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kamma {pi}


Pāḷi; √ kamma
gender:
type:
alt. sp.: IPA: kəmmə, Velthuis: kamma, readable: kamma, simple: kamma
translation ~:
skr.:
khmer: កម្ម
thai: กมฺม
sinhal.: කම්ම
burm.: ကမ္မ
appears:



kamma.jpg

[dic] kamma

kamma: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.

ATI Glossary

kamma [Skt. karma]: Intentional acts that result in states of being and birth. [ more ]

 

Buddhist Dictionary

by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:

kamma: (Sanskrit: karma):1) 'action', correctly speaking denotes the wholesome and unwholesome volitions (kusala- and akusala-cetanā) and their concomitant mental factors, causing rebirth and shaping the destiny of beings. These kammical volitions (kamma cetanā) become manifest as wholesome or unwholesome actions by body (kāya-kamma), speech (vacī-kamma) and mind (mano-kamma). Thus the Buddhist term 'kamma' by no means signifies the result of actions, and quite certainly not the fate of man, or perhaps even of whole nations (the so-called wholesale or mass-kamma), misconceptions which, through the influence of theosophy, have become widely spread in the West.

“Volition (cetanā), o monks, is what I call action (cetanāhaṁ bhikkhave kammaṁ vadāmi), for through volition one performs the action by body, speech or mind. There is kamma (action), o monks, that ripens in hell… Kamma that ripens in the animal world… Kamma that ripens in the world of men… Kamma that ripens in the heavenly world… Threefold, however, is the fruit of kamma: ripening during the life-time (diṭṭha-dhamma-vedanīya-kamma), ripening in the next birth (upapajja-vedanīya kamma), ripening in later births (aparāpariya-vedanīya kamma) ….” AN 6.63

The 3 conditions or roots (see mūla) of unwholesome kamma (actions) are greed, hatred, delusion (lobha, dosa, moha); those of wholesome kamma are: unselfishness (alobha), hatelessness (adosa = mettā, good-will), undeludedness (amoha = paññā, knowledge).

“Greed, o monks, is a condition for the arising of kamma; hatred is a condition for the arising of kamma; delusion is a condition for the arising of kamma ….” AN 3.109

“The unwholesome actions are of 3 kinds, conditioned by greed, or hate, or delusion.

“Killing … stealing … unlawful sexual intercourse … lying … slandering … rude speech … foolish babble, if practised, carried on, and frequently cultivated, leads to rebirth in hell, or amongst the animals, or amongst the ghosts” AN 3.40

“He who kills and is cruel goes either to hell or, if reborn as man, will be short-lived. He who torments others will be afflicted with disease. The angry one will look ugly, the envious one will be without influence, the stingy one will be poor, the stubborn one will be of low descent, the indolent one will be without knowledge. In the contrary case, man will be reborn in heaven or reborn as man, he will be long-lived, possessed of beauty, influence, noble descent and knowledge” cf. MN 135

For the above 10-fold wholesome and unwholesome course of action, see kamma-patha.

For the 5 heinous crimes with immediate result, see ānantarika-kamma.

“Owners of their kamma are the beings, heirs of their kamma, their kamma is their womb from which they are born, their kamma is their friend, their refuge. Whatever kamma they perform, good or bad, thereof they will be the heirs” MN 135

With regard to the time of the taking place of the kamma-result (vipāka), one distinguishes, as mentioned above, 3 kinds of kamma:

The first two kinds of kamma may be without kamma-result (vipāka), if the circumstances required for the taking place of the kamma-result are missing, or if, through the preponderance of counteractive kamma and their being too weak, they are unable to produce any result. In this case they are called ahosi-kamma, lit. 'kamma that has been', in other words, ineffectual kamma.

The third type of kamma, however, which bears fruit in later lives, will, whenever and wherever there is an opportunity, be productive of kamma-result. Before its result has ripened, it will never become ineffective as long as the life-process is kept going by craving and ignorance.

According to the Commentary, e.g. Visuddhi Magga XIX, the 1st of the 7 kammical impulsive-moments (kamma-javana; see javana) is considered as 'kamma ripening during the life-time', the 7th moment as 'kamma ripening in the next birth', the remaining 5 moments as 'kamma ripening in later births'.

