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Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms [u]

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Info

The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.

Content

Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |

u

uju

uju and ujju.

Renderings

Introduction

Uju: straight

The adjective uju means either physically or spiritually straight.

Uju: spiritual purity

Uju sometimes means spiritual purity, because the Mahānāma Sutta (AN iii 285) says that when the noble disciple reflects on the Perfect One, his mind is not absorbed in rāga, dosa or moha. At that time his mind ‘is made uju’ with the Perfect One as the initiating factor (ujugatamevassa tasmiṁ samaye cittaṁ hoti tathāgataṁ ārabbha (AN iii 285).

Uju here means the disciple’s mind is free from rāga, dosa and moha, either temporarily or permanently, and uju therefore means ‘purified,’ and the disciple is therefore ‘spiritually purified.’

Ujuka: -ka suffix

The -ka suffix of uju is in accordance with Duroiselle’s observation: ‘Not seldom -ka adds nothing whatever to the primary meaning of a word ’ (PGPL, Para 581). DOP agrees (sv Ujuka and Ka2).

Illustrations

Illustration: uju, undeviant

In this regard, some person kills living beings; he is ferocious, bloody-handed, intent on injuring and violence, merciless towards living beings

idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti luddo lohitapāṇī hatapahate niviṭṭho adayāpanno sabbapāṇabhūtesu

He goes crookedly by way of body, speech, and mind. His conduct of body, speech, and mind are deviant.

so saṁsappati kāyena saṁsappati vācāya saṁsappati manasā tassa jimhaṁ kāyakammaṁ hoti jimhaṁ vacīkammaṁ jimhaṁ manokammaṁ

His destiny is deviant; his rebirth is deviant

jimhā gati jimhupapatti.

There are two possible places of rebirth for one whose destiny and rebirth are deviant: the unmitigated pain of Niraya Hell or the womb of a crooked type of animal

Jimhagatikassa kho panāhaṁ bhikkhave jimhupapattikassa dvinnaṁ gatīnaṁ aññataraṁ gatiṁ vadāmi ye vā ekantadukkhā nirayā yā vā saṁsappajātikā tiracchānayoni. (AN v 289)

Some person abandons killing, lays aside the rod and knife, abiding conscientious, merciful, he abides tenderly concerned for the welfare of all living beings.

pāṇātipātaṁ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti nihita daṇḍo nihitasattho lajjī dayāpanno sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati

He goes uncrookedly by way of body, speech, and mind.

So na saṁsappati kāyena na saṁsappati vācāya na saṁsappati manasā.

His conduct of body, speech, and mind are undeviant.

Tassa ujuṁ kāya kammaṁ hoti ujuṁ vacīkammaṁ ujuṁ mano kammaṁ

His destiny is undeviant; his rebirth is undeviant

uju gati ujūpapatti

There are two possible places of rebirth for one whose destiny and rebirth are undeviant: the unmitigated pleasure of heaven, or wealthy families.

ujugatikassa kho panāhaṁ bhikkhave ujūpapattikassa dvinnaṁ gatīnaṁ aññataraṁ gatiṁ vadāmi ye vā ekantasukhā saggā yāni vā pana tāni uccakulāni khattiyamahāsāḷakulāni vā brāhmaṇamahāsāḷakulāni vā gahapati mahāsāḷakulāni vā aḍḍhāni mahaddhanāni mahābhogāni pahūtajātarūparajatāni pahūta cittūpakaraṇāni pahūtadhanadhaññāni. (AN v 290)

Illustration: uju, correct

The community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the correct practice,

ujupaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho. (SN v 343)

Illustration: uju, direct

For a disciple in training, following the direct path

sekhassa sikkhamānassa ujumaggānusārino. (Iti 53)

The ascetic Suppiyo was in many ways criticising the Buddha, his teaching, and the community of bhikkhus, whereas his young pupil Brahmadatta was in many ways praising them.

suppiyo paribbājako anekapariyāyena buddhassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati dhammassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati saṅghassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati suppiyassa pana paribbājakassa antevāsī brahmadatto māṇavo anekapariyāyena buddhassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati dhammassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati saṅghassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati

And so this pair, teacher and pupil, directly opposing each other’s arguments, followed step-by-step behind the Blessed One and the community of bhikkhus,

Itiha te ubho ācariyantevāsī aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā bhagavantaṁ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubaddhā honti bhikkhusaṅghañca. (DN i 1)

’There are certain ascetics and Brahmanists whose doctrine and dogmatic view is this: There is no complete ending of individual existence’

Santi gahapatayo eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁ vādino evaṁ diṭṭhino natthi sabbaso bhavanirodho ti.

‘And there are some ascetics and Brahmanists whose doctrine is directly opposed to those ascetics and Brahmanists: ’There is a complete ending of individual existence.’

Tesaṁyeva kho gahapatayo samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ujuvipaccanīkavādā te evamāhaṁsu atthi sabbaso bhavanirodho ti. (MN i 410)

ujubhūta

ujubhūta: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujubhūta, purified

When one has faith in the community of disciples and purified vision [of things according to reality]…

saṅghe pasādo yassatthi ujubhūtañca dassanaṁ. (SN v 384)

Illustration: ujubhūta, spiritually purified

To these who are spiritually purified, with a serene mind he should give food, drink, clothing, and furniture and covers.

Annaṁ pānaṁ khādanīyaṁ vatthasenāsanāni ca
Dadeyya ujubhūtesu vippasannena cetasā. (SN i 100)

The bhikkhu whose mind is spiritually purified is glorious

Sobhati vatāyaṁ bhikkhu ujubhūtena cetasā. (SN ii 279)

ujjubhūtesu

ujjubhūtesu: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujjubhūtesu, spiritually purified

Honour those who are spiritually purified

satujjubhūtesu namo karohi. (SN i 170)

ujubhūto

ujubhūto: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujubhūto, spiritually purified

This community of bhikkhus is spiritually purified, well-established in penetrative discernment and virtue.

Esa saṅgho ujubhūto paññāsīlasamāhito. (AN iv 292)

ujugata

ujugata: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujugata, spiritually purified

Mahānāma, when the noble disciple reflects on the Perfect One, his mind is not absorbed in attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality. His mind is spiritually purified at that time with the Perfect One as the initiating factor.

yasmiṁ mahānāma samaye ariyasāvako tathāgataṁ anussarati nevassa tasmiṁ samaye rāgapariyuṭṭhitaṁ cittaṁ hoti na dosapariyuṭṭhitaṁ cittaṁ hoti na mohapariyuṭṭhitaṁ cittaṁ hoti ujugatamevassa tasmiṁ samaye cittaṁ hoti tathāgataṁ ārabbha. (AN iii 285)

ujukaṁ akaṁsu

ujukaṁ akaṁsu: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujukaṁ akaṁsu, purified

The bhikkhus there are inwardly collected; they have purified their minds.

Tatra bhikkhavo samādahaṁsu cittaṁ attano ujukaṁ akaṁsu. (SN i 26)

ujugatā

ujugatā: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujugatā, correct

A noble disciple has right perception [of reality], has a perception [of reality] that is correct, has unshakeable faith in the [excellence of the] teaching, and has fathomed this true teaching.

ariyasāvako sammādiṭṭhi hoti ujugatāssa diṭṭhi dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato āgato imaṁ saddhamman ti. (MN i 55)

ujukā

ujukā: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujukā, correct

And what is the basis of spiritually wholesome factors?

ko ca ādi kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ

Virtue that is well purified and view [of reality] that is correct.

sīlañca suvisuddhaṁ diṭṭhi ca ujukā. (SN v 143)

Illustration: ujukā, standing erect

A man wishing to protect a forest grove would tend the well-formed saplings that were standing erect.

tā sālalaṭṭhiyo ujukā sujātā tā sammā parihareyya. (MN i 124)

ujjugatā

ujjugatā: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujjugatā, bolt upright

Every one of us is listening to you, bolt upright

Sabbe va te ujjugatā suṇoma. (Snp 350)

ujukaṁ

ujukaṁ: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujukaṁ, standing erect

A man might take a sharp axe and enter a forest. There he would see the trunk of a large banana tree, standing erect, young, without a fruit-bud core.

so tattha passeyya mahantaṁ kadalikkhandhaṁ ujukaṁ navaṁ akukkukajātaṁ. (SN iv 167)

Illustration: ujukaṁ, honest

’If the Blessed One does not know whether the world [of beings] is eternal or not, then, not knowing or seeing, it would be honest of him to simply admit, “I do not know. I do not see.”’

No ce bhagavā jānāti sassato loko ti vā asassato loko ti vā ajānato kho pana apassato etadeva ujukaṁ hoti yadidaṁ na jānāmi na passāmī ti. (MN i 428)

ujuṁ

ujuṁ: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujuṁ, erect

Having washed his feet he seats himself. Having crossed his legs, having set his body erect, having established mindfulness within himself,

so pāde pakkhāletvā nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā. (MN ii 139)

ujuṁ karoti

ujuṁ karoti: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujuṁ karoti, straighten, straighten up

Like a fletcher straightens an arrow, the wise man straightens up his unsteady, fluttery mind, which is hard to supervise, hard to restrain.

Phandanaṁ capalaṁ cittaṁ durakkhaṁ dunnivārayaṁ
Ujuṁ karoti medhāvī usukāro va tejanaṁ. (Dhp 33)

ujumaggo

ujumaggo: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujumaggo, direct path

This indeed is the direct path, the straight way, which leads to deliverance [from suffering]

ayameva ujumaggo ayamañjasāyano niyyāniko. (DN i 235)

ujuko

ujuko: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: ujuko, direct

‘Direct’ is the name of that road [to the Untroubled].

ujuko nāma so maggo. (SN i 33)

Illustration: ujuko, honest

’Here, your reverences, see how honest, straightforward, and aboveboard is the layman Citta.’

idaṁ bhavanto passantu yāva ujuko cāyaṁ citto gahapati yāva asaṭho cāyaṁ citto gahapati yāva amāyāvī cāyaṁ citto gahapati. (SN iv 298)

anujjuko

anujjuko: (main article see: uju)

Illustration: anujjuko, dishonest

’Here, your reverences, see how dishonest, fraudulent, and deceitful is the layman Citta.’

idaṁ bhavanto passantu yāva anujjuko cāyaṁ citto gahapati yāva saṭho cāyaṁ citto gahapati yāva māyāvī cāyaṁ citto gahapatī ti. (SN iv 299)

ujjhāyati khīyati vipāceti

Renderings

Introduction

Audible sounds

Ujjhāyati khīyati vipāceti mean making verbal complaints that others can hear:

• When bhikkhus heard that woman complaining, muttering, and grumbling, they explained the matter to the Blessed One.

Assosuṁ kho bhikkhū tassā itthiyā ujjhāyantiyā khiyantiyā vipācentiyā. Atha kho te bhikkhu bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ. (Vin.2.129)

Intransitive verbs and synonyms

Ujjhāyati khīyati vipāceti are intransitive verbs, and likely synonyms.

• The more the devas complained, muttered, and grumbled, the more lovely, attractive, and handsome the yakkha became.

Yathā yathā kho bhikkhave devā tāvatiṁsā ujjhāyanti khīyanti vipācenti tathā tathā so yakkho abhirūpataro ceva hoti dassanīyataro ca pāsādikataro ca. (SN i 237)

Avoiding negative connotations

The words do not imply ridicule of the complainer, so ‘whine’ or ‘gripe’ are inappropriate.

Illustrations

Illustration: ujjhāyati khiyati vipāceti, complained, muttered, and grumbled

The poor tailor complained, muttered, and grumbled that ‘For the laypeople who give requisites, the bhikkhus advise, instruct, and organise their building work. But I am poor. No one advises or instructs me, or organises my building work.’

Atha kho so daḷiddo tunnavāyo ujjhāyati khiyati vipāceti ye imesaṁ samaṇānaṁ sakyaputtiyānaṁ denti cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṁ te ime ovadanti anusāsanti tesañca navakammaṁ adhiṭṭhenti. Ahaṁ panamhi daḷiddo. Na maṁ koci ovadati vā anusāsati vā navakammaṁ vā adhiṭṭhetī ti. (Vin.2.160)

Having given the young Sakyan bhikkhu, Venerable Upananda, a kahāpaṇa of money, that man complained, muttered, and grumbled that ‘Just as we accept gold and silver, so do these ascetic disciples of the Sakyans’ Son.

Atha kho so puriso āyasmato upanandassa sakyaputtassa kahāpaṇaṁ datvā ujjhāyati khīyati vipāceti: yatheva mayaṁ rūpiyaṁ paṭiggaṇhāma evameva ime samaṇā sakyaputtiyā rūpiyaṁ paṭiggaṇhantī ti. (Vin.3.237)

ujjhāyanti khīyanti vipācenti

ujjhāyanti khīyanti vipācenti: (main article see: ujjhāyati khīyati vipāceti)

Illustration: ujjhāyanti khīyanti vipācenti, complained, muttered, and grumbled

Once the Group-of-Six bhikkhus entered a village with their sandals on. People complained, muttered, and grumbled that they were like laymen devoted to sensuous pleasures.

Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyā bhikkhu saupāhanā gāmaṁ pavisanti. Manussā ujjhāyanti khīyanti vipācenti seyyathā pi gihī kāmabhogino ti. (Vin.1.194)

Bhikkhus examined a facial mark in a mirror and in a bowl of water. People complained, muttered, and grumbled that they were like laymen devoted to sensuous pleasures

ādāse pi udakapatte pi mukhanimittaṁ olokenti. Manussā ujjhāyanti khīyanti vipācenti seyyathā pi gihī kāmabhogino ti. (Vin.2.107)

uṇṇata

Renderings

Illustrations

uṇṇamati

uṇṇamati: (main article see: uṇṇata)

Illustration: uṇṇamati, swelled-headed

He who is praised for presenting his argument in the midst of the assembly, having attained his objective is mirthful and swelled-headed because of it.

