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Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms [p]

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The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.

Content

Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |

p

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paccaya

Renderings

Introduction

Paccaya: ‘dependent on’

In some cases we have rendered paccaya as ‘dependent on.’ For example:

• Dependent on birth, there arises old-age-and-death.

Jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇan ti. (MN i 262)

Others translate this as:

  • Horner: Conditioned by birth is ageing and dying
  • Bodhi: With birth as condition, ageing and death.

Norman translates paccaya as ‘because of’:

• Whatever misery arises, all this is because of contact.

yaṁ kiñci dukkhaṁ sambhoti sabbaṁ phassapaccayā ti. (Snp 735)

PED says: ‘literally resting on, falling back on, foundation; cause, motive etc. 1. support, requisite, means, stay. 2. reason, cause, ground, motive, means, condition.’ It says ablative paccayā means ‘of, through, by reason of, caused by.’

Abstract formula of dependent origination

That paccaya means dependent can be seen in abstract formula of dependent origination, as follows:

• When there is this, that comes to be. With the arising of this, that arises. Without this, that does not come to be. With the ending of this, that ceases.

iti imasmiṁ sati idaṁ hoti imassuppādā idaṁ uppajjati imasmiṁ asati idaṁ na hoti imassa nirodhā idaṁ nirujjhati. (SN ii 70)

If this formula is applied to jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇan ti it leads to the following statements:

• When there is birth, old age and death come to be. With the arising of birth, old age and death arise. Without birth, old age and death do not come to be. With the ending of birth, old age and death ceases.

This well supports us rendering jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇan ti as ‘Dependent on birth, there arises old-age-and-death,’ though other translations are clearly possible.

Illustrations

paccayaṁ

paccayaṁ: (main article see: paccaya)

Illustration: paccayaṁ, necessary condition

‘There has arisen in me this faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience. That arises with grounds, with a source, with mental factors, with necessary conditions. It would be impossible for that faculty of physical-plus-psychological neutral experience to arise without grounds, without a source, without mental factors, without necessary conditions.’

uppannaṁ kho me idaṁ upekkhindriyaṁ. Tañca kho sanimittaṁ sanidānaṁ sasaṅkhāraṁ sappaccayaṁ. Taṁ vata animittaṁ anidānaṁ asaṅkhāraṁ appaccayaṁ upekkhindriyaṁ uppajjissatī ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (SN v 215)

paccayo

paccayo: (main article see: paccaya)

Illustration: paccayo, necessary condition

The existential nourishment of a stream of consciousness is a necessary condition for future renewed states of individual existence and rebirth.

viññāṇāhāro āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbattiyā paccayo. (SN ii 13)

paccayānaṁ

paccayānaṁ: (main article see: paccaya)

Illustration: paccayānaṁ, necessary conditions

When profound truths become manifest to the vigorous, meditative Brahman, then all his unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching] disappears, for he knows the destruction of necessary conditions.

Yadā have pātubhavanti dhammā ātapino ātāpino jhāyato brāhmaṇassa
Athassa kaṅkhā vapayanti sabbā yato khayaṁ paccayānaṁ avedī ti. (Uda 1)

Illustration: paccayaṁ, necessary condition

When the visual field of sensation has arisen dependent on a necessary condition that is unlasting, how could it be lasting?

Aniccaṁ kho pana bhikkhave paccayaṁ paṭiccasamuppannaṁ cakkhuviññāṇaṁ kuto niccaṁ bhavissati. (SN iv 68)

paccayā

paccayā: (main article see: paccaya)

Illustration: paccayā, necessary conditions

Three necessary conditions for the persistence of the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] by focusing upon the unabiding [phenomenon]:

Tayo kho āvuso paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā ṭhitiyā

• not focusing upon any abiding phenomenon

• focusing upon the unabiding phenomenon,

animittāya ca dhātuyā manasikāro

• a prior aspiration [for its persistence]

Illustration: paccayā, necessary conditions

Without necessary conditions there is no arising of viññāṇa

aññatra paccayā natthi viññāṇassa sambhavo ti. (MN i 258)

Illustration: paccayaṁ, necessary condition

Fire is reckoned by the necessary condition dependent upon which it burns.

yaññadevāpaccayaṁ paṭicca aggi jalati tena teneva saṅkhaṁ gacchati

When fire burns because of logs it is reckoned as a log fire

kaṭṭhañca paṭicca aggi jalati kaṭṭhaggiteva saṅkhaṁ gacchati

or on woodchips, a woodchip fire

Sakalikañca paṭicca aggi jalati sakalikaggiteva saṅkhaṁ gacchati. (MN i 259-230)

Illustration: paccayo, necessary condition

The four great material phenomena are the indispensible and necessary conditions by which the aggregate of bodily form is to be discerned.

Cattāro kho bhikkhu mahābhūtā hetu cattāro mahābhūtā paccayo rūpakkhandhassa paññāpanāya. (MN iii 17)

Illustration: paccaya, necessities

• A four-month invitation [to ask] for necessities can be accepted by a bhikkhu who is not ill.

Agilānena bhikkhunā cātumāsapaccayapavāraṇā sāditabbā. (Vin.4.102)

• A four-month invitation [to ask] for necessities can be accepted by a bhikkhu who is not ill means: an invitation [to ask] for necessities [that are needed] when ill may be accepted.

Agilānena bhikkhunā cātumāsappaccayapavāraṇā sāditabbā ti: gilānapaccayapavāraṇā sāditabbā. (Vin.4.102)

paccayata

paccayata: (main article see: paccaya)

Illustration: paccayata, conditionality

So that for beings who take pleasure and delight in clinging, finding satisfaction in clinging, this were a matter difficult to see, that is to say dependent origination with specific conditionality

ālayarāmāya kho pana pajāya ālayaratāya ālayasammuditāya duddasaṁ idaṁ ṭhānaṁ yadidaṁ idappaccayatāpaṭiccasamuppādo. (MN i 167)

Illustration: paccayata, conditionality

And what is dependent origination? Old-age-and-death arises dependent on birth. Whether or not there is an arising of Perfect Ones, there persists that phenomenon, that stability in the nature of reality, that orderliness in the nature of reality, that specific conditionality.

Katamo ca bhikkhave paṭiccasamuppādo? Jātipaccayā bhikkhave jarāmaraṇaṁ uppādā vā tathāgatānaṁ anuppādā vā tathāgatānaṁ ṭhitāva sā dhātu dhammaṭṭhitatā dhammaniyāmatā idapaccayatā. (SN ii 25)

Illustration: paccayata, conditionality

Thus far the round of rebirth revolves and personal existence is to be discerned,

ettāvatā vaṭṭaṁ vattati itthattaṁ paññāpanāya

namely immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form together with the stream of consciousness,

yadidaṁ nāmarūpaṁ saha viññāṇena

which continue through mutual conditionality.

Illustration: paccayo, reason

This is the cause and reason why doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] does not arise in the noble disciple on account of the unexplained issues.

Ayaṁ kho bhikkhu hetu ayaṁ paccayo yena sutavato ariyasāvakassa vicikicchā nuppajjati avyākatavatthusūti. (AN iv 68-70)

Illustration: paccayo, reason

This is the cause and reason for some beings here not realising the Untroubled in this lifetime.

Ayaṁ kho āvuso ānanda hetu ayaṁ paccayo yena midhekacce sattā diṭṭheva dhamme na parinibbāyantī ti. (AN ii 167)

Illustration: paccayo, reason

What now is the cause and reason that my mind does not become energised, serene, settled, and intent upon the practice of unsensuousness, though I see it as peaceful.

ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo yena me nekkhamme cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati) etaṁ santanti passato. (AN iv 439)

Illustration: paccayā, reasons

Eight causes and reasons for the ruination of families:

Aṭṭha kho gāmaṇī hetu aṭṭha paccayā kulānaṁ upaghātāya

Families are ruined due to the king, thieves, fire, flooding, things getting lost, mismanagement, a squanderer in the family, unlastingness

rājato… corato… aggito… udakato vā kulāni upaghātaṁ gacchanti… nihitaṁ vā nādhigacchanti… duppayuttā vā kammantaṁ jahanti… kulānaṁ vā kulaṅgāro uppajjati yo te bhoge vikirati vidhamati viddhaṁseti aniccatāyeva aṭṭhamī ti. (SN iv 324)

Illustration: paccayā, dependent on

Whatever suffering arises, all of it arises dependent on karmically consequential deeds.

Yaṁ kiñci dukkhaṁ sambhoti sabbaṁ saṅkhārapaccayā. (Snp 731)

Comment:

Saṅkhārā here is in the context of paṭiccasammupāda.

Illustration: paccayā, dependent on

Individual existence arises dependent on grasping.

Birth arises dependent on individual existence;

Illustration: paccayā, dependent on

In regard to the core of the religious life, they are no longer dependent on others

Yo sāro brahmacariyassa tasmiṁ aparapaccayā. (SN iii 83)

Illustration: paccayo, dependent on

He abides no longer dependent on others regarding the [understanding of the] Teacher’s training system.

aparappaccayo satthusāsane viharatī ti. (MN i 234-5)

Illustration: paccayā, dependent on

When those ascetics and Brahmanists who are eternalists proclaim the eternity of an [absolute] Selfhood and the world [of beings] in four ways, [that behaviour] is dependent on sensation.

Tatra bhikkhave ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañcapaññapenti catūhi vatthūhi tadapi phassapaccayā. (DN i 40)

Illustration: paccayā, due to

In arousing desire for supreme deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states], psychological pain arises due to desire.

Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṁ upaṭṭhāpayato uppajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṁ. (MN i 303)

Illustration: paccayā, due to

Whatever sense impression that arises due to visual sensation―whether pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral.

yampidaṁ cakkhusamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṁ sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā. (MN iii 287)

Illustration: paccayā, due to

Whereas vexatious and anguishing perceptually obscuring states would arise due to killing, there are no vexatious and anguishing perceptually obscuring states in abstaining from it.

ye ca pāṇātipātapaccayā uppajjeyyuṁ āsavā vighātapariḷāhā pāṇātipātā paṭiviratassa evaṁsa te āsavā vighātapariḷāhā na honti. (MN i 361)

Illustration: paccayā, due to

Those vexatious and anguishing perceptually obscuring states that arise due to mental endeavour

ye manosamārambhapaccayā uppajjanti āsavā vighātapariḷāhā. (AN ii 196-7)

Illustration: paccayā, out of

Out of [sensuous] passion they engaged in sexual intercourse.

Te pariḷāhapaccayā methunaṁ dhammaṁ paṭiseviṁsu. (DN iii 88)

Illustration: paccayā, in

One directs one’s mind to acquire what has not yet been acquired, thinking, ‘May the visual sense and visible objects be thus in the future.’ In directing one’s mind thus, one longs for it.

iti me cakkhuṁ siyā anāgatamaddhānaṁ iti rūpāti appaṭiladdhassa paṭilābhāya cittaṁ paṇidahati. Cetaso paṇidhānapaccayā tadabhinandati. (MN iii 195-6)

Illustration: paccayā, on that account

Do what you have to do with my body, as you wish. There will be neither hatred nor love by me [of you] about that [or] on that account.

Yaṁ vo kiccaṁ sarīrena taṁ karotha yadicchatha
Na me tappaccayā tattha doso pemañca hehiti. (Tha 719)

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pacceti

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: pacceti, believe in

He was a practitioner of water-purification. He believed in spiritual purification through [bathing in] water.

Udakasuddhiko udakena parisuddhiṁ pacceti.

Is it true, brahman, that you are a practitioner of water-purification? That you believe in spiritual purification through [bathing in] water?

saccaṁ kira tvaṁ brāhmaṇa udakasuddhiko udakena parisuddhiṁ paccesi. (SN i 182-3)

Illustration: pacceti, believe in

He is superstitious. He believes in luck, not in the operation of the karmic mechanism.

kotuhalamaṅgaliko hoti maṅgalaṁ pacceti no kammaṁ

He is not superstitious. He believes in the operation of the karmic mechanism, not in luck.

akotuhalamaṅgaliko hoti kammaṁ pacceti no maṅgalaṁ. (AN iii 206)

paccesi

paccesi: (main article see: pacceti)

Illustration: paccesi, believe in

What type of Self do you believe in, Poṭṭhapāda?

Kiṁ pana tvaṁ poṭṭhapāda attānaṁ paccesī ti.

I believe in a gross material Self, material, made of the four great material phenomena feeding on physical food.

oḷārikaṁ kho ahaṁ bhante attānaṁ paccemi rūpiṁ cātummahābhūtikaṁ kabaliṅkārāhārabhakkhanti. (DN i 185)

Illustration: pacceti, believe

For some believe that spiritual purity is on account of one’s view.

diṭṭhiyā eke paccenti suddhiṁ (Snp 840)

Norman: ‘Some do believe that purity is by means of view’

Illustration: paccesi, assume

By whom was this being created? Where is the being’s creator ? Where has the being arisen? Where does the being cease?

Kenāyaṁ pakato satto kuvaṁ sattassa kārako
Kuvaṁ satto samuppanno kuvaṁ satto nirujjhatī ti.

But why do you assume ‘a being’? That is just your acquiescence in wrong view [of reality], Māra. This is nothing but a heap of originated phenomena. Here no being is found.

Kinnu satto ti paccesi māradiṭṭhigatannu te
Suddhasaṅkhārapuñjoyaṁ nayidha sattūpalabbhati. (SN i 135)

paccethā

paccethā: (main article see: pacceti)

Illustration: paccethā, suppose

Yet although beings have such yearnings, desires, and aspirations, unlikeable, unloveable, and displeasing things increase, and likeable, loveable, and pleasing things diminish.

Tesaṁ bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ kāmānaṁ evaṁ chandānaṁ evaṁ adhippāyānaṁ aniṭṭhā akantā amanāpā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti iṭṭhā kantā manāpā dhammā parihāyanti.

Now what do you suppose is the reason for this?

Tatra tumhe bhikkhave kaṁ hetuṁ paccethā ti? . (MN i 309)

Illustration: paccesi, suppose

Do you remember it, Bhaddāli?

sarasi tvaṁ bhaddālī ti

No, bhante.

No hetaṁ bhante

What do you suppose is the reason for this?

Tatra bhaddāli kaṁ hetuṁ paccesī ti

Bhante, I have long been one who did not fulfil the training in the Teacher’s training system.

So hi nūnāhaṁ bhante dīgharattaṁ satthusāsane sikkhāya aparipūrakārī ahosin ti. (MN i 445)

paccenti

paccenti: (main article see: pacceti)

Illustration: paccenti, realise

Those with faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], and virtue, serenity and vision of things [according to reality], in due course realise the happiness that is the culmination of the religious life.

Yesaṁ saddhā ca sīlañca pasādo dhammadassanaṁ
Te ve kālena paccenti brahmacariyogadhaṁ sukhan ti. . (SN v 344)

Illustration: paccenti, realise

In due course they realise where suffering ceases.

Te me kālena paccenti yattha dukkhaṁ nirujjhatī ti. (AN iii 329)

Illustration: pacceti, rebound

Whoever wrongs an innocent man, a pure person unblemished [by spiritual defilement], the demerit rebounds upon that same fool like fine dust thrown against the wind.

Yo appaduṭṭhassa narassa dussati suddhassa posassa anaṅgaṇassa
Tameva bālaṁ pacceti pāpaṁ sukhumo rajo paṭivātaṁ va khitto ti. (SN i 13)

Illustration: pacceti, revert

[A man might think:] ‘I see the Purified, the Highest, the Unailing. A man’s spiritual purity is on account of his vision.’ Understanding [purity] in this way, knowing [what he sees] as ‘the Highest,’ and [thinking] ‘I am a seer of the Purified,’ he reverts to knowledge.

Passāmi suddhaṁ paramaṁ arogaṁ, diṭṭhena saṁsuddhi narassa hoti
Evābhijānaṁ paraman ti ñatvā, suddhānupassī ti pacceti ñāṇaṁ (Snp 788)

Norman: ‘He believes that knowledge [leads to purity].’

Illustration: pacceti, revert

Amongst those in dispute he does not take sides. He does not revert to any dogmatic view whatsoever.

Sa ve viyattesu na vaggasārī, diṭṭhimpi so na pacceti kiñci (Snp 800)

Norman: ‘He does not fall back on any view at all.’