With regard to their functions one distinguishes:

(1) produces the 5 groups of existence (corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness) at rebirth as well as during life-continuity.

(2) does not produce kamma-results but is only able to maintain the already produced kamma-results.

(3) counteracts or suppresses the kamma-results.

(4) destroys the influence of a weaker kamma and effects only its own result.

With regard to the priority of their result one distinguishes:

(1, 2) The weighty (garuka) and the habitual (bahula) wholesome or unwholesome kamma are ripening earlier than the light and rarely performed kamma.

(3) The death-proximate (maraṇāsanna) kamma - i.e. the wholesome or unwholesome volition present immediately before death, which often may be the reflex of some previously performed good or evil action (kamma), or of a sign of it (kamma-nimitta), or of a sign of the future existence (gati-nimitta) - produces rebirth.

(4) In the absence of any of these three actions at the moment before death, the stored-up (katattā) kamma will produce rebirth.

A real, and in the ultimate sense true, understanding of Buddhist kamma doctrine is possible only through a deep insight into the impersonality (see anattā) and conditionality (see paṭiccasamuppāda, paccaya) of all phenomena of existence.

“Everywhere, in all the forms of existence … such a one is beholding merely mental and physical phenomena kept going by their being bound up through causes and effects.

“No doer does he see behind the deeds, no recipient apart from the kamma-fruit. And with full insight he clearly understands that the wise ones are using merely conventional terms when, with regard to the taking place of any action, they speak of a doer, or when they speak of a receiver of the kamma-results at their arising. Therefore the ancient masters have said:

'No doer of the deeds is found,
No one who ever reaps their fruits;
Empty phenomena roll on:
This view alone is right and true.

'And whilst the deeds and their results
Roll on, based on conditions all,
There no beginning can be seen,
Just as it is with seed and tree.' ” Visuddhi Magga XIX

Kamma (kamma-paccaya) is one of the 24 conditions (see paccaya)

Literature: Kamma and Rebirth, by Nyanatiloka (Wheel 9/394); Survival and Kamma in Buddhist Perspective, by K.N. Jayatilleke (Wheel 141/143); Kamma and its Fruit (Wheel 221/224).

 

PTS Dictionary

by the Pali Text Society:

 

Glossary Thanissaro

Kamma: Intentional act. Sanskrit form: Karma.

 

Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms

by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:

Renderings
Introduction

Kamma: conduct

Kamma often means ‘conduct’ or ‘deed’. For example:

• A noble disciple is endowed with blameless bodily conduct.

anavajjena kāyakammena samannāgato hoti. (AN ii 69-70)

• Although he may do an unvirtuous deed by body, speech, or mind, he is incapable of hiding it.

Kiñcāpi so kammaṁ karoti pāpakaṁ kāyena vācā uda cetasā vā
Abhabbo so tassa paṭicchādāya. (Snp 230-232)

Kamma: the operation of the karmic mechanism

Kamma can mean ‘the operation of the karmic mechanism,’ called kammayanta at quotes below, Tha 574 and Tha 419.

• He is superstitious. He believes in luck, not in the operation of the karmic mechanism.

kotuhalamaṅgaliko hoti maṅgalaṁ pacceti no kammaṁ

• He is not superstitious. He believes in the operation of the karmic mechanism, not in luck.

akotuhalamaṅgaliko hoti kammaṁ pacceti no maṅgalaṁ. (AN iii 206)

Because merit and demerit is accumulated, it means that all but arahants are caught in the operation of the karmic mechanism:

• Thus does [one who is attached to] the [human] body take his course, driven by the operation of the karmic mechanism

Evāyaṁ vattate kāyo kammayantena yantito. (Tha 574)

• By destroying the origin of ignorance [of things according to reality], [the eightfold path, ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, Tha 421] is a destroyer of the operation of the karmic mechanism.

PED (sv yanta) for kammayanta (Tha 419) gives ‘the machinery of Kamma,’ and (sv yantita) renders kammayantena (Tha 574) as ‘impelled by the machinery of Karma.’

Kamma: the field

Kamma is sometimes called ‘the field,’ which we take to mean ‘the [field of] operation of the karmic mechanism’:

• Thus Ānanda,

… the [field of] operation of the karmic mechanism is the field.

…the stream of consciousness, the seed.

… craving, the moisture.

taṇhā sneho.