Pasaṁsito vā pana tattha hoti akkhāya vādaṁ parisāya majjhe
So hassati uṇṇamati ca tena pappuyya tamatthaṁ yathā mano ahu

That swelled-headedness will be the basis of later distress. Moreover, he speaks with conceit and arrogance.

Yā uṇṇati sāssa vighātabhūmi mānātimānaṁ vadate paneso. (Snp 829-30)

anuṇṇato

anuṇṇato: (main article see: uṇṇata)

Illustration: anuṇṇato, swelled-headedness

One should live the religious life peacefully, without swelled-headedness.

santo anuṇṇato care. (Snp 702)

uṇṇametave

uṇṇametave: (main article see: uṇṇata)

Illustration: uṇṇametave, swelled-headed

Whoever would think to be swelled-headed because of such a body, or would disparage another, what is this except not seeing it [according to reality]?

Etādisena kāyena yo maññe uṇṇametave
Paraṁ vā avajāneyya kimaññatra adassanāti. (Snp 199-206)

uṇṇameyya

uṇṇameyya: (main article see: uṇṇata)

Illustration: uṇṇameyya, swelled-headed

He who is not swelled-headed, thinking, ‘He venerates me.’.

Yo vandati maṁ na uṇṇameyya. (Snp 366)

A bhikkhu should not tremble at criticism, nor be swelled-headed when praised.

Nindāya nappavedheyya na uṇṇameyya pasaṁsito bhikkhu. (Snp 928)

uddhacca

Renderings

Introduction

The problem of uddhacca

The problem of uddhacca is illustrated in Bodhi’s rendering of uddhacca, both the fourth hindrance and the ninth fetter, as ‘restlessness,’ and Norman’s rendering both cases as ‘conceit’ (e.g. Thi 167, Tha 1010, Tha 760).

Strangely, DOP does not recognise ‘conceit’ for uddhacca in spite of accepting ‘puffed up’ for uddhata, and acknowledging that uddhacca is derived from uddhata.

The problem with restlessness

The five hindrances are hindrances to samādhi, and non-returners have perfect samādhi (samādhismiṁ paripūrakārī hoti, AN i 232) which implies that the five hindrances including uddhacca are insignificant in non-returners. And yet non-returners are still troubled by uddhacca the ninth fetter. So the two forms of uddhacca must be different, and it is unlikely that the restlessness of the fourth hindrance is also the ninth fetter.

The problem with conceit

But Norman’s suggestion is also problematic, because it implies that the hindrance to first jhāna would remain active until arahantship, when the ninth tie to individual existence is finally abandoned. Unless conceit can be temporarily quelled like lust and hatred, first jhāna would only be available to arahants. So again, uddhacca must have two meanings.

Double meanings of uddhata and capala

Part of the confusion is that both uddhata and capala which frequently occur together, have double meanings, as follows:

Grouping 1:

Grouping 2:

  • uddhata: vain
  • capala: puffed up

Uddhata and capala: illustrated

The meanings of uddhacca and capala can be illustrated as follows:

1) uddhata: restless

• When one’s mind is restless it is timely to develop the enlightenment factors of tranquillity, inward collectedness, and detached awareness.

Yasmiṁ bhikkhave samaye uddhataṁ cittaṁ hoti kālo tasmiṁ samaye passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya(SN v 115)

2) capala: fluttery

• Like a fletcher straightens an arrow, the wise man straightens up his unsteady, fluttery mind, which is hard to supervise, hard to restrain.

Phandanaṁ capalaṁ cittaṁ durakkhaṁ dunnivārayaṁ
Ujuṁ karoti medhāvī usukāro va tejanaṁ. (Dhp 33)

3) uddhato: vain; capalo: puffed up

• A vain, puffed up bhikkhu clothed in rag-robes does not look glorious because of it. He is like a monkey in a lion-skin.

Uddhato capalo bhikkhu paṁsukūlena pāruto
Kapīva sīhacammena na so tenupasobhati. (Tha 1080)

4) uddhato: vain; capalo: puffed up

• Because of improper contemplation I was addicted to finery. I was vain, puffed up, and afflicted by lust for sensuous pleasure.

Ayoniso manasikārā maṇḍanaṁ anuyuñjisaṁ
Uddhato capalo cāsiṁ kāmarāgena aṭṭito. (Tha 157)

Dutiya Anuruddha Sutta: tranquility and peace are not ‘restlessness’

An interesting muddle occurs in the Dutiya Anuruddha Sutta (AN i 282), where Venerable Anuruddha complained about his slowness in attaining arahantship in spite of outstanding spiritual qualities. Venerable Sāriputta told him:

• ’Anuruddha, when you say “With purified divine vision surpassing that of men, I survey the thousandfold multi-universe system,” that is your self-centredness (māna).

Yaṁ kho te āvuso anuruddha evaṁ hoti: evāhaṁ dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena sahassaṁ lokaṁ olokemī ti idante mānasmiṁ.

… ‘When you say “My unflagging energy is aroused, unmuddled mindfulness is established, my body is tranquil and peaceful, my mind is collected and concentrated,” that is your vanity (uddhacca).

Yampi te āvuso anuruddha evaṁ hoti: āraddhaṁ kho pana me viriyaṁ asallīnaṁ upaṭṭhitā sati apammuṭṭhā passaddho kāyo asāraddho samāhitaṁ cittaṁ ekaggan ti idante uddhaccasmiṁ

… ‘When you say “But for all that my mind is not liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping,” that is your fretting (kukkucca).

Yampi te āvuso anuruddha evaṁ hoti atha ca pana me na anupādāya āsavehi cittaṁ vimuccatī ti idante kukkuccasmiṁ. (AN i 282)

It makes little sense to say that claiming one’s body is tranquil and peaceful can be explained as restlessness (uddhacca), as Bodhi puts it. DOP’s suggestion ‘puffed up’ is preferable, using ‘vanity’ as the noun for ‘puffed-upness.’

Causes of the fourth hindrance

The causes of uddhacca, the fourth hindrance, are:

  • 1) Excessive exertion: if a meditator focuses excessively on the practice of effort, it leads to restlessness (ekantaṁ paggahanimittaññeva manasikareyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ cittaṁ uddhaccāya saṁvatteyya). The suttas say it is like a goldsmith who, if he blows too much on molten gold will simply burn it up.
  • 2) No inward collectedness: Just as the goldsmith should sprinkle gold with water to keep it cool, the meditator should from time to time focus on the practice of inward collectedness (kālena kālaṁ samādhinimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ) (AN i 256) or inward peacefulness (cetaso vūpasamo) (SN v 106) because this removes restlessness (uddhaccassa pahānāya samatho bhāvetabbo) (AN iii 449).
  • 3) Argumentative speech (viggāhikakathaṁ): this leads to overtalkativeness (kathābāhullaṁ). With overtalkativeness comes restlessness (kathābāhulle sati uddhaccaṁ) (AN iv 87).

Agitation

Occasionally uddhacca means ‘agitation’, not restlessness. For example, the Buddha said a bhikkhu should visit families in a humble manner, lest he be embarrassed if he receives nothing:

• And so, from getting nothing, he becomes embarrassed

Itissa alābhena maṅkubhāvo.

… Being embarrassed, he becomes agitated

… Being agitated, his sense faculties are unrestrained [from grasping, through mindfulness]

uddhatassa asaṁvaro. (AN iv 87)

Righteous disquietude: dhammuddhacca

One form of uddhacca is called righteous disquietude (dhammuddhacca). It comprises the fourth path to arahantship. The first three paths are:

• insightfulness preceded by inward calm

• inward calm preceded by insightfulness

• inward calm together with insightfulness

The fourth path is described as follows:

• Or a bhikkhu’s mind is seized by righteous disquietude

bhikkhuno dhammuddhaccaviggahītaṁ mānaṁ hoti

… But there comes a time when his mind becomes settled, calm, concentrated, and collected.

so samayo yantaṁ cittaṁ ajjhattaṁyeva santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati.

… In him the path is born

tassa maggo sañjāyati. (AN ii 157)

Therefore dhammuddhacca is abandoned at stream-entry when the path is born, because:

• One possessed of this noble eightfold path, bhante, is called a stream-enterer.

Yo hi bhante iminā ariyena aṭṭhaṅgikena maggena samannāgato ayaṁ vuccati sotāpanno. (SN v 348)

Dhammuddhacca: a synonym for saṁvega

Dhammuddhacca is perhaps a synonym for saṁvega. It could therefore be illustrated by this account of practice:

• Seeing sensuous pleasures as [dangerous as] a blazing [grass torch being carried against the wind], and gold pieces as [dangerous as a sharp] knife, and life from the time of conception as suffering, and great danger in the [possibility of the] hells,

Kāme ādittato disvā jātarūpāni satthato
Gabbhavokkantito dukkhaṁ nirayesu mahabbhayaṁ.

… Recognising this danger, I was filled with an earnest attitude [to the practice].

Etamādīnavaṁ ñatvā saṁvegaṁ alabhiṁ tadā

… I was quickened then peaceful. I have accomplished the destruction of perceptually obscuring states.

Sohaṁ viddho tadā santo sampatto āsavakkhayaṁ. (Tha 790-1)

COMMENT:

Norman has said (Elders’ Verses note 791) that ‘it is possible that viddha is the equivalent of vyathita, the past participle of vyath- “shaken.” The context supports us treating it as standing for the past participle of saṁvijjati, to be quickened.

Illustrations

Illustration: uddhacca, restlessness; anuddhato, not restless

Abandoning restlessness and anxiety, he abides not restless, with a mind inwardly at peace. He purifies his mind of restlessness and anxiety.

uddhaccakukkuccaṁ pahāya anuddhato viharati ajjhattaṁ vūpasantacitto. Uddhaccakukkuccā cittaṁ parisodheti. (MN i 521)

There is inward unpeacefulness. Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen restlessness and anxiety, and the increase and expansion of arisen restlessness and anxiety.

Atthi bhikkhave cetaso avūpasamo. Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādāya uppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya.

There is inward peacefulness. Much proper contemplation in that regard is not a condition that nourishes either the arising of unarisen restlessness and anxiety, or the increase and expansion of arisen restlessness and anxiety.

Atthi bhikkhave cetaso vūpasamo. Tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamanāhāro anuppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādāya uppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya. (SN v 105-6)

And what is investigation that is too lax?

It is investigation accompanied by indolence, conjoined with indolence. This is called investigation that is too lax.

yā bhikkhave vīmaṁsā kosajjasahagatā kosajjasampayuttā. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave atilīnā vīmaṁsā.

And what is investigation that is too strained?

It is investigation accompanied by restlessness, conjoined with restlessness. This is called investigation that is too strained.

yā bhikkhave vīmaṁsā uddhaccasahagatā uddhaccasampayuttā. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave atipaggahitā vīmaṁsā. (SN v 280)

Suppose, brahman, there is a bowl of water stirred by wind. If a clear-sighted man were to examine his facial reflection in it, he would neither discern nor see it according to reality.

So too, brahman, when one dwells with a mind absorbed in and overcome by restlessness and anxiety, and does not discern according to reality the deliverance from the arisen restlessness and anxiety, one does not know or see either one’s own well-being, or that of others, or that of both.

yasmiṁ samaye uddhaccakukkuccapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati uddhaccakukkuccaparetena uppannassa ca uddhaccakukkuccassa nissaraṇaṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. (SN v 123-4)

uddhaccāya

uddhaccāya: (main article see: uddhacca)

Illustration: uddhaccāya, restlessness

If one’s energy is excessive it leads to restlessness; if too lax it leads to indolence.

accāraddhaṁ viriyaṁ uddhaccāya saṁvattati atilīnaṁ viriyaṁ kosajjāya saṁvattati. (AN iii 376)

uddhataṁ

uddhataṁ: (main article see: uddhacca)

Illustration: uddhataṁ, restless

When one’s mind is restless (uddhataṁ cittaṁ) it is timely to develop the enlightenment factors of tranquillity, inward collectedness, and detached awareness.

Yasmiṁ bhikkhave samaye uddhataṁ cittaṁ hoti kālo tasmiṁ samaye passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāyasamādhisambojjhaṅgassa… upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya

For what reason? Because the mind is restless and it is easy to calm it with those things

uddhataṁ bhikkhave cittaṁ. Taṁ etehi dhammehi suvūpasamaṁ hoti. (SN v 115)

uddhatā

uddhatā: (main article see: uddhacca)

Illustration: uddhatā, restless

These people say, “We are study bhikkhus, we are study bhikkhus,' but they are restless, frivolous, fidgety, talkative, garrulous, unmindful, not fully conscious, inwardly uncollected, mentally scattered, [and are dwelling with] their sense faculties unrestrained [from grasping, through mindfulness].

ime pana dhammayogamhā dhammayogamhā ti uddhatā unnaḷā capalā mukharā vikiṇṇavācā muṭṭhassatī asampajānā asamāhitā vibbhantacittā pākatindriyā. (AN iii 355)

Illustration: uddhatā, vain

They will be vain, clothed in blue robes, deceitful, puffed up, talkative, and haughty. They will live the religious life as though they were Noble Ones.

Uddhatā ca bhavissanti nīlacīvarapārutā
Kuhā thaddhā lapā siṅgī carissantyariyā viya. (Tha 958)

uddhaccaṁ

uddhaccaṁ: (main article see: uddhacca)

Illustration: uddhaccaṁ, agitated

When there is contentious talk, an excess of words can be expected. When there is an excess of words, one becomes agitated. When one is agitated, one’s sense faculties are unrestrained [from grasping, through mindfulness].

Viggāhikāya moggallāna kathāya sati kathābāhullaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ. Kathābāhulle sati uddhaccaṁ. Uddhatassa asaṁvaro. (SN iv 87)

Illustration: uddhaccaṁ, vanity

Bhikkhus, there are these five ties to individual existence in the middle and high planes of existence. What five?

pañcimāni bhikkhave uddhambhāgiyāni saṁyojanāni. katamāni pañca?

