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en:tipitaka:sut:sn:sn46:sn46.054x.wlsh [2019/09/03 09:26]
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en:tipitaka:sut:sn:sn46:sn46.054x.wlsh [2019/11/01 06:18] (current)
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 +<div center round todo 60%>​**Preperation of htmls into ATI.eu currently in progress.** Please visit the corresponding page at [[http://​zugangzureinsicht.org/​html/​index_en.html|ZzE]]. If inspired to get involved in this merits here, one may feel invited to join best here: [[http://​sangham.net/​index.php/​topic,​8657.0.html|[ATI.eu] ATI/ZzE Content-style]]</​div>​
  
 +====== Mettam Sutta: The Brahma-viharas ======
 +<span hide>​Mettam Sutta</​span>​
 +
 +Summary: <span wrap_summarypic>​[[.:​index#​sn46.054x.wlsh|{{en:​img:​question_16.gif}}]]</​span> ​ How to develop the four brahma-viharas.
 +
 +
 +<div #h_meta>
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +<div #​h_tipitakaid>​SN 46.54 <span h_ptsid>​PTS:​ [[:​en:​tipitaka:​sltp:​SN_V_utf8#​pts.115|S v 115]]</​span>​ <span h_altid>​CDB ii 1607</​span>​
 +
 +</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​h_doctitle>​Mettam Sutta: The Brahma-viharas
 +
 +<div isexcerpt>​(excerpt)</​div>​
 +
 +</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​h_docsubtitle2></​div>​
 +
 +<div #​h_docby>​translated from the Pali by</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​h_docauthor>​Maurice O'​Connell Walshe</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​h_copyright>​[[#​f_termsofuse|{{en:​img:​d2.png?​16x18}}]][[#​f_termsofuse| 2009-2018]]</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​h_docalttrans>​Alternate translation:​ [[en:​tipitaka:​sut:​sn:​sn46:​sn46.054.than|Thanissaro]]</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​h_sutta-note>​The Pali title of this sutta is based on the PTS (Feer) edition.</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​h_altformat></​div>​
 +
 +</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​h_homage>​
 +
 +<div #​homagetext>​[[en:​homage|- ​ Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa ​ -]]</​div>​
 +
 +<div navigation>​[[en:​tipitaka:​sut:​sn:​sn46:​sn46.053.than|{{en:​img:​left.png }}]] [[en:​tipitaka:​sut:​sn:​sn46:​sn46.055.wlsh|{{ en:​img:​right.png}}]]</​div>​
 +
 +</​div>​
 +
 +<span #​h_content></​span>​
 +
 +<div chapter>
 +
 +...
 +
 +"And how, monks, does a monk cultivate the heart'​s release by loving-kindness?<​span notetag #​fnt-1>​([[#​fn-1|1]])</​span>​ What is its goal, its excellence, its fruit and its outcome?
 +
 +"In this case, monks, a monk cultivates the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness accompanied by loving-kindness and similarly the enlightenment-factors of investigation-of-states,​ energy, rapture, tranquillity,​ concentration,​ equanimity, accompanied by loving-kindness which is based on detachment, dispassion, leading to maturity of surrender. If he wishes to dwell perceiving the repulsive in what is not repulsive, he dwells thus perceiving the repulsive. If he wishes to dwell perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive, he dwells thus perceiving the unrepulsive. If he wishes to dwell perceiving the repulsive both in what is repulsive and what is not repulsive, if he wishes to dwell perceiving the unrepulsive in both..., he dwells thus. If he wishes, avoiding both the repulsive and unrepulsive,​ to dwell equanimous,<​span notetag #​fnt-2>​([[#​fn-2|2]])</​span>​ mindful and clearly aware,<​span notetag #​fnt-3>​([[#​fn-3|3]])</​span>​ he dwells thus, equanimous, mindful and clearly aware, or, attaining the heart'​s release called '​beautiful'<​span notetag #​fnt-4>​([[#​fn-4|4]])</​span>​ he abides there. I declare that the heart'​s release by loving-kindness has the beautiful for its excellence. This is the attainment of a wise monk who penetrates to no higher release.<​span notetag #​fnt-5>​([[#​fn-5|5]])</​span>​
 +
 +"And how, monks, does a monk cultivate release by compassion? What is its goal, its excellence, its fruit and its outcome?
 +
 +"In this, monks, a monk cultivates the enlightenment-factors of mindfulness... equanimity accompanied by compassion... [//as above//]... he dwells thus, equanimous, mindful, clearly aware or, by passing utterly beyond all perception of objects, by the going-down of perceptions of sensory reactions,<​span notetag #​fnt-6>​([[#​fn-6|6]])</​span>​ by disregarding perceptions of diversity, thinking 'space is infinite,'​ he attains and dwells in the
 +
 +sphere of infinite space.<​span notetag #​fnt-7>​([[#​fn-7|7]])</​span>​ I declare that the heart'​s release by compassion has the sphere of infinite space for its excellence. This is the attainment of a wise monk who penetrates to no higher release.