… For beings [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving.

avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ

… the stream of consciousness is established in the low plane of existence.

hīnāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ

… In this way renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future.

evaṁ āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hoti. (AN i 223-4)

English word karma

Karma means:

  • the principle of retributive justice determining a person’s state of life and the state of his reincarnations as the effect of his past deeds
  • the doctrine of inevitable consequence
  • destiny or fate (Collins Dictionary).

We therefore avoid using the term because of the connotations of fatalism or fate. Nonetheless, we use ‘karmic’.

Merit and demerit: upacita

Where kamma is ‘accumulated’ (upacita) it stands for merit or demerit. For example:

• This is the first time that demerit whose consequence comes without delay has been accumulated by Devadatta.

idaṁ bhikkhave devadattena paṭhamaṁ ānantariyakammaṁ upacitaṁ. (Vin.2.193)

• Venerable Cunda the metalworker has accumulated merit that is conducive to long life

Āyusaṁvattanikaṁ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṁ upacitaṁ. (DN ii 136)

The arahant: no further karmically consequential conduct

The arahant does not undertake karmically consequential deeds:

• What do you think, bhikkhus: can a bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed (khīṇāsavo bhikkhu) undertake a karmically consequential deed that is meritorious, demeritorious, or karmically neutral?

puññābhisaṅkhāraṁ vā abhisaṅkhareyya apuññābhisaṅkhāraṁ vā abhisaṅkhareyya āneñjābhisaṅkhāraṁ vā abhisaṅkhareyyā ti

• No, bhante (SN ii 83).

The arahant: destruction of merit and demerit

The scriptures sometimes suggest the arahant has destroyed all merit and demerit. For example:

• Whatever karmically consequential conduct was undertaken by me, whether small or great, all that [accumulated merit and demerit] is exhausted.

Yaṁ mayā pakataṁ kammaṁ appaṁ vā yadi vā bahuṁ;
Sabbametaṁ parikkhīṇaṁ. (Tha 80)

• While I undertook much karmically consequential conduct of the kind which leads to [rebirth in] the plane of misery, yet its karmic consequence has reached me now. I enjoy my food free of karmic debt.

Tādisaṁ kammaṁ katvāna bahuṁ duggatigāminaṁ;
Phuṭṭho kammavipākena anaṇo bhuñjāmi bhojanaṁ. (MN ii 105)

Yet the scriptures also unequivocably say the opposite, that till the time of their death arahants continue to receive the karmic consequences of previous karmically consequential conduct:

• The bhikkhu… who is free of perceptually obscuring states… undertakes no new karmically consequential conduct and nullifies previous karmically consequential conduct by the gradual experience [of its consequences].

bhikkhu… anāsavaṁ… so navañca kammaṁ na karoti purāṇañca kammaṁ phussa phussa vyantīkaroti. (AN iii 414)

And the body, too, is to be regarded as the consequences of previous karmically consequential conduct, even for arahants.

kāyo… purāṇamidaṁ bhikkhave kammaṁ… daṭṭhabbaṁ. (SN ii 64-5)

Therefore when the scriptures say arahants have exhausted their merit and demerit, it either means:

1) that they will have done so by the time of their final passing, or

2) that when accumulated merit and demerit is exhausted, there still remains the consequences of that merit and demerit.

The non-returner and demerit

A non-returner receives within his very lifetime all unpleasant karmic consequences of past conduct:

• Whatever demeritorious karmically consequential conduct was previously undertaken by this [wretched human] body born of deeds, all [the consequences of] that must be experienced now [in this lifetime]; it will not [be able to] arise hereafter.’ Thus developed, the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] goodwill leads to non-returnership for a wise bhikkhu here who has not penetrated to a more exalted liberation.

yaṁ kho me idha kiñcī pubbe iminā karajakāyena pāpakammaṁ kataṁ sabbaṁ taṁ idha vedanīyaṁ na taṁ anugaṁ bhavissatī ti. Evaṁ bhāvitā kho bhikkhave mettācetovimutti anāgāmitāya saṁvattati idha paññassa bhikkhuno uttariṁ vimuttiṁ appaṭivijjhato. (AN v 300)

A non-returner is therefore left to receive after death only pleasant karmic consequences.