Illustration: pacceti, return

Gone to the Far Shore, one of such good qualities does not return.

pāragato na pacceti tādī ti (Snp 803)

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pacchāpuresaññī

Renderings

Introduction

Pacchāpuresaññī: background

Pacchāpuresaññī is a form of meditation that occurs as part of the development of the four paths to psychic power (catusu iddhipādesu). It therefore leads to both the attainment of various kinds of psychic power (anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ) and the destruction of perceptually obscuring states (āsavānaṁ khayā, SN v 282).

It was also a meditation taught to Venerable MahāMoggallāna to overcome torpor, to be used in conjunction with walking meditation:

• Perceiving the constant nature of reality, concentrate on pacing back and forth, your senses inwardly immersed, your mind not straying outwards. It is possible that by abiding in this way, that the torpor will be abandoned

pacchāpuresaññī caṅkamaṁ adhiṭṭheyyāsi antogatehi indriyehi abahigatena mānasena. Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ te evaṁ viharato taṁ middhaṁ pahīyetha. (AN iv 87)

This meditation is analysed in the commentary, but Bodhi says its ‘explanation sounds strained’ (CDB p.1946 n.272).

Pacchā and pura: physically behind and in front

One problem is that pacchā and pura can refer to either space or time. For example, it is an offence for the one who is walking behind on a path (pacchato gacchanto) to explain the teaching to someone walking in front (purato gacchantassa) (Vin.4.205). According to this, pacchāpuresaññī would involve meditating on ‘what is physically behind and in front.’

Pacchā and pura: past and future

But pacchā and pura can also refer to time:

1) ‘First’ and ‘afterwards’: one can ridicule others of saying first what they should have said afterwards, or afterwards what they should have said first (pure vacanīyaṁ pacchā avaca. Pacchā vacanīyaṁ pure avaca DN i 8).

2) ‘Past’ and ‘what is in the future’: some people wish for what is in the future or the past, longing for present and former pleasures (pacchā pure vāpi apekkhamānā ime va kāme purime va jappaṁ Snp 773).

Yathā pure tathā pacchā

The term pacchāpuresaññī is explained by the reflection yathā pure tathā pacchā; yathā pacchā tathā pure. If we take pacchā and pura as referring to time, it leads to the following translation:

• He abides perceiving the constant nature of reality: ‘As what is past, so what is to come; as what is to come, so what is past.’

pacchāpuresaññī ca viharati: yathā pure tathā pacchā yathā pacchā tathā pure. (SN v 277)

This is further explained as follows:

• And how does a bhikkhu abide perceiving the constant nature of reality: ‘As what is past, so what is to come; as what is to come, so what is past’? In this regard, the perception of the constant nature of reality is correctly grasped by the bhikkhu, correctly contemplated, correctly pondered, correctly penetrated by penetrative discernment.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu pacchāpure saññī ca viharati? Yathā pure tathā pacchā yathā pacchā tathā pure. Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno pacchā pure saññā suggahitā hoti sumanasikatā sūpadhāritā suppaṭividdhā paññāya. (SN v 277)

Sāriputta: either later or sooner

The last passage should be compared to Venerable Sāriputta saying:

• Either way this [life ends in] death, not no death, either later or sooner.

Ubhayenamidaṁ maraṇameva nāmaraṇaṁ pacchā vā pure vā. (Tha 1004)

This supports our saying that pacchāpuresaññī means the perception of the constant nature of reality. The near future and the distant future have the same mortal nature. In this respect the present is no different from any other time period.

Pārājika recitation: ‘defeated’ until the time of his death

The same conclusion can be drawn from the Pārājika recitation, which concludes that a bhikkhu who commits a pārājika offence is no longer in communion with the bhikkhus:

• ‘The four rules that merit expulsion have been recited. If a bhikkhu commits any of them, he is no longer in communion with the bhikkhus. As in the near future, so in the distant future, he is expelled, not in communion’

Uddiṭṭhā kho āyasmanto cattāro pārājikā dhammā. Yesaṁ bhikkhu aññataraṁ vā aññataraṁ vā āpajjitvā na labhati bhikkhuhi saddhiṁ saṁvāsaṁ yathā pure tathā pacchā pārājiko hoti asaṁvāso Vin.3.109).

This illustrates ‘the constant nature of reality’: the bhikkhu’s status as ‘expelled’ is the same from the time of the offence until the time of his death: he cannot be reinstated.

Comparing present past and future in the scriptures

The idea of comparing the present to the past and the future is well-established in the scriptures. For instance:

• Whatever bodily form, past, future, or present… one should see all bodily form with perfect penetrative discernment as this is “not [in reality] mine” etc

Yaṁ kiñci rūpaṁ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā yaṁ dūre santike vā sabbaṁ rūpaṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti. (MN iii 18-9)

• Formerly as well as now all these visible objects are unlasting

pubbe ceva rūpā etarahi ca sabbe te rūpā aniccā. (MN iii 219)

Dhammaṭṭhitatā: comparison

• And what is dependent origination? Old-age-and-death arises dependent on birth. Whether or not there is an arising of Perfect Ones, there persists that phenomenon, that stability in the nature of reality, that orderliness in the nature of reality, that specific conditionality.

Katamo ca bhikkhave paṭiccasamuppādo? Jātipaccayā bhikkhave jarāmaraṇaṁ uppādā vā tathāgatānaṁ anuppādā vā tathāgatānaṁ ṭhitāva sā dhātu dhammaṭṭhitatā dhammaniyāmatā idapaccayatā. (SN ii 25)

• Whether or not there is an arising of Perfect Ones, there persists that phenomenon, that stability in the nature of reality, that orderliness in the nature of reality, [namely] the unlastingness of all originated phenomena.

Uppādā vā bhikkhave tathāgatānaṁ anuppādā vā tathāgatānaṁ ṭhitāva sā dhātu dhammaṭṭhitatā dhammaniyāmatā sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā ti. (AN i 286)

Conclusion

The reflection on pacchāpuresaññī suggests that one should contemplate the constant nature of reality. Although reality is inconstant, its nature is constant.

Illustrations

Illustration: pacchāpuresaññī, perceiving the constant nature of reality

And he abides perceiving the constant nature of reality: ‘As what is past, so what is to come; as what is to come, so what is past; as below, so above; as above, so below; as by day, so at night; as at night, so by day.’ Thus with an attitude open and unclouded, he makes his mind radiant.

pacchāpuresaññī ca viharati: yathā pure tathā pacchā yathā pacchā tathā pure yathā adho tathā uddhaṁ yathā uddhaṁ tathā adho yathā divā tathā rattiṁ yathā rattiṁ tathā divā Iti vivaṭena cetasā apariyonaddhena sappabhāsaṁ cittaṁ bhāveti. (SN v 277)

COMMENT

  • ‘As below, so above,’ as explained in the Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN v 277), means one reviews bodies from head to toe as being full of various foul things (idha bhikkhave bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ uddhaṁ pādatalā adho kesamatthakā tacapariyantaṁ pūraṁ nānappakārassa asucino paccacekkhati).
  • ‘As by day, so by night,’ says the Vibhaṅga Sutta, means one practises the meditation similarly, during the day and during the night.

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paññā

pajānāti

Renderings

Introduction

Pajānāti: three meanings

We render pajānāti as either:

1) to ‘discern’

2) to ‘know that’

3) to ‘understand how’

For examples, see Illustrations, grouped accordingly.

Paññā: wisdom or penetrative discernment

Paññā is etymologically and functionally related to pajānāti. Where it linked to conduct of body and speech we call it wisdom. Where it is linked to conduct of mind we call it penetrative discernment.

Paññā: ‘wisdom’ or ‘one who is wise’

When paññā is linked to a person we usually call it wisdom, especially if it is:

1) given a prefix like mahā- or bhūri- e.g. bhūripañño

2) accompanied by terms paṇḍito or mahāpurisa e.g. paṇḍito mahāpañño

For example:

• One who is wise, one of great wisdom, is not intent upon his own harm, the harm of others, the harm of both.

Idha bhikkhu paṇḍito mahāpañño nevattavyābādhāya ceteti na paravyābādhāya ceteti na ubhayavyābādhāya ceteti. (AN ii 179)

• Wise is the bhikkhunī Dhammadinnā, of great wisdom is the bhikkhunī Dhammadinnā.

paṇḍitā visākha dhammadinnā bhikkhunī mahāpaññā visākha dhammadinnā bhikkhunī. (MN i 304)

Illustrations: to discern

Illustration: pajānāti, discerns

And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating the nature of the mind

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati?

In this regard a bhikkhu discerns

• a mental state with attachment as just that.

sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ sarāgaṁ cittan ti pajānāti

• a mental state without attachment as just that.

vītarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ vītarāgaṁ cittan ti pajānāti. (MN i 59)

Illustration: pajānāti, discern

And what is old age and death?

Katamañca bhikkhave jarāmaraṇaṁ?

The ageing, decrepitude, broken teeth, graying hair, wrinkled skin, dwindling of the life-span, decay of the sense faculties for the various beings in the various classes of beings. This is called old age.

yā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jarā jīraṇatā khaṇḍiccaṁ pāliccaṁ valittacatā āyuno saṁhāni indriyānaṁ paripāko ayaṁ vuccati jarā.

The passing away, the deceasing, the dissolution, the ending, the perishing, the death, the breaking up of aggregates, the laying down of the body for the various beings in the various classes of beings. This is called death.

yā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhā tamhā sattanikāyā cuti cavanatā bhedo antaradhānaṁ maccu maraṇaṁ kālakiriyā khandhānaṁ bhedo kaḷevarassa nikkhepo jīvitindriyassa upacchedo idaṁ vuccati maraṇaṁ.

Thus this is old age, and this is death. This is called old age and death.

Iti ayañca jarā idañca maraṇaṁ idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave jarāmaraṇaṁ. ṇaṁ

• With the origination of birth comes the origination of old age and death

• With the ending of birth comes the ending of old age and death

The practice leading to the ending of old age and death is the noble eightfold path.

ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo jarāmaraṇa nirodhagāminī paṭipadā seyyathīdaṁ– sammādiṭṭhi… pe… sammāsamādhi

When a noble disciple thus discerns

yato kho bhikkhave ariyasāvako

• old age and death

evaṁ jarāmaraṇaṁ pajānāti

• the origin of old age and death

evaṁ jarāmaraṇasamudayaṁ pajānāti

• the ending of old age and death

evaṁ jarāmaraṇanirodhaṁ pajānāti

• the practice leading to its ending

evaṁ jarāmaraṇanirodhagāminiṁ paṭipadaṁ pajānāti

this is his knowledge of the nature of reality

idamassa dhamme ñāṇaṁ. (SN ii 57-8)

Illustration: pajānāti, discerns

The Perfect One discerns according to reality the possible as possible, and the impossible as impossible.

ṭhānañca ṭhānato aṭṭhānañca aṭṭhānato yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. (AN iii 417)

Illustration: pajānāti, discern

The ignorant Everyman does not discern any deliverance from unpleasant sense impression other than through sensuous pleasure.

na bhikkhave pajānāti assutavā puthujjano aññatra kāmasukhā dukkhāya vedanāya nissaraṇaṁ. (SN iv 208)

pajānāmi

pajānāmi: (main article see: pajānāti)

Illustration: pajānāmi, discern

I discern the Untroubled and the path and practice leading to the Untroubled.

Nibbānañcāhaṁ sāriputta pajānāmi nibbānagāmiñca maggaṁ nibbānagāminiñca paṭipadaṁ. (MN i 73-4)

Illustration: pajānāti, discern

The ignorant Everyman does not discern what issues should be contemplated or what issues should not be contemplated.

assutavā puthujjano… manasikaraṇīye dhamme nappajānāti amanasikaraṇīye dhamme nappajānāti

This being so, he does not contemplate issues that should be contemplated but contemplates issues that should not be contemplated.

So manasikaraṇīye dhamme appajānanto amanasikaraṇīye dhamme appajānanto ye dhammā na manasikaraṇīyā te dhamme manasikaroti ye dhammā manasikaraṇīyā te dhamme na manasikaroti. (MN i 7)

Illustrations: to know that

Illustration: pajānāmi, know that

I know that my mind is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

vimuttaṁ me cittan ti pajānāmi. (MN iii 31)

Illustration: pajānāti, know that

This, too, is a method by which a bhikkhu who is a finished disciple knows that: ‘I am a finished disciple.’

asekhosmīti pajānātī ti. (SN v 229-230)

Illustration: pajānāti, know that

Breathing in long he knows that “I breathe in long.” Breathing out long he knows that “I breathe out long

Dīghaṁ assasāmī ti pajānāti. Dīghaṁ passasāmī ti pajānāti. (SN v 341)

Illustration: pajānāti, know that; discern

Now of these the Perfect One knows that these views thus grasped and adhered to will lead to such-and-such a place of rebirth, to such-and-such an afterlife destination.

Tayidaṁ bhikkhave tathāgato pajānāti ime diṭṭhiṭṭhānā evaṁ gahitā evaṁ parāmaṭṭhā evaṁ gatikā bhavanti evaṁ abhisamparāyā ti

That does he know, and he discerns also what transcends them;

tañca tathāgato pajānāti tato ca uttaritaraṁ pajānāti;

and he is not attached to that discernment,

tañca pajānanaṁ na parāmasati

and thus unattached he has realised inward peace,

aparāmasato cassa paccattaṁ yeva nibbuti viditā. (DN i 17)

Illustration: pajānāti, know that; discern

“In this regard, while a bhikkhu is abiding diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice], there arises in him the faculty of physical pain. He knows that: ‘There has arisen in me this faculty of physical pain.’

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato uppajjati dukkhindriyaṁ. So evaṁ pajānāti uppannaṁ kho me idaṁ dukkhindriyaṁ

He discerns the faculty of physical pain; he discerns the origin of the faculty of physical pain; he discerns the ending of the faculty of physical pain; and he discerns where the arisen faculty of physical pain ceases without remainder.

so dukkhindriyañca pajānāti. Dukkhindriyanirodhañca pajānāti. Yattha cuppannaṁ dukkhindriyaṁ aparisesaṁ nirujjhati. Tañca pajānāti. (SN v 213)

Illustrations: to understand how

Illustration: pajānāti, know that; pajānāti, understands how

In this regard, if sensuous hankering is present in him, he knows that it is present. Or if not present, he knows that it is not present.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ kāmacchandaṁ atthi me ajjhattaṁ kāmacchando ti pajānāti asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ kāmacchandaṁ natthi me ajjhattaṁ kāmacchando ti pajānāti.

He understands how unarisen sensuous hankering arises in him.

Yathā ca anuppannassa kāmacchandassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti

He understands how arisen sensuous hankering is abandoned.

yathā ca uppannassa kāmacchandassa pahānaṁ hoti tañca pajānāti.

He understands how abandoned sensuous hankering does not arise

Yathā ca pahīnassa kāmacchandassa anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti. (DN ii 300)

Illustration: pajānāti, discern; pajānāti, understand how

And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings with regard to the six senses and their objects?

Kathañca pana bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu

A bhikkhu discerns the visual sense, visible objects, and the bond that arises dependent on them both.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cakkhuñca pajānāti rūpe ca pajānāti yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saṁyojanaṁ tañca pajānāti.

• He understands how the unarisen bond arises in him.

yathā ca anuppannassa saṁyojanassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

• He understands how the arisen bond is abandoned.

yathā ca uppannassa saṁyojanassa pahānaṁ hoti tañca pajānāti.

• He understands how the abandoned bond does not arise in the future.

yathā ca pahīnassa saṁyojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti. (DN ii 302)

Illustration: pajānāti, understand how

With purified divine vision surpassing that of men, he sees beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, well-favoured and ill-favoured, fortunate and unfortunate,

dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate

and he understands how beings fare according to their deeds.

yathākammūpage satte pajānāti. (DN i 82)

Illustrations: to be discerned

paññāyati

paññāyati: (main article see: pajānāti)

Illustration: paññāyati, discernable

There are three marks of the originated

Tīṇi'māni bhikkhave saṅkhatassa saṅkhatalakkhaṇāni

• an arising is discernable

• a disappearance is discernable

• a changeability while persisting is discernable

ṭhitassa aññathattaṁ paññāyati. (AN i 152)

paññāyittha

paññāyittha: (main article see: pajānāti)

Illustration: paññāyittha, discernable

When the Blessed One’s body was burned, of whatever had been skin, fascia, flesh, sinews, and synovial fluid, neither soot nor ash was discernable; only bony ashes remained.

