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Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms [o]

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Info

The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.

Content

Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |

o

ogha

Renderings

  • for ogha:
    • flood
    • the flood [of suffering]
    • flood-crosser, one who has crossed the flood [of suffering]
  • ogha: flood [of suffering]
  • ekamantaṁ: flood [of suffering]
  • oghatiṇṇo: one who has crossed the flood [of suffering]
  • oghatiṇṇā: those who have crossed the flood [of suffering]
  • oghaṁ: flood [of suffering]

Introduction

PED: the old word ‘ogha’

PED (sv Ogha) says that one who has ‘crossed the flood’ (oghatiṇṇa) is ascribed the mental and moral qualifications of the arahant, but adds that ‘less often we have details of what the flood consists of.’ It says that ‘towards the end of the Nikāya period we find, for the first time, the use of the word in the plural, and the mention of the four oghas identical with the four āsavas… The 5th century commentators persist in the error of explaining the old word ogha, used in the singular, as referring to the four āsavas.’

The ocean of the six senses

Before discussing ‘the flood,’ we will first deal with ‘the ocean.’ This has two meanings:

1) the ocean of the six senses (cakkhu bhikkhave purisassa samuddo etc, SN iv 157) in which ‘ocean currents’ are the six sense objects. This is the ocean that the arahant has crossed (atari cakkhu samuddaṁ: crossed the ocean of the eye). This ocean with its six sense objects is elsewhere called ‘everything’ (cakkhuñceva rūpā ca… mano ca dhammā ca idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sabbaṁ SN iv 15). Therefore, in crossing the ocean, one crosses over everything.

2) the ocean [of the six sensuous objects]‘:

• There are visible objects known via the visual sense that are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming. In the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system this is called the ocean.

Santi bhikkhave cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave ariyassa vinaye samuddo. (SN iv 158)

• There are mentally known objects known via the mental sense that are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming. In the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system this is called the ocean.

Santi bhikkhave manoviññeyyā dhammā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave ariyassa vinaye samuddo. (SN iv 158)

The flood of birth, old age, and death

But in crossing the flood, what is crossed? The nature of the flood is revealed in the scriptures as follows:

  • 1) In the Pārāyanavaggo, the Chapter on The Way to the Far Shore, Venerable Mettagū called it ‘the flood of birth, old age, grief, and lamentation’ (oghaṁ jātijaraṁ sokapariddavañca).
  • 2) The bhikkhunī Upasamā told herself to cross the flood, the realm of death so hard to get beyond (upasame tare oghaṁ maccudheyyaṁ suduttaraṁ Thi 10), where ‘flood’ therefore means the realm of death.
  • 3) Venerable Kappa compared being afflicted by old age and death (jarāmaccuparetānaṁ) to standing in the middle of a lake when a very fearful flood has arisen (majjhe sarasmiṁ tiṭṭhataṁ oghe jāte mahabbhaye Snp 1092) where ‘flood’ therefore means the flood of old age and death.
  • 4) Venerable Nanda referred to those who had not overcome birth and old age (nātariṁsu jātijaranti Snp 1080-1082) as ‘not flood-crossers’ (anoghatiṇṇo), where ‘flood’ therefore means the flood of birth and old age.

The flood of dukkhakkhandha

The scriptures show that ‘old age and death’ is an abbreviation for the whole mass of suffering (dukkhakkhandha), as follows:

  • 1) In the Mahānidāna Sutta the Buddha initially said birth produces old age and death, grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation (jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassūpāyāsā DN ii 56), and then said‘birth produces old age and death’ (jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇan ti). The full meaning of the condensed second statement is in the first statement.
  • 2) In the Parivīmaṁsana Sutta (SN ii 80) a bhikkhu investigates ‘the many and various kinds of suffering that arise in the world [headed by] old age and death’ (anekavidhaṁ nānappakārakaṁ dukkhaṁ loke uppajjati jarāmaraṇaṁ). The bhikkhu then realises when there is birth, then old age and death come to be (jātiyā sati jarāmaraṇaṁ hoti). Here ‘old age and death’ stands for ‘the many and various kinds of suffering that arise in the world [headed by] old age and death.’
  • 3) Venerable Mettagū first called the flood ‘birth, old age, grief, and lamentation’ (jātijaraṁ sokapariddavañca Snp 1052), he then said that one who had ‘crossed this flood’ (oghamimaṁ atāri) had overcome birth and old age (atāri so jāti jaran ti, Snp 1060) where ‘birth and old age’ stands for what he previously called birth, old age, grief, and lamentation.