• attachment to the refined material states of awareness

• attachment to immaterial states of awareness

• self-centredness

• vanity

• uninsightfulness into reality

uddhaccasmiṁ

uddhaccasmiṁ: (main article see: uddhacca)

Illustration: uddhaccasmiṁ, vanity

• ’Anuruddha, friend, when you say “With purified divine vision surpassing that of men, I survey the thousandfold multi-universe system,” that is your self-centredness.

Yaṁ kho te āvuso anuruddha evaṁ hoti: evāhaṁ dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena sahassaṁ lokaṁ olokemī ti idante mānasmiṁ.

‘When you say “My unflagging energy is aroused, unmuddled mindfulness is established, my body is tranquil and peaceful, my mind is collected and concentrated,” that is your vanity.

Yampi te āvuso anuruddha evaṁ hoti: āraddhaṁ kho pana me viriyaṁ asallīnaṁ upaṭṭhitā sati apammuṭṭhā passaddho kāyo asāraddho samāhitaṁ cittaṁ ekaggan ti idante uddhaccasmiṁ

‘When you say “But for all that my mind is not liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping,” that is your fretting.

Yampi te āvuso anuruddha evaṁ hoti atha ca pana me na anupādāya āsavehi cittaṁ vimuccatī ti idante kukkuccasmiṁ. (AN i 282)

uddhato

uddhato: (main article see: uddhacca)

Illustration: uddhato, vain

A vain, puffed up bhikkhu clothed in rag-robes does not look glorious because of it. He is like a monkey in a lion-skin.

Uddhato capalo bhikkhu paṁsukūlena pāruto
Kapīva sīhacammena na so tenupasobhati. (Tha 1080)

One who is not vain or puffed up, who is mindful, whose sense faculties are restrained [from grasping, through mindfulness], looks glorious in rag-robes. He is like a lion in a mountain cave.

Anuddhato acapalo nipako saṁvutindriyo
Sobhati paṁsukūlena sīho va girigabbhare. (Tha 1081)

Because of improper contemplation I was addicted to finery. I was vain, puffed up, and afflicted by lust for sensuous pleasure.

Ayoniso manasikārā maṇḍanaṁ anuyuñjisaṁ
Uddhato capalo cāsiṁ kāmarāgena aṭṭito. (Tha 157)

unnaḷā

Renderings

Introduction

Unnaḷa: frivolous

Many meanings have been ascribed to unnaḷa, but illustrations below show that Norman’s ‘frivolous’ works well.

Collins Compact Dictionary: frivolous

  • 1) not serious or sensible in content, attitude or behaviour.
  • 2) unworthy of serious or sensible treatment

Webster’s Dictionary: frivolous

  • 1) of little weight or importance
  • 2a) lacking in seriousness; irresponsibly self-indulgent
  • 2b) marked by unbecoming levity

Illustrations

Illustration: unnaḷā, frivolous

Bhikkhus, those bhikkhus who are deceitful, puffed up, talkative, haughty, frivolous, inwardly uncollected, are not my bhikkhus.

Ye te bhikkhave bhikkhū kuhā thaddhā lapā siṅgī unnaḷā asamāhitā na me te bhikkhave bhikkhū māmakā. (AN ii 26; Iti 113)

Being frivolous, thin-skinned fools, unestablished in virtue, they will wander about like combative deer.

Ujjhānasaññino bālā sīlesu asamāhitā
Unnaḷā vicarissanti kalahābhiratā magā. (Tha 958)

unnaḷassa

unnaḷassa: (main article see: unnaḷā)

Illustration: unnaḷassa, frivolous

The virtue, inward collectedness, and penetrative discernment of a bhikkhu who is frivolous, negligently applied [to the practice], and with hopes directed to external things, do not reach fulfilment.

Unnaḷassa pamattassa bāhirāsassa bhikkhuno
Sīlaṁ samādhi paññā ca pāripūriṁ na gacchati. (Tha 634)

unnaḷānaṁ

unnaḷānaṁ: (main article see: unnaḷā)

Illustration: unnaḷānaṁ, frivolous

What should be done is shunned. What should be avoided is done. Of those who are frivolous and negligently applied [to the practice] their perceptually obscuring states increase.

Yaṁ hi kiccaṁ tadapaviddhaṁ akiccaṁ pana kayirati
Unnaḷānaṁ pamattānaṁ tesaṁ vaḍḍhanti āsavā. (Tha 635; Dhp 292)

unnaḷo

unnaḷo: (main article see: unnaḷā)

Illustration: unnaḷo, frivolous

A vain, frivolous fool in whom no virtue is found deserves the white robe. What will he do with an ochre robe?

Uddhato unnaḷo bālo sīlaṁ yassa na vijjati
Odātakaṁ arahati kāsāvaṁ kiṁ karissati. (Tha 973)

upadduta

Renderings

Introduction

Parenthesising upadduta: ravaged [by old age and death]

In the following quote we parenthesise ‘[by old age and death]’:

• The mountains, oceans, rivers, and the earth; the four directions, the intermediate points, the nadir, and the zenith, are all unlasting. The three planes of existence are ravaged [by old age and death]. Where having gone, mind, will you delight happily?

Nagā samuddā saritā vasundharā disā catasso vidisā adho divā
Sabbe aniccā tibhavā upaddutā kuhiṁ gato citta sukhaṁ ramissasi. (Ven. Tāḷapuṭa, Tha 1133)

We say ‘ravaged [by old age and death]’ based on a similar word combination in Tha 1093 by the same Tāḷapuṭa, who said there that the body is unlasting and ravaged by old age and death (maccujarāyupaddutaṁ):

• When will I dwell alone in the woods, free of fear, seeing [according to reality] that this [wretched human] body is unlasting, a seat of punishment and illness, ravaged by old age and death? When, oh when, will it be?

Kadā aniccaṁ vadharoganīḷaṁ kāyaṁ imaṁ maccujarāyupaddutaṁ
Vipassamāno vītabhayo vihassaṁ eko vane taṁ nu kadā bhavissati. (Ven. Tāḷapuṭa, Tha 1093)

Parenthesising upadduta: ravaged [by old age and death]

In the following quote we parenthesise ‘[by old age and death]’:

• All is ravaged [by old age and death]. What is the all that is ravaged [by old age and death]?

Sabbaṁ bhikkhave upaddutaṁ. Kiñca bhikkhave sabbaṁ upaddutaṁ

… The visual sense is ravaged, visible objects are ravaged, the visual field of sensation is ravaged, visual sensation is ravaged, whatever sense impression that arises due to visual sensation―whether pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral―that too is ravaged [by old age and death].

cakkhuṁ bhikkhave upaddutaṁ rūpā upaddutā cakkhuviññāṇaṁ upaddutaṁ cakkhusamphasso upadduto yampidaṁ cakkhusamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṁ sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā tampi upaddutaṁ. (SN iv 28-9)

We parenthesise like this for two reasons:

1) Firstly, this sutta is placed in the scriptures in a sequence of similar suttas, as follows:

• All is subject to birth… subject to old age… subject to illness… subject to death… productive of grief… All is ravaged… All is afflicted.

Sabbaṁ bhikkhave… jātidhammaṁ… jarādhammaṁ… vyādhidhammaṁ… maraṇadhammaṁ… sokadhammaṁ… upaddutaṁ… upassaṭṭhaṁ. (SN iv 26-9)

2) Secondly, it is comparable to the Addabhūta Sutta which says:

• All is conquered. What is the all that is conquered?

Sabbaṁ bhikkhave addhabhūtaṁ. Kiñca bhikkhave sabbaṁ addhabhūtaṁ?

… The visual sense is conquered, visible objects are conquered, etc. .

Cakkhuṁ bhikkhave addhabhūtaṁ rūpā addhabhūtā

… Conquered by what? Conquered by birth, old age, and death; by grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation, I declare.

Kena addhabhūtaṁ: addhabhūtaṁ jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi addhabhūtanti vadāmi. (SN iv 21)

We refrain from saying ‘All is ravaged [by birth, old age, and death; by grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation]’ for three reasons:

  • 1) Most of the elements are not ravaged by physical pain.
  • 2) To say that ‘phenomena are ravaged by birth’ is incongruous.
  • 3) It is consonant with Tāḷapuṭa’s maccujarāyupaddutaṁ (Tha 1093).

Parenthesising upadduta: ravaged [by death]

In the following quote we parenthesise ‘[by death]’:

• Then Yasa, having awoken sooner than usual saw his retinue asleep: one with a lute in her arm, one with a tabor under her chin, one with a drum under her arm, one with dishevelled hair, one who was dribbling, and others who were muttering. One would think it was a charnel ground before one’s eyes. Seeing this, the danger [of sensuous pleasure] became apparent to him. His mind was established in disillusionment [with sensuous pleasure].

Atha kho yaso kulaputto paṭigacceva pabujjhitvā addasa sakaṁ parijanaṁ supantaṁ. Aññissā kacche vīṇaṁ. Aññissā kaṇṭhe mudiṅgaṁ. Aññissā kacche ālambaraṁ. Aññaṁ vikkesikaṁ aññaṁ vikkhelikaṁ. Aññā vippalapantiyo. Hatthappattaṁ susānaṁ maññe. Disvānassa ādīnavo pāturahosi. Nibbidāya cittaṁ saṇṭhāsi.

Then Yasa, the noble young man, uttered the solemn reflection: ‘Alas, [all] is ravaged [by death]. Alas, [all] is afflicted [by death].’

Atha kho yaso kulaputto udānaṁ udānesi upaddutaṁ vata bho upassaṭṭhaṁ vata bho ti. (Vin.1.15)

Comment:

We say ‘[all] is ravaged [by death]’ for the following reasons:

• All is ravaged… All is afflicted.

Sabbaṁ bhikkhave… upaddutaṁ… upassaṭṭhaṁ. (SN iv 29)

Illustrations: upadduta

upaddutaṁ

upaddutaṁ: (main article see: upadduta)

Illustration: upaddutaṁ, attacked

The family which supported Venerable Pilindivaccha was attacked by thieves, and two children were kidnapped.

āyasmato pilindivacchassa upaṭṭhākakulaṁ corehi upaddutaṁ hoti. Dve ca dārakā nītā honti. (Vin.3.67)

upaddutā

upaddutā: (main article see: upadduta)

Illustration: upaddutā, oppressed

People were oppressed by the begging, oppressed by the hinting,

Manussā upaddutā yācanāya upaddutā viññattiyā

… So when they saw bhikkhus they were perturbed, then alarmed, and then ran away… and when they saw cows they ran away, imagining them to be bhikkhus (Vin.3.144).

The resident bhikkhus were oppressed by having to assign abodes for the incoming bhikkhus who arrived.

āvāsikā bhikkhū upaddutā honti āgantukagamikānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ senāsanaṁ paññāpentā. (Vin.2.170)

Enough, friends, do not weep and wail! We are well rid of that Great Ascetic.

alaṁ āvuso mā sovittha mā paridevittha. Sumuttā mayaṁ tena mahāsamaṇena.

We were always oppressed by him saying: ‘This is allowable for you. This is not allowable’

Upaddutā ca homa idaṁ vo kappati idaṁ vo na kappatī ti.

Now we can do what we like, and not do what we don't like!'

Idāni pana mayaṁ yaṁ icchissāma taṁ karissāma yaṁ na icchissāma na taṁ karissāmā ti. (DN ii 162)

Illustration: upaddutā, undone; upaddavena, undoing

If, Kassapa, one speaking rightly could say: 'Those living the religious life have been undone by the undoing of those who live the religious life; those living the religious life have been crushed by the crushing of those who live the religious life’: it is of the present time that one could rightly say it.

Yaṁ hi taṁ kassapa sammāvadamāno vadeyya upaddutā brahmacārī brahmacārūpaddavena abhibhavanā brahmacārī brahmacārābhibhavanenā ti. etarahi hi taṁ kassapa sammāvadanto vadeyya upaddutā brahmacārī brahmacārupaddavena abhibhavanā brahmacārī brahmacārābhibhavanenā ti. (SN ii 210)

Illustrations: upaddava

anupaddave

anupaddave: (main article see: upadduta)

Illustration: anupaddave, undestroyed

Just as a tree that is felled will grow back if its roots are undestroyed and uninjured….

Yathā pi mūle anupaddave daḷhe chinno pi rukkho punareva rūhati. (Dhp 338)

upaddavo

upaddavo: (main article see: upadduta)

Illustration: upaddavo, misfortune

‘For me, this [wretched sensuous pleasure] is an affliction, a carbuncle, a misfortune, an illness, a [piercing] arrow, a danger.’ [Considering thus], seeing this danger in the varieties of sensuous pleasure, one should live the religious life as solitarily as a rhinoceros horn.

Ītī ca gaṇḍo ca upaddavo ca rogo ca sallañca bhayañca metaṁ
Etaṁ bhayaṁ kāmaguṇesu disvā eko care khaggavisāṇakappo. (Snp 51)

Illustration: upaddavo, undoing

Being visited by brahmans and householders from town and country, he becomes infatuated, falls in love, succumbs to greed, and reverts to luxury.

So anvāvaṭṭantesu brāhmaṇagahapatikesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca mucchati nikāyamati gedhaṁ āpajjati āvaṭṭati bāhullāya.

This is called the teacher who is undone through the undoing of teachers.

Ayaṁ vuccatānanda upaddavo ācariyo ācariyūpaddavena.

He has been struck down by unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors that are defiling, and which lead to renewed states of individual existence, suffering, unpleasant karmic consequences, and future birth, old age, and death.

avadhiṁsu naṁ pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṅkilesikā ponobhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṁ jātijarāmaraṇiyā

In this way a teacher’s undoing comes to be.

evaṁ kho ānanda ācariyūpaddavo hoti. (MN iii 116)

saupaddavā

saupaddavā: (main article see: upadduta)

Illustration: saupaddavā, misfortune

Now, bhante, it is not proper or fitting. That quarter which should be without fear, affliction, and misfortune is the very quarter which is full of fear, affliction, and misfortune.

idaṁ bhante nacchannaṁ nappatirūpaṁ. Yāyaṁ bhante disā abhayā anītikā anupaddavā sāyaṁ disā sabhayā saītikā saupaddavā.