Nullifying karmically consequential deeds

Karmically consequential deeds are nullified by experiencing their karmic consequence, a process described in these quotes:

• ’I declare that there can be no nullification of karmically consequential deeds which have been intentionally undertaken and karmically accumulated without experiencing [their karmic consequences], either in this life, or on rebirth, or in some other subsequent [existence].’

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave sañcetanikānaṁ kammānaṁ katānaṁ upacitānaṁ appaṭisaṁviditvā vyantībhāvaṁ vadāmi. Tañca kho diṭṭhe vā dhamme upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye. (AN v 292)

• Previous karmically consequential conduct is nullified by the gradual experience [of its consequences]

purāṇañca kammaṁ phussa phussa vyantīkaroti. (AN ii 198)

The four types of deeds

There are four types of deeds. The first three types are:

Here, ‘dark’ means ‘a hostile karmically consequential deed’ (savyāpajjhaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ… vacīsaṅkhāraṁ… manosaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti, MN i 391) and ‘bright’ means ‘an unhostile karmically consequential deed’ (avyāpajjhaṁ MN i 391).

The karmic consequences of such deeds are also dark, bright, or dark-and-bright (kaṇhavipākaṁ sukkavipākaṁ kaṇhasukkavipākaṁ) where ‘dark’ means hostile sense impression (savyāpajjhaṁ vedanaṁ MN i 389) and ‘bright’ means unhostile sense impression (avyāpajjhaṁ vedanaṁ MN i 390).

For those wishing to escape karmically consequential conduct there is a fourth type of deed called ‘neither-dark-nor-bright’ (kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ) which leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct (kammakkhayāya saṁvattati). This deed involves

1) The intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences

yamidaṁ kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

2) The intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is bright with bright karmic consequences

yampidaṁ kammaṁ sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

3) The intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is dark-and-bright with dark-and-bright karmic consequences.

yampidaṁ kammaṁ kaṇhasukkaṁ kaṇhasukkavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā. (MN i 391)

This is called conduct that is neither-dark-nor-bright with neither-dark-nor-bright karmic consequences that leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct.

idaṁ vuccati puṇṇa kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ akaṇhāsukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati. (MN i 391)

The seven enlightenment factors are such conduct (kammaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati, AN ii 237). So is the eightfold path (sammādiṭṭhi… sammāsamādhī, AN ii 237).

On making the suttas incomprehensible

The sutta we have just quoted can be made incomprehensible, if, instead of saying one should abandon karmically consequential conduct, the sutta is rendered to say that one should ‘abandon all conduct, whether dark or bright.’ This would contradict much of the Buddha’s teaching, which constantly praises the cultivation of good conduct:

• The refraining from everything unvirtuous; the undertaking of what is spiritually wholesome… this is the training system of the Buddhas.

sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṁ kusalassa upasampadā… etaṁ buddhānaṁ sāsanaṁ(Dhp 183)

• Do not be afraid of acts of merit. This is called what is pleasant, desirable, likeable, agreeable, and pleasing, namely meritorious deeds

Mā bhikkhave puññānaṁ bhāyittha sukhassetaṁ bhikkhave adivacanaṁ iṭṭhassa kantassa piyassa manāpassa yadidaṁ puññāni. (Iti 14-16)

Merit is not obstructive

Although non-greed, non-hatred, and discernment of reality are bases for the arising of [meritorious] deeds (alobho… adoso… amoho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya), when greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality disappear, that merit is abandoned (lobhe… dose… mohe vigate evaṁ taṁ kammaṁ pahīṇaṁ hoti, AN i 134-5). If it was not abandoned, then merit would prevent one’s final liberation, because:

• I declare that there is no putting an end to suffering without experiencing the consequences of karmically consequential deeds which have been intentionally undertaken and karmically accumulated.

Na tvevāhaṁ bhikkhave sañcetanikānaṁ kammānaṁ katānaṁ upacitānaṁ appaṭisaṁviditvā dukkhassantakiriyaṁ vadāmi. (AN v 292)

Kamma in disciplinary procedures

In the context of discipline, kamma means ‘legal act of an assembly of bhikkhus.’