Oghatiṇṇo and dukkhotiṇṇā

That ‘flood’ means ‘flood of dukkhakkhandha’ is also evident in the association of otiṇṇā and tiṇṇā. When young men take up the ascetic way of life, they do so with the thought:

• ’I am overwhelmed by suffering, overcome by suffering.

… Perhaps an ending of this whole mass of suffering might be discerned!’

appeva nāma imassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa antakiriyā paññāyethā ti. (SN iii 93; Iti 89)

So dukkhotiṇṇā is shown to mean dukkhakkhandhotiṇṇā. But flood-crossers are called oghatiṇṇo (Snp 108), where ogha corresponds to dukkha, and therefore to dukkhakkhandha.

Oghataraṇa Sutta

In the Oghataraṇa Sutta (SN i 1) a deva asks the Buddha how he crossed ‘the flood’ (kathaṁ nu tvaṁ mārisa oghamatarī ti) without explaining which flood. Bodhi says the four floods are meant (CDB p.341 n.1). But the deva clarified the issue by equating ‘crossing the flood’ to ‘overcoming attachment to the world [of phenomena]’:

• At long last, I see a Brahman who has realised the Untroubled who, without halting or overstraining, has overcome attachment to the world [of phenomena]

Cirassaṁ vata passāmi brāhmaṇaṁ parinibbutaṁ
Appatiṭṭhaṁ anāyūhaṁ tiṇṇaṁ loke visattikaṁ. (SN i 1)

That the flood in the Oghataraṇa Sutta can again be taken as the flood of dukkhakkhandha, in spite of the later reference to attachment, is proven by comparison with the Mettagū Sutta where the same thing happens. Firstly Venerable Mettagū asked:

• How do the wise cross the flood of birth, old age, grief, and lamentation?

Kathaṁ nu dhīrā vitaranti oghaṁ jātijaraṁ sokapariddavañca

The Buddha replied:

• I shall explain the teaching to you, which is fathomable in this lifetime, which is not just hearsay, understanding which, one living the religious life, one who is mindful, would overcome attachment to the world [of phenomena].

Kittayissāmi te dhammaṁ, diṭṭhe dhamme anitihaṁ
Yaṁ viditvā sato caraṁ, tare loke visattikaṁ. (Snp 1052-3)

So when the deva asked about crossing the flood, he meant the flood of dukkhakkhandha. Both references show this is accomplished by overcoming attachment to the world of phenomena.

In conclusion: flood [of suffering]

In conclusion, ‘ocean’ means ‘everything’ and ogha means ‘the flood of the whole mass of suffering.’ But ‘of the whole mass’ is redundant, so we call it ‘flood [of suffering].’

Illustrations

Illustration: ogha, flood [of suffering]

The ascetic Sabhiya said to the Buddha:

You have left the darkness [of hell] and the flood [of suffering]…

You have reached the end of suffering, gone beyond suffering

antagūsi pāragū dukkhassa. (Snp 538-9)

Comment:

The commentary says oghatamagā stands for ogha-tamaṁ agā where darkness is paired with the flood of suffering. Like ‘flood,’ darkness in the scriptures means intense suffering, as follows:

1) Having passed on they go to darkness, falling headlong into hell

pecca tamaṁ vajanti ye patanti sattā nirayaṁ avaṁsirā. (Snp 248)

2) Defilement is the road to hell. Reaching [on rebirth] the plane of damnation, going from womb to womb, from darkness to darkness, such a bhikkhu goes to misery when he passes on.