Where there was calm, now there is a gale. It seems the very water is blazing. I have been raped by Master Dabba the Mallian.

Yato nivātaṁ tato pavātaṁ. Udakaṁ maññe ādittaṁ. Ayyenamhi dabbena mallaputtena dūsitā ti. (Vin.2.79)

upadhi

Renderings

  • for upadhi:
    • a state of attachment
    • the phenomenon of attachment
    • an object of attachment
    • a worldly object of attachment
  • upadhi: (the phenomenon of) attachment; object of attachment
  • upadhiṁ: (the phenomenon of) attachment
  • upadhikā: (the phenomenon of) attachment
  • upadhī: worldly objects of attachment; objects of attachment
  • upadhiko: state of attachment
  • upadhīnaṁ: states of attachment
  • upadhīsu: objects of attachment

Introduction

Upadhi: four meanings

Upadhi is often divided into two groups. PED, DOP, and Bodhi, for example, all broadly say it means either possessions, or attachment to possessions, which Bodhi renders as ‘acquisitions’ and ‘acquisition’ respectively. But upadhi has four meanings:

1) States of attachment, plural

For example:

‘The Buddha, having destroyed all states of attachment’

sabbūpadhīnaṁ parikkhayā buddho. (SN i 107)

The usual twofold classification system fails to capture this meaning, because its plural obliges one to say the Buddha destroyed all his possessions, which is how Bodhi translates it: ‘With the destruction of all acquisitions the Awakened One sleeps’ (Bodhi, SN i 107).

2) The phenomenon of attachment, singular

For example:

• The phenomenon of attachment is the origin of dukkha

upadhi dukkhassa mūlan ti. (MN ii 260)

Or, more concisely:

• Attachment is the origin of dukkha.

upadhi dukkhassa mūlan ti. (MN ii 260)

But one must be careful about conciseness. It can lead to double meanings, to confusing state of attachment, object of attachment, and phenomenon of attachment.

3) Objects of attachment, commonly plural

For example:

• All objects of attachment are unlasting’

sabbe upadhī aniccā. (Iti 69)

4) Worldly objects of attachment

For example:

• Wife, children, men and women slaves, goats, sheep, fowl, pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, mares, gold, and silver are subject to birth. These worldly objects of attachment are subject to birth.

Puttabhariyaṁ bhikkhave jātidhammaṁ dāsidāsaṁ jātidhammaṁ ajeḷakaṁ jātidhammaṁ kukkuṭasūkaraṁ jātidhammaṁ hatthigavāssavaḷavaṁ jātidhammaṁ jātarūparajataṁ jātidhammaṁ. Jātidhammāhete bhikkhave upadhayo. (MN i 162)

• A bhikkhu secluded from worldly objects of attachment, with the abandonment of spiritually unwholesome factors and the allayment of all unvirtuous conduct by way of body… enters and abides in first jhāna.

upadhivivekā akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānā sabbaso kāyaduṭṭhullānaṁ paṭipassaddhiyā… paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (MN i 435)

Discriminating upadhi’s

  • When a bhikkhu attains jhāna, he is ‘secluded from upadhi’ (upadhivivekā) i.e. secluded from ‘worldly objects of attachment,’ not ‘all objects of attachment’. He still has a body.
  • When a bhikkhu attains nibbāna he relinquishes all upadhi (sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo) i.e. relinquishes ‘the whole phenomenon of attachment,’ not ‘all attachments’ (MN i 436).

Illustrations

Illustration: upadhi, (the phenomenon of) attachment; object of attachment

Having understood that attachment is the origin of suffering,

upadhi dukkhassa mūlan ti iti viditvā

being free of attachment,

liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through the destruction of attachment,

it is not possible that he would arouse his body or apply his mind to any object of attachment.

upadhismiṁ vā kāyaṁ upasaṁharissati cittaṁ vā uppādessatī ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (MN ii 260-261)

The many diverse kinds of suffering that arise in the world [headed by] old age and death: this suffering has attachment as its basis, attachment as its origin; it is generated and produced by attachment.

upadhinidānaṁ upadhisamudayaṁ upadhijātikaṁ upadhipabhavaṁ

When there is attachment, old age and death arise.

upadhismiṁ sati jarāmaraṇaṁ hoti

Without attachment, old age and death do not arise.

upadhismiṁ asati jarāmaraṇaṁ na hotī ti. (SN ii 108)

Attachment has craving as its basis, craving as its origin; it is generated and produced by craving.

upadhi taṇhānidāno taṇhāsamudayo taṇhājātiko taṇhāpabhavo

When there is craving, attachment arises.

taṇhāya sati upadhi hoti

Without craving, attachment does not arise.

taṇhāya asati upadhi na hotī ti. (SN ii 108)

In this regard, some person applies himself to the abandonment and relinquishment of attachment. Whilst doing so, memories and thoughts concerning objects of attachment assail him.

idhūdāyi ekacco puggalo upadhipahānāya paṭipanno hoti upadhipaṭinissaggāya. Tamenaṁ upadhipahānāya paṭipannaṁ upadhipaṭinissaggāya upadhipaṭisaṁyuttā sarasaṅkappā samudācaranti. (MN i 453-4)

upadhiṁ

upadhiṁ: (main article see: upadhi)

Illustration: upadhiṁ, (the phenomenon of) attachment.

Suffering arises because of attachment

upadhiṁ paṭicca dukkhamidaṁ sambhoti

With the destruction of all grasping

There is no arising of suffering

natthi dukkhassa sambhavo. (Uda 33)

Comment:

Ūpādāna (‘grasping’) substitutes for upadhiṁ (‘phenomenon of attachment’).

Knowing attachment in the world [of phenomena] as bondage [to individual existence], a person should train for its elimination.

Upadhiṁ viditvā saṅgo ti loke tasseva jantu vinayāya sikkheti. (SN i 117)

upadhikā

upadhikā: (main article see: upadhi)

Illustration: upadhikā, (the phenomenon of) attachment

The various kinds of psychic power (anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ) are the ability of multiplying one’s body, then unmultiplying it, etc. (DN i 77-9)

These powers are associated with perceptually obscuring states and with attachment, and are called ‘ignoble’

iddhi yā sāsavā saupadhikā no ariyā ti vuccati. (DN iii 112-3)

upadhī

upadhī: (main article see: upadhi)

Illustration: upadhī, worldly objects of attachment; upadhi, the phenomenon of attachment

Formerly, when he was ignorant, worldly objects of attachment were accepted and received by him.

upadhī honti samattā samādinnā

Later he abandoned them, so they were chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, never to arise again in future.

pahīnā honti ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā.

A bhikkhu possessing such [resolve for relinquishment] possesses the supreme resolve for relinquishment.

paramena cāgādhiṭṭhānena samannāgato hoti.

For this, bhikkhu, is the supreme noble relinquishment, namely the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment.

paramo ariyo cāgo yadidaṁ sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo. (MN iii 245)

Illustration: upadhī, worldly objects of attachment; nirupadhī, without worldly objects of attachment; nirupadhī, free of attachment

[Māra:]

One with sons rejoices in sons. One with cattle likewise rejoices in cattle.

Worldly objects of attachment are truly a man’s delight. One without worldly objects of attachment does not rejoice.

upadhī hi narassa nandanā na hi so nandati yo nirupadhī ti.

[The Buddha:]

One with sons grieves over sons. One with cattle likewise grieves over cattle.

Worldly objects of attachment are truly a man’s grief. One who is free of attachment does not grieve.

Upadhī hi narassa socanā na hi so socati yo nirupadhī ti. (SN i 107-8)

Illustration: upadhī, objects of attachment

This [wretched human] body is perishable, bhikkhus; consciousness is destined to pass away;

Bhidurāyaṁ bhikkhave kāye viññāṇaṁ virāgadhammaṁ

All objects of attachment are unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, destined to change.

sabbe upadhī aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā ti

Knowing the body as perishable, and consciousness as perishable,

Kāyañca bhiduraṁ ñatvā viññāṇañca pabhaṅguṇaṁ

Seeing fear in objects of attachment, he has gone beyond birth and death

upadhīsu bhayaṁ disvā jātimaraṇamaccagā. (Iti 69)

upadhiko

upadhiko: (main article see: upadhi)

Illustration: upadhiko, state of attachment

If a man’s spiritual purity was on account of his vision, if he abandoned suffering by knowledge, then a man with one state of attachment would be spiritually purified by means of another

diṭṭhena ce suddhi narassa hoti ñāṇena vā so pajahāti dukkhaṁ
Aññena so sujjhati sopadhiko. (Snp 789)

You have transcended states of attachment,

upadhī te samatikkantā. (Snp 546)

upadhīnaṁ

upadhīnaṁ: (main article see: upadhi)

Illustration: upadhīnaṁ, states of attachment

With the destruction of all states of attachment the Buddha sleeps. Why should this concern you, Māra?

Sabbūpadhīnaṁ parikkhayā buddho soppati kiṁ tavettha mārā ti. (SN i 107)

upadhīsu

upadhīsu: (main article see: upadhi)

Illustration: upadhīsu, objects of attachment

People are ensnared by objects of attachment, by what is seen, heard, sensed, and cognised.

upadhīsu janā gathitāse diṭṭhasute paṭighe ca mute ca. (SN i 186)

He sees no substantial reality in objects of attachment. Having eliminated his fondness and attachment regarding objects of attachment, he is free of attachment, not needing to be led by others. He would properly fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism in the world.

Na so upadhīsu sārameti ādānesu vineyya chandarāgaṁ
So anissito anaññaneyyo sammā so loke paribbajeyya. (Snp 364)

upādānā

Renderings

Introduction

Grasping not clinging

That upādāna is best rendered as grasping not clinging is nowhere clearer than in the fact that the Buddha ‘does not sit while grasping his chin with his hand’ (na ca pāṇinā hanukaṁ upādiyitvā nisīdati, MN ii 138).

Illustrations

Illustration: upādānā, fuelled

If I were to direct this detached awareness so purified and refined to the state of awareness of boundless space, and to develop my mind accordingly, then this detached awareness of mine, supported by that, fuelled by it, would remain for a very long time.

imaṁ ce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁparisuddhaṁ evaṁpariyodātaṁ ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ evaṁ ayaṁ upekkhā tannissitā tadupādānā ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭheyya. (MN iii 243)

upādiyati

upādiyati: (main article see: upādānā)

Illustration: upādiyati, take up

Sāriputta, he who lays down one body and takes up a new body is one I call blameworthy

imañca kāyaṁ nikkhipati aññañca kāyaṁ upādiyati tamahaṁ saupavajjo ti vadāmi. (MN iii 266)

Illustration: upādiyati, absorb

Suppose the seed of a nimb or creeper or bitter gourd be planted in moist soil. Whatever of the earth-nutriment or water-nutriment it absorbs (yañceva paṭhavirasaṁ upādiyati yañca āporasaṁ upādiyati), all that leads to its bitterness, acridity, and unpleasant taste. (AN v 212)

Illustration: upādiyati, grasp

He does not grasp anything in the world [of phenomena]

na kiñci loke upādiyati. (MN i 252)

upādāya

upādāya: (main article see: upādānā)

Illustration: upādāya, grasping

When there is the visual sense… the mental sense, by grasping the visual sense… the mental sense, by stubbornly adhering to the visual sense… the mental sense, the thought occurs “I am better” or “I am equal” or “I am worse”

cakkhusmiṁ kho bhikkhave sati cakkhuṁ upādāya cakkhuṁ abhinivissa seyyo'hamasmī ti vā hoti sadiso'hamasmī ti vā hoti hīno'hamasmī ti vā hoti. (SN iv 88)

While Venerable Sāriputta considered this his mind was liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through being without grasping.

anupādāya āsavehi cittaṁ vimucci. (MN i 501)

’The notion “I am” occurs with grasping, not without grasping.

Upādāya āvuso ānanda asmī ti hoti no anupādāya

‘Suppose, a youngster, youthful and fond of ornaments (vain), would examine their facial image in a mirror or in a bowl filled with pure, clean water.

itthi vā puriso vā daharo yuvā maṇaḍanajātiko ādāse vā parisuddhe pariyodāte acche vā udakapatte sakaṁ mukhanimittaṁ paccavekkhamāno

‘They would look at it with grasping, not without grasping

upādāya passeyya no anupādāya

So, too, the notion “I am” occurs with the grasping of (the five aggregates), not without grasping.

Evameva kho āvuso ānanda rūpaṁ upādāya asmī ti hoti no anupādāyaviññāṇaṁ upādāya asmī ti hoti no anupādāya. (SN iii 105)

upādāno

upādāno: (main article see: upādānā)

Illustration: upādāno, sustenance

Suppose there was a great tree and all its roots going downwards and across would send the sap upwards. With that as nourishment, with that as sustenance, that great tree would stand for a very long time

tadāhāro tadupādāno ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭheyya. (SN ii 86)

upādānaṁ

upādānaṁ: (main article see: upādānā)

Illustration: upādānaṁ, fuel

I declare rebirth for one with fuel, not for one without fuel; just as a fire burns with fuel not without fuel.

Sa upādānassa kho' haṁ vaccha uppattiṁ paññāpemi no anupādānassa; seyyathā pi vaccha aghi saupādāno jalati no anupādāno:

… On that occasion craving is the fuel

Taṇhāhissa vaccha tasmiṁ samaye upādānaṁ hotī ti. (SN iv 399-400)

Illustration: upādānaṁ, grasping

There are visible objects known via the visual sense that are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming.

cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā

If a bhikkhu takes delight in them, welcomes them, and persists in cleaving to them, then the mind is attached to them.

tañce bhikkhu abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati tassa taṁ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato tannissitaṁ viññāṇaṁ hoti

That is grasping.

Spiritually fettering delight in bodily form is grasping

yā rūpe nandī tadupādānaṁ. (SN iii 13)

Grasping arises dependent on craving

And certainly when this Venerable regards himself thus: ‘I am at peace. I am inwardly at peace. I am free of grasping’ that is declared to be grasping on the part of this good ascetic or Brahmanist.