 +
 +"And how, monks, does a monk cultivate the heart'​s release by sympathetic joy? What is its goal, its excellence, its fruit and its outcome?
 +
 +"In this, monks, a monk cultivates the enlightenment-factors of mindfulness... equanimity accompanied by sympathetic joy... [//as above//]... he dwells thus, equanimous, mindful, clearly aware or, by passing utterly beyond the sphere of infinite space, thinking '​consciousness is infinite,'​ he attains and dwells in the sphere of infinite consciousness.<​span notetag #​fnt-8>​([[#​fn-8|8]])</​span>​ I declare that the heart'​s release by sympathetic joy has the sphere of infinite consciousness for its excellence. This is the attainment of a wise monk who penetrates to no higher release.
 +
 +"And how, monks, does a monk cultivate the heart'​s release by equanimity? What is its goal, its excellence, its fruit and its outcome?
 +
 +"In this case, monks, a monk cultivates the enlightenment-factors of mindfulness,​ investigation-of-states,​ energy, rapture, tranquillity,​ concentration,​ equanimity accompanied by equanimity<​span notetag #​fnt-9>​([[#​fn-9|9]])</​span>​ which is based on detachment, dispassion, leading to maturity of surrender. If he wishes to dwell... [//as above//]... he dwells thus, equanimous, mindful and clearly aware. Or by passing utterly beyond the sphere of infinite consciousness,​ thinking 'there is nothing,'​ he attains and dwells in the sphere of nothingness.<​span notetag #​fnt-10>​([[#​fn-10|10]])</​span>​ I declare that the heart'​s release by equanimity had the sphere of nothingness for its excellence. This is the attainment of a wise monk who penetrates to no higher release."​
 +
 +...
 +
 +==== Notes ====
 +<div notes>
 +
 +<dl>
 +
 +  ? <span fn #​fn-1>​[[#​fnt-1|1.]]</​span>​
 +  :: The four //​Brahma-vihaaras//​ ("​divine abidings"​),​ also called the four "​boundless (//​appamañña//​) states,"​ are: 1. Loving-kindness (//​mettaa//​),​ 2. Compassion (//​karu.naa//​),​ 3. Sympathetic Joy (//​muditaa//​),​ 4. Equanimity (//​upekkhaa//​).
 +
 +  ? <span fn #​fn-2>​[[#​fnt-2|2.]]</​span>​
 +  :: //Upekha//, the adjective from //​upekkhaa//​. "​Equanimous"​ is a rare word in modern English, but is less misleading than "​indifferent."​ It is used by the Ven. Ñanamoli in //The Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga)//​ (Colombo 1956).
 +
 +  ? <span fn #​fn-3>​[[#​fnt-3|3.]]</​span>​
 +  :: //Sato sampajaano//​. The old rendering (introduced by T. W. Rhys Davids) "​mindful and self-possessed"​ dies hard, but is far too vague, if not positively misleading. The real meaning of //​sampajaana//​ is "​clearly aware":​ see BD [//Buddhist Dictionary//​ (2nd ed.), by Ven. Nyaa.natiloka,​ Ven. Nyaa.naponika (ed.) (Colombo 1972)] s v. //​sampajañña//​.
 +
 +  ? <span fn #​fn-4>​[[#​fnt-4|4.]]</​span>​
 +  :: //Subha//. This is explained in MN 77 as being associated with the fourth (lower) //jhaana// ([[en:​tipitaka:​sut:​sn:​sn40:​sn40.009.wlsh#​fn-2|SN 40.9, n. 2]]).
 +
 +  ? <span fn #​fn-5>​[[#​fnt-5|5.]]</​span>​
 +  :: Cf. VM IX, 76: "If unable to reach higher than the attainment of loving-kindness and attain Arahantship,​ then when he falls from this life, he reappears in the Brahma world as one who wakes up from sleep."​
 +
 +  ? <span fn #​fn-6>​[[#​fnt-6|6.]]</​span>​
 +  :: //​Pa.tigha//​ (here) "​resistance"​ (as of solid objects). Another meaning of this word is "​resentment."​
 +
 +  ? <span fn #​fn-7>​[[#​fnt-7|7.]]</​span>​
 +  :: The first of the higher (formless) //jhaanas// ([[en:​tipitaka:​sut:​sn:​sn40:​sn40.009.wlsh#​fn-2|SN 40.9, n. 2]]).