maggaṁ nirayagāminaṁ; vinipātaṁ samāpanno gabbhā gabbhaṁ tamā tamaṁ save tādisako bhikkhu pecca dukkhaṁ nigacchati. (Snp 278)

3) How is a person heading from darkness to darkness? In this regard, some person has been reborn in a low family… after death he is reborn in the plane of sub-human existence, in the plane of misery, in the plane of damnation, or in hell.

tamo hoti tamaparāyaṇo… nīce kule paccājāto hoti… parammaraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapajjati. (AN ii 85)

ekamantaṁ

ekamantaṁ: (main article see: ogha)

Illustration: ekamantaṁ, flood [of suffering]

Seeing a sage who had crossed the flood [of suffering], the lady made merit leading to future happiness.

Akāsi puññaṁ sukhamāyatikaṁ
Disvā muniṁ brāhmaṇi oghatiṇṇan ti. (SN i 142)

oghatiṇṇo

oghatiṇṇo: (main article see: ogha)

Illustration: oghatiṇṇo, one who has crossed the flood [of suffering]

The bhikkhu who has overcome the five bonds [to individual existence] is called one who has crossed the flood [of suffering].

Pañcasaṅgātigo bhikkhu oghatiṇṇo ti vuccati. (Tha 633; SN i 3)

oghatiṇṇā

oghatiṇṇā: (main article see: ogha)

Illustration: oghatiṇṇā, those who have crossed the flood [of suffering]

I do not say that all ascetics and Brahmanists are hemmed in by birth and old age. Whosoever have abandoned [attachment] in this world to what is seen, heard, sensed, [or cognised], and [adherence to] all observances and practices, and have abandoned [attachment to] all various bodily forms, and who, through profoundly understanding craving are free of perceptually obscuring states, these are men who have crossed the flood [of suffering], I declare.

Nāhaṁ sabbe samaṇabrāhmaṇāse jātijarāya nivutā ti brūmi
Ye sīdha diṭṭhaṁ vā sutaṁ mutaṁ vā silabbataṁ vāpi pahāya sabbaṁ
Anekarūpampi pahāya sabbaṁ taṇhaṁ pariññāya anāsavāse
Te ve narā oghatiṇṇā ti brūmi. (Snp 1082)

oghaṁ

oghaṁ: (main article see: ogha)

Illustration: oghaṁ, flood [of suffering]

I have crossed [to the Far Shore], reached the Far Shore, having eliminated the flood [of suffering].

Tiṇṇo pāragato vineyya oghaṁ. (Snp 21)

Comment:

Here the flood is not ‘crossed.’

opanayika

Renderings

Introduction

Fit for bringing near

Opanayika has long been rendered as ‘leading onward’ or ‘leading to salvation.’ But DOP says it means ‘fit for bringing near, for taking to oneself; fit for making use of; deserving to be used,’ and says it is derived from upanaya, which means ‘bringing near; bringing near (to death); application.’

Applicable

Bodhi renders opanayika as ‘applicable’ in accordance with the Visuddhimagga (Vism.217) where he says ‘the word is glossed by the gerundive upanetabba, “to be brought near, to be applied”’ (CDB p.353 n.33).

Personally applicable; personally significant

The scriptures use opanayika in two situations:

  • 1) Firstly, regarding the teachings, where we call it ‘personally applicable.’ See Illustrations.
  • 2) Secondly, regarding the elimination of attachment (rāga) and of previous karmically consequential conduct (purāṇañca kammaṁ). The text says the elimination of attachment and previous karmically consequential conduct is opanayikā. But ‘elimination’ cannot rationally be called ‘applicable,’ so we say ‘personally significant.’ This is in accordance with DOP’s ‘fit for taking to oneself; deserving to be used.’

• He undertakes no new karmically consequential conduct; as to previous karmically consequential conduct, he nullifies it by the gradual experience [of its consequences]. Its elimination is discernable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally significant, to be realised by the wise for themselves.

So navañca kammaṁ na karoti. Purāṇañca kammaṁ phussa phussa vyantīkaroti. Sandiṭṭhikā nijjarā akālikā ehipassikā opanayikā paccattaṁ veditabbā viññūhī'ti. (AN i 221)

Attūpanāyiko: with/through reference to oneself

Attūpanāyiko means either:

  • 1) ‘with reference to oneself,’ or
  • 2) ‘involving comparison with oneself.’