Yañca kho ayamāyasmā santo’hamasmi nibbuto’hamasmi anupādino’hamasmī ti samanupassati tadapi imassa bhoto samaṇassa brāhmaṇassa upādānamakkhāyati (MN ii 237)

upādānāya

upādānāya: (main article see: upādānā)

Illustration: upādānāya, grasping

The ascetics whose doctrine and dogmatic view is that “Everything is acceptible to me,” that view is close to attachment, bondage [to individual existence], delight, cleaving, and grasping;

ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁ vādino evaṁdiṭṭhino sabbaṁ me khamatī ti tesamayaṁ diṭṭhi sārāgāya santike saṁyogāya santike abhinandanāya santike ajjhosānāya santike upādānāya santike. (MN i 498)

Neither is grasping the same as the five grasped aggregates, nor is it separate.

na kho bhikkhu taññeva upādānaṁ te pañcupādānakkhandhā na pi aññatra pañcupādānakkhandhehi upādānaṁ

Whatever there is the fondness and attachment, that is the grasping.

yo tattha chandarāgo taṁ tattha upādānan ti. (SN iii 100-1)

If there were no grasping in any way

sabbaso upādāne asati upādānanirodhā

• grasping of sensuous pleasure

• grasping of dogmatic views

• grasping of observances and practices

• grasping of theories of an [absolute] Selfhood

would individual existence be discerned?

api nu kho bhavo paññāyethā ti. (DN ii 58)

upādā

upādā: (main article see: upādānā)

Illustration: upādā, grasping

In this regard, having seen any kind of bodily form… field of sensation according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood,” a bhikkhu is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through being without grasping.

Idha aggivessana bhikkhu yaṁ kiñci rūpaṁ atītānāgata paccuppannaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā yaṁ dūre sannike vā sabbaṁ rūpaṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā anupādā vimutto hoti.

Yā kāci vedanā… saññā… saṅkhārā… viññāṇaṁ…. (MN i 235)

Comment:

Thus grasping equals seeing things as “[in reality] mine,” “[in reality] what I am,” “my [absolute] Selfhood.”

upāyāsa

Renderings

Introduction

The problem of upāyāsa: the dictionaries

The problem of upāyāsa is nicely illustrated in the disagreement between dictionaries and translators. To find it called ‘despair’ in a dictionary, one must return to 1875 when Childer called it ‘desperation, despair.’ Later dictionaries call it:

  • PED: trouble, turbulence, misery, unrest, disturbance, unsettled condition
  • DOP: trouble, unrest, annoyance, irritation.

Upāyāsa and Āyāsa

Both Pāli dictionaries treat āyāsa as practically equivalent to upāyāsa.

  • PED: trouble, sorrow
  • DOP: exertion, trouble, weariness, distress

This is appropriate, because upāyāsa is defined in terms of āyāsa:

• What is vexation? It is the annoyance, the vexation, the state of annoyance in one who has some sort of misfortune or other, who is affected by some sort of unpleasant event or another. This is called vexation.

Katamo cāvuso upāyāso: yo kho āvuso aññataraññatarena vyasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa āyāso upāyāso āyāsitattaṁ upāyāsitattaṁ ayaṁ vuccatāvuso upāyāso MN iii 250.

Sanskrit equivalent

The Sanskrit-English Dictionary (Monier-Williams) supports the Pāli dictionaries in rejecting ‘despair’:

  • Āyasta: pained, distressed, vexed, angry
  • Āyāsa: fatigue, weariness.

The problem of upāyāsa: the translators

But strikingly, almost all translators persist in calling it despair. Only since 2012 has Bodhi rejected the word.

  • Ñāṇamoli: despair
  • Horner: despair
  • Bodhi (CDB, 2000): despair
  • Bodhi (NDB, 2012): anguish
  • Norman: trouble (Snp 542).

Kodhūpāyāsa

For those calling upāyāsa ‘despair,’ its combination with kodha (anger) is awkward because it then obviously approximates anger, and translators are then cornered. Bodhi in 2012 even rejects ‘anguish’ in favour of ‘displeased.’

  • Horner: wrathful rage (MN i 360).
  • Bodhi: anger and irritation (MN i 360).
  • Bodhi: despair due to anger (SN iii 109).
  • Bodhi: angry and displeased (AN i 124).
  • DOP: angry and annoyed

Vexation: happy solution

Upāyāsa can in all contexts be rendered ‘vexation’.

Illustrations

upāyāsehi

upāyāsehi: (main article see: upāyāsa)

Illustration: upāyāsehi, vexation

They are not freed from birth, old age, and death; they are not freed from grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation; they are not freed from suffering, I declare.

Te na parimuccanti jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi na parimuccanti dukkhasmā ti vadāmi. (SN ii 108-9)

upāyāsā

upāyāsā: (main article see: upāyāsa)

Illustration: upāyāsā, states of vexation

All your states of vexation are destroyed and ended. You are freed from inward distress, inwardly tamed, resolute, one whose endeavour is for the sake of truth.

Upāyāsā ca te sabbe viddhastā vinaḷīkatā
Sītibhūto damappatto dhitimā saccanikkamo. (Snp 542)

upāyāsabahulo

upāyāsabahulo: (main article see: upāyāsa)

Illustration: upāyāsabahulo, easily vexed

In this regard, young man, some woman or man is ill-tempered and easily vexed. On being spoken to even about a trifle, he takes offence, becomes angry, upset, and resentful. He evinces anger, hatred, and irritation.

Idha pana māṇava ekacco itthi vā puriso vā kodhano hoti upāyāsabahulo appampi vutto samāno abhisajjati kuppati vyāpajjati patitthīyati kopañca dosañca appaccayañca pātukaroti. (MN iii 204)

saupāyāsaṁ

saupāyāsaṁ: (main article see: upāyāsa)

Illustration: saupāyāsaṁ, vexation

Possessed of six factors a bhikkhu abides unhappily in this very lifetime, with distress, vexation, and anguish, and at death a bad bourne can be expected. What six?

Chahi bhikkhave dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu diṭṭheva dhamme dukkhaṁ viharati savighātaṁ saupāyāsaṁ sapariḷāhaṁ kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā duggati pāṭikaṅkhā. Katamehi chahi:

Thoughts of sensuous pleasure, ill will, and maliciousness; sensuous mental imagery, unbenevolent mental imagery, and malicious mental imagery.

Kāmavitakkena, vyāpādavitakkena, vihiṁsāvitakkena, kāmasaññāya, vyāpādasaññāya, vihiṁsāsaññāya. (AN iii 429)

saupāyāso

saupāyāso: (main article see: upāyāsa)

Illustration: saupāyāso, vexation

Bhikkhus, sensuous pleasure, a vile pleasure, the pleasure of the common man, an ignoble pleasure, this is a state associated with pain, distress, vexation, and anguish. It is a wrong practice. Therefore it is defiled.

Tatra bhikkhave yamidaṁ kāmasukhaṁ mīḷhasukhaṁ pothujjanasukhaṁ anariyasukhaṁ sadukkho eso dhammo saupaghāto saupāyāso sapariḷāho micchāpaṭipadā. Tasmā eso dhammo saraṇo. (MN iii 236)

bahūpāyāsā

bahūpāyāsā: (main article see: upāyāsa)

Illustration: bahūpāyāsā, vexation

Sensuous pleasures have been compared by the Blessed One to a skeleton [of meatless bones smeared with blood which leaves a hungry dog unsatisfied, fatigued, and full of vexation]. They are full of suffering and vexation, while the danger in them is great.

aṭṭhikaṅkalūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā bahudukkhā bahūpāyāsā ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo ti. (MN i 364)

anāyāso

anāyāso: (main article see: upāyāsa)

Illustration: anāyāso, free of vexation

Inwardly at peace, free of vexation, with a serene and undefiled [mind]

Upasanto anāyāso vippasanno anāvilo. (Tha 1008)

Free of anger, free of vexation

āyāsaṁ

āyāsaṁ: (main article see: upāyāsa)

Illustration: āyāsaṁ, vexation

[Indulgence in sensuous pleasures is] being greedy. It is exuberance. It is bewilderment. It [supports] the growth of defilement. It is full of danger. It is full of vexation. Here there is neither endurance nor stability.

Lobhanaṁ madanaṁ cetaṁ mohanaṁ rajavaḍḍhanaṁ
Sāsaṅkaṁ bahu āyāsaṁ natthi cettha dhuvaṁ ṭhiti. (Thi 343)

kodhūpāyāsa

kodhūpāyāsa: (main article see: upāyāsa)

Illustration: kodhūpāyāsa, anger and vexation

The steep precipice: this is a metaphor for anger and vexation.

Sobebhā papāto ti kho tissa kodhūpāyāsassetaṁ adhivacanaṁ. (SN iii 109)

upekkhā

Renderings

Introduction

Upekkhā: not equanimity

DOP calls upekkhā:

• disinterestedness, unaffectedness, lack of involvement or reaction.

PED calls it:

• looking on, hedonic neutrality or indifference, zero point between joy and sorrow, disinterestedness, neutral feeling, equanimity.

Equanimity is not prominent here. Equanimity means ‘steadiness of mind under stress’ (WordWeb), which is not the meaning of upekkhā. For example, in both fourth jhāna and the divine abiding, upekkhā occurs in conditions of absolute serenity, not stress.

Upekkhā: neutral attitude

When PED calls upekkhā ‘zero point between joy and sorrow,’ it shows that English lacks a word for it. We call it ‘neutral attitude.’

Enlightenment factor of upekkhā: carefully, passively observing

The nature of upekkhā is effectively revealed in the descriptions of the seven enlightenment factors of the Sīla Sutta. For the sake of comparison, let us first see how some of the other factors are also revealed. The sutta says:

• Whenever the body becomes tranquil and the mind becomes tranquil in a bhikkhu whose mind is rapturous, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of tranquillity is aroused in the bhikkhu

Yasmiṁ samaye bhikkhave bhikkhuno pītimanassa kāyopi passambhati cittampi passambhati passaddhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti

• Whenever his mind becomes collected in a bhikkhu whose body is tranquil and joyful, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of inward collectedness is aroused in the bhikkhu

Yasmiṁ samaye bhikkhave bhikkhuno passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati samādhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti.

• When a bhikkhu carefully, passively observes the mind thus collected, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of upekkhā is aroused in the bhikkhu.

Yasmiṁ samaye bhikkhave bhikkhu tathā samāhitaṁ cittaṁ sādhukaṁ ajjhupekkhitā hoti. Upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti. (SN v 67-69)

Thus the nature of the enlightenment factors is found in their means of cultivation:

  • The enlightenment factor of tranquillity equals the bhikkhu’s body and mind becoming tranquil.
  • The enlightenment factor of inward collectedness equals the bhikkhu’s mind becoming collected.
  • The enlightenment factor of upekkhā equals the bhikkhu carefully, passively observing.

The PED calls upekkhā ‘looking on,’ close to our term: ‘detached awareness.’

Upekkhako of third jhāna: serenity not equanimity

The formula for third jhāna is:

• With the fading away of rapture, he abides serene, mindful, and fully conscious, experiencing physical pleasure. He enters and abides in third jhāna in which the Noble Ones declare that he abides serene, mindful, and in physical pleasure

pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato sampajāno sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti upekkhako satimā sukhavihārīti taṁ tatiyajjhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (SN iv 236)

Thus the upekkhako of third jhāna is related to the fading away of rapture, for which we use the word ‘serene,’ not ‘equanimous’ because, unlike fourth jhāna, third jhāna is not stable:

• Third jhāna, I declare, is within the unstable. What there is within the unstable? The serenity with physical pleasure that is unended.

tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ… iñjitasmiṁ vadāmi kiñca tattha iñjitasmiṁ yadeva tattha upekkhāsukhaṁ aniruddhaṁ hoti

• Fourth jhāna, I declare, is within the not-unstable.

catutthaṁ jhānaṁ… aniñjitasmiṁ vadāmi. (MN i 454-5)

If equanimity means ‘steadiness of mind under stress,’ then the upekkhako of unstable third jhāna cannot rationally be called equanimous.

Upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ: upekkhā and sati are purified in fourth jhāna

The formula for fourth jhāna is:

• With the abandonment of physical pleasure and pain, and following the vanishing of psychological pleasure and pain, a bhikkhu enters and abides in fourth jhāna, which is free of pleasure and pain, and [is imbued with] purified detached awareness and mindfulness.

idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (SN iv 236-7)

In the term upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ, the relationship between fourth jhāna, upekkhā, and sati is unsettled. It has been translated as follows:

  • Horner (1): fourth jhāna ‘is entirely purified by equanimity and mindfulness’ (MN iii 36).
  • Horner (2): fourth jhāna ‘consists of purity of mindfulness and even-mindedness’ (Vin.3.4).
  • Bodhi (1): fourth jhāna has ‘purity of mindfulness due to equanimity’ (MN iii 252).
  • Bodhi (2): fourth jhāna ‘includes the purification of mindfulness by equanimity’ (AN v 31).

Thus Horner (1) says upekkhā and sati purify fourth jhāna, whereas Horner (2) says upekkhā and sati are simply part of fourth jhāna. Bodhi (1&2) says sati is purified by upekkhā.

For us, we treat upekkhā and sati as near synonyms, and do not accept that fourth jhāna is purified by these factors, but rather that these two factors are purified in fourth jhāna. The situation is comparable to the meditation on the four great material phenomena, where one detaches the mind from these Elements (cittaṁ virājeti). This leads to the following statement:

• Then there remains only consciousness, purified and refined.

Athāparaṁ viññāṇaṁ yeva avasissati parisuddhaṁ pariyodātaṁ

What does one know with that consciousness? One knows what is pleasant, one knows what is unpleasant, one knows what is neutral.

Tena ca viññāṇena kiṁ vijānāti: sukhan ti pi vijānāti dukkhan ti pi vijānāti adukkhamasukhan ti pi vijānāti. (MN iii 244)

In this meditation, by detaching the mind from the four great material phenomena, consciousness is purified and refined, and then one knows what is pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral. Likewise, in fourth jhāna, with the abandonment of pleasure and pain, detached awareness and mindfulness are purified, and are then stable bases for contemplation:

• With his mind thus collected, purified, cleansed, unblemished, free of defilement, pliable, wieldy, stable, and attained to imperturbability, the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the destruction of perceptually obscuring states.