Jhāyamānassa kho pana bhagavato sarīrassa yaṁ ahosi chavī ti vā camman ti vā maṁsan ti vā naharū ti vā lasikā ti vā tassa neva chārikā paññāyittha na masi sarīrāneva avasissiṁsu. (DN ii 164)

paññāpanāya

paññāpanāya: (main article see: pajānāti)

Illustration: paññāpanāya, to be discerned

The four great material phenomena are the indispensible and necessary conditions by which the aggregate of bodily form is to be discerned.

Cattāro kho bhikkhu mahābhūtā hetu cattāro mahābhūtā paccayo rūpakkhandhassa paññāpanāya. (MN iii 17)

Illustration: paññāyatī, to be discerned

But since there is an unborn, a not-brought-about, an unproduced, an unoriginated, therefore a deliverance is to be discerned from what is born, brought about, produced, originated.

yasmā ca kho bhikkhave atthi ajātaṁ abhūtaṁ akataṁ asaṅkhataṁ tasmā jātassa bhūtassa katassa saṅkhatassa nissaraṇaṁ paññāyatī ti. (Uda 80)

Illustrations: one of wisdom/who knows that

pañño

pañño: (main article see: pajānāti)

Illustration: pañño, one of wisdom

In whatever direction the one of extensive wisdom goes, to that place that I am also inclined to go.

Yaṁ yaṁ disaṁ vajati bhūripañño sa tena teneva nato’hamasmi. (Snp 1143)

Illustration: pañño, one of wisdom; paññā, wisdom

When, householder, a noble disciple has realised that

Yato ca kho gahapati ariyasāvakassa

Greed and voracity are a defilement of the mind, he abandons them.

abhijjhāvisamalobho cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvā abhijjhāvisamalobho cittassa upakkileso pahīṇo hoti

Ill will is a defilement of the mind, he abandons it.

vyāpādo cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvā vyāpādo cittassa upakkileso pahīṇo hoti

Lethargy and torpor are a defilement of the mind, he abandons them.

thīnamiddhaṁ cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvā thīnamiddhaṁ cittassa upakkileso pahīṇo hoti

Restlessness and anxiety are a defilement of the mind, he abandons them.

uddhaccakukkuccaṁ cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvā uddhaccakukkuccaṁ cittassa upakkileso pahīṇo hoti.

Doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] is a defilement of the mind, he abandons it.

Vicikicchā cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvā vicikicchā cittassa upakkileso pahīṇo hoti.

This, householder, is called a noble disciple of great wisdom, of broad wisdom, one who profoundly sees whatever enters into the range of consciousness, of perfect wisdom.

Ayaṁ vuccati gahapati ariyasāvako mahāpañño puthupañño āpāthadaso paññāsampanno.

This is called perfection in wisdom.

Ayaṁ vuccati gahapati paññāsampadā. (AN ii 67)

Illustration: pañño, one who knows that

In what way is a bhikkhu one who knows that his mind is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu suvimuttapañño hoti:

In this regard a bhikkhu knows that his attachment… hatred… undiscernment of reality is abandoned, chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, never to arise again in future.

rāgo… doso… moho me pahīno ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṁkato āyatiṁ anuppādadhammoti pajānāti. (AN v 32)

Illustrations: penetrative discernment

paññā

paññā: (main article see: pajānāti)

Illustration: paññā, penetrative discernment

Bhikkhus, there is one thing if developed and cultivated leads

Ekadhammo bhikkhave bhāvito bahulīkato

to the attaining of penetrative discernment

to the growth of penetrative discernment

to the expansion of penetrative discernment

to greatness of penetrative discernment

to breadth of penetrative discernment

to vastness of penetrative discernment

to profundity of penetrative discernment

to a state of unsurpassed penetrative discernment

to extensiveness of penetrative discernment

to abundance of penetrative discernment

to quickness of penetrative discernment

to buoyancy of penetrative discernment

to joyousness of penetrative discernment

to swiftness of penetrative discernment

to keenness of penetrative discernment

to penetrativeness of penetrative discernment

What is the one thing? Mindfulness of the body.

katamo ekadhammo? Kāyagatāsati. (AN i 45)

paññāya

paññāya: (main article see: pajānāti)

Illustration: paññāya, penetrative discernment

Unwillingness to listen and not asking questions are obstacles to penetrative discernment.

asussusā aparipucchā paññāya paripantho. (AN v 136)

Illustration: paññā, penetrative discernment

How does one discern a knowable phenomenon?

Neyyaṁ panāvuso dhammaṁ kena pajānātī ti

One discerns a knowable phenomenon with the eye of penetrative discernment.

Neyyaṁ kho āvuso dhammaṁ paññācakkhunā pajānātī ti

For what purpose is penetrative discernment?

Paññā panāvuso kimatthiyā ti?

Penetrative discernment is for the sake of full understanding, profound understanding, and abandonment.

Paññā kho āvuso abhiññatthā pariññatthā pahānatthā ti. (MN i 293)

Illustration: paññā, penetrative discernment

There is no jhāna for one without penetrative discernment. There is no penetrative discernment for one who does not meditate. Whoever has jhāna together with penetrative discernment, is right in the presence of the Untroubled.

Natthi jhānaṁ apaññassa paññā natthi ajjhāyato
Yamhi jhānañca paññā ca sa ve nibbānasantike. (Dhp 372)

Illustration: paññā, penetrative discernment

To abandon undiscernment of reality, penetrative discernment should be developed.

Mohassa pahānāya paññā bhāvetabbā. (AN iii 446)

Illustration: paññā, penetrative discernment

What is the faculty of penetrative discernment?

Katamañca bhikkhave paññindriyaṁ

In this regard a noble disciple is blessed with penetrative discernment. He is endowed with noble and penetrative discernment of arising and vanishing which leads to the complete destruction of suffering.

idha bhikkhave ariyasāvako paññavā hoti udayatthagāminiyā paññāya samannāgato ariyāya nibbedhikāya sammā dukkhakkhayagāminiyā. (SN v 199)

paññāya

paññāya: (main article see: pajānāti)

Illustration: paññāya, penetrative discernment

The five hindrances which are spiritual defilements and weakening to penetrative discernment.

pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalikaraṇe. (MN iii 136)

Illustration: paññā, penetrative discernment

• Penetrative discernment is the examiner of all things.

paññuttarā sabbe dhammā. (AN iv 339)

And how is penetrative discernment the examiner?

Kathañca bhikkhave paññuttaraṁ hoti?

In this regard, the teachings are explained by me to disciples for the complete destruction of suffering.

Idha bhikkhave mayā sāvakānaṁ dhammā desitā sabbaso sammā dukkhakkhayāya.

In accordance with way I explain the teachings to disciples for the complete destruction of suffering, those teachings are examined by them with penetrative discernment.

Yathā yathā bhikkhave mayā sāvakānaṁ dhammā desitā sabbaso sammā dukkhakkhayāya tathā tathāssa te dhammā paññāya samavekkhitā honti.

In this way penetrative discernment is the examiner

Evaṁ kho bhikkhave paññuttaraṁ hoti. (AN ii 243)

duppañño

duppañño: (main article see: pajānāti)

Illustration: duppañño, void of penetrative discernment

• ’One who is void of penetrative discernment, one who is void of penetrative discernment,’ is said, friend. In reference to what was it said?

Duppañño duppañño ti āvuso vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho āvuso duppaññoti vuccatī ti?

• ‘He does not discern. He does not discern’ therefore ‘one who is void of penetrative discernment’ is said

Nappajānāti nappajānātī ti kho āvuso tasmā duppañño ti vuccati.

… What does he not discern?

Kiñca nappajānāti?

… He does not discern ‘This is suffering… This is the origin of suffering… This is the ending of suffering… This is the practice leading to the ending of suffering…

Idaṁ dukkhan ti nappajānāti ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo ti nappajānāti ayaṁ dukkhanirodho ti nappajānāti ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ti nappajānāti. (MN i 292)

paññavā

paññavā: (main article see: pajānāti)

Illustration: paññavā, blessed with penetrative discernment

• ’Blessed with penetrative discernment, blessed with penetrative discernment,’ is said, friend. In reference to what was it said?

Paññavā paññavā ti āvuso vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho āvuso paññavā ti vuccatī ti?

• ‘He discerns. He discerns’ therefore ‘blessed with penetrative discernment’ is said

Pajānāti pajānātī ti kho āvuso tasmā paññavāti vuccati.

… What does he discern?

Kiñca pajānāti?

… He discerns ‘This is suffering… This is the origin of suffering… This is the ending of suffering… This is the practice leading to the ending of suffering…

Idaṁ dukkhan ti pajānāti… Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ti pajānāti. (MN i 292)

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paññuttara

Renderings

Introduction

Dictionaries

Uttara means:

  • DOP: ‘chief result or characteristic; what is left; excess.’
  • PED: ‘having something above or higher, having a superior.’

But neither explanation fits the contexts of paññuttara. We will show that uttara means ‘examiner.’

Translators

Bodhi says the commentary ‘does not explain in what sense paññā is called uttarā,’ and renders paññuttarā sabbe dhammā as ‘Wisdom is of all things their supervisor’ (Bodhi, AN iv 339).

Sikkhānisaṁsa Sutta

The Sikkhānisaṁsa Sutta (AN ii 243) shows that the meaning of paññuttaraṁ can be derived from paññāya samavekkhitā honti:

• In accordance with way I explain the teachings to disciples for the complete destruction of suffering, those teachings are examined by them with penetrative discernment (paññāya samavekkhitā honti). In this way penetrative discernment is the examiner (paññuttaraṁ hoti).

Yathā yathā bhikkhave mayā sāvakānaṁ dhammā desitā sabbaso sammā dukkhakkhayāya tathā tathāssa te dhammā paññāya samavekkhitā honti. Evaṁ kho bhikkhave paññuttaraṁ hoti. (AN ii 243)

This suggests that uttaraṁ can be named after samavekkhati, for which PED says:

This supports our term for paññuttarā.

Illustrations

paññuttaraṁ

paññuttaraṁ: (main article see: paññuttara)

Illustration: paññuttaraṁ, penetrative discernment as the examiner

This religious life is lived for the sake of a benefit from the training, with penetrative discernment as the examiner, with liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] as its essence, with mindfulness as its master.

Sikkhānisaṁsamidaṁ bhikkhave brahmacariyaṁ vussati paññuttaraṁ vimuttisāraṁ satādhipateyyaṁ. (AN ii 243)

Illustration: paññuttaraṁ, penetrative discernment is the examiner

And how is penetrative discernment the examiner?

Kathañca bhikkhave paññuttaraṁ hoti?

In this regard, the teachings are explained by me to disciples for the complete destruction of suffering

Idha bhikkhave mayā sāvakānaṁ dhammā desitā sabbaso sammā dukkhakkhayāya.

In accordance with way I explain the teachings to disciples for the complete destruction of suffering, those teachings are examined by them with penetrative discernment.

Yathā yathā bhikkhave mayā sāvakānaṁ dhammā desitā sabbaso sammā dukkhakkhayāya tathā tathāssa te dhammā paññāya samavekkhitā honti.

In this way penetrative discernment is the examiner

Evaṁ kho bhikkhave paññuttaraṁ hoti. (AN ii 243)

paññuttarā

paññuttarā: (main article see: paññuttara)

Illustration: paññuttarā, penetrative discernment is the examiner

• Penetrative discernment is the examiner of all things.

paññuttarā sabbe dhammā

• Liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] is the essence of all things.

vimuttisārā sabbe dhammā ti. (AN iv 339)

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paṭigha

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: paṭigha, repugnance

Having thoroughly dispelled the attitude of repugnance towards either internal things or external things.

Ajjhattabahiddhā ca me dhammesu paṭighasaññā suppaṭivinītā. (SN v 315)

Illustration: paṭigha, repugnance

He would not wish for another’s suffering out of anger, or from an attitude of repugnance

Vyārosanā paṭighasaññā nāññamaññassa dukkhamiccheyya. (Snp 148)

paṭighaṁ

paṭighaṁ: (main article see: paṭigha)

Illustration: paṭighaṁ, repugnance

If desire, attachment, hatred, undiscernment of reality, or an attitude of repugnance should arise in regard to visible objects known via the visual sense,

cakkhuviññeyyesu rūpesu uppajjeyya chando vā rāgo vā doso vā moho vā paṭighaṁ vā cetaso tato cittaṁ nivāraye. (SN iv 195)

Illustration: paṭigha, repugnance

The proclivity to attachment should be abandoned in regard to pleasant sense impression.

sukhāya vedanāya rāgānusayo pahātabbo

The proclivity to repugnance should be abandoned in regard to unpleasant sense impression.

dukkhāya vedanāya paṭighānusayo pahātabbo. (SN iv 205)

Illustration: paṭighaṁ, repugnance

And in smelling a foul stench, dispel repugnance for the stench

Athopi ghātvā asuciṁ akantiyaṁ akantiyasmiṁ paṭighaṁ vinodaye. (SN iv 71)

Illustration: paṭigha, repulsiveness

There is the quality of loveliness. Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen sensuous hankering, and the increase and expansion of arisen sensuous hankering.

Atthi bhikkhave subhanimittaṁ. Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā kāmacchandassa uppādāya uppannassa vā kāmacchandassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya.

There is the quality of repulsiveness. Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen ill will, and the increase and expansion of arisen ill will.

Atthi bhikkhave paṭighanimittaṁ. Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā vyāpādassa uppādāya uppannassa vā vyāpādassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya. (SN v 64)

Illustration: paṭighaṁ, tangible

Threefold classification of matter

1) visible and tangible matter;

2) invisible and tangible matter;

3) invisible and intangible matter

paṭighe

paṭighe: (main article see: paṭigha)

Illustration: paṭighe, what is sensed

People are ensnared by objects of attachment, by what is seen, heard, sensed, and cognised

Upadhīsu janā gathitāse diṭṭhasute paṭighe ca mute ca. (SN i 186)

Comment:

Diṭṭhasute paṭighe ca mute ca stands for the familiar tetrad: diṭṭha, suta, muta, and viññāta.

Illustration: paṭigha, physical sensation

By completely transcending refined material states of awareness, with the vanishing of states of refined awareness involving physical sensation, not focusing upon states of refined awareness involving the external senses, a bhikkhu enters and abides in the state of awareness of boundless space where one perceives that space is boundless.

bhikkhu sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā ananto ākāso ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. (DN i 183)

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paṭicca

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: paṭicca, dependent, appaṭicca, self-sufficient

There has arisen in me a pleasant sense impression.

uppannā kho myāyaṁ sukhā vedanā

Now that is dependent, not self-sufficient.

paṭicca no appaṭicca

Dependent on what?

Dependent on this very body.

imameva kāyaṁ paṭicca. (SN iv 211)

Illustration: paṭicca, dependent on

Dependent on a sensation to be experienced as pleasant, a pleasant sense impression arises

Sukhavedaniyaṁ bhikkhave phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati sukhā vedanā. (SN iv 15)

Illustration: paṭicca, dependently

From whatever is brought about, originated, dependently arisen, the ending [of originated phenomena] is the deliverance.

Yaṁ kho pana kiñci bhūtaṁ saṅkhataṁ paṭiccasamuppannaṁ nirodho tassa nissaraṇaṁ. (Iti 61)

Illustration: paṭicca, dependent on

Dependent on the visual sense and visible objects, the visual field of sensation arises.

Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṁ. (MN iii 281)

Illustration: paṭicca, because of

Because of craving, search.

taṇhaṁ paṭicca pariyesanā

Because of search, acquisition

pariyesanaṁ paṭicca lābho. (AN iv 401)

Illustration: paṭicca, because of

Suffering arises because of attachment.

upadhiṁ paṭicca dukkhamidaṁ sambhoti

Illustration: paṭicca, because of

The phenomenon of light is discernable because of darkness.