 +
 +  ? <span fn #​fn-8>​[[#​fnt-8|8.]]</​span>​
 +  :: The second of the higher (formless) //​jhaanas//​.
 +
 +  ? <span fn #​fn-9>​[[#​fnt-9|9.]]</​span>​
 +  :: Equanimity (//​upekkhaa//​) as an enlightenment-factor ([[en:​tipitaka:​sut:​sn:​sn46:​sn46.053.wlsh#​fn-1|SN 46.53, n. 1]]) is here distinguished from equanimity as a //​Brahma-vihaara//​ ([[#fn-1|n. 1]]). The difference lies in the mode of attainment.
 +
 +  ? <span fn #​fn-10>​[[#​fnt-10|10.]]</​span>​
 +  :: The third of the higher (formless) //​jhaanas//​.
 +
 +</dl>
 +</​div>​
 +
 +</​div>​
 +
 +<span #​h_content_end></​span>​
 +
 +<div navigation>​[[./​sn46.053.than|{{en:​img:​left.png }}]] [[./​sn46.055.wlsh|{{ en:​img:​right.png}}]]</​div>​
 +
 +
 +
 +<div #​f_footer>​
 +
 +<div showmore>​
 +<div #​f_colophon>​
 +<div #​f_newcopyrightsymbol>​[[#​top| ]]</​div>​
 +<div #​f_provenance>​**Provenance:​**
 +<div #​f_sourceCopy>​The source of this work is the gift within Access to Insight "​Offline Edition 2012.09.10.14",​ last replication 12. March 2013, generously given by John Bullitt and mentioned as: ©1985 Buddhist Publication Society.</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​f_sourceCopy_translation></​div>​
 +
 +<div #​f_sourceEdition></​div>​
 +
 +<div #​f_sourceTitle>​From //​[[:​en:​lib:​authors/​walshe/​wheel318|Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology (WH 318-321)]]//,​ by M. O'C. Walshe (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1985). Transcribed from the print edition in 2007 by a volunteer, under the auspices of the Access to Insight Dhamma Transcription Project and by arrangement with the Buddhist Publication Society. Minor revisions were made in accordance with the ATI style sheet. Pali diacritics are represented using the Velthuis convention.</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​f_atiCopy>​This Zugang zur Einsicht edition is [[en:​dhamma-dana|{{en:​img:​d2.png?​14}}]]2013 (ATI 2009-2012).</​div>​
 +
 +<div f_zzecopy>​Translations,​ rebublishing,​ editing and additions are in the sphere of responsibility of //Zugang zur Einsicht//​.</​div>​
 +
 +</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​f_termsofuse>​**Scope of this Dhamma-Gift:​** You are invited to not only use this Dhamma-Gift here for yourself but also to share it, and your merits with it, again as a Dhamma gift and to copy, reformat, reprint, republish and redistribute this work in any medium whatsoever, provided that: (1) you only make such copies, etc. available //free of charge// and, in the case of reprinting, only in quantities of no more than 50 copies; (2) you clearly indicate that any derivatives of this work (including translations) are derived from this source document; and (3) you include the full text of this "Scope of this Dhamma-Gift"​ in any copies or derivatives of this work. Anything beyond this is not given here. For additional information about this license, see the [[en:​faq#​copyright|FAQ]].</​div>​
 +
 +<div #​f_citation>​**How to cite this document** (one suggested style): "​Mettam Sutta: The Brahma-viharas"​ (SN 46.54), translated from the Pali by  Maurice O'​Connell Walshe. //Access to Insight//, 22 July 2012, [[http://​www.accesstoinsight.org/​tipitaka/​sn/​sn46/​sn46.054x.wlsh.html|http://​www.accesstoinsight.org/​tipitaka/​sn/​sn46/​sn46.054x.wlsh.html]] . Retrieved on 10 September 2012 (Offline Edition 2012.09.10.14),​ republished by //Zugang zur Einsicht// on  ​
 +[[http://​www.zugangzureinsicht.org/​html/​tipitaka/​sn/​sn46/​sn46.054x.wlsh_en.html|http://​www.zugangzureinsicht.org/​html/​tipitaka/​sn/​sn46/​sn46.054x.wlsh_en.html]] retreived on:
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 +<div #​f_alt-formats>​****</​div>​
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 +</​div>​
 +
 +----
 +
 +<div #​f_toenail>​[[en:​help|Help]] | [[en:​faq#​whatis|About]] | [[en:​faq#​contact|Contact]] | [[en:​dhamma-dana|Scope of the Dhamma gift]] | [[en:​cowork|Collaboration]]\\ Anumodana puñña kusala!</​div>​