See Illustrations.

Illustrations

opanayiko

opanayiko: (main article see: opanayika)

Illustration: opanayiko, personally applicable

On what grounds is the teaching fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally applicable, to be realised by the wise for themselves?

kittāvatā nu kho bhante sandiṭṭhiko dhammo hoti akāliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhī ti?

In this regard, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense a bhikkhu experiences the visible object and the attachment to the visible object. When there is attachment to visible objects in him, he discerns: ‘There is attachment to visible objects in me.’

Idhūpavāṇa bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā rūpapaṭisaṁvedī ca hoti rūparāgapaṭisaṁvedī ca. Santañca ajjhattaṁ rūpesu rāgaṁ atthi me ajjhattaṁ rūpesu rāgo ti pajānāti yantaṁ upavāṇa bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā rūpapaṭisaṁvedī ca hoti rūparāgapaṭisaṁvedī ca santañca ajjhattaṁ rūpesu rāgaṁ atthi me ajjhattaṁ rūpesu rāgo ti pajānāti.

On these grounds is the teaching fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally applicable, to be realised by the wise for themselves.

Evampi kho upavāṇa sandiṭṭhiko dhammo hoti akāliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhi. (SN iv 41)

On what grounds is the teaching fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally applicable, to be realised by the wise for themselves?

sandiṭṭhiko dhammo sandiṭṭhiko dhammo ti bho gotama vuccati kittāvatā nu kho bho gotama sandiṭṭhiko dhammo hoti akāliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhī ti.

One who is attached, overpowered, and overcome by attachment, is intent upon his own harm, upon the harm of others, upon the harm of both, and so experiences psychological pain and dejection.

Ratto kho brāhmaṇa rāgena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto attavyābādhāyapi ceteti paravyābādhāyapi ceteti ubhayavyābādhāyapi ceteti. Cetasikampi dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti.

But if attachment be abandoned he is not intent upon his own harm, upon the harm of others, upon the harm of both, and thus does not experience psychological pain and dejection.

Rāge pahīṇe nevattavyābādhāyapi ceteti. Na paravyābādhāyapi ceteti na ubhayavyābādhāyapi ceteti. Na cetasikaṁ dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti.

One who is attached, overpowered, and overcome by attachment, misconducts himself by way of body, speech, and mind. But if attachment be abandoned he does not do so.

Ratto kho brāhmaṇa rāgena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto kāyena duccaritaṁ carati vācāya duccaritaṁ carati manasā duccaritaṁ carati rāge pahīṇe neva kāyena duccaritaṁ carati na vācāya duccaritaṁ carati na manasā duccaritaṁ carati.

One who is attached, overpowered, and overcome by attachment, does not discern according to reality his own well-being, nor that of others, nor that of both himself and others. But if attachment be abandoned he discerns this.

Ratto kho brāhmaṇa rāgena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto attatthampi yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti paratthampi yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti ubhayatthampi yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. Rāge pahīṇe attatthampi yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti paratthampi yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti ubhayatthampi yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti.

On these grounds is the teaching fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally applicable, to be realised by the wise for themselves.

Evampi kho brāhmaṇa sandiṭṭhiko dhammo hoti akāliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhī'ti. (AN i 157-8)

opanayikā

opanayikā: (main article see: opanayika)

Illustration: opanayikā, personally significant

There are, headman, these three kinds of elimination that are discernable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally significant, to be realised by the wise for themselves. What three?

Tisso imā gāmaṇi sandiṭṭhikā nijjarā akālikā ehipassikā opanayikā paccattaṁ veditabbā viññūhi. Katamā tisso:

Someone is attached, and because of attachment he is intent upon his own harm, upon the harm of others, upon the harm of both.