So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṁ khayañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. (DN i 79-86)

Upekkhindriya: the faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience

The five faculties of sense impression are:

1) the faculty of physical pleasure: pleasure born of bodily sensation

2) the faculty of physical pain: pain born of bodily sensation

3) the faculty of psychological pleasure: pleasure born of mental sensation:

somanassindriyaṁ: manosamphassajaṁ sukhaṁ

4) the faculty of psychological pain: pain born of mental sensation.

domanassindriyaṁ: manosamphassajaṁ dukkhaṁ

5) the faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience: whatever sense impression there is, physical or psychological, that is neither pleasing nor displeasing

yaṁ kho bhikkhave kāyikaṁ vā cetasikaṁ vā neva sātaṁ nāsātaṁ vedayitaṁ idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave upekkhindriyaṁ. (SN v 211)

Thus the faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience (upekkhindriya) includes

  • 1) physical neutral experience
  • 2) psychological neutral experience

We call it ‘physical experience’ not ‘bodily experience’ because it is the experience of all five of the external senses, not just the sense of touch. The terms ‘sense impression born of bodily sensation’ are likewise not restricted to physical touch because the five faculties of sense impression are a comprehensive model, where the physical senses are considered part of the body, giving rise to physical sense impressions.

Neutral attitude: counterpoint of joy and dejection

Neutral attitude is the counterpoint of joy and dejection. For example:

• In seeing a visible object via the visual sense

cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā

… one ponders a visible object which is the basis for joy

somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati

… one ponders a visible object which is the basis for dejection,

domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati

… one ponders a visible object which is the basis for a neutral attitude.

upekkhaṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati. (MN iii 217)

Neutral attitude: diversified and undiversified

Neutral attitude is either diversified or undiversified:

• What is the neutral attitude that is diversified, associated with diversity?

upekkhā nānattā nānattasitā

… There is a neutral attitude associated with visible objects, audible objects… mentally known objects.

atthi bhikkhave upekkhā rūpesu atthi saddesu atthi gandhesu atthi rasesu atthi phoṭṭhabbesu.

… What is the neutral attitude that is undiversified, associated with undiversity?

upekkhā ekattā ekattasitā

… There is a neutral attitude associated with the state of awareness of boundless space, associated with the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, associated with the state of awareness of nonexistence, associated with the state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception.

atthi bhikkhave upekkhā ākāsānañcāyatananissitā atthi viññāṇañcāyatananissitā atthi ākiñcaññāyatananissitā atthi nevasaññānāsaññāyatananissitā

… In this regard, with the help of and by means of the neutral attitude that is undiversified, associated with undiversity, abandon and transcend the neutral attitude that is diversified, associated with diversity

Tatra bhikkhave yā'yaṁ upekkhā ekattā ekattasitā taṁ nissāya taṁ āgamma yā'yaṁ upekkhā nānattā nānattasitā taṁ pajahatha taṁ samatikkamatha.

… With the help of and by means of the perception that “It is void of personal qualities” abandon and transcend the neutral attitude that is undiversified, associated with undiversity.

Atammayataṁ bhikkhave nissāya atammayataṁ āgamma yā'yaṁ upekkhā ekattā ekattasitā taṁ pajahatha taṁ samatikkamatha. (MN iii 220)

The power of detached awareness

Detached awareness can be used in the battle against attachment, against pleasure and pain, and against impossible comrades:

• If the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] detached awareness is developed and cultivated… it is impossible, out of the question, that attachment would plague your mind. There is no such possibility.

yaṁ upekkhāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya… rāgo cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (DN iii 248-250)

• When touched by a tangible object do not be elated by pleasure. Do not tremble when touched by pain. Maintain detached awareness towards physical sensation, both pleasant and painful, not attracted or repelled by anything.

Phassena phuṭṭho na sukhena majje
Dukkhena phuṭṭhopi na sampavedhe
Phassadvayaṁ sukhadukkhe upekkhe
Anānuruddho aviruddha kenaci. (SN iv 71)

• If a bhikkhu thinks ‘I am not able to make that person emerge from what is spiritually unwholesome and establish him in what is spiritually wholesome’ he should not spurn detached awareness towards such a person.

Na cāhaṁ sakkomi etaṁ puggalaṁ akusalā vuṭṭhāpetvā kusale patiṭṭhāpetun ti. Evarūpe bhikkhave puggale upekkhā nātimaññitabbā. (MN ii 242)

Further examples are in the Illustrations below.

Upekkhā brahmavihāra: [unlimited] detached awareness

The practices of mettā, karuṇā, muditā and upekkhā are sometimes called the four divine abidings (cattāro brahmavihārā, DN ii 196) and sometimes the four unlimited states (catasso appamaññā, DN iii 223). Practising them together is called the ‘unlimited liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]’ (appamāṇā cetovimutti, SN iv 296). The Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN i 298) and Godatta Sutta (SN iv 296) say the ‘makers of limitation’ (pamāṇakaraṇo) are rāgo, doso and moho (rāgo kho āvuso pamāṇakaraṇo doso pamāṇakaraṇo moho pamāṇakaraṇo). Therefore the four brahmavihāras should be practised unlimited by rāgo, doso and moho. We call upekkhā brahmavihārā ‘[unlimited] detached awareness.’ It is for overcoming attachment, ill will, vexation, disgust, and repugnance (N.B. Upekkhā in both these quotes occurs in the context of the divine abidings):

1) For this is the liberation from attachment, namely the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] detached awareness.

nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ āvuso rāgassa yadidaṁ upekkhā cetovimutti. (DN iii 248-250)

2) ‘The Blessed One abides in a state of [unlimited] detached awareness.’ ‘Jīvaka, any attachment, hatred, or undiscernment of reality whereby ill will, vexation, disgust, or repugnance might arise have been abandoned by the Perfect One… If what you said referred to that, then I allow it to you.’

bhagavā hi bhante upekkhāvihārī ti… vyāpādavā vihesavā assa assa arati vā assa paṭighavā assa so rāgo so doso so moho tathāgatassa pahīno…. (MN i 369-371)

Illustrations

Illustration: upekkhā, neutral attitude

Sensuous pleasures have been compared by the Blessed One to a skeleton [of meatless bones smeared with blood which leaves a hungry dog unsatisfied, fatigued, and full of vexation]. They are full of suffering and vexation, while the danger in them is great.

aṭṭhikaṅkalūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā bahudukkhā bahūpāyāsā ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo ti

Having seen this thus according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment, having avoided the neutral attitude that is diversified, associated with diversity, one develops the neutral attitude that is undiversified, associated with undiversity, where grasping of worldly pleasures ceases without remainder.

Evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā yāyaṁ upekkhā nānattā nānattasitā taṁ abhinivajjetvā yāyaṁ upekkhā ekattā ekattasitā yattha sabbaso lokāmisūpādānā aparisesā nirujjhanti tamevupekkhaṁ bhāveti. (MN i 364)

COMMENT:

For notes on diversified and undiversified, see introduction.

Illustration: upekkhā, indifference

If a bhikkhu’s mind is imbued with the perception of the unloveliness [of the body], his mind draws back, bends back, turns away from involvement in sexual intercourse and is not attracted to it, and either indifference or loathing is established in him.

Asubhasaññā paricitena bhikkhave bhikkhūno cetasā bahulaṁ viharato methunadhammasamāpattiyā cittaṁ patilīyati patikuṭati pativaṭṭati na sampasārīyati. Upekkhā vā paṭikkūlyatā vā saṇṭhāti.

If a bhikkhu’s mind is imbued with the perception of [the ever-present possibility of] death, his mind draws back, bends back, and turns away from the hankering for life, and is not attracted to it, and either indifference or loathing is established in him.

Maraṇasaññā paricitena bhikkhave bhikkhuno cetasā bahulaṁ viharato jīvitanikantiyā cittaṁ patilīyati patikuṭati pativaṭṭati na sampasārīyati. Upekkhā vā paṭikkūlyatā vā saṇṭhāti.

If a bhikkhu’s mind is imbued with the perception of the loathsome nature of digestion, his mind draws back, bends back, turns away from craving for flavours and is not attracted to them, and either indifference or loathing is established in him.

Āhāre paṭikkūlasaññā paricitena bhikkhave bhikkhuno cetasā bahulaṁ viharato rasataṇhāya cittaṁ patilīyati patikuṭati pativaṭṭati na sampasārīyati upekkhā vā paṭikkūlyatā vā saṇṭhāti

If a bhikkhu’s mind is imbued with the perception of disgust for the whole world [of phenomena], his mind shrinks from worldly intentions and is not attracted to them and either indifference or loathing is established in him.

Sabbaloke anabhiratasaññā paricitena bhikkhave bhikkhuno cetasā bahulaṁ viharato lokacittesu cittaṁ patilīyati patikūṭati pativaṭṭati na sampasārīyati. Upekkhā vā paṭikkūlyatā vā saṇṭhāti.

If a bhikkhu’s mind is imbued with the perception of the unlastingness [of the five aggregates], his mind draws back, bends back, turns away from gains, honour, and renown and is not attracted to it, and either indifference or loathing is established in him.

Aniccasaññā paricitena bhikkhave bhikkhuno cetasā bahulaṁ viharato lābhasakkārasiloke cittaṁ patilīyati patikuṭati pativaṭṭati na sampasārīyati upekkhā vā paṭikkūlyatā vā saṇṭhāti. (AN iv 47)

Illustration: upekkhā, detached awareness

In this regard, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense, there arises in a bhikkhu pleasure, or displeasure, or pleasure plus displeasure.

cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā uppajjati manāpaṁ uppajjati amanāpaṁ uppajjati manāpāmanāpaṁ.

He knows that ‘This pleasure has arisen in me, this displeasure… this pleasure plus displeasure has arisen in me.’

uppannaṁ kho me idaṁ manāpaṁ uppannaṁ amanāpaṁ uppannaṁ manāpāmanāpaṁ

And that is originated, self-evident, dependently arisen.

tañca kho saṅkhataṁ oḷārikaṁ paṭiccasamuppannaṁ

But this is peaceful, this is sublime, namely, detached awareness.

Etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ upekkhā ti.

With that, the arisen pleasure… displeasure… pleasure plus displeasure ceases, and detached awareness is established.

Tassa taṁ uppannaṁ manāpaṁ uppannaṁ amanāpaṁ uppannaṁ manāpāmanāpaṁ nirujjhati upekkhā saṇṭhāti.

Just as a man with good eyes, having closed them, might open them; or having opened them, might close them, that is how quickly, how rapidly, how easily, no matter what it refers to, the pleasure… displeasure… pleasure plus displeasure ceases, and detached awareness is established. (MN iii 299)

It is a loss for me, not a gain; it is unfortunate for me, not fortunate, that when I recollect the Buddha, the teaching, and the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples in this way, detached awareness based on what is spiritually wholesome is not established within me.

alābhā vata me na vata me lābhā dulladdhaṁ vata me na vata me suladdhaṁ yassa me evaṁ buddhaṁ anussarato evaṁ dhammaṁ anussarato evaṁ saṅghaṁ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhātī ti. (MN i 186)

A bhikkhu practises thus: ‘Had it not been, it would not have been “mine.” It will be not; not “mine” will it be. That which is, that which is brought about, that I abandon.’

no c’assa no ca me siyā na bhavissati na me bhavissati. Yadatthi yaṁ bhūtaṁ taṁ pajahāmī ti

In this way he attains detached awareness.

evaṁ upekkhaṁ paṭilabhati. (MN ii 265)

A meditator must apply three ways of practice (tīṇi nimittāni) not exclusively, but from time to time: inward collectedness, effort, and detached awareness.

kālena kālaṁ samādhinimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ; kālena kālaṁ paggahanimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ; kālena kālaṁ upekkhānimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ.

• If he focuses exclusively on the practice of detached awareness it is likely that his mind will be not properly collected for the destruction of perceptually obscuring states

ekantaṁ upekkhānimittaññeva manasikareyya ṭhānaṁ taṁ cittaṁ na sammā samādhiyetha āsavānaṁ khayāya. (AN i 256)

sāmisā upekkhā

sāmisā upekkhā: (main article see: upekkhā)

Illustration: sāmisā upekkhā, worldly neutral attitude

And what is the worldly neutral attitude?

There are these five varieties of sensuous pleasure. What five?

• Visible objects known via the visual sense…

cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā…

• Tangible objects known via the tactile sense

… that are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming

iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā

… The neutral attitude that arises on account of the five varieties of sensuous pleasure is called the worldly neutral attitude.

Yā kho bhikkhave ime pañcakāmaguṇe paṭicca uppajjati upekkhā ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sāmisā upekkhā. (SN iv 237)

nirāmisā upekkhā

nirāmisā upekkhā: (main article see: upekkhā)

Illustration: nirāmisā upekkhā, unworldly neutral attitude

And what is the unworldly neutral attitude?

‘With the abandonment of physical pleasure and pain, and following the vanishing of psychological pleasure and pain, a bhikkhu enters and abides in fourth jhāna, which is free of pleasure and pain, and [is imbued with] purified detached awareness and mindfulness.

sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati

This is called the unworldly neutral attitude.

ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave nirāmisā upekkhā. (SN iv 237)

nirāmisā nirāmisatarā upekkhā

nirāmisā nirāmisatarā upekkhā: (main article see: upekkhā)

Illustration: nirāmisā nirāmisatarā upekkhā, neutral attitude more than unworldly

And what is the neutral attitude more than unworldly?