Illustrations

kammena

kammena: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kammena, conduct

A noble disciple (ariyasāvako) is endowed with

• blameless bodily conduct

anavajjena kāyakammena samannāgato hoti

• blameless verbal conduct

anavajjena vacīkammena samannāgato hoti

• blameless mental conduct

anavajjena manokammena samannāgato hoti. (AN ii 69-70)

kammaṁ

kammaṁ: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kammaṁ, conduct

The ignorant engage in spiritually unwholesome conduct that arises from attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

Rāgajañca dosajañca mohajañcāpaviddasu karonti akusalaṁ kammaṁ. (AN ii 72)

kammassa

kammassa: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kammassa, conduct/deed; kammānaṁ types of conduct

'Of what conduct of mine is this the fruit, of what deed the karmic consequence, that I now have such great spiritual power and might?'

kissa nu kho me idaṁ kammassa phalaṁ kissa kammassa vipāko yenāhaṁ etarahi evaṁ mahiddhiko evaṁ mahānubhāvo ti.

Then it occurred to me that it was the fruit and karmic consequence of three types of conduct, namely giving, inward taming, and restraint [in conduct].

Tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave etadahosi tiṇṇaṁ kho me idaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ tiṇṇaṁ kammānaṁ vipāko yenāhaṁ etarahi evaṁ mahiddhiko evaṁ mahānubhāvo ti seyyathīdaṁ dānassa damassa saṁyamassā ti. (Iti 14-16)

kammaṁ

kammaṁ: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kammaṁ, deed

Although he may do an unvirtuous deed by body, speech, or mind, he is incapable of hiding it.

Kiñcāpi so kammaṁ karoti pāpakaṁ kāyena vācā uda cetasā vā
Abhabbo so tassa paṭicchādāya. (Snp 230-232)

Illustration: kammaṁ, conduct

What is conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences?

Katamañca bhikkhave kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ?

In this regard, some person is a killer, a thief, an adulterer, a liar, or a drinker.

Idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti adinnādāyī hoti kāmesu micchācārī hoti musāvādī hoti surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhāyī hoti

And what is conduct that is bright with bright karmic consequences?

Katamañca bhikkhave kammaṁ sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ?

In this regard, someone refrains from killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and drinking alcohol.

Idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti kāmesu micchācārā paṭivirato hoti musāvādā paṭivirato hoti surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā paṭivirato hoti. (AN ii 234-5)

Illustration: kamma, deeds

Killing is threefold, I declare: due to greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

Pāṇātipātampahaṁ bhikkhave tividhaṁ vadāmi lobhahetukampi dosahetukampi mohahetukampi.

Stealing is threefold, I declare: due to greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

Adinnādānampahaṁ bhikkhave kividhaṁ vadāmi lobhahetukampi dosahetukampi mohahetukampi.

Thus greed is a basis for the arising of karmically consequential deeds; likewise hatred and undiscernment of reality.

Iti kho bhikkhave lobho kammanidānasambhavo doso kammanidānasambhavo moho kammanidānasambhavo.

The destruction of greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality each produces the destruction of a basis of karmically consequential deeds.

Lobhakkhayā kammanidānasaṅkhayo dosakkhayā kammanidānasaṅkhayo mohakkhayā kammanidānasaṅkhayo ti. (AN v 262)

Illustration: kamma, conduct

Bhikkhus, not from conduct born of greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality are there devas, men, and other fortunate beings to be discerned; but hell-beings, animals, ghosts, and other unfortunate beings.

Na bhikkhave lobhajena kammena dosajena kammena mohajena kammena devā paññāyanti na manussā paññayanti yā vā panaññāpi kāci sugatiyo. Atha kho bhikkhave lobhajena kammena dosajena kammena mohajena kammena nirayo paññāyati tiracchānayoni paññāyati pettivisayo paññāyati yā vā panaññāpi kāci duggatiyo.

Bhikkhus, not from conduct born of non-greed, non-hatred, and discernment of reality are there hell-beings, animals, ghosts, and other unfortunate beings to be discerned; but devas, men, and other fortunate beings.