Yaṁ ratto rāgādhikaraṇaṁ attavyābādhāyapi ceteti paravyābādhāyapi ceteti ubhayavyābādhāyapi ceteti

When attachment is abandoned, he is not intent upon his own harm, or the harm of others, or the harm of both.

rāge pahīne neva attavyābādhāyapi ceteti na paravyābādhāyapi ceteti na ubhayavyābādhāyapi ceteti.

Its elimination is discernable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally significant, to be realised by the wise for themselves.

Sandiṭṭhikā nijjarā akālikā ehipassikā opanayikā paccattaṁ veditabbā viññūhi. (SN iv 339)

attūpanāyikaṁ

attūpanāyikaṁ: (main article see: opanayika)

Illustration: attūpanāyikaṁ, with reference to himself

If a bhikkhu, though not recalling it, should claim with reference to himself a superhuman attainment of knowledge and vision that is worthy of the Noble Ones, saying “Thus I know; thus I see.”..

Yo pana bhikkhu anabhijānaṁ uttarimanussadhammaṁ attūpanāyikaṁ alamariyañāṇadassanaṁ samudācareyya Iti jānāmi iti passāmī ti… . (Vin.3.91)

Comment:

The rule continues in a way that is not significant, as follows:

.’.. then, whether or not he is later interrogated about it, fallen and seeking purification, he says “Friends, though not knowing, I said ‘I know’; though not seeing, I said ‘I see.’ I boasted vainly and falsely”; unless it was from over-estimation, he is pārājika, no longer in communion.

tato aparena samayena samanuggāhiyamāno vā asamanuggāhiyamāno vā āpanno visuddhāpekkho evaṁ vadeyya Ajānam evaṁ āvuso avacaṁ jānāmi’; apassaṁ passāmi.’ Tucchaṁ musā vilapin ti. Aññatra adhimānā ayampi pārājiko hoti asaṁvāso.

Illustration: attūpanāyikaṁ, involving comparison with oneself

I will expound for your benefit a systematic exposition of the teaching that involves a comparison with oneself.

Attūpanāyikaṁ vo gahapatayo dhammapariyāyaṁ desissāmī ti

What is the systematic exposition of the teaching that involves a comparison with oneself?

Katamo ca gahapatayo attūpanāyiko dhammapariyāyo:

In this regard, householders, a noble disciple reflects thus: ‘I am one who wishes to live, who does not wish to die; I desire happiness and loathe pain. Since I am one who wishes to live… and loathe pain, if someone were to take my life, that would not be agreeable and pleasing to me.

idha gahapatayo ariyasāvako iti paṭisañcikkhati ahaṁ khosmi jīvitukāmo amaritukāmo sukhakāmo dukkhapaṭikkūlo. Yo kho maṁ jīvitukāmaṁ amaritukāmaṁ sukhakāmaṁ dukkhapaṭikkūlaṁ jīvitā voropeyya na me taṁ assa piyaṁ manāpaṁ

Now if I were to take the life of another―of one who wishes to live, who does not wish to die, who desires happiness and loathes pain―that would not be agreeable and pleasing to the other either. What is disagreeable and displeasing to me is disagreeable and displeasing to the other too. How can I inflict upon another what is disagreeable and displeasing to me?’

ahañceva kho pana paraṁ jīvitukāmaṁ. Sukhakāmaṁ dukkhapaṭikkūlaṁ jīvitā voropeyya parassapi taṁ assa appiyaṁ amanāpaṁ. Yo kho myāyaṁ dhammo appiyo amanāpo. Parassapeso dhammo appiyo amanāpo. Yo kho myāyaṁ dhammo appiyo amanāpo kathāhaṁ paraṁ tena saṁyojeyyanti

In reflecting thus, he himself abstains from killing, exhorts others to abstain from killing, and speaks in praise of abstaining from killing.