Katamā ca bhikkhave nirāmisā nirāmisatarā upekkhā

When a bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed reviews his mind liberated from attachment, liberated from hatred, liberated from undiscernment of reality, there arises a neutral attitude. This is called the neutral attitude more than unworldly.

yā kho bhikkhave khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno rāgā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ paccavekkhato dosā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ paccavokkhato mohā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ paccavekkhato uppajjati upekkhā ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave nirāmisā nirāmisatarā upekkhā. (SN iv 237)

upekkhā gehasitā

upekkhā gehasitā: (main article see: upekkhā)

Illustration: upekkhā gehasitā, laypersons’ neutral attitude

The ignorant Everyman experiences laypersons’ joy when he attains objects of desire (gehasitaṁ somanassaṁ), laypersons’ displeasure when he fails to attain them (gehasitaṁ domanassaṁ), and a third emotional reaction, laypersons’ neutral attitude, gehasitā upekkhā. This is not associated with attaining or not attaining. It is simply an emotional reaction to objects, either physical or mental. For example:

• In seeing a visible object via the visual sense, there arises in him the neutral attitude of the foolish Everyman who is undiscerning of reality. The neutral attitude such as this does not transcend the visible object. Therefore it is called the laypersons’ neutral attitude.

cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā uppajjati upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa puthujjanassa… Yā evarūpā upekkhā rūpaṁ sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā gehasitā ti vuccati.

• On knowing a mentally known object via the mental sense, there arises in him the neutral attitude of the foolish Everyman who is undiscerning of reality. The neutral attitude such as this does not transcend the mental object. Therefore it is called the laypersons’ neutral attitude.

Manasā dhammaṁ viññāya uppajjati upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa puthujjanassa… Yā evarūpā upekkhā dhammaṁ sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā gehasitā ti vuccati. (MN iii 218)

nekkhammasitā upekkhā

nekkhammasitā upekkhā: (main article see: upekkhā)

Illustration: nekkhammasitā upekkhā, ascetics’ neutral attitude

What are the six types of ascetics’ neutral attitude?

cha nekkhammasitā upekkhā

When one realises the unlastingness of visible objects… of mentally known objects, their changeableness, passing away and ending, and thinks, ‘Formerly as well as now all these visible objects… mentally known objects are unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, and destined to change,’ from seeing this thus according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment, detached awareness arises.

rūpānaṁ… dhammā tveva aniccataṁ viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṁ pubbe ceva rūpā etarahi ca sabbe te rūpā… dhammā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato uppajjati upekkhā

Neutral attitude such as this transcends the visible objects… mentally known objects.

yā evarūpā upekkhā rūpaṁ sā ativattati… dhammaṁ sā ativattati.

Therefore it is called the ascetics’ neutral attitude.

tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitā ti vuccati

These are the six types of ascetics’ neutral attitude.

Imā cha nekkhammasitā upekkhā. (MN iii 219)

Comment:

This transcendent neutral attitude seems equivalent to detached awareness.

upekkhindriyaṁ

upekkhindriyaṁ: (main article see: upekkhā)

Illustration: upekkhindriyaṁ, faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience; upekkhako, indifferent

Bhikkhus, there are these five faculties of sense impression. What five? The faculty of physical pleasure, the faculty of psychological pleasure, the faculty of physical pain, the faculty of psychological pain, the faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience.

sukhindriyaṁ somanassindriyaṁ dukkhindriyaṁ domanassindriyaṁ upekkhindriyaṁ.

Dependent on a sensation to be experienced as physically pleasant, the faculty of physical pleasure arises. Being physically pleased, he knows that: ‘I am physically pleased.’

Sukhavedanīyaṁ bhikkhave phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati sukhindriyaṁ. So sukhito va samāno sukhitosmi ti pajānāti

Dependent on a sensation to be experienced as physically unpleasant, the faculty of physical pain arises. Being physically hurt, he knows that: ‘I am physically hurt.’

Dukkhavedanīyaṁ bhikkhave phassaṁ paṭiccauppajjati dukkhindriyaṁ. So dukkhito va samāno dukkhitosmī ti pajānāti.

Dependent on a sensation to be experienced as psychologically pleasant, the faculty of psychological pleasure arises. Being psychologically pleased he discerns: ‘I am psychologically pleased.’

Somanassavedanīyaṁ bhikkhave phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati somanassindriyaṁ. So sumano va samāno sumanosmī ti pajānāti.

Dependent on a sensation to be experienced as psychologically unpleasant, the faculty of psychological pain arises. Being psychologically hurt, he discerns: ‘I am psychologically hurt.’

Domanassavedanīyaṁ bhikkhave phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati domanassindriyaṁ. So dummano va samāno dummanosmī ti pajānāti.

Dependent on a sensation to be experienced as neutral, the faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience arises. Being indifferent, he knows that: ‘I am indifferent.’

Upekkhāvedanīyaṁ bhikkhave phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati upekkhindriyaṁ. So upekkhako va samāno upekkhakosmī ti pajānāti. (SN v 211-2)

And where does the arisen faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience cease without remainder?

Kattha cuppannaṁ upekkhindriyaṁ aparisesaṁ nirujjhati

In this regard, having completely transcended the state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception, a bhikkhu enters and abides in the ending of perception and sense impression. And it is here that the arisen faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience ceases without remainder.

idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ettha cuppannaṁ upekkhindriyaṁ aparisesaṁ nirujjhati. (S.5.215)

upekkhaṁ

upekkhaṁ: (main article see: upekkhā)

Illustration: upekkhaṁ, detached awareness

He discerns thus:

So evaṁ pajānāti

‘When I confront the source of this suffering with effort, by confronting it with effort [the suffering] fades away.

imassa kho me dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṁ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti

When the source of this suffering is passively observed, through developing detached awareness, [the suffering] fades away.’

imassa pana me dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṁ bhāvayato virāgo hotī ti. (MN ii 223)

upekkhā brahmavihāra

upekkhā brahmavihāra: (main article see: upekkhā)

Illustration: upekkhā brahmavihāra, [unlimited] detached awareness

A bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind of [unlimited] detached awareness, likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, in all directions, everywhere, he abides pervading the whole world [of beings] with a mind of [unlimited] detached awareness, vast, exalted, unlimited, free of unfriendliness and hostility.’

upekkhāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharati tathā dutiyaṁ tathā tatiyaṁ tathā catutthiṁ iti uddhamadho tiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbatthatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ upekkhāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena avyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati. (DN iii 223)

upekkhako

upekkhako: (main article see: upekkhā)

Illustration: upekkhako, serene

There are five noble psychic powers that are free of perceptually obscuring states and attachment (iddhi yā anāsavā anupadhikā ariyā ti). These are where a bhikkhu, if he wishes (sace ākaṅkhati) can abide:

• perceiving the unloathsomeness of what is loathsome

• perceiving the loathsomeness of what is attractive

• perceiving the unloathsomeness of what is loathsome and what is attractive

paṭikkūle ca appaṭikkūle ca appaṭikkūlasaññī

• perceiving the loathsomeness of what is attractive and what is loathsome

appaṭikkūle ca paṭikkūle ca paṭikkūlasaññī vihareyyanti

• Or, by rejecting both what is attractive and loathsome can abide serene, mindful, and fully conscious.

appaṭikkūlañca paṭikkūlañca tadubhayaṁ abhinivajjetvā upekkhako vihareyyaṁ sato sampajāno ti. (DN iii 112-3; AN iii 169-170)

He, seeing an object via the visual sense, is neither elated nor depressed, but abides serene, mindful, and fully conscious.

So cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā neva sumano hoti na dummano upekkhako viharati sato sampajāno. (AN ii 196-7)

upeti

upeti and upaya.

Renderings

Introduction

Upaya

Our renderings for upaya are:

These are supported by the dictionaries to the following extent:

• DOP (sv Upaya):

1) Upaya: (m) going near to, involvement

2) Upaya: (mfn) going to; being involvement

3) Anupaya: (mfn) not going near (to); free from involvement

• PED (sv Upaya):

1) Upaya: approach, undertaking, taking up; clinging to, attachment

2) Anupaya: not going near, aloof, unattached

3) Rūpūpaya: clinging to form

Illustrations

Illustration: upeti, fit for

Refined gold is malleable, wieldy and radiant. Whatever ornament one wishes to make from it, it would serve the purpose (tañcassa atthaṁ anubhoti, MN iii 243).

Unrefined gold is neither malleable, wieldy, or radiant, but brittle, and not properly fit for work (na ca sammā upeti kammāya, SN v 92)

Illustration: upeti, cling

He clings to bodily form, grasps it, and doggedly assumes that bodily form is “my [absolute] Selfhood.”

So rūpaṁ upeti upādiyati adhiṭṭhāti attā me ti. (SN iii 114)

Illustration: upeti, involve; anupayo, one who is free of attachment; upayaṁ,

The wise man does not involve himself with whatever opinions are commonplace.

Yā kācimā sammutiyo puthujjā sabbāva etā na upeti vidvā

Why would one who is free of attachment become involved?

Anupayo so upayaṁ kimeyya

He takes no delight in what is seen, heard, [sensed, or cognised].

Diṭṭhe sute khantimakubbamāno. (Snp 897)

Illustration: upeti, ends up

Again and again the fool ends up in a womb

punappunaṁ gabbhamupeti mando. (SN i 174)

Again and again ploughmen plough the field. Again and again rice ends up in the realm.

Punappunaṁ khettaṁ kasanti kassakā punappunaṁ dhaññamupeti raṭṭhaṁ. (SN i 174)

If one such as he ends up going forth [into the ascetic life].

Sace ca pabbajjamupeti tādiso. (DN iii 147)

He ends up in a womb in the world beyond

upeti gabbhañca parañca lokaṁ. (Tha 784-5)

Illustration: upeti, end up

A woman ends up in the service of a man

mātugāmo purisassa pāricariyaṁ upeti. (SN iv 239)

One who gives the best ends up in the best place

seṭṭhandado seṭṭhamupeti ṭhānaṁ. (AN iii 51)

Illustration: upeti, amount to

The speck of dust the Blessed One has placed on the tip of his fingernail in a comparison with the great earth, does not amount to a hundredth, or a thousandth, or a hundred thousandth part.

neva satimaṁ kalaṁ upeti na sahassimaṁ kalaṁ upeti na satasahassimaṁ kalaṁ upeti mahāpaṭhaviṁ upanidhāya bhagavatā paritto nakhasikhāya paṁsu āropito ti. (SN ii 133)

Illustration: upeti, come

Some ascetics and Brahmanists say that perception is a person’s [absolute] Selfhood which comes and goes.

Saññā hi bho purisassa attā sā ca kho upeti pi apeti pi

When it comes, one is conscious, when it goes one is unconscious.

Yasmiṁ samaye upeti saññī tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Yasmiṁ samaye apeti asaññī tasmiṁ samaye hotī ti. (DN i 180)

King Vessavaṇo Kuvero came to see you, asking about the teaching.

Rājāpi taṁ vessavaṇo kuvero upeti dhammaṁ paripucchamāno. (Snp 380)

Illustration: upeti, enter

However, a sage does not enter a dispute that has arisen,

Vādañca jātaṁ muni no upeti

Therefore he is free of hardheartedness in every respect.

Tasmā muni natthi khilo kuhiñci. (Snp 780)

Illustration: upeti, approach

Again and again dairymen draw milk. Again and again the calf approaches its mother.

Punappunaṁ khīranikā duhanti punappunaṁ vaccho upeti mātaraṁ. (SN i 174)

Whether walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, your last day approaches. There is no time for you to be negligently applied [to the practice].

Carato tiṭṭhato vāpi āsīnasayanassa vā
Upeti carimā ratti na te kālo pamajjitun ti. (Tha 452)

Illustration: upeti, reach

Having failed to understand the teaching clearly in this world, one reaches death, having not overcome one’s unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching].

Idheva dhammaṁ avibhāvayitvā avitiṇṇakaṅkho maraṇaṁ upeti. (Snp 318)

He reaches the residence on the first day of the lunar fortnight

Pāṭipade vihāraṁ upeti. (Vin.1.154)

Illustration: upeti, reaches

Even the gaily coloured chariots of kings decay; and the body, too, reaches old age.

Jīranti ve rājarathā sucittā atho sarīrampi jaraṁ upeti. (SN i 71)

Illustration: upeti, submit

‘It would be wonderful to ride the elephant if he would submit to training.’

Bhaddakaṁ vata bho hatthiyānaṁ sace damathaṁ upeyyā ti. (MN iii 173-4)

’But, Kesi, if a horse-in-training won't submit to mild discipline, nor harsh discipline, nor mild and harsh discipline, how do you deal with him?’

Sace te kesi assadammo saṇhenapi vinayaṁ na upeti pharusenapi vinayaṁ na upeti saṇhapharusenapi vinayaṁ na upeti kinti naṁ karosī ti. (AN ii 112)

upaya

upaya: (main article see: upeti)

Illustration: upaya, clinging; upeti, cling

So indeed these states, not having been, come into being. Having been, they vanish. He abided not clinging to or rejecting those states, free of attachment, detached, freed, not tethered, inwardly emancipated.

evaṁ kira me dhammā ahutvā sambhonti hutvā paṭiventī ti. So tesu dhammesu anupayo anapāyo anissito appaṭibaddho vippamutto visaṁyutto vimariyādīkatena cetasā viharati. (MN iii 25)

Most of mankind is fastened by clinging, grasping, and stubborn attachment.

Upayupādānābhinivesavinibaddho khvāyaṁ kaccāna loko yebhuyyena

But this one (with right perception [of reality]) does not cling or grasp or doggedly assume [the existence of] “my [absolute] Selfhood” in respect of objects of clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification.

tañcāyaṁ upayupādānaṁ cetaso adhiṭṭhānaṁ abhinivesānusayaṁ na upeti na upādiyati nādhiṭṭhāti attā me ti. (SN ii 17)

upayo

upayo: (main article see: upeti)

Illustration: upayo, one who is full of attachment; upeti, enters

One who is full of attachment enters an argument over doctrines.

Upayo hi dhammesu upeti vādaṁ

But how, and about what, can you argue with one who is free of attachment?

anupayaṁ kena kathaṁ vadeyya

For him there is nothing clung to, and nothing to relinquish.