Na bhikkhave alobhajena kammena adosajena kammena amoha jena kammena nirayopaññāyati. Tiracchānayoni paññāyati. Pettivisayo paññāyati yā vā panaññāpi kāci duggatiyo. Atha kho bhikkhave alobhajena kammena adosajena kammena amohajena kammena devā paññāyanti manussā paññāyanti yā vā panaññāpi kāci sugatiyo. (AN iii 338-9)

Illustration: kammaṁ, conduct; kamma, karmically consequential conduct

Conduct produced from, born of, due to, originated by greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality is spiritually unwholesome and blameworthy.

yaṁ bhikkhave lobhapakataṁ… dosapakataṁ… mohapakataṁ kammaṁ mohajaṁ mohanidānaṁ mohasamudayaṁ taṁ kammaṁ akusalaṁ taṁ kammaṁ sāvajjaṁ

It has unpleasant karmic consequences and leads to the [further] origination of karmically consequential conduct. It does not lead to the ending of karmically consequential conduct.

taṁ kammaṁ dukkhavipākaṁ taṁ kammaṁ kammasamudayāya saṁvattati. Na taṁ kammaṁ kammanirodhāya saṁvattati.

Conduct produced from, born of, due to, originated by non-greed, non-hatred, and discernment of reality is spiritually wholesome and blameless.

yaṁ bhikkhave alobho… adoso… amohapakataṁ kammaṁ amohajaṁ amohanidānaṁ amohasamudayaṁ. Taṁ kammaṁ kusalaṁ taṁ kammaṁ anavajjaṁ

It has pleasant karmic consequences and leads to the ending of karmically consequential conduct. It does not lead to the origination of karmically consequential conduct.

taṁ kammaṁ sukhavipākaṁ taṁ kammaṁ kammanirodhāya. Na taṁ kammaṁ kammasamudayāya saṁvattati. (AN i 263)

Illustration: kammaṁ, conduct; karmically consequential conduct

What, bhikkhus, is conduct that is neither-dark-nor-bright with neither-dark-nor-bright karmic consequences that leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct?

Katamañca bhikkhave kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ akaṇhāsukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati?

The eightfold path.

Sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhī. (AN ii 237)

Illustration: kammaṁ, karmically consequential conduct

He undertakes no new karmically consequential conduct

so navañca kammaṁ na karoti

As to previous karmically consequential conduct, he nullifies it by the gradual experience [of its consequences]

purāṇañca kammaṁ phussa phussa vyantīkaroti. (AN ii 197)

Illustration: kammaṁ, karmically consequential conduct

With the abandonment of craving, karmically consequential conduct is abandoned. With the abandonment of karmically consequential conduct, suffering is abandoned.

Taṇhāya pahānā kammaṁ pahīyati. Kammassa pahānā dukkhaṁ pahīyati. (SN v 86-7)

Illustration: kammaṁ, conduct; kamma, karmically consequential conduct

And what is conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences

Katamañca puṇṇa kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ

In this regard, some person undertakes a hostile karmically consequential deed by way of body… speech… mind

idha puṇṇa ekacco savyāpajjhaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ… vacīsaṅkhāraṁ… manosaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti.

And what, Puṇṇa, is conduct that is bright with bright karmic consequences?

kammaṁ sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ

In this regard, some person undertakes an unhostile karmically consequential deed by way of body… speech… mind

avyāpajjhaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ… vacīsaṅkhāraṁ… manosaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti

What, Puṇṇa, is conduct that is neither-dark-nor-bright with neither-dark-nor-bright karmic consequences that leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct?

kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ akaṇhāsukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati

The intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences

yamidaṁ kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

or intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is bright with bright karmic consequences

yampidaṁ kammaṁ sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

or intentional effort to abandon karmically consequential conduct that is dark-and-bright with dark-and-bright karmic consequences

yampidaṁ kammaṁ kaṇhasukkaṁ kaṇhasukkavipākaṁ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā

is conduct that is neither-dark-nor-bright with neither-dark-nor-bright karmic consequences that leads to the destruction of karmically consequential conduct.

idaṁ vuccati puṇṇa kammaṁ akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ akaṇhāsukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati. (MN i 391)

Illustration: kammaṁ, karmically consequential conduct/deeds

Intentional effort is karmically consequential conduct, I declare.

Cetanāhaṁ bhikkhave kammaṁ vadāmi

In applying intentional effort, one undertakes karmically consequential conduct by way of body, speech, or mind.

cetayitvā kammaṁ karoti kāyena vācāya manasā.

