as follows:

‘That which is, that which is brought about, that I abandon’

yadatthi yaṁ bhūtaṁ taṁ pajahāmī ti. (AN iv 75)

This second phrase is a logical progression of the first phrase:

1) If it had not been (no c’assa)

2) I abandon that which is (yadatthi)

The application of the no c’assa reflection

The Udāna Sutta (SN iii 57) says the no c’assa reflection concerns the five aggregates. That is, with the cessation of the five aggregates, a bhikkhu reflects that had the aggregates not been, they would not have been “mine.” They will be not; not “mine” will they be.’ See Illustrations below.

So rūpassa vibhavā vedanāya vibhavā saññā vibhavā saṅkhārānaṁ vibhavā viññāṇassa vibhavā evaṁ kho bhikkhu no cassaṁ no ca me siyā nābhavissa na me bhavissatī ti evaṁ adhimuccamāno bhikkhu chindeyya orambhāgiyāni saṁyojanānī ti. (SN iii 57)

For the ignorant Everyman, this reflection arouses terror (tāsaṁ āpajjati SN iii 57).

The Annihilationists formula

A similar formula is ascribed to annihilationists. Its slight distortion implies the view “I will be destroyed,” as follows:

• ‘Had I not been, it would not have been “mine.” I will be not, not “mine” will it be’

no c’assaṁ no ca me siyā na bhavissāmi na me bhavissatī ti.

This annihilationist attitude can be similarly applied to the five aggregates.

Illustrations

no c’assa

no c’assa: (main article see: no c’assa no ca me siyā)

Illustration: no c’assa, had it not been

• ’A bhikkhu practises thus:

Idhānanda bhikkhu evaṁ paṭipanno hoti

‘Had it not been, it would not have been “mine.” It will be not; not “mine” will it be. That which is, that which is brought about, that I abandon.’

no c’assa no ca me siyā na bhavissati na me bhavissati. Yadatthi yaṁ bhūtaṁ taṁ pajahāmī ti

In this way he attains detached awareness.

evaṁ upekkhaṁ paṭilabhati. (MN ii 265)

no c’assaṁ

no c’assaṁ: (main article see: no c’assa no ca me siyā)

Illustration: no c’assaṁ, Had I not been

Annihilationist formula:

‘Had I not been, it would not have been “mine.” I will be not, not “mine” will it be’

no c’assaṁ no ca me siyā na bhavissāmi na me bhavissatī ti. (SN iii 99)

That annihilationist view is an originated phenomenon.

Yā kho pana sā bhikkhave ucchedadiṭṭhi saṅkhāro so.

Illustration: no c’assa, had it not been

The ignorant Everyman is terrified of an unterrifying matter. For this is terrifying to the ignorant Everyman: ‘Had it not been, it would not have been “mine.” It will be not; not “mine” will it be.’

Idha bhikkhu assutavā puthujjano atasitāye ṭhāne tāsaṁ āpajjati tāso heso bhikkhu assutavato puthujjanassa no c’assa no ca me siyā na bhavissati na me bhavissatī ti.

The noble disciple is not terrified of an unterrifying matter. For this is not terrifying to the noble disciple: ‘Had it not been, it would not have been “mine.” It will be not; not “mine” will it be.’

Sutavā ca kho bhikkhu ariyasāvako atasitāye ṭhāne na tāsaṁ āpajjati. Na heso bhikkhu tāso sutavato ariyasāvakassa no c’assa no ca me siyā na bhavissati na me bhavissatī ti. (SN iii 57)

Illustration: no c’assa, had it not been

A bhikkhu discerns according to reality that the five aggregates will cease

Rūpaṁ… Viññāṇaṁ vibhavissatī ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti.

With the cessation of the five aggregates, a bhikkhu reflects thus.

So rūpassa vibhavā… viññāṇassa vibhavā evaṁ kho bhikkhu

• ’Had it not been, it would not have been “mine.” It will be not; not “mine” will it be.’

no c’assa no ca me siyā na bhavissati na me bhavissatī ti

A bhikkhu intent upon liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] in this way can sever the ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence

evaṁ vimuccamāno bhikkhu chindeyyorambhāgiyāni saṁyojanānī ti. (SN iii 57)

Info & meta data

[open]

[close]

  • You are given to add additional sources/Dictionaries. Consider the use of page_templates if wishing to include a certain dictionary to many pages. Edits of Dictionary content can be made in the paticulary source file.

Edits

Open tasks:

Johann 2019/09/22 + 10/04

meta data

en/dictionary/igpt_n.txt · Last modified: 2019/11/08 12:03 by Johann