Yāyaṁ bhikkhu ābhādhātu ayaṁ dhātu andhakāraṁ paṭicca paññāyati

The phenomenon of loveliness is discernable because of unloveliness.

yāyaṁ bhikkhu subhadhātu ayaṁ dhātu asubhaṁ paṭicca paññāyati

The phenomenon of the ending of perception and sense impression is discernable because of the ending [of originated phenomena].

yāyaṁ bhikkhu saññāvedayitanirodhadhātu ayaṁ dhātu nirodhaṁ paṭicca paññāyatī ti. (SN ii 150)

Illustration: paṭicca, on

Further, Ānanda, the bhikkhu, not focusing upon the perceptions of man and forest, focuses undistractedly on the perception of earth.

amanasikaritvā manussasaññaṁ amanasikaritvā araññasaññaṁ paṭhavīsaññaṁ paṭicca manasikaroti ekattaṁ. (MN iii 105)

Illustration: paṭicca, by

Just as a space that is enclosed by stakes, creepers, grass and clay is reckoned as a dwelling,

Seyyathā pi āvuso kaṭṭhañca paṭicca valliñca paṭicca tiṇañca paṭicca mattikañca paṭicca ākāso parivārito agāranteva saṅkhaṁ gacchati

so a volume that is enclosed by bones, sinews, flesh, and skin is known as a bodily form.

evameva kho āvuso aṭṭhiñca paṭicca nahāruñca paṭicca maṁsañca paṭicca cammañca paṭicca ākāso parivārito rūpanteva saṅkhaṁ gacchati. (MN i 190)

Illustration: paṭicca, in

Yet they find a certain measure of pleasure and sweetness in the five varieties of sensuous pleasure

hoti ceva sātamattā assādamattā yadidaṁ pañcakāmaguṇe paṭicca. (MN i 507-8)

Bodhi: yet they find a certain measure of satisfaction and enjoyment in dependence on the five cords of sensuous pleasure

Illustration: paṭicca, for

For two good reasons the Perfect One establishes training rules for his disciples.

Dveme bhikkhave atthavase paṭicca tathāgatena sāvakānaṁ sikkhāpadaṁ paññattaṁ. (AN i 98)

Illustration: paṭicca, for

And yet noble young men take up that way of life for a good reason.

tañca kho evaṁ bhikkhave kulaputtā upenti atthavasikā atthavasaṁ paṭicca. (SN iii 93; Iti 89)

Illustration: paṭicca, from

Whatever happiness or joy arises from the five varieties of sensuous pleasure

Yaṁ kho udāyi ime pañcakāmaguṇe paṭicca uppajjati sukhaṁ somanassaṁ. (MN i 454)

Illustration: paṭicca, in reference to

Assumed individuality is of two kinds, I declare: to be fostered and not to be fostered. And one’s assumed individuality is either the one or the other. So it was said by the Blessed One. And in reference to what was it said?

Attabhāvapaṭilābhampahaṁ bhikkhave duvidhena vadāmi sevitabbampi asevitabbampi. Tañca aññamaññaṁ attabhāvapaṭilābhan ti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ bhagavatā kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ. (MN iii 52)

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paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati

Renderings

Introduction

Paṭinissagga’s usual objects

Paṭinissagga usually has a specified object in the genitive case. For example:

1) Views: relinquishment of views

diṭṭhīnaṁ paṭinissaggo hoti. (MN i 40)

2) Attachment: Relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment

3) Craving: The relinquishment of all forms of craving

sabbaso taṇhānaṁ… paṭinissaggā. (MN i 6)

Paṭinissagga’s objects during contemplation

When paṭinissagga is for contemplation, it usually has a specified object in the locative case. For example:

1) The visual sense (cakkhu): In this regard, some person in relation to the visual sense abides contemplating relinquishment, perceiving relinquishment, experiencing relinquishment continuously, without a break, uninterruptedly, intent upon it mentally, penetrating it with penetrative discernment

Idha bhikkhave ekacco puggalo cakkhūsmiṁ paṭinissaggānupassī viharati paṭinissaggasaññī paṭinissaggapaṭisaṁvedī satataṁ samitaṁ abbokiṇṇaṁ cetasā adhimuccamāno paññāya pariyogāhamāno. (AN iv 146; AN iv 13)

2) Sense impression: Whatever sense impression he experiences whether pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral, in relation to that sense impression he abides… contemplating relinquishment

yaṁ kiñci vedanaṁ vedeti sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā so tāsu vedanāsu… paṭinissaggānupassī viharati. (MN i 251)

3) The body and pleasant sense impression: He abides contemplating relinquishment in relation to the body and pleasant sense impression.

so kāye ca sukhāya ca vedanāya… paṭinissaggānupassī viharati. (SN iv 211)

Paṭinissagga in mindfulness with breathing

However, in mindfulness with breathing paṭinissagga occurs without an object:

• He trains himself: ‘I will breathe in… I will breathe out contemplating relinquishment.

paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati

The object of contemplation in this case is said to be the fourth of the bases of mindfulness, which we have explained (sv Dhamma) means ‘certain objects of the systematic teachings.’ Therefore we translate as follows:

• When a bhikkhu is training himself to breathe in and breathe out contemplating relinquishment, at that time he abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings.

Yasmiṁ samaye ānanda bhikkhu… paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati paṭinissaggānupassī passasissāmī ti sikkhati dhammesu dhammānupassī ānanda bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye viharati. (SN v 325)

Objects of the systematic teachings are therefore the objects when contemplating relinquishment during mindfulness with breathing, and they should be regarded as a locative:

• I will breathe in… I will breathe out contemplating relinquishment [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]

paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati. (SN v 324)

Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati: objects of the systematic teachings

Objects of the systematic teachings given in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta are:

• In this regard a bhikkhu abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings in respect of the five hindrances… the five aggregates… the six senses and their objects… the seven enlightenment factors… the four noble truths.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu… pañcasupādānakkhandhesu… chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu… sattasu bojjhaṅgesu… catusu ariyasaccesu. (MN i 59-62)

But only the aggregates and sense bases really fit here. For discussion of this point, see Glossary sv Dhamma.

Illustrations

Illustration: paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati, relinquishment [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]

He trains himself: I will breathe in… I will breathe out contemplating

• unlastingness [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]

Aniccānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati

• passing away [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]

virāgānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati

• ending [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]

nirodhānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati

• relinquishment [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]

paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati. (SN v 324)

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paṭipanna

paṭipajjati

paṭipadā

Renderings

Introduction

Micchāpaṭipadā: wrong practice [of the eightfold path]

What is wrong practice?

Katamā ca bhikkhave micchāpaṭipadā

It is wrong view [of reality]… wrong inward collectedness. This is called wrong practice.

seyyathīdaṁ micchādiṭṭhi… micchāsamādhi ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave micchāpaṭipadā. (SN v 18)

Sammāpaṭipadā: right practice [of the eightfold path]

What is right practice. It is right perception [of reality]right inward collectedness. This is called right practice.

Katamā ca bhikkhave sammāpaṭipadā seyyathīdaṁ sammādiṭṭhi… sammāsamādhi. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sammāpaṭipadā ti. (SN v 18)

Sammāpaṭipanna: one who applies himself correctly [to the eightfold path]

If sammāpaṭipadā means right practice [of the eightfold path], then sammāpaṭipanna means ‘one who applies himself correctly [to the eightfold path]’:

• Whether it is a layperson or one gone forth [into the ascetic life] who applies himself correctly [to the eightfold path], because of doing so he fulfils the noble practice that is spiritually wholesome.

Gihī vā bhikkhave pabbajito vā sammāpaṭipanno sammāpaṭipattādhikaraṇahetu ārādhako hoti ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan ti. (SN v 19)

Paṭipanna: one who applies himself [to the eightfold path]

Accordingly, where it lacks an object, paṭipanna means ‘one who applies himself [to the eightfold path]’:

• Meditators who apply themselves [to the eightfold path] will be delivered from Māra’s bond [that binds one to renewed states of individual existence].

Paṭipannā pamokkhanti jhāyino mārabandhanā. (Dhp 276)

Illustrations: paṭipada

Illustration: paṭipadā, practice

A noble disciple wanting long life should apply himself to the practice conducive to long life.

Āyukāmena gahapati ariyasāvakena āyusaṁvattanikā paṭipadā paṭipajjitabbā. (AN iii 48)

Illustration: paṭipadā, practice

Bhikkhus, develop the path and the practice leading to the destruction of craving.

Yo bhikkhave maggo yā paṭipadā taṇhakkhayāya saṁvattati taṁ maggaṁ taṁ paṭipadaṁ bhāvetha.

And what is the path and practice leading to the destruction of craving? It is the seven factors of enlightenment.

Katamo ca bhikkhave maggo katamā ca paṭipadā taṇhakkhayāya saṁvattati: yadidaṁ satta bojjhaṅgā. (SN v 86)

paṭipadaṁ

paṭipadaṁ: (main article see: paṭipadā)

Illustration: paṭipadaṁ, practice

Bhikkhus, whether for a layperson or one gone forth [into the ascetic life], I do not praise wrong practice.

Gihino vāhaṁ bhikkhave pabbajitassa vā micchāpaṭipadaṁ na vaṇṇemi

Whether it is a layperson or one gone forth [into the ascetic life] who applies himself to wrong practice, because of doing so he does not fulfil the noble practice that is spiritually wholesome.

Gihī vā bhikkhave pabbajito vā micchāpaṭipanno micchāpaṭipattādhikaraṇahetu nārādhako hoti ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ. (SN v 19)

Illustration: paṭipadaṁ, practice

The Perfect One discerns according to reality the practices leading to all destinations.

sabbatthagāminiṁ paṭipadaṁ yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. (MN i 69-71)

Illustrations: paṭipajjati

paṭipajjati

paṭipajjati: (main article see: paṭipadā)

Illustration: paṭipajjati, conduct oneself

The learned noble disciple conducts himself rightly in three ways: by body, speech, and mind.

sutavā ariyasāvako tīhi ṭhānehi sammā paṭipajjati kāyena vācāya manasā. (SN ii 152)

Illustration: paṭipajjati, applies himself

Bhikkhus, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense,

cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā

he does not grasp its aspects and features

na nimittaggāhī nānuvyañjanaggāhī

since by abiding with the faculty of sight unrestrained [from grasping, through mindfulness]

yatvādhikaraṇametaṁ cakkhundriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ

greed, dejection, and unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors would pursue him.

abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ

• He applies himself to the restraint of the faculty [from grasping, through mindfulness]

tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjati

• He supervises the faculty of sight [with mindfulness]

• He attains restraint of the faculty of sight [through mindfulness]

cakkhundriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjati. (AN iii 163)

paṭipajjatha

paṭipajjatha: (main article see: paṭipadā)

Illustration: paṭipajjatha, apply yourself

Apply yourself to the destruction of craving

For the destruction of craving, Rādha, is the Untroubled

taṇhakkhayo hi rādha nibbānan ti. (SN iii 190)

paṭipajjitvā

paṭipajjitvā: (main article see: paṭipadā)

Illustration: paṭipajjitvā, apply oneself [to the eightfold path]

Having applied myself properly [to the eightfold path] I removed my mind from states of individual existence

Yoniso paṭipajjitvā bhave cittaṁ udabbahinti. (Tha 158)

Illustration: paṭipajjatha, apply oneself [to the eightfold path]

Apply yourself [to the eightfold path]. Do not be condemned [to the plane of sub-human existence]. May the [rare] opportunity [to live the religious life] not pass you by.

Paṭipajjatha mā vinassatha khaṇo vo mā upaccagā. (Tha 1004)

paṭipajjamāno

paṭipajjamāno: (main article see: paṭipadā)

Illustration: paṭipajjamāno, practise

Practising in accordance with the teaching

paṭipajjāmā

paṭipajjāmā: (main article see: paṭipadā)

Illustration: paṭipajjāmā, treat

• Bhante Ānanda, how should we treat the Perfect One’s body?

kathaṁ mayaṁ bhante ānanda tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjāmā ti?

• You should treat it in the same way one treats a Wheel-turning monarch’s body.

Yathā kho vāsiṭṭhā rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjatti evaṁ tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabbanti. (DN ii 161)

Illustrations: paṭipanna

paṭipanno

paṭipanno: (main article see: paṭipadā)

Illustration: paṭipanno, applies himself

Possessed of five factors a bhikkhu applies himself to his own welfare and the welfare of others. What five?

Pañcahi bhikkhave dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu attahitāya ca paṭipanno hoti parahitāya ca. Katamehi pañcahi

He is perfect in virtue, inward collectedness, penetrative discernment, liberation [from perceptually obscuring states], and the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] himself, and he encourages others to also be perfect in these things. (AN iii 14)

Illustration: paṭipanno, apply oneself

Some person applies himself to the abandonment and relinquishment of attachment.

Idha panudāyi ekacco puggalo upadhipahānāya paṭipanno hoti upadhipaṭinissaggāya. (MN i 453-4)

Illustration: paṭipanno, apply oneself

I, too, proclaim a man, if he possesses four qualities, as one of great wisdom, as a Great Man. What four?

Catūhi kho ahaṁ brāhmaṇa dhammehi samannāgataṁ mahāpaññaṁ mahāpurisaṁ paññapemi. Katamehi catūhi?

He applies himself to the welfare and happiness of the manyfolk.

Idha brāhmaṇa bahujanahitāya paṭipanno hoti bahujanasukhāya

By him are many folk established in the noble practice, namely in practices that are virtuous and spiritually wholesome.

bahu'ssa janatā ariye ñāye patiṭṭhāpitā yadidaṁ kalyāṇadhammatā kusaladhammatā. (AN ii 36)

Illustration: paṭipanno, apply oneself

The noble disciple is

• indifferent to the visual sense of the past,

atītasmiṁ cakkhusmiṁ anapekkho hoti

• he does not long for the visual sense of the future,

anāgataṁ cakkhuṁ nābhinandati

• he applies himself to disillusionment with the visual sense of the present, to non-attachment to it, and to the ending of it

paccappannassa cakkhussa nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti. (SN iv 4)

Illustration: paṭipanno, apply oneself

I discern the Untroubled and the path and practice leading to the Untroubled.

Nibbānañcāhaṁ sāriputta pajānāmi nibbānagāmiñca maggaṁ nibbānagāminiñca paṭipadaṁ

And I know that one who applies himself accordingly will, through the destruction of perceptually obscuring states, in his lifetime enter upon and abide in the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, realising it for himself through transcendent insight.

Yathāpaṭipanno ca āsavānaṁ khayā anāsavaṁ cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati tañca pajānāmi. (MN i 73-4)

Illustration: paṭipanno, apply oneself

The community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the excellent practice,

supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho

The community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the correct practice,

ujupaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho

The community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the noble practice.

ñāyapaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho

The community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the proper practice.

sāmīcipaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho. (SN v 343)

Illustration: paṭipanno, conduct himself; paṭipanno, practise

How does he conduct himself, sir, the bhikkhu who practises within the constraints of the rules of discipline?'

kathaṁ paṭipanno pana mārisa bhikkhu pātimokkhasaṁvarāya paṭipanno hotī ti. (DN ii 279)

paṭipannā

paṭipannā: (main article see: paṭipadā)

Illustration: paṭipannā, conducting yourselves

‘Bhikkhus, you have lost your way. Bhikkhus, you are conducting yourselves wrongly. Bhikkhus, how far you have strayed, you worthless men, from this teaching and training system.

vippaṭipannā'ttha bhikkhave. Micchāpaṭipannā'ttha bhikkhave. Kīvadūrevime bhikkhave moghapurisā apakkantā imasmā dhammavinayā. (MN i 480)

Illustration: paṭipanno, apply oneself; paṭipanno, practising

If a bhikkhu is applying himself to

  • disillusionment with old age and death
  • and to non-attachment to it, and to the ending of it,

he is fit to be called a bhikkhu who is practising in accordance with the teaching.

Jarāmaraṇassa ce bhikkhu nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti dhammānudhammapaṭipanno bhikkhū ti alaṁ vacanāya. (SN ii 18)

Illustration: paṭipannā, striving

• They are free of attachment or striving to eliminate it

vītarāgā vā honti rāgavinayāya vā paṭipannā.

• They are free of hatred or striving to eliminate it

vītadosā vā honti dosavinayāya vā paṭipannā.