So iti paṭisaṅkhāya attanā ca pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti. Parañca pāṇātipātā veramaṇiyā samādapeti. Pāṇātipātā veramaṇiyā ca vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati. (SN v 354)

oḷārika

Renderings

  • for oḷārika:
    • gross
    • gross material
    • obvious
    • self-evident
    • less subtle
    • less refined
    • not particularly refined
    • effortful
    • morally unrefined

Illustrations

Illustration: oḷārika, gross

Whatever bodily form, past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or sublime, far or near

Yaṁ kiñci rūpaṁ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā yaṁ dūre santike vā. (MN iii 18-9)

Physical food, gross or subtle;

kabaliṅkāro āhāro oḷāriko vā sukhumo. (MN i 48)

What now if I allowed medicine for bhikkhus, both medicine itself as well as what could be regarded as medicine, which though it serves as nourishment in the world, could not be regarded as gross food?

Kinnū kho ahaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ bhesajjaṁ anujāneyyaṁ yaṁ bhesajjañceva assa bhesajjasammatañca lokassa āhāratthañca phareyya na ca oḷāriko āhāro paññāyeyyā ti. (Vin.1.199)

Illustration: oḷārika, gross material

Whenever the gross material acquired self is present, it is not reckoned as a mind-made material acquired self, nor an immaterial acquired self. It is reckoned only as a gross material acquired self on that occasion.

yasmiṁ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti neva tasmiṁ samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho ti saṅkhaṁ gacchati. Na arūpo attapaṭilābho ti saṅkhaṁ gacchati. 'Oḷāriko attapaṭilābho'tveva tasmiṁ samaye saṅkhaṁ gacchati. (DN i 202)

Illustration: oḷārika, self-evident

In this regard, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense, there arises in a bhikkhu pleasure, or displeasure, or pleasure plus displeasure.

cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā uppajjati manāpaṁ uppajjati amanāpaṁ uppajjati manāpāmanāpaṁ.

He knows that ‘This pleasure has arisen in me, this displeasure… this pleasure plus displeasure has arisen in me.

uppannaṁ kho me idaṁ manāpaṁ uppannaṁ amanāpaṁ uppannaṁ manāpāmanāpaṁ

And that is originated, self-evident, dependently arisen.

saṅkhataṁ oḷārikaṁ paṭiccasamuppannaṁ

But this is peaceful, this is sublime, namely, detached awareness.

Etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ upekkhā ti. (MN iii 299)

Some [ascetics and Brahmanists] proclaim that the state of awareness of nonexistence, limitless and imperturbable, where one perceives that there is [nowhere] anything at all, is the purest, highest, best, and greatest of those states of refined awareness, whether refined material states of awareness, or immaterial states of awareness, or states of refined awareness involving mental cognisance alone, or involving the external senses.

Yā vā panetāsaṁ saññānaṁ parisuddhā paramā aggā anuttariyā akkhāyati yadi rūpasaññānaṁ yadi arūpasaññānaṁ yadi ekattasaññānaṁ yadi nānattasaññānaṁ natthi kiñci ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ eke abhivadanti appamāṇaṁ āneñjaṁ.

But that [state of refined awareness] is originated and self-evident. And there is a ending of originated phenomena. Knowing the truth of this, seeing the deliverance [from originated phenomena] the Perfect One has gone beyond it.

Tayidaṁ saṅkhataṁ oḷārikaṁ. Atthi kho pana saṅkhārānaṁ nirodho atthetanti iti viditvā tassa nissaraṇadassāvī tathāgato tadupātivatto. (MN ii 229-230)

Illustration: oḷārika, obvious

But though Venerable Ānanda was given such a broad hint by the Blessed One, such an obvious suggestion, he was unable to perceive it.

Evampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṁ. (SN v 259)

Illustration: oḷārika, less subtle

Whenever Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra appears to the Tāvatiṁsā devas, he appears having created [for himself] a less subtle bodily form (oḷārikaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinimminitvā) because his natural appearance (pakativaṇṇo) is not perceptible to the eye

Yadā bhante brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ pātubhavati oḷārikaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinimminitvā pātubhavati. Yo kho pana bhante brahmuno pakativaṇṇo anabhisambhavanīyo so devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ cakkhupathasmiṁ. (DN ii 210)

Hatthaka, the deva’s son, approached the Blessed One, thinking, ‘I will stand in the presence of the Blessed One,’ but he sank down, collapsed, could not stand upright. Just as butter or oil when poured upon sand sinks down, sinks in, cannot abide.