Attaṁ nirattaṁ na hi tassa atthi

He has shaken off all dogmatic views in this very world.

Adhosi so diṭṭhī-m-idheva sabbanti. (Snp 787)

Illustration: upayo, one who is full of attachment; upayaṁ, clinging

Bhikkhus, one who is full of attachment is unliberated; one who is free of attachment is liberated.

Upayo bhikkhave avimutto anupayo vimutto

The stream of consciousness while standing, might stand clinging to bodily form; with bodily form as its basis, established on bodily form, with a sprinkling of spiritually fettering delight, it might [egoistically] grow, mature, and develop.

rūpūpayaṁ vā bhikkhave viññāṇaṁ tiṭṭhamānaṁ tiṭṭheyya rūpārammaṇaṁ rūpappatiṭṭhaṁ nandūpasecanaṁ vuddhiṁ virūḷahiṁ vepullaṁ āpajjeyya. (SN iii 53)

upenti

upenti: (main article see: upeti)

Illustration: upenti, end up in

Having given [alms] again and again, again and again liberal benefactors end up in heaven.

Punappunaṁ dānapatī daditvā punappunaṁ saggamupenti ṭhānaṁ. (SN i 174)

na upeti saṅkhaṁ

na upeti saṅkhaṁ: (main article see: upeti)

Illustration: na upeti saṅkhaṁ, is beyond the limits of conception

Just as a flame tossed about by the force of the wind vanishes, and is beyond the limits of conception, so a sage liberated from immaterial-factors-and-body vanishes, and is beyond the limits of conception.

Acci yathā vātavegena khittā atthaṁ paleti na upeti saṅkhaṁ;
Evaṁ muni nāmakāyā vimutto atthaṁ paleti na upeti saṅkhaṁ. (Snp 1074)

Comment:

Explained two verses later as follows:

There is no measuring of one who has vanished. That no longer exists in relation to which one might speak of him. When all points of reference are removed, then all ways of talking about him are also removed.

Atthaṅgatassa na pamāṇamatthi yena naṁ vajjuṁ taṁ tassa natthi
Sabbesu dhammesu samūhatesu samūhatā vādapathā pi sabbe ti. (Snp 1076)

The sage seeing the end of birth and destruction, abandoning speculation, is beyond the limits of conception.

Sa ve muni jātikhayantadassī takkaṁ pahāya na upeti saṅkhaṁ. (Snp 209)

The one who is blessed with profound knowledge, being established in righteousness, though he makes use of conception he is beyond the limits of conception.

Sa ce akkheyyasampanno santo santipade rato
Saṅkhāya sevī dhammaṭṭho saṅkhaṁ nopeti vedagū ti. (Iti 53)

vāsaṁ upeti

vāsaṁ upeti: (main article see: upeti)

Illustration: vāsaṁ upeti, take up residence

In whatever region the Wheel Treasure pauses, there the Wheel-turning monarch takes up residence with his army with its four divisions.

Yasmiṁ kho pana bhikkhave padese cakkaratanaṁ patiṭṭhāti tatra rājā cakkavattī vāsaṁ upeti saddhiṁ caturaṅginiyā senāya. (MN iii 172)

I have a rest house… When any ascetic or Brahmanist take up residence there, I share it with him to the best of my ability and strength.

atthi me bhante āvasathāgāraṁ… tattha yo samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā vāsaṁ upeti tenāhaṁ yathāsatti yathābalaṁ saṁvibhajāmi. (SN iv 348)

na upeti

na upeti: (main article see: upeti)

Illustration: na upeti, is unacceptable

’”If we get this, we will do it; if not, we won’t”: even in relation to teachers bent on worldly benefits, inheritors of worldly benefits, engrossed in worldly benefits, such haggling by disciples is unacceptable. So what about the Perfect One who abides completely aloof from worldly benefits?’

Yopi so bhikkhave satthā āmisagaru āmisadāyādo āmisehi saṁsaṭṭho viharati tassapayaṁ evarūpī paṇopaṇaviyā na upeti. Evañca no assa atha naṁ kareyyāma. Na ca no evamassa na naṁ kareyyāmā ti. Kimpana bhikkhave yaṁ tathāgato sabbaso āmisehi visaṁsaṭṭho viharati. (MN i 480)

Illustration: na upeti, is unanswerable

• ’Master Gotama, for a bhikkhu whose mind is thus liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], where is he reborn?’

Evaṁ vimuttacitto pana bho gotama bhikkhu kuhiṁ upapajjatī ti

• ’The question ”Is he reborn?” is unanswerable, Vaccha’

Upapajjatī ti kho vaccha na upeti

• ’Then is he not reborn, Master Gotama?’

Tena hi bho gotama na upapajjatī ti

• ’The question ”Is he not reborn?” is unanswerable, Vaccha’

Na upapajjatī ti kho vaccha na upeti. (MN i 486)

• ’But if asked in which direction the fire went―to the east or west or north or south―how would you answer?’

so aggi ito katamaṁ disaṁ gato puratthimaṁ vā pacchimaṁ vā uttaraṁ vā dakkhiṇaṁ vā ti. Evaṁ puṭṭho tvaṁ vaccha kinti vyākareyyāsī ti

• ’The question is unanswerable, Master Gotama. A fire blazes because of its firing of grass and sticks. When this is exhausted, and no more is brought to it, then being without fuel, it is simply reckoned as extinguished.’

Na upeti bho gotama. Yaṁ hi so gotama aggi tiṇakaṭṭhūpādānaṁ paṭicca ajali tassa ca pariyādānā aññassa ca anupahārā anāhāro nibbuto'teva saṅkhaṁ gacchatī ti. (MN i 487)

The Perfect One is liberated from being reckoned in terms of bodily form, great king.

Rūpasaṅkhaya vimutto kho mahārāja tathāgato

He is profound, immeasurable, unfathomable like the ocean

gambhīro appameyyo appariyogāho seyyathā pi mahāsamuddo

• The question, ‘Does a Perfect One continue to exist after death?’ is unanswerable

hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti pi na upeti

• ‘The question, ‘Does a Perfect One not continue to exist after death?’ is unanswerable

na hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti pi na upeti

• The question, ‘Does a Perfect One both continue and not continue to exist after death?’ is unanswerable.

hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti pi na upeti

• The question, ‘Does a Perfect One neither continue nor not continue to exist after death?’ is unanswerable.

neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti pi na upeti. (SN iv 376)

Illustration: na upeti, is beyond; is not even (=does not amount to)

’Bhante, this small stone is insignificant in comparison to the Himalayas, the king of mountain ranges,

Appamatto kho ayaṁ bhante bhagavatā paritto pāṇimatto pāsāṇo gahito himavantaṁ pabbatarājānaṁ upanidhāya

… the difference is beyond reckoning

saṅkhampi na upeti

… it is not even a fraction

kalabhāgampi na upeti

… it is beyond comparison

upanidhimpi na upetī ti. (MN iii 166)

Nanda said his bride-to-be, the most beautiful girl in the land, in comparison with a group of five hundred heavenly nymphs was like a mutilated she-monkey with severed ears and nose.

Seyyathā pi bhante paluṭṭhamakkaṭī kaṇṇanāsacchinnā evameva kho bhante sākiyānī janapadakalyāṇī imesaṁ pañcannaṁ accharāsatānaṁ upanidhāya

He said:

The difference was beyond reckoning

saṅkhampi na upeti

It is not even a fraction

kalampi na upeti

It is not even the tiniest fraction

kalabhāgampi na upeti

It is beyond comparison

upanidhimpi na upeti. (Uda 22-3)

ubhatobhāgavimutto

Renderings

    • one who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] both through [penetrative discernment and through attaining the immaterial states of awareness]
    • one who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment
    • one who is liberated [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment
    • one who is liberated [from attachment through inward calm]
  • paññāvimutto: liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment
  • paññāvimuttassa: liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment
  • vimuttaṁ ubhatobhāge: liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] both through [penetrative discernment and through attaining the immaterial states of awareness]

Introduction

Paths to arahantship

Arahantship is gained either 1) by first attaining the four jhānas or 2), by first attaining the immaterial states of awareness, says the Jhānanissaya Sutta:

• The destruction of perceptually obscuring states depends on [attaining] first jhāna, I declare… depends on [attaining] the state of awareness of boundless space, I declare… etc

Paṭhamampahaṁ bhikkhave jhānaṁ nissāya āsavānaṁ khayaṁ vadāmi… Ākāsānañcāyatanampahaṁ bhikkhave nissāya āsavānaṁ khayaṁ vadāmi(AN iv 422)

This gives rise to two types of arahants: ubhatobhāgavimutto and paññāvimutto:

1) If arahantship is gained through the immaterial states of awareness, the bhikkhu is called ‘one who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] both through [penetrative discernment and through attaining the immaterial states of awareness]’ (ubhatobhāgavimutto). The following passage is the basis of us saying this:

• And what is the individual liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] both through [penetrative discernment and through attaining the immaterial states of awareness]?

Katamo ca bhikkhave puggalo ubhatobhāgavimutto

… In this regard, some person abides touching with his very being those immaterial states of awareness, those peaceful states of refined awareness that transcend the refined material states of awareness, and by seeing [reality] with penetrative discernment, his perceptually obscuring states are destroyed.

idha bhikkhave ekacco puggalo ye te santā vimokkhā atikkamma rūpe āruppā te kāyena phassitvā viharati paññāya cassa disvā āsavā parikkhīṇā honti. (MN i 477-9)

2) If arahantship is gained through the jhānas, the bhikkhu is called ‘one who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment’ (paññāvimutto). The following passage is the basis of us saying this:

• And what is the individual liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment?

Katamo ca bhikkhave puggalo paññāvimutto

… In this regard, some person does not abide touching with his very being those immaterial states of awareness, those peaceful states of refined awareness that transcend the refined material states of awareness, but by seeing [reality] with penetrative discernment, his perceptually obscuring states are destroyed.

idha bhikkhave ekacco puggalo ye te santā vimokkhā atikkamma rūpe āruppā te na kāyena phassitvā viharati paññāya cassa disvā āsavā parikkhīṇā honti. (MN i 477-9)

Paññāvimutti and Cetovimutti: review

Regarding paññāvimutti and cetovimutti, we have shown (sv Cetovimutti) that:

  • 1) the terms mean:
    • paññāvimutti: liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment
    • cetovimutti: liberation [from attachment through inward calm]
  • 2) paññāvimutti and cetovimutti correspond to vipassanā (‘insightfulness’) and samatha (‘inward calm’) respectively.
  • 3) the terms do not necessarily imply arahantship. So the enlightened connotations of paññāvimutti do not necessarily apply to paññāvimutto.

Paññāvimuttin and Cetovimuttin

Therefore let us now consider paññāvimuttin and cetovimuttin which occur only in the Mahāmāluṅkya Sutta. The terms stem etymologically from paññāvimutti and cetovimutti and therefore mean:

  • paññāvimuttin: one who is liberated [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment
  • cetovimuttin: one who is liberated [from attachment through inward calm]

In the Mahāmāluṅkya Sutta, after the Buddha had explained the path and practice to abandon the five ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence, Ānanda enquired:

• Bhante, if this is the path and practice to abandon the five ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence, then how is that some bhikkhus here are liberated [from attachment through inward calm] (cetovimuttino), while some are liberated [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment (paññāvimuttino)?

Eso ce bhante maggo esā paṭipadā pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ pahānāya atha kiñcarahi idhekacce bhikkhū cetovimuttino ekacce bhikkhū paññāvimuttino ti.

• The difference here, Ānanda, is in their [mental] faculties, I declare.

Ettha kho tesāhaṁ ānanda indriyavemattataṁ vadāmī ti. (MN i 437)

This confirms that the paññāvimuttin and cetovimuttin are not necessarily arahants, unlike the paññāvimutto.

Commentary: -mutto and -muttin

The commentary to the Mahāmāluṅkya Sutta says: Samathavaseneva hi gacchantesu ekassa bhikkhuno cittekaggatā dhuraṁ hoti so cetovimutto nāma hoti. Ekassa paññā dhuraṁ hoti, so paññāvimutto nāma hoti. Vipassanāvaseneva ca gacchantesu ekassa paññā dhuraṁ hoti, so paññāvimutto nāma hoti.

Thus it mistakenly says paññāvimutto and cetovimutto where Ānanda had said paññāvimuttino and cetovimuttino. Nonetheless, it correctly links paññāvimutto to vipassanā, and cetovimutto to samatha.

Illustrations

paññāvimutto

paññāvimutto: (main article see: ubhatobhāgavimutto)

Illustration: paññāvimutto, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment

The Perfect One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through being without grasping, through disillusionment with, non-attachment to, and the ending of bodily form, is called the Perfectly Enlightened One.

Tathāgato bhikkhave arahaṁ sammāsambuddho rūpassa nibbidā virāgā nirodhā anupādāvimutto sammāsambuddhā ti vuccati

Likewise, the bhikkhu who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment, through disillusionment with, non-attachment to, and the ending of bodily form, is called one who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment.

bhikkhūpi bhikkhave paññāvimutto rūpassa nibbidā virāgā nirodhā anupādā vimutto paññāvimutto ti vuccati. (SN iii 65)

paññāvimuttassa

paññāvimuttassa: (main article see: ubhatobhāgavimutto)

Illustration: paññāvimuttassa, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment

For one who is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through penetrative discernment there is no undiscernment of reality.

paññāvimuttassa na santi mohā. (Snp 847)

vimuttaṁ ubhatobhāge

vimuttaṁ ubhatobhāge: (main article see: ubhatobhāgavimutto)

Illustration: vimuttaṁ ubhatobhāge, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] both through [penetrative discernment and through attaining the immaterial states of awareness]

Look at this good-looking Sāriputta coming, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] both through [penetrative discernment and through attaining the immaterial states of awareness], inwardly well-collected.

Imañca passa āyantaṁ sāriputtaṁ sudassanaṁ
Vimuttaṁ ubhatobhāge ajjhattaṁ susamāhitaṁ. (Tha 1176)

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