• They are free of undiscernment of reality or striving to eliminate it

vītamohā vā honti mohavinayāya vā paṭipannā. (AN iii 336)

Illustration: paṭipanno, travel

When I travel the high road and see no one either in front or behind me

Yasmāhaṁ nāgita samaye addhānamaggapaṭipanno na kañci passāmi purato vā pacchato vā. (AN iv 345)

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paṭibhāna

Renderings

Introduction

Intuition

Some aspects of paṭibhāna concern intuition, meaning ‘quick and ready insight’ (Webster’s). Intuition is one of the benefits of mindfulness of the body:

• Whoever develops and cultivates mindfulness of the body can turn his mind to the realisation through transcendent insight of whatever condition is realisable through transcendent insight, and become an eye-witness in every case, if there is the practice of spiritual development.

Yassa kassaci bhikkhave kāyagatā sati bhāvitā bahulīkatā so yassa yassa abhiññā sacchikaraṇīyassa dhammassa cittaṁ abhininnāmeti abhiññā sacchikiriyāya. Tatra tatrave sakkhibhabbataṁ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane. (MN iii 96)

Illustrations

appaṭibhāno

appaṭibhāno: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: appaṭibhāno, unable to speak

When the king was told the queen had died he sat there pained, saddened, with drooped shoulders, head down, brooding, unable to speak.

Evaṁ vutte rājā pasenadi kosalo dukkhī dummano pattakkhandho adhomukho pajjhāyanto appaṭibhāno nisīdi. (AN iii 57)

appaṭibhānā

appaṭibhānā: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: appaṭibhānā, unable to speak

Having lost an argument, those ascetics sat there silent, embarrassed, with drooped shoulders, heads down, brooding, unable to speak.

Evaṁ vutte te paribbājakā tuṇhībhūtā maṅkubhūtā pattakkhandhā adhomukhā pajjhāyantā appaṭibhānā nisidiṁsu. (DN iii 57)

paṭibhāneyyakānaṁ

paṭibhāneyyakānaṁ: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhāneyyakānaṁ, conversable

The Buddha addressed numerous discourses to Rādha (SN iii 79; SN iii 188-200; SN iv 48-49), and accordingly said:

‘Foremost of my bhikkhu disciples who are conversable is Rādha.’

Etadaggaṁ bhikkhave mama sāvakaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ paṭibhāneyyakānaṁ yadidaṁ rādho. (AN i 25)

paṭibhāneyyakānaṁ

paṭibhāneyyakānaṁ: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhāneyyakānaṁ, conversable

Now at that time a certain person, formerly a barber, who had gone forth [into the ascetic life] when old, was living in Atuma. He had two sons, sweet-voiced, conversable, clever, accomplished in the barber’s profession.

Tena kho pana samayena aññataro buḍḍhapabbajito ātumāyaṁ paṭivasati nahāpitapubbo. Tassa dve dārakā honti mañjukā paṭibhāneyyakā dakkhā pariyodātasippā sake ācariyake nahāpitakamme.

The bhikkhu asked his sons to collect funds.

Those people who, having seen these sweet-voiced, conversable boys, but had not wanted to offer, even they offered, and in offering, gave much.

Manussā te dārake mañajuke paṭibhāneyyake passitvā yepi na kārāpetukāmā tepi kārāpenti. Kārāpetvāpi bahuṁ denti. (Vin.1.249)

paṭibhānāni

paṭibhānāni: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhānāni, reply

I was so pleased and satisfied with Master Kassapa’s first parable, I wanted to hear his brilliant replies to these other various questions.

Purimeneva ahaṁ opammena bhoto kassapassa attamano abhiraddho api cāhaṁ imāni vicitrāni pañhāpaṭibhānāni sotukāmo. (DN ii 352)

paṭibhāno

paṭibhāno: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhāno, way of replying

There are four kinds of persons:

• Those whose way of replying is fitting but halting

yuttapaṭibhāno na muttapaṭibhāno

• Those whose way of replying is fluent but unfitting

muttapaṭibhāno na yuttapaṭibhāno

• Those whose way of replying is fitting and fluent

yuttapaṭibhāno ca muttapaṭibhāno ca

• Those whose way of replying is unfitting and halting

neva yuttapaṭibhāno neva muttapaṭibhāno. (AN ii 135)

paṭibhānaṁ

paṭibhānaṁ: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhānaṁ, impromptu reflection

Of profound wisdom, intelligent, knowledgeable about what is the Path and what is not the Path, Sāriputta, of great wisdom, explains the Buddha’s teaching to the bhikkhus.

Gambhīrapañño medhāvī maggāmaggassa kovido
Sāriputto mahāpañño dhammaṁ deseti bhikkhunaṁ.

He teaches in brief, he speaks in detail. His voice, like a myna bird, pours forth his impromptu reflection.

Saṅkhittena pi deseti vitthārena pi bhāsati
Sālikāyiva nigghoso paṭibhānaṁ udīrayi. (SN i 190)

Illustration: paṭibhānaṁ, impromptu reflection

Five things, once arisen, are hard to dispel.

Pañcime bhikkhave uppannā duppaṭivinodayā

• Attachment

uppanno rāgo duppaṭivinodayo

• Hatred

uppanno doso duppaṭivinodayo

• Undiscernment of reality

uppanno moho duppaṭivinodayo

• Impromptu reflection

uppannaṁ paṭibhānaṁ duppaṭivinodayaṁ

• The urge to travel

uppannaṁ gamikacittaṁ duppaṭivinodayaṁ. (AN iii 185)

paṭibhānavantānaṁ

paṭibhānavantānaṁ: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhānavantānaṁ, impromptu reflectiveness

Foremost of my bhikkhu disciples of impromptu reflectiveness is Vaṅgīsa.

Etadaggaṁ bhikkhave mama sāvakānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ paṭibhānavantānaṁ yadidaṁ vaṅgīso. (AN i 24)

paṭibhāna

paṭibhāna: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhāna, impromptu reflective

Bhikkhus, there are these four kinds of poets. What four?

cattārome bhikkhave kavī. Katame cattāro?

The metaphysical poet

the narrational poet

the didactic poet

the impromptu reflective poet

Comment:

Bodhi says the last one, which he calls the ‘inspirational poet,’ creates poetry spontaneously through his own inspiration, like Venerable Vaṅgīsa.

paṭibhānena

paṭibhānena: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhānena, impromptu reflectiveness

Venerable Vaṅgīsa despised other well-behaved bhikkhus on account of his own impromptu reflectiveness

āyasmā vaṅgīso attano paṭibhānena aññe pesale bhikkhū atimaññati. (SN i 187)

paṭibhāna

paṭibhāna: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhāna, intuitive knowledge

Venerable Sāriputta told the bhikkhus:

• Within two weeks of my ordination I attained analytical insight into the meaning of expressions with their divisions and features;

Addhamāsūpasampannena me āvuso atthapaṭisambhidā sacchikatā odhiso vyañjanaso

• Within two weeks of my ordination I attained analytical insight into the teachings with their divisions and features;

Addhamāsūpasampannena me āvuso dhammapaṭisambhidā sacchikatā odhiso vyañjanaso

• Within two weeks of my ordination I attained analytical insight into the use of conventional expressions with their divisions and features;

Addhamāsūpasampannena me āvuso niruttipaṭisambhidā sacchikatā odhiso vyañjanaso

• Within two weeks of my ordination I attained analytical insight into intuitive knowledge with its divisions and features;

Addhamāsūpasampannena me āvuso paṭibhānapaṭisambhidā sacchikatā odhiso vyañjanaso. (AN ii 160)

Comment:

Bodhi says the last analytical insight ‘seems to refer to the ability to spontaneously apply the other three types of knowledge to clearly communicate the Dhamma.’

This ability is illustrated in the Bhūta Sutta (SN ii 47-50) and the Kaḷāra Sutta (SN ii 51-6) when the Buddha asked Sāriputta about The Questions of Ajita. Sāriputta hesitated because he had not previously considered the issue (pubbe appaṭisaṁviditaṁ). But when the Buddha prompted him and then approved of his answer, Sāriputta said:

• If the Blessed One had for seven days and nights questioned me about the matter in various ways and manners, then for seven days and nights I would have been able to answer him in various ways and manners.

Satta rattindivāni cepi maṁ bhagavā etamatthaṁ puccheyya aññamaññehi padehi aññamaññehi pariyāyehi satta rattindivānipahaṁ bhagavato etamatthaṁ vyākareyyaṁ aññamaññehi padehi aññamaññehi pariyāyehī ti. (SN ii 55)

This ability to talk for seven days on a topic he had never before considered, we call ‘intuitive knowledge.’ The Buddha said Sāriputta was able to answer like this because he had correctly penetrated “that aspect of the teaching” (sā dhammadhātu suppaṭividdhā) that made such an ability possible.

• That aspect of the teaching has been correctly penetrated by Sāriputta, which through being correctly penetrated… if I had for seven days and nights questioned Sāriputta about the matter in various ways and manners, then for seven days and nights Sāriputta would have been able to answer me in various ways and manners.

Sā hi bhikkhu sāriputtassa dhammadhātu suppaṭividdhā yassa dhammadhātuyā suppaṭividdhattā… satta rattindivāni cepahaṁ sāriputtaṁ etamattaṁ puccheyyaṁ aññamaññehi padehi aññamaññehi pariyāyehi satta rattindivānipi me sāriputto etamatthaṁ vyākareyya aññamaññehi padehi aññamaññehi pariyāyehī ti. (SN ii 56)

paṭibhānaṁ

paṭibhānaṁ: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhānaṁ, intuitive

The ascetic Gotama explains his teaching, hammering it out by logical reasoning, following his own intuitive line of inquiry

Takkapariyāhataṁ samaṇo gotamo dhammaṁ deseti vīmaṁsānucaritaṁ sayampaṭibhānaṁ. (MN i 68)

Illustration: paṭibhānaṁ, intuitive

A certain ascetic or Brahmanist is a thinker, a philosopher. Hammering it out by logical reasoning, following his own intuitive line of inquiry, he argues: The [absolute] Selfhood and the world [of beings] are eternal.

Idha bhikkhave ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā takkī hoti vīmaṁsī. So takkapariyāhataṁ vīmaṁsānucaritaṁ sayampaṭibhānaṁ evamāha: sassato attā ca loko ca. (DN i 16)

Illustration: paṭibhānaṁ, intuition

Ānanda answered the question: ‘Which kind of bhikkhu do you think would most illuminate the Gosinga Sāla-tree Wood?’ Then Sāriputta said to Revata:

• ’Revata, friend, it has been answered by Venerable Ānanda according to his own intuition. Now we ask Venerable Revata.’

vyākataṁ kho āvuso revata āyasmatā ānandena yathā sakaṁ paṭibhānaṁ. Tatthadāni mayaṁ āyasmantaṁ revataṁ pucchāma. (MN i 213)

Illustration: paṭibhānaṁ, intuition

After bhikkhus had expressed their opinions on a certain matter, Venerable Sāriputta said:

• “Friends, we have each explained [the matter] according to our own intuition.

vyākataṁ kho āvuso amhehi sabbeheva yathā sakaṁ paṭibhānaṁ. (AN i 119)

paṭibhāno

paṭibhāno: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhāno, intuitive insight

A good report has been circulated about Venerable Nārada: he is wise, capable, intelligent, very learned, a brilliant speaker, of excellent intuitive insight, mature, and truly an arahant.

Taṁ kho pana āyasmantaṁ nāradaṁ evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato: paṇḍito vyatto medhāvī bahussuto cittakathī kalyāṇapaṭibhāno vuddho ceva arahā ca. (AN iii 58)

Illustration: paṭibhāno, intuitive insight

One should be truthful, and have faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment]… and should be moderate in the use of food, of consistent virtue, devoted to wakefulness, tirelessly applied [to the practice], energetic, meditative, mindful, and of excellent intuitive insight.

Idha bhante ekacco sacco cassa saddho ca… bhojane mattaññu samakārī jāgariyānuyogamanuyutto atandito āraddhaviriyo jhāyī satimā kalyāṇapaṭibhāno. (DN iii 107)

Illustration: paṭibhānaṁ, intuitive insight

When Venerable Uttara agreed that he had once taught something, Sakka asked him:

“But, bhante, was [the teaching] your own intuitive insight, or was it the word of the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One?”

Kiṁ panidaṁ bhante āyasmato uttarassa sakaṁ paṭibhānaṁ udāhu tassa bhagavato vacanaṁ arahato sammāsambuddhassāti. (AN iv 163)

paṭibhānenā

paṭibhānenā: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhānenā, intuitive insight

And how is a bhikkhu one who knows himself?

Attaññū ca kathaṁ hoti

In this regard a bhikkhu knows himself thus: ‘I have so much faith, virtue, learning, generosity, penetrative discernment, and intuitive insight.’

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu attānaṁ jānāti ettakomhi saddhāya sīlena sutena cāgena paññāya paṭibhānenā ti. (AN iv 114)

paṭibhānavantaṁ

paṭibhānavantaṁ: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhānavantaṁ, intuitively insightful

One should associate with one of great learning, who is an expert in the teaching, a noble friend, one who is intuitively insightful.

Bahussutaṁ dhammadharaṁ bhajetha mittaṁ uḷāraṁ paṭibhānavantaṁ. (Snp 58)

paṭibhānaṁ

paṭibhānaṁ: (main article see: paṭibhāna)

Illustration: paṭibhānaṁ, intuitive investigativeness

Venerable Bhadda asked:

• ’What, friend, is the religious life and what is the conclusion of the religious life?’

Katamaṁ nu kho āvuso brahmacariyaṁ? Katamaṁ brahmacariyapariyosānan ti?

Venerable Ānanda replied:

• ’Well asked, Bhadda, friend! Your inquiry is excellent, your intuitive investigativeness is excellent, your question is good.’

Sādhu sādhu āvuso bhadda bhaddako te āvuso bhadda ummaggo bhaddakaṁ paṭibhānaṁ kalyāṇī paripucchā

Illustration: paṭibhānaṁ, intuitive investigativeness

• ’On what grounds, bhante, is one of great learning, an expert in the teaching?’

Kittāvatā nu kho bhante bahussuto dhammadharo hotī ti?

• ’Well asked, bhikkhu! Your inquiry is excellent! Your intuitive investigativeness is excellent! Your question is good!’

Sādhu sādhu bhikkhu bhaddako te bhikkhu ummaggo bhaddakaṁ paṭibhānaṁ kalyāṇī paripucchā. (AN ii 178)

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paṭisaṁyutta

Renderings

Illustrations

paṭisaṁyutto

paṭisaṁyutto: (main article see: paṭisaṁyutta)

Illustration: paṭisaṁyutto, about

Thoughts about being disparaged

anavaññattipaṭisaṁyutto vitakko. (AN i 253)

Illustration: paṭisaṁyutta, concerning

He was instructing the bhikkhus with a religious discourse concerning the Untroubled,

nibbānapaṭisaṁyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya sandasseti. (Uda 80)

paṭisaṁyuttā

paṭisaṁyuttā: (main article see: paṭisaṁyutta)

Illustration: paṭisaṁyuttā, concerning

Memories and thoughts concerning objects of attachment

upadhipaṭisaṁyuttā sarasaṅkappā samudācaranti. (MN i 453-4)

Illustration: paṭisaṁyuttā, connected

Mental images connected with physical seclusion overwhelm me

Saññā me abhikīranti vivekapaṭisaṁyuttā. (Tha 589)

Illustration: paṭisaṁyutta, connected with

One whose words are exclusively connected with religious inspiration.

uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti. (AN iv 233)

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paṭisallāna

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: paṭisallīnā, solitary retreat

It is hard for the likes of us to get near the Perfect Ones when they are meditating, taking delight in meditation and therefore withdrawn into solitary retreat.

durupasaṅkamā kho tāta pañcasikha tathāgatā mādisena jhāyi jhānaratā tadantarapaṭisallīnā. (DN ii 265)

Illustration: paṭisallāna, solitary retreat

Abide in solitary retreat taking pleasure and delight in it, apply yourself to inward calm, do not be neglectful of meditation, be endowed with insightfulness, and cultivate solitary abodes.