What is the basis for the arising of karmically consequential deeds?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kammānaṁ nidānasambhavo

Sensation is the basis for the arising of karmically consequential deeds.

phasso bhikkhave kammānaṁ nidānasambhavo

What is the diversity in karmically consequential deeds?

Katamā ca bhikkhave kammānaṁ vemattatā:

There is a deed [whose karmic consequence is] to be experienced in hell, or as an animal, a ghost, a human, or as a deva.

atthi bhikkhave kammaṁ nirayavedanīyaṁ atthi kammaṁ tiracchānayonivedanīyā atthi kammaṁ pettivisayavedanīyaṁ atthi kammaṁ manussalokavedanīyaṁ atthi kammaṁ devalokavedanīyaṁ.

What is the karmic consequence of karmically consequential deeds?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kammānaṁ vipāko

The karmic consequence of karmically consequential deeds is threefold: that which arises in this life, or on rebirth, or in some other subsequent [existence].

Tividhāhaṁ bhikkhave kammānaṁ vipākaṁ vadāmi diṭṭhevā dhamme upajje vā apare vā pariyāye.

What is the ending of karmically consequential deeds?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kammanirodho

The ending of sensation is the ending of karmically consequential deeds.

Phassanirodho bhikkhave kammanirodho. (AN iii 415)

Illustration: kammaṁ, deed; kammaṁ, karmically consequential conduct

What is previous karmically consequential conduct?

The visual sense should be seen as [the consequence of] previous karmically consequential conduct, originated, arisen from intentional effort, and to be necessarily experienced.

Cakkhu bhikkhave purāṇakammaṁ abhisaṅkhataṁ abhisañcetayitaṁ vedaniyaṁ daṭṭhabbaṁ

The auditory sense… The olfactory sense… The gustatory sense… The tactile sense… The mental sense should be seen as [the consequence of] previous karmically consequential conduct, originated, arisen from intentional effort, and to be necessarily experienced.

mano purāṇakammo abhisaṅkhato abhisañcetayito vedaniyo daṭṭhabbo

This is called previous karmically consequential conduct.

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave purāṇakammaṁ.

What is new karmically consequential conduct?

Katamañca bhikkhave navaṁ kammaṁ

Whatever deed one does in the present by way of body, speech, or mind.

yaṁ kho bhikkhave etarahi kammaṁ karoti kāyena vācāya manasā

What is the ending of karmically consequential conduct?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kammanirodho

He who attains liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through the ending of karmically consequential conduct by way of body, speech, and mind, this is called the ending of karmically consequential conduct.

yo kho bhikkhave kāyakammavacīkammamanokammassa nirodhā vimuttiṁ phusati. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave kammanirodho. (SN iv 132-3)

kammānaṁ

kammānaṁ: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kammānaṁ, karmically consequential deeds: kammaṁ, accumulated merit

There are three bases for the arising of karmically consequential deeds. What three?

Tīṇi'māni bhikkhave nidānāni kammānaṁ samudayāya. Katamāni tīṇi:

• Greed is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

lobho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya

• Hatred is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

doso nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya

• Undiscernment of reality is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

moho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya.

Karmically consequential conduct produced from greed, born of greed, due to greed, originated by greed bears fruit wherever the rebirth of one’s individuality occurs.

Yaṁ bhikkhave lobhapakataṁ… mohapakataṁ kammaṁ mohajaṁ mohanidānaṁ mohasamudayaṁ yatthassa attabhāvo nibbattati tattha taṁ kammaṁ vipaccati..

Wherever that karmically consequential conduct bears fruit, there one experiences the karmic consequences of one’s conduct, either in this life, or on rebirth, or in some other subsequent [existence].

Yattha taṁ kammaṁ vipaccati tattha tassa kammassa vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti diṭṭhe vā dhamme upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye.

There are three bases for the arising of karmically consequential deeds

Tīṇi'māni bhikkhave nidānāni kammānaṁ samudayāya. Katamāni tīṇi:

• Non-greed is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

alobho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya

• Non-hatred is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

adoso nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya

• Penetrative discernment is a basis for the origination of karmically consequential deeds.

amoho nidānaṁ kammānaṁ samudayāya

But with the disappearance of greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality, that accumulated merit is abandoned.

lobhe… dose… mohe vigate evaṁ taṁ kammaṁ pahīṇaṁ hoti.