Then the Blessed One told him ‘Create a less subtle bodily form, Hatthaka’

oḷārikaṁ hatthaka attabhāvaṁ abhinimmināhī ti. (AN i 279)

Illustration: oḷārika, less refined

’Poṭṭhapāda, once the bhikkhu is possessed of that preliminary state of refined awareness, he proceeds from stage to stage till he reaches the highest state of refined awareness.

Yato kho poṭṭhapāda bhikkhu idha sakasaññī hoti so tato amutra tato amutra anupubbena saññaggaṁ phusati.

Then, remaining in the highest state of refined awareness it occurs to him, ‘Intentional effort is worse for me, being free of intentional effort is better.

Tassa saññagge ṭhitassa evaṁ hoti cetayamānassa me pāpiyo acetayamānassa me seyyo.

If I were to be intent upon or to aim [at anything further], these states of refined awareness that I have attained would cease and less refined states of refined awareness would arise in me.

Ahañceva kho pana ceteyyaṁ abhisaṅkhareyyaṁ imā ca me saññā nirujjheyyuṁ aññā ca oḷārikā saññā uppajjeyyuṁ.

How about if I were not to be intent upon or to aim [at anything further]?’

Yannūnāhaṁ na ceva ceteyyaṁ na cābhisaṅkhareyyan ti.

So he is neither intent [upon anything], nor aims [at anything further].

So na ceva ceteti na cābhisaṅkharoti.

And thus in him just these states of refined awareness cease, and other less refined states of refined awareness do not arise.

Tassa acetayato anabhisaṅkharoto tā ceva saññā nirujjhanti aññā ca oḷārikā saññā na uppajjanti.

He attains to the ending [of originated phenomena].

So nirodhaṁ phusati.

And that, Poṭṭhapāda, is how the ending of successively refined states of refined awareness is attained in full consciousness.

Evaṁ kho poṭṭhapāda anupubbābhisaññānirodhasampajānasamāpatti hoti. (DN i 183-4)

Illustration: oḷārika, not particularly refined

• Moggallāna, friend, your [mental] faculties are serene, your countenance is pure and bright. Venerable MahāMoggallāna surely spent today in a peaceful abiding.

vippasannāni kho te āvuso moggallāna indriyāni parisuddho mukhavaṇṇo pariyodāto santena nūnāyasmā mahāmoggallāno ajja vihārena vihāsī'ti

• Friend, I spent the day in a not particularly refined abiding, but I had some discussion on the teaching [with the Blessed One].

Oḷārikena kho ahaṁ āvuso ajja vihārena vihāsiṁ. Api ca me ahosi dhammī kathā ti. (SN ii 275)

Bodhi: “I spent the day in a gross dwelling, friend, but I did have some Dhamma talk.”

Illustration: oḷārika, effortful

It is just as if a man walking fast might ask himself why he is walking fast. Why not walk slowly? Then walking slowly, why not stand? Then standing, why not sit? Then sitting, why not lie down?

• In this way the man would substitute for each more effortful posture one that was less effortful.

Evaṁ hi so bhikkhave puriso oḷārikaṁ oḷārikaṁ iriyāpathaṁ abhinivajjetvā sukhumaṁ sukhumaṁ iriyāpathaṁ kappeyya. (MN i 121)

Illustration: oḷārika, morally unrefined

There are three pathways to happiness discovered by the Blessed One who knows and sees [the nature of reality], the second of which is for someone in whom the morally unrefined deeds of body, speech, and mind are unquelled

oḷārikā kāyasaṅkhārā… vacīsaṅkhārā… cittasaṅkhārā appaṭippassaddhā honti.

Then he hears the noble teaching, and properly contemplates it and practises in conformity with it. By doing so:

• His morally unrefined deeds of body, speech, and mind are quelled

oḷārikā kāyasaṅkhārā paṭippasasambhanti oḷārikā vacīsaṅkhārā paṭippassambhanti oḷārikā cittasaṅkhārā paṭippassambhanti. (DN ii 214-5)

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