Paṭisallānārāmā bhikkhave viharatha paṭisallānaratā ajjhattaṁ cetosamathamanuyuttā anirākatajjhāni vipassanāya samannāgatā brūhetā suññāgārānaṁ. (Iti 39)

paṭisallānāya

paṭisallānāya: (main article see: paṭisallāna)

Illustration: paṭisallānāya, solitary retreat

Content with that unshakeable faith in the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment], he does not make further effort for physical seclusion by day nor for solitary retreat at night

so tena buddhe aveccappasādena santuṭṭho na uttariṁ vāyamati divā pavivekāya rattiṁ paṭisallānāya. (SN v 398)

Illustration: paṭisallāna, solitary retreat

Dwellings that are quiet, undisturbed by voices, with a quiet atmosphere, remote from people, suitable for solitary retreat, I praise the association with such dwellings.

yāni ca kho tāni senāsanāni appasaddāni appanigghosāni vijanavātāni manussarāhaseyyakāni paṭisallānasāruppāni tathārūpehi senāsanehi saṁsaggaṁ vaṇṇayāmī ti. (AN iv 87-8)

paṭisallīnassa

paṭisallīnassa: (main article see: paṭisallāna)

Illustration: paṭisallīnassa, solitary retreat

While the Blessed One was alone in solitary retreat, this reflection arose in his mind:

bhagavato rahogatassa paṭisallīnassa evaṁ cetaso parivitakko udapādi. (SN i 139)

paṭisallīyati

paṭisallīyati: (main article see: paṭisallāna)

Illustration: paṭisallīyati, abide in solitary retreat

He who abides in solitary retreat for the four months of the Rains, practising the meditation on [unlimited] compassion, sees Brahmā.

yo vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyati karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyati so brahmānaṁ passati. (DN ii 237)

paṭisallīno

paṭisallīno: (main article see: paṭisallāna)

Illustration: paṭisallīno, abides in solitary retreat

A bhikkhu abides in solitary retreat, and speaks in favour of this,

bhikkhu paṭisallīno hoti paṭisallānassa vaṇṇavādī. (AN v 168)

paṭisallāne

paṭisallāne: (main article see: paṭisallāna)

Illustration: paṭisallāne, solitary retreat; one who abides in solitary retreat, paṭisallīno

Bhikkhus, make an effort with solitary retreat. A bhikkhu who abides in solitary retreat discerns things according to reality.

Paṭisallāne bhikkhave yogamāpajjatha. Paṭisallīno bhikkhave bhikkhu yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. (SN iii 15)

Illustration: paṭisallīno, abide in solitary retreat

‘It is not the right time to see the Blessed One. The Blessed One is abiding in solitary retreat.’

akālo kho mārisa bhagavantaṁ dassanāya paṭisallīno bhagavā ti. (DN ii 270)

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vāyo

tejo

āpo

paṭhavī

Renderings

Introduction

Elements: definitions

The four material phenomena are paṭhavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū (MN i 57). They are defined like this:

• The Solidness Phenomenon: whatever is hard or rough

paṭhavīdhātu: yaṁ… kakkhalaṁ kharigataṁ. (MN i 185)

• The Liquidness Phenomenon: whatever is liquid or watery

āpodhātu: yaṁ… āpo āpogataṁ. (MN i 187)

• The Warmth Phenomenon: whatever is warmth or heat

tejodhātu: yaṁ… tejo tejogataṁ. (MN i 188)

• The Gaseousness Phenomenon: whatever is gaseous or windy

vāyodhātu: yaṁ… vāyo vāyogataṁ. (MN i 188)

We render the -gata suffix according to PED’s definition, namely ‘being in a state or condition, or having come into a state or condition.’

Instruction on the Log: the nature of the elements

Venerable Sāriputta pointed to a large wooden log and said:

• ‘A bhikkhu with psychic power and mental mastery could, if he wished, focus on the solidness (paṭhavī) of that wooden log. How is that? There is the Solidness Phenomenon (paṭhavīdhātu) in that log of wood, by reason of which a bhikkhu with psychic power and mental mastery could focus on its solidness (paṭhavī).’

Ākaṅkhamāno āvuso bhikkhu iddhimā cetovasippatto amuṁ dārukkhandhaṁ paṭhavītveva adhimucceyya. Taṁ kissa hetu? Atthi āvuso amumhi dārukkhandhe paṭhavīdhātu yaṁ nissāya bhikkhu iddhimā cetovasippatto amuṁ dārukkhandhaṁ paṭhavītveva adhimucceyya. (AN iii 340-1)

• the Liquidness Phenomenon in that log of wood… could focus on its liquidness (āpo).

āpodhātu… āpotveva adhimucceyya

• the Warmth Phenomenon in that log of wood… could focus on its warmth (tejo).

tejodhātu… tejotveva adhimucceyya

• the Gaseousness Phenomenon in that log of wood… could focus on its gaseousness (vāyo).

• the phenomenon of loveliness in that log of wood… could focus on its loveliness (subha).

subhadhātu… subhantveva adhimucceyya

• the phenomenon of unloveliness in that log of wood… could focus on its unloveliness (asubha).

asubhadhātu… asubhantveva adhimucceyyā ti. (AN iii 340-1)

Definition: Solidness Phenomenon

The four great material phenomena are defined in full as follows:

• What is the internal Solidness Phenomenon?

Katamā cāvuso ajjhattikā paṭhavīdhātu?

… Whatever is internal that is hard or rough, part of an individual, and taken personally

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ kakkhalaṁ kharigataṁ upādinnaṁ

… namely, head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, bowels, mesentery, stomach contents, faeces, and whatever else is internal that is hard or rough, part of an individual, and taken personally, this is called the internal Solidness Phenomenon.

seyyathīdaṁ kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṁsaṁ nahāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṁ vakkaṁ hadayaṁ yakanaṁ kilomakaṁ pihakaṁ papphāsaṁ antaṁ antaguṇaṁ udariyaṁ karīsaṁ yaṁ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ kakkhalaṁ kharigataṁ upādinnaṁ. (MN i 185)

Definition: Liquidness Phenomenon

What is the internal Liquidness Phenomenon?

Whatever is internal that is liquid or watery, part of an individual, and taken personally: bile, gastric mucus, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin-grease, spittle, snot, synovial fluid, urine, and whatever else is internal that is liquid or watery, part of an individual, and taken personally, this is called the internal Liquidness Phenomenon.

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ āpo āpogataṁ upādinnaṁ seyyathīdaṁ pittaṁ semhaṁ pubbo lohitaṁ sedo medo assu vasā khelo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṁ yaṁ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ āpo āpogataṁ upādinnaṁ ayaṁ vuccatāvuso ajjhattikā āpodhātu. (MN i 185)

Definition: Warmth Phenomenon

What is the internal Warmth Phenomenon?

Katamā ca bhikkhu ajjhattikā tejodhātu

Whatever is internal that is warm or hot, part of an individual, and taken personally

yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ tejo tejogataṁ upādinnaṁ

Namely, that by which one is heated, that by which one is hurt, that by which one is burnt, that by which what is eaten, drunk, chewed and savored gets digested, and whatever else is internal that is warm or hot, part of an individual, and taken personally, this is called the internal Warmth Phenomenon.

yena ca santappati yena ca jīrīyati yena ca pariḍayhati yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṁ sammā pariṇāmaṁ gacchati yaṁ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ tejo tejogataṁ upādinnaṁ ayaṁ vuccatāvuso ajjhattikā tejodhātu. (MN iii 241)

Definition: Gaseousness Phenomenon

What is the internal Gaseousness Phenomenon

Whatever is internal that is gaseous or windy, part of an individual, and taken personally

yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ vāyo vāyogataṁ upādinnaṁ

• up-going winds

• down-going winds

• wind in the stomach

• wind in the intestines

• bodily energies that course through the limbs

• in-breathing and out-breathing

assāso passāso iti

• and whatever else is internal that is gaseous or windy, part of an individual, and taken personally, this is called the internal Gaseousness Phenomenon

ayaṁ vuccatāvuso ajjhattikā vāyodhātu. (MN i 188)

Similes: the butchered cow

The contemplation of the four great material phenomena is described like this:

• The bhikkhu contemplates this very body however placed or disposed in terms of material phenomena.

imameva kāyaṁ yathāṭhitaṁ yathāpaṇihitaṁ dhātuso paccavekkhati

… In this [wretched human] body there is the Solidness Phenomenon, the Liquidness Phenomenon, the Warmth Phenomenon, and the Gaseousness Phenomenon.

Atthi imasmiṁ kāye paṭhavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū ti

… Just as a butcher or his apprentice having killed a cow and cut it into pieces were seated with it at a crossroads, the bhikkhu contemplates this very body however placed or disposed in terms of material phenomena. (MN i 57)

The butchered cow simile suggests that one who meditates on the four great material phenomena will see just material qualities, and will realise that, in that respect, living bodies are indistinguishable from dead ones.

Kasiṇas

The four great material phenomena are subjects of kasiṇa practices, as follows:

• One individual perceives the kasiṇa of earth extending above, below, and across from himself, with no subject/object duality and without limitation

paṭhavīkasiṇameko sañjānāti uddhaṁ adho tiriyaṁ advayaṁ appamāṇaṁ. (DN iii 268)

The other kasiṇas are: water, fire, wind, blue, yellow, red, white, space, and consciousness

āpokasiṇa tejokasiṇa vāyokasiṇa nīlakasiṇa pītakasiṇa lohitakasiṇa odātakasiṇa ākāsakasiṇa viññāṇakasiṇa.

The kasiṇas apparently involve imagining the Elements in their concrete sense extending in all directions.

Illustrations: paṭhavī

paṭhaviyā

paṭhaviyā: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: paṭhaviyā, earth

Suppose the seed of a nimb or creeper or bitter gourd be planted in moist earth.

allāya paṭhaviyā nikkhittaṁ

Whatever of the earth-nutriment or water-nutriment it absorbs

yañceva paṭhavirasaṁ upādiyati yañca āporasaṁ upādiyati

all that leads to its bitterness, its acridity, its displeasing taste

sabbaṁ taṁ tittakattāya kaṭukattāya asātattāya saṁvattanti. (AN v 212)

Illustration: paṭhaviyā, earth

Bhikkhus, to whatever extent I wish I dive in and out of earth as though it were water

paṭhaviyā pi ummujjanimujjaṁ karomi seyyathā pi udake. (SN ii 212)

Illustration: paṭhaviyā, earth

They throw what is clean or foul onto earth.

paṭhaviyā sucimpi nikkhipanti asucimpi nikkhipanti. (MN i 423)

Illustration: paṭhaviyā, earth

If, with a razor-rimmed wheel, one were to make the living beings of this earth into one mass of flesh, into one heap of flesh

Khurapariyantena cepi cakkena yo imissā paṭhaviyā pāṇe ekaṁ maṁsakhalaṁ ekaṁ maṁsapuñjaṁ kareyya. (MN i 516)

paṭhavyā

paṭhavyā: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: paṭhavyā, earth

The oldest bhikkhu on earth

paṭhaviṁ

paṭhaviṁ: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: paṭhaviṁ, solidness

A bhikkhu who is a disciple in training (sekho)

… fully understands solidness to be solidness

sopi paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito abhijānāti

… Fully understanding solidness to be solidness

paṭhaviṁ paṭhavito abhiññāya

… may he not think of solidness in personal terms

paṭhaviṁ mā maññi

… may he not think ‘I am part of solidness’

paṭhaviyā mā maññi

… may he not think ‘I am separate from solidness’

paṭhavito mā maññi

… may he not think that solidness is “[in reality] mine”

paṭhaviṁ me ti mā maññi

… may he not take delight in solidness

… For what reason? So that he may profoundly understand it, I declare

Pariññeyyaṁ tassā ti vadāmi. (MN i 4)

paṭhaviyā

paṭhaviyā: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: paṭhaviyā, Earth; paṭhavattena, solidness

The mind with no attribute, boundless, altogether free of defilement: that is not reached by the solidness of earth, the liquidness of water, the warmth of fire, the gaseousness of wind… the totality of everything

Viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ taṁ paṭhaviyā paṭhavattena ananubhūtaṁ āpassa āpattena ananubhūtaṁ tejassa tejattena ananubhūtaṁ vāyassa vāyattena ananubhūtaṁ… sabbassa sabbattena ananubhūtaṁ. (MN i 329)

Illustration: paṭhavi, earth

Then who, pray, on this wide earth knows about heads and headsplitting?

Atha ko carahi jānāti asmiṁ paṭhavimaṇḍale
Muddhaṁ muddhādhipātañca. (Snp 990)

Illustration: paṭhavi, land

Having conquered a great area of land.

mahantaṁ paṭhavimaṇḍalaṁ abhivijiya. (SN i 100)

Illustration: paṭhavi, land

For the khattiya, land is his relentless attachment

paṭhaviṁ

paṭhaviṁ: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: paṭhaviṁ, subcontinent

He abides having conquered this sea-girt subcontinent

so imaṁ paṭhaviṁ sāgarapariyantaṁ… abhivijīya ajjhāvasati. (DN iii 142)

Illustrations: āpo

āpaṁ

āpaṁ: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: āpaṁ, liquidness

A bhikkhu who is a disciple in training (sekho)

fully understands liquidness to be liquidness

āpaṁ āpato abhijānāti

Fully understanding liquidness to be liquidness

āpaṁ āpato abhiññāya

may he not think of liquidness in personal terms

āpaṁ mā maññi

may he not think ‘I am part of liquidness’

āpasmiṁ mā maññi

may he not think ‘I am separate from liquidness’

āpato mā maññi

may he not think that liquidness is “[in reality] mine”

āpaṁ me ti mā maññi

may he not take delight in liquidness

For what reason? So that he may profoundly understand it, I declare

Pariññeyyaṁ tassā ti vadāmi. (MN i 4)

apo

apo: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: apo, liquidness

Now there comes a time, friends, when the external Liquidness Phenomenon is agitated

bāhirā āpodhātu pakuppati

It washes away village, town, city, district, and country.

Sā gāmampi vahati nigamampi vahati nagarampi vahati janapadampi vahati janapadapadesampi vahati. (MN i 187)

Illustration: apo, liquidness

There comes a time when the water in the great ocean is not even the depth of the first joint of a finger. So when even in the external Liquidness Phenomenon with all its vastness, unlastingness is discernable, destruction is discernable, disappearance is discernable, changeableness is discernable, then what to say of this short-lasting body evolved from craving? .

Hoti kho so āvuso samayo yaṁ mahāsamudde aṅgulipabbatemanamattampi udakaṁ na hoti. Tassā hi nāma āvuso bāhirāya āpodhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati khayadhammatā paññāyissati vayadhammatā paññāyissati vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. Kiṁ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa taṇhūpādinnassa. (MN i 185-9)

āpo

āpo: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: āpo, water

People wash what is clean or foul in water―faeces, urine, spit, pus, and blood―and the water is not revolted, appalled, or disgusted by it.