It is chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, never to arise again in future.

Yaṁ bhikkhave alobhapakataṁ kammaṁ alobhajaṁ alobhanidānaṁ alobhasamudayaṁ lobhe vigate… dose vigate… mohe vigate evaṁ taṁ kammaṁ pahīṇaṁ hoti ucchinnamūlaṁ tālāvatthukataṁ anabhāvakataṁ āyatiṁ anuppādadhammaṁ. (AN i 134-5)

Comment:

If the merit of good conduct was not automatically abandoned in this way, then doing good deeds would block one’s final liberation because one is obliged to receive the karmic consequences of all conduct.

Illustration: kamma, karmically consequential conduct

This Venerable is owner of his karmically consequential conduct, inheritor of it, born of it, intimately related to it, has it as his refuge. He is the inheritor of whatever karmically consequential conduct he undertakes whether meritorious or demeritorious.

Kammassako ayamāyasmā kammadāyādo kammayonī kammabandhū kammapaṭisaraṇo. Yaṁ kammaṁ karissati kalyāṇaṁ vā pāpakaṁ vā tassa dāyādo bhavissatī ti. (AN iii 185)

Illustration: kamma, karmically consequential conduct

He was resolute in applying himself to spiritually wholesome factors… By undertaking that karmically consequential conduct, heaping it up, lavishly and abundantly, with the demise of the body at death he was reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds.

daḷhasamādāno ahosi kusalesu dhammesu… so tassa kammassa katattā upacitattā ussannattā vipulantā kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjati. (DN iii 145-6)

pāpakammā

pāpakammā: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: pāpakammā, accumulated demerit; pāpaṁ pubbe kataṁ, demerit

A brahman told the bhikkhunī Puṇṇikā that whoever does a demeritorious deed (pāpakamma pakubbatī) is released from the accumulated demerit by water ablution (dakābhisecanā sopi pāpakammā pamuccati).

Puṇṇikā replied that if rivers could carry off one’s accumulated demerit (pāpaṁ pubbe kataṁ vahuṁ), they would carry off one’s accumulated merit as well (puññampimā vaheyyuṁ) (Thi 236-251).

pāpakammaṁ kataṁ

pāpakammaṁ kataṁ: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: pāpakammaṁ kataṁ, demeritorious conduct

Previous demeritorious conduct whose karmic consequence has not yet ripened.

pubbe pāpakammaṁ kataṁ avipakkavipākaṁ. (AN ii 196)

kaṇhakammo

kaṇhakammo: (main article see: kamma)

Illustration: kaṇhakammo, accumulated demerit

The stream Bāhumatī: a fool may bathe there forever yet will not purify himself of accumulated demerit.

bāhumatiṁ nadiṁ niccampi bālo pakkhanno kaṇhakammo na sujjhati. (MN i 39)

Illustration: kammaṁ, legal act of an assembly of bhikkhus

A legal act done with an incomplete assembly of bhikkhus (vaggakammaṁ) is invalid (‘reversible, not fit to stand,’ kuppaṁ aṭṭhānārahaṁ) (Vin.1.316).

 

Glossary various Teacher

— —

 

See also

Suttas and Dhammadesanā

Kamma: (karma; intentional action) See also Devas; Hell; Planes of Existence, Thirty-one; Rebirth; Sagga (heaven).

 

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Appendix: ahosi-kamma, janaka-kamma, garuka-kamma, bahula-kamma, upatthambhaka-kamma, upaghātaka-kamma, upapīlaka-kamma, maraṇāsanna-kamma, upacchedaka-kamma. None of these terms is found in the Sutta or Abhidhamma Canon. They have been introduced by the commentators (e.g. in Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha and Visuddhi Magga) for the purpose of a systematical grouping of the various aspects and functions of kamma. The term katattā, however, occurs repeatedly in the Abhidhamma Canon in such expressions as: 'Yasmiṁ samaye … kusalassa kammassa katattā … cakkhuviññāṇaṁ hoti….' (Dhammasaṅgaṇi § 431); or: 'Yaṁ atthi rūpam kammassa katattā ….' (Dhammasaṅgaṇi § 653); or 'katattā ca rūpānaṁ' (Patthanā), etc.
en/dictionary/kamma.txt · Last modified: 2019/09/25 05:31 (external edit)