āpasmiṁ sucimpi dhovanti asucimpi dhovanti gūthagatampi dhovanti muttagatampi dhovanti kheḷagatampi dhovanti pubbagatampi dhovanti lohitagatampi dhovanti na ca tena āpo aṭṭīyati vā harāyati vā jigucchati vā. (MN i 423)

Illustrations: tejo

tejaṁ

tejaṁ: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: tejaṁ, warmth

A bhikkhu who is a disciple in training (sekho)

knows warmth as warmth

tejaṁ tejato abhijānāti

Knowing warmth as warmth

tejaṁ tejato abhiññāya

may he not think of warmth in personal terms

tejaṁ mā maññi

may he not think ‘I am part of warmth’

tejasmiṁ mā maññi

may he not think ‘I am separate from warmth’

tejato mā maññi

may he not think that warmth is “[in reality] mine”

tejaṁ me ti mā maññi

may he not take delight in warmth

For what reason? So that he may profoundly understand it, I declare

Pariññeyyaṁ tassā ti vadāmi. (MN i 4)

tejo

tejo: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: tejo, fire

Fire burns what is clean or foul―faeces, urine, spit, pus, and blood―and the fire is not revolted, appalled, or disgusted by it.

tejo sucimpi ḍahati asucimpi ḍahati gūthagatampi ḍahati muttagatampi ḍahati kheḷagatampi ḍahati pubbagatampi ḍahati lohitagatampi ḍahati na ca tena tejo aṭṭīyati vā harāyati vā jigucchati vā. (MN i 424)

Illustrations: vāyo

vāyaṁ

vāyaṁ: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: vāyaṁ, gaseousness

A bhikkhu who is a disciple in training (sekho)

fully understands gaseousness to be gaseousness

vāyaṁ vāyato abhijānāti

Fully understanding gaseousness to be gaseousness

vāyaṁ vāyato abhiññāya

may he not think of gaseousness in personal terms

vāyaṁ mā maññi

may he not think ‘I am part of gaseousness’

vāyasmiṁ mā maññi

may he not think ‘I am separate from gaseousness’

vāyato mā maññi

may he not think that gaseousness is “[in reality] mine”

vāyaṁ me ti mā maññi

may he not take delight in gaseousness

For what reason? So that he may profoundly understand it, I declare

Pariññeyyaṁ tassā ti vadāmi. (MN i 4)

vāyo

vāyo: (main article see: paṭhavī)

Illustration: vāyo, wind

Wind blows on what is clean or foul―faeces, urine, spit, pus, and blood―and the wind is not revolted, appalled, or disgusted by it.

vāyo sucimpi upavāyati asucimpi upavāyati gūthagatampi upavāyati muttagatampi upavāyati kheḷagatampi upavāyati pubbagatampi upavāyati lohitagatampi upavāyati na ca tena vāyo aṭṭīyati vā harāyati vā jigucchati vā. (MN i 424)

Illustration: vāyo, Gaseousness

Now there comes a time, friends, when the external Gaseousness Phenomenon is agitated

bāhirā vāyodhātu pakuppati

It blows away village, town, city, district, and country.

sā gāmampi vahati nigamampi vahati nagarampi vahati janapadampi vahati janapadapadesampi vahati. (MN i 188)

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patilīna

Renderings

Introduction

Patilīyati: ‘draw back’

Patilīyati means ‘to draw back’:

• His mind draws back, bends back, turns away from involvement in sexual intercourse

methunadhammasamāpattiyā cittaṁ patilīyati patikuṭati pativaṭṭati

• A piece of gristle thrown on fire draws back, bends back, turns away

nahārudaddulaṁ vā aggimhi pakkhīttaṁ patilīyati patikuṭati pativaṭṭati. (AN iv 47)

Patilīna: withdrawn from society

Patilīna, the past participle of patilīyati, can mean ‘withdrawn from society:

• For a bhikkhu living withdrawn from society, resorting to a secluded abode, they say it is fitting for him to not exhibit his ego in any residence.

Patilīnacarassa bhikkhuno bhajamānassa vivittamāsanaṁ
Sāmaggiyamāhu tassa taṁ yo attānaṁ bhavane na dassaye. (Snp 810)

Patilīna: free of self-centredness

Patilīno is defined as asmimāno pahīṇo hoti, and accordingly must sometimes be called ‘free of self-centredness’:

• How is a bhikkhu free of self-centredness?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu patilīno hoti?

… In this regard, self-centredness is abandoned in a bhikkhu.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno asmimāno pahīṇo hoti. (AN ii 41)

Illustrations

Illustration: patilīna, free of self-centredness

The Buddha who discovered jhāna, the chief bull, free of self-centredness, the Sage.

Yo jhānambudhā buddho patilīnanisabho munī ti. (AN iv 449-451)

patilīno

patilīno: (main article see: patilīna)

Illustration: patilīno, free of self-centredness

That peaceful, mindful bhikkhu, tranquil, undefeated [by Māra’s army],

Sa ve santo sato bhikkhu passaddho aparājito

Through rightly penetrating self-centredness, enlightened, he is called free of self-centredness

Mānābhisamayā buddho patilīno ti vuccatī ti. (AN ii 42)

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pattipatta

Renderings

Introduction

Pattipatta and uttamapattipatta

Pattipatta is found only in verse and implies arahantship. It is an abbreviation of either:

1) uttamapattipatta, ‘attained the unexcelled attainment,’ which occurs only in the Samaṇamaṇḍikā Sutta (MN ii 23-29), or,

2) paramapattipatta, ‘attained the supreme attainment,’ which occurs only in the Saṁyutta Nikāya.

Paramapattipatta: orthodox

Paramapattipatta is likely more orthodox than uttamapattipatta. Uttamapattipatta is apparently used in the Samaṇamaṇḍikā Sutta to avoid a repetition of parama in this word sequence:

sampannakusalaṁ paramakusalaṁ uttamapattipattaṁ

Therefore, we regard pattipatta as an abbreviation of paramapattipatta (‘attained the supreme attainment’).

Likewise, Norman treats pattipatta as an abbreviation: ‘gained the [highest] gain’ (e.g. Snp 536-7).

Illustrations

uttamapattipattaṁ

uttamapattipattaṁ: (main article see: pattipatta)

Illustration: uttamapattipattaṁ, attained the unexcelled attainment

An individual endowed with which ten qualities is one whom I describe as being perfect in what is spiritually wholesome, of the highest spiritual proficiency, an invincible ascetic who has attained the unexcelled attainment?

Katamehi cāhaṁ thapati dasahi dhammehi samannāgataṁ purisapuggalaṁ paññāpemi sampannakusalaṁ paramakusalaṁ uttamapattipattaṁ samaṇaṁ ayojjhaṁ

In this regard a bhikkhu is possessed of the right perception [of reality] of a finished disciple… the right liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] of a finished disciple.

idha thapati bhikkhu asekhāya sammādiṭṭhiyā samannāgato hoti… asekhāya sammāvimuttiyā samannāgato hoti. (MN ii 29)

paramapattipatto

paramapattipatto: (main article see: pattipatta)

Illustration: paramapattipatto, attained the supreme attainment

The Perfect One, the unexcelled person, the supreme person, one who has attained the supreme attainment.

tathāgato uttamapuriso paramapuriso paramapattipatto. (SN iii 118)

pattipattan

pattipattan: (main article see: pattipatta)

Illustration: pattipattan, attained the [supreme] attainment

Who has ended deceit, conceit, greed, anger, and immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form, they call him one who has fulfilled the ideals of religious asceticism, one who has attained the [supreme] attainment.

Māyaṁ mānamathopi lobhakodhaṁ
Pariyantamakāsi nāmarūpaṁ taṁ paribbājakamāhu pattipattan ti. (Snp 537)

pattipattā

pattipattā: (main article see: pattipatta)

Illustration: pattipattā, attained the [supreme] attainment

They have attained the [supreme] attainment.

pattipatto

pattipatto: (main article see: pattipatta)

Illustration: pattipatto, attained the [supreme] attainment

Whoever in this world amongst those living the religious life has attained the [supreme] attainment, who is well behaved always, who understands the teaching.

Yo idha caraṇesu pattipatto kusalo sabbadā ājānāti dhammaṁ. (Snp 536)

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padussati

Renderings

Introduction

Padussati: two roots

Padussati has two roots, so two possible meanings: to defile, and to be filled with hatred. Although this division is visible in the suttas (see our Illustrations below), PED has overlooked this, saying:

Padussati [pa + dussati] to do wrong, offend against, make bad, corrupt

This is in spite of PED’s recognising the two roots of padosa:

1) Padosa1 [pa + dosa1, Sk. pradoṣa] defect, fault, blemish, badness, corruption, sin

2) Padosa2 [pa + dosa2, Sk. pradveṣa, see remarks to dosa2] anger, hatred, ill–will; always as mano° “anger in mind” M I.377.

Translating appaduṭṭhassa

One result of this in the translation of appaduṭṭhassa in Dhp 125, which has been called ‘innocent,’ ‘harmless,’ or ‘inoffensive’:

  • Whoever does harm to an innocent man, a pure man who is without blemish, evil comes back to that very fool like fine dust thrown against the wind (Norman, Dhp 125).
  • Whoever harms a harmless person, one pure and guiltless (Narada, Dhp 125).

Our own findings show that padussati means unpolluted, undefiled, or free of hatred, but not innocent or harmless.

• Whoever wrongs a man who is free of hatred, a pure person unblemished [by spiritual defilement], the demerit rebounds on the fool himself like fine dust thrown against the wind (Varado, Dhp 125).

Yo appaduṭṭhassa narassa dussati suddhassa posassa anaṅgaṇassa
Tameva bālaṁ pacceti pāpaṁ sukhumo rajo paṭivātaṁ va khitto

And the internal evidence supports us, because appaduṭṭhassa is here a synonym of suddhassa and anaṅgaṇassa. Our translation recognises the synonymity (free of hatred, pure, unblemished [by spiritual defilement]), but Norman’s does not (innocent, pure, without blemish). Whereas our adjectives describe spiritual qualities, innocent concerns conduct, the opposite of ‘whoever who does harm.’

Illustrations: defilement and pollution

padūsituṁ

padūsituṁ: (main article see: padussati)

Illustration: padūsituṁ, pollute

Whoever might think he could pollute the sea with a pot of poison would not be able to do so, for awesome is the great ocean.

Samuddaṁ visakumbhena yo maññeyya padūsituṁ
Na so tena padūseyya bhesmā hi udadhī mahā. (Iti 86)

padūsenti

padūsenti: (main article see: padussati)

Illustration: padūsenti, defile

There are certain devas called Defiled in Mind. They spend an excessive amount of time gazing at each other. By doing so they defile each others’ minds, and thereby become weary in body and mind.

Santi bhikkhave manopadosikā nāma devā. Te ativelaṁ aññamaññaṁ upanijjhāyanti. Te ativelaṁ aññamaññaṁ upanijjhāyantā aññamaññamhi cittāni padūsenti. Te aññamaññamhi paduṭṭhacittā kilantakāyā kilantacittā. (DN i 20)

paduṭṭhena

paduṭṭhena: (main article see: padussati)

Illustration: paduṭṭhena, defiled

If one speaks or acts with a defiled mind, suffering thence follows one as surely as the cartwheel follows the foot of the ox.

Manasā ce paduṭṭhena bhāsati vā karoti vā
Tato naṁ dukkhamanveti cakkaṁ va vahato padaṁ. (Dhp 1)

paduṭṭha

paduṭṭha: (main article see: padussati)

Illustration: paduṭṭha, defiled

A certain person whose mind is defiled

ekaccaṁ puggalaṁ paduṭṭhacittaṁ. (AN i 8)

Context:

Idāhaṁ bhikkhave ekaccaṁ puggalaṁ paduṭṭhacittaṁ evaṁ cetasā ceto paricca pajānāmi: imamhi ce ayaṁ samaye puggalo kālaṁ kareyya yathābhataṁ nikkhitto evaṁ niraye. Taṁ kissa hetu: cittaṁ hissa bhikkhave paduṭṭhaṁ. (AN i 8)

padosaye

padosaye: (main article see: padussati)

Illustration: padosaye, defile

Seeing visible objects that delight the mind and seeing those that give no delight, dispel the path of attachment to the delightful, and do not defile the mind by thinking, ‘[The other] is displeasing to me.’

Na c’appiyaṁ me ti manaṁ padosaye. (SN iv 71)

Illustrations: hatred

padūseyya

padūseyya: (main article see: padussati)

Illustration: padūseyya, filled with hatred

Bhikkhus, even if thugs should sever your limbs one by one with a two-handled saw, he whose mind was thereby filled with hatred would not on that account be a practiser of my training system.

Ubhatodaṇḍakena pi ce bhikkhave kakacena corā ocarakā aṅgamaṅgāni okanteyyuṁ tatrāpi yo mano padūseyya na me so tena sāsanakaro. (MN i 129)

paduṭṭha

paduṭṭha: (main article see: padussati)

Illustration: paduṭṭha, hateful

He has an unbenevolent mind and hateful thoughts: “May those beings be killed, slaughtered, annihilated, or destroyed, or may they not exist at all.”

vyāpannacitto kho pana hoti paduṭṭhamanasaṅkappo. Ime sattā haññantu vā vajjhantu vā ucchijjantu vā vinassantu vā mā vā ahesun ti. (MN iii 49)

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papañca

Renderings

Introduction

Papañceti

The meaning of papañceti (‘to perceptually entrench’) can be concisely illustrated like this:

• What one thinks about, one perceptually entrenches.

Yaṁ vitakketi taṁ papañceti. (MN i 111)

Papañca: adjective

The meaning of the adjective papañca (‘entrenched’) can be concisely illustrated like this:

• Entrenched perception and conception are the source of thought.

Vitakko kho devānaminda papañcasaññāsaṅkhānidāno

• When there is entrenched perception and conception, thought arises. Without entrenched perception and conception, there is no thought.

papañcasaññāsaṅkhāya sati vitakko hoti papañcasaññāsaṅkhāya asati vitakko na hotī ti. (DN ii 277)

Papañcanāmarūpa: adjective

Papañcanāmarūpaṁ occurs just once in the scriptures. We render it as ‘perceptually entrenched immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form’:

• Having found out about perceptually entrenched immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form, both internally and externally, and the origin of [mental] illness, and being completely freed from all [mental] illness and its origin, and from bondage [to individual existence], the one of such good qualities is rightly called ‘well-informed.’

Anuvicca papañcanāmarūpaṁ
Ajjhattaṁ bahiddhā ca rogamūlaṁ
Sabbarogamūlabandhanā pamutto
Anuvidito tādi pavuccate tathattā. (Snp 530)

Papañca: noun

Papañca is used as a noun (‘entrenched perception’), like this:

• This teaching is for those who take pleasure and delight in unentrenched perception, not for those who take pleasure and delight in entrenched perception.

nippapañcārāmassāyaṁ dhammo nippapañcaratino nāyaṁ dhammo papañcārāmassa papañcaratinoti. (AN iv 229)

Papañcita: noun

The past participle papañcita is used as a noun like this:

• The notion “I am” is a matter of entrenched perception.

asmī ti papañcitametaṁ. (SN iv 203)

Papañca: circular relationship to thought

Papañca’s relationship to thought is circular:

• What one thinks about, one perceptually entrenches.

Yaṁ vitakketi taṁ papañceti. (MN i 111)

• Entrenched perception and conception are the source of thought.

Vitakko kho devānaminda papañcasaññāsaṅkhānidāno. (DN ii 277)

Papañca: in other terms

Papañca is alluded to in different ways, like this:

1) Niviṭṭhaṁ: entrenched

See the world [of beings] with its devas entrenched in [attachment to] immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form. It thinks what is void of personal qualities is endowed with personal qualities. It thinks ‘This is true [to its appearance].’

Anattani attamāniṁ passa lokaṁ sadevakaṁ niviṭṭhaṁ nāmarūpasmiṁ idaṁ saccan ti maññati.

But whatsoever they think of in personal terms is different [from how they think of it].

Yena yena hi maññanti tato taṁ hoti aññathā

For it is untrue to itself. That which is transitory is intrinsically false indeed.

Taṁ hi tassa musā hoti mosadhammaṁ hi ittaraṁ. (Snp 756-7)

2) Patiṭṭhitā: entrenched

Beings who perceive [only] what can be expressed and are entrenched in what can be expressed, not profoundly understanding what is expressed, they come under the yoke of death;

Akkheyyasaññino sattā akkheyyasmiṁ patiṭṭhitā.
Akkheyyaṁ apariññāya yogamāyanti maccuno.

But if one profoundly understands what can be expressed, and does not think ‘I am the expressor,’ the mind’s liberation is achieved, the unsurpassed Peaceful State.

Akkheyyañca pariññāya akkhātāraṁ na maññati
Phūṭṭho vimokkho manasā santipadamanuttaraṁ. (Iti 53)

Illustrations

papañcita

papañcita: (main article see: papañca)

Illustration: papañcita, entrenched perception

The notion “I am” is a matter of entrenched perception.

asmī ti papañcitametaṁ

‘I am this’ is a matter of entrenched perception.

ayamahamasmī ti papañcitametaṁ

‘I will be’ is a matter of entrenched perception.

bhavissan ti papañcitametaṁ

‘I will not be’ is a matter of entrenched perception.

na bhavissan ti papañcitametaṁ

Entrenched perception is an illness, a carbuncle, a [piercing] arrow.

papañcitaṁ bhikkhave rogo papañcitaṁ gaṇḍo papañcitaṁ sallaṁ

Therefore train yourselves with the thought, ‘We will live with minds taking delight in unentrenched perception

tasmātiha bhikkhave nippapañcārāmena cetasā viharissāmāti evaṁ hi vo bhikkhave sikkhitabbaṁ. (SN iv 203)

Illustration: papañcita, entrenched perception

The assertion that a Perfect One exists after death is a matter of entrenched perception.

Hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti kho bhikkhu papañcitametaṁ

The assertion that a Perfect One does not exist after death is a matter of entrenched perception.

Na hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti kho bhikkhu papañcitametaṁ. (AN iv 69)

nippapañca

nippapañca: (main article see: papañca)

Illustration: nippapañca, unentrenched perception; papañca, entrenched perception

This teaching is for those who take pleasure and delight in unentrenched perception, not for those who take pleasure and delight in entrenched perception.

nippapañcārāmassāyaṁ dhammo nippapañcaratino nāyaṁ dhammo papañcārāmassa papañcaratinoti. (AN iv 229)

papañceti

papañceti: (main article see: papañca)

Illustration: papañceti, perceptually entrenches; papañca, entrenched

What one experiences, one perceives.

Yaṁ vedeti taṁ sañjānāti

What one perceives, one thinks about.

Yaṁ sañjānāti taṁ vitakketi.

What one thinks about, one perceptually entrenches.

Yaṁ vitakketi taṁ papañceti

Due to what one perceptually entrenches, entrenched perception and conception assail a man in relation to visible objects known via the visual sense whether past, future, or present.

Yaṁ papañceti tatonidānaṁ purisaṁ papañcasaññāsaṅkhā samudācaranti atītānāgatapaccuppannesu cakkhuviññeyyesu rūpesu. (MN i 111)

Illustration: papañca, entrenched

A wise person should completely destroy the origin of entrenched conception, the notion “I am.”

mūlaṁ papañcasaṅkhāya mantā asmī ti sabbamuparundhe. (Snp 916)

Illustration: papañca, entrenched; papañcayantā, perceptually entrench

When ordinary people with entrenched perceptions perceptually entrench and perceive, they become attached.

Papañcasaññā itarītarā narā
Papañcayantā upayanti saññino. (SN iv 71)

Illustration: nippapañca, unentrenched perception

What is unentrenched perception? The destruction of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

Katamañca bhikkhave nippapañcaṁ: yo bhikkhave rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo. (SN iv 368-373)

Illustration: papañca, entrenched

For whatever the reason

that entrenched perception and conception assail a man

purisaṁ papañcasaññāsaṅkhā samudācaranti

if there is found nothing there to be delighted in, welcomed, or clung to

ettha ce natthi abhinanditabbaṁ abhivaditabbaṁ ajjhositabbaṁ

• this is the end of the proclivity to attachment

• this is the end of the proclivity to repugnance

• this is the end of the proclivity to dogmatism

• this is the end of the proclivity to doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]

• this is the end of the proclivity to self-centredness

• this is the end of the proclivity to attachment to individual existence

• this is the end of the proclivity to uninsightfulness into reality

  • this is the end of the use of sticks and swords; quarrels, arguments, disputes, strife, and malicious speech and lying.
  • In this way these unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors cease without remainder

etthete pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhantī ti. (MN i 109)

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parakkama

Renderings

Introduction

Parenthesis of parakkama: application [to the practice]

Our parenthesis of parakkama follows how we likewise treat appamatta, ātāpī, and pahitatta:

• diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice].

appamatto ātāpī pahitatto. (SN iv 145)

Illustrations

parakkamā

parakkamā: (main article see: parakkama)

Illustration: parakkamā, apply themselves [to the practice]

Wise people, those who meditate perseveringly, who constantly and resolutely apply themselves [to the practice], they reach the Untroubled, the unsurpassed safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence].

Te jhāyino sātatikā niccaṁ daḷhaparakkamā
Phusanti dhīrā nibbānaṁ yogakkhemaṁ anuttaraṁ. (Dhp 23)

parakkamo

parakkamo: (main article see: parakkama)

Illustration: parakkamo, application [to the practice]

And how is a bhikkhu proficient? In this regard, a bhikkhu abides energetically applied to the abandoning of spiritually unwholesome factors and the undertaking of spiritually wholesome factors, steadfast, unwavering in application [to the practice], not shirking the responsibility of [undertaking] spiritually wholesome factors.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu vidhuro hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu āraddhaviriyo viharati akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānāya kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ upasampadāya thāmavā daḷhaparakkamo anikkhittadhuro kusalesu dhammesu. (AN i 117)

Illustration: parakkamo, application [to his practice]

‘He amongst them who was supremely devout, being unwavering in application [to his practice], refrained from sexual intercourse even in a dream.

Yo nesaṁ paramo āsi brahmā daḷhaparakkamo
Sa vāpi methunaṁ dhammaṁ supinantepi nāgamā. (Snp 293)

parakkamaṁ

parakkamaṁ: (main article see: parakkama)

Illustration: parakkamaṁ, application [to the practice]

That which should be done by one of resolute energy, that which should be done by one desiring enlightenment, that I shall undertake to do. I will not fail. See my [unwavering] energy and application [to the practice].

Yaṁ kiccaṁ daḷhaviriyo yaṁ kiccaṁ boddhumicchatā
Karissaṁ nāvarajjhissaṁ passa viriyaṁ parakkamaṁ. (Tha 167)

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parājita

Renderings

Introduction

Parajita: ‘defeated’

Parajita usually means ‘defeated’:

• Victory was for the devas, and the asuras were defeated

jayo surānaṁ asurā parājitā. (Snp 681)

Padhāna Sutta: parenthesising ‘[by Māra’s army]’

In his battle with Māra, the Bodhisatta said:

• ‘Death in battle is better for me than to [surrender and] live on defeated.’

Saṅgāme me mataṁ seyyo yaṁ ce jīve parājito. (Snp 440)

By ‘defeated’ he meant ‘defeated [by Māra’s army]’ because, in the previous verse, concerning the ten armies of Māra, he said:

‘That is your army, Namuci, the forces of inward darkness. None but the heroic will conquer it. Having conquered it one finds happiness.’

Esā namuci te senā kaṇhassābhippahārinī
Na naṁ asūro jināti jetvā ca labhate sukhaṁ. (Snp 439)

Where ‘defeated’ needs parenthesising, this, then, is our parenthesis. It is supported by other passages:

• When will I, having furiously taken up the seers’ sword of wisdom of fierce strength, [sitting cross-legged] on the invincible seat, quickly destroy Māra and his army? When, oh when, will it be?

Kadā nu paññāmayamuggatejaṁ satthaṁ isīnaṁ sahasādiyitvā
Māraṁ sasenaṁ sahasā bhañjissaṁ sīhāsane taṁ nu kadā bhavissati (Tha 1095). Commentary: Sīhāsaneti thirāsane aparājitapallaṅketi attho.

Commentary: kilesa and Māra

Frequently the commentary explains parājito in terms of Māra, as we show in quotes in the illustrations below. Sometimes it explains parājito in terms of kilesa. For example, kilesehi parājito (Tha 194). However, kilesa is a synonym of Māra’s army and there seems no advantage in changing the parenthesis when the suttas are already clear which parenthesis is to be applied. Parājito implies war, which fits well with ‘army.’

Aparājita: the Invincible One

In the context of the Buddha, we call aparājita ‘the Invincible One’:

• Since [the time] I heard the Teacher’s teaching spoken, I do not recall [in myself any] unsureness about the [perfection of the transcendent insight of the] All-knowing One, the Invincible One.

Yadāhaṁ dhammamassosiṁ bhāsamānassa satthuno
Na kaṅkhamabhijānāmi sabbaññū aparājite. (Tha 131-2)

Commentary: pañcannampi mārānaṁ abhibhavanato tehi aparājitattā.

Illustrations

aparājito

aparājito: (main article see: parājita)

Illustration: aparājito, undefeated [by Māra’s army]

That peaceful, mindful bhikkhu, tranquil, undefeated [by Māra’s army].

Sa ve santo sato bhikkhu passaddho aparājito. (AN ii 42)

Commentary: Aparājito ti sabbakilese jinitvā ṭhitattā kenaci aparājito

aparājitā

aparājitā: (main article see: parājita)

Illustration: aparājitā, undefeated [by Māra’s army]

‘Having cultivated such things, those who are everywhere undefeated [by Māra’s army] go everywhere in safety: this for them is supremely auspicious.’

Etādisāni katvāna sabbatthamaparājitā
Sabbattha sotthiṁ gacchanti taṁ tesaṁ maṅgalamuttaman ti. (Snp 269)

Commentary: Sabbatthamaparājitā ti sabbattha khandhakilesābhisaṅkhāradevaputtamārappabhedesu catūsu paccatthikesu ekenapi aparājitā hutvā, sayameva te cattāro māre parājetvāti vuttaṁ hoti.

Illustration: aparājito, undefeated [by Māra’s army]

Being endowed with the training and a [right means of] livelihood, with sense faculties well-restrained [from grasping, through mindfulness], venerating the Perfectly Enlightened One, I dwelt undefeated [by Māra’s army].

Sikkhāsājīvasampanno indriyesu susaṁvuto
Namassamāno sambuddhaṁ vihāsiṁ aparājito. (Tha 513)

Commentary: kilesamārādīhi aparājito.

aparājita

aparājita: (main article see: parājita)

Illustration: aparājita, undefeated [by Māra’s army]

A great concourse takes place in the woods. The deva hosts have assembled. We have come to this religious gathering, to see the community of bhikkhus, undefeated [by Māra’s army].

Mahāsamayo pavanasmiṁ devakāyā samāgatā
Āgatamha imaṁ dhammasamayaṁ dakkhitāye aparājitasaṅghan ti. (SN i 26)

Commentary: Dakkhitāye aparājitasaṅghan ti kenaci aparājitaṁ ajjeva tayo māre madditvā vijitasaṅgāmaṁ imaṁ aparājitasaṅghaṁ dassanatthāya āgatamhāti attho.

aparājitaṁ

aparājitaṁ: (main article see: parājita)

Illustration: aparājitaṁ, invincible

We shall abide revering you like the Tāvatiṁsā devas revering Inda, invincible in war.

Indaṁca tidasā devā saṅgāme aparājitaṁ
Purakkhatvā vihassāma. (Thi 121)

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pariciṇṇo mayā satthā

Renderings

Introduction

Gratitude plus arahantship

Pariciṇṇo mayā satthā is an expression of gratitude to the Buddha that simultaneously indicates the attainment of arahantship. For example, it was used in this way by Venerable Vacchagotta (MN i 497), and also by ten bhikkhus in the Theragāthā. See Illustrations.

Origin: veneration of fires

Pariciṇṇo may have stemmed from its application to the veneration of sacrificial fires. For example, the Buddha said:

• ‘It would not be easy to find a kind of fire that has not been venerated by me (apariciṇṇapubbo) in this long time’:

Na kho paneso sāriputta aggi sulabharūpo yo mayā apariciṇṇapubbo iminā dīghena addhunā. (MN i 82)

Venerating fires and people is intimately linked through words like namassati, paricarati, and pūjeti:

• From whoever one might learn the teaching explained by the Perfectly Enlightened One, one should respectfully venerate him like a brahman venerates the sacrificial fire.

Yamhā dhammaṁ vijāneyya sammāsambuddhadesitaṁ
Sakkaccaṁ taṁ namasseyya aggihuttaṁ va brāhmaṇo. (Dhp 392)

• If a person venerated fire in the forest for a century, but then venerated even for a moment someone who had spiritually developed himself, that veneration would be certainly better than that [fire] veneration for a century.

Yo ca vassasataṁ jantu aggiṁ paricare vane
Ekañca bhāvitattānaṁ muhuttamapi pūjaye
Sā yeva pūjanā seyyo yañce vassasataṁ hutaṁ. (Dhp 107)

Venerating the sacrificial fire

The ceremony of venerating the sacrificial fire has three aspects:

1) It begins with pouring foodstuffs into the fire (aggiṁ juhati), for example, milk rice (SN i 166) or milk (AN ii 207) or ghee, oil and butter (AN v 234), though sometimes animals (AN iv 41; DN i 141).

2) Then follows the veneration of the sacrificial fire (aggihuttaṁ paricarati). This is done by venerating the fire with joined palms, and solemnly addressing it:

• ‘We lower ourselves before thee, Lord. We lower ourselves before thee, Lord.’

paccorohāma bhavantaṁ paccorohāma bhavantan ti. (AN v 234)

3) Then comes the distribution of the remains of the oblation (havyasesaṁ Snp 79) to any available ascetics or Brahmanists.

For example:

• At one time milk rice with ghee had been set out for the brahman Aggika Bhāradvāja, who had thought ‘I will offer them to the fire. I will venerate the sacrificial fire.’

Tena kho pana samayena aggikabhāradvājassa brāhmaṇassa sappinā pāyāso sannihito hoti aggiṁ juhissāmi. Aggihuttaṁ paricarissāmī ti. (SN i 166)

• At that time the brahman Sundarika Bhāradvāja was making offerings to fire and venerating the sacrificial fire on the bank of the River Sundarikā. Having done so, and having risen from his seat, he looked around in the four directions to see who might eat the remains of the oblation.

Tena kho pana samayena sundarikabhāradvājo brāhmaṇo sundarikāya nadiyā tīre aggiṁ juhati aggihuttaṁ paricarati atha kho sundarikabhāradvājo brāhmaṇo aggiṁ juhitvā aggihuttaṁ paricaritvā uṭṭhāyāsanā amannā catuddisā anuvilokesi ko nu kho imaṁ havyasesaṁ bhuñjeyyāti. (Snp 79)

Two meanings of paricarati

Pariciṇṇo is the past particle of paricarati, and therefore its meaning would stem from one of the two meanings of paricarati which can be explained as follows:

1) A matted-hair ascetic told a boy to look after the fire, not let it go out (aggiṁ tāta paricareyyāsi. Mā ca te aggi nibbāyi DN ii 340). Here paricarati does not mean veneration, but just keeping the fire going.

2) More usually in the scriptures, paricarati is a ceremonial activity that means venerating, and occurs in the phrase aggihuttaṁ paricarati. Aggihuttaṁ means ‘sacrificial fire.’ Huttaṁ is the past participle of juhati.

Pariciṇṇo: therefore two possible meanings

Pariciṇṇo could therefore mean either the Teacher has been ‘looked after by me’ or ‘venerated by me.’ The latter is obviously more likely. The Buddha said to look after him one should look after the sick (yo bhikkhave maṁ upaṭṭhaheyya so gilānaṁ upaṭṭhaheyya, Vin.1.302)―which is not the issue here.

To venerate the Perfect One: meaning

So, what does it mean to venerate the Perfect One? The Buddha said:

• Those who practise in accordance with the teaching, applying themselves properly, and conducting themselves in accordance with the teaching, honour, revere, respect, reverence, and venerate the Perfect One with the highest veneration.

yo kho ānanda bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammapaṭipanno viharati sāmīcipaṭipanno anudhammacārī so tathāgataṁ sakkaroti garukaroti māneti pūjeti apaciyati paramāya pūjāya. (DN ii 138)

Therefore pariciṇṇo mayā satthā means ‘the Teacher has been [lovingly] venerated by me [through my practice in accordance with the teaching].’ For this reason pariciṇṇo mayā satthā not only expresses gratitude to the Buddha, but simultaneously indicates the attainment of arahantship.

Lovingly

The Ukkhittāsika Sutta says that venerating the Buddha is done with mettā. It explains the six advantages of practising according to the teaching, the last of which is:

• The Teacher will be lovingly venerated by me through my practice [in accordance with the teaching]

Satthā ca me pariciṇṇo bhavissati mettāvatāyā tī. (AN iii 443)

This is the source of our parenthesis.

Channovāda Sutta

Venerable Channa said that for a long time he had ‘venerated the Teacher manāpeneva no amanāpena, [through his practice in accordance with the teaching], as was fitting for a disciple to do’: Api cāvuso sāriputta pariciṇṇo me satthā dīgharattaṁ manāpeneva no amanāpena. Etaṁ hi āvuso sāriputta sāvakassa patirūpaṁ yaṁ satthāraṁ paricareyya manāpeneva no amanāpena (MN iii 264).

Let us consider how to translate this. Firstly, manāpa and amanāpa can mean pleasing and displeasing:

• The eye is attacked by pleasing and displeasing sights.

Cakkhu bhikkhave haññati manāpāmanāpesu rūpesu. (SN iv 172)

Venerable Channa would then be saying ‘the Teacher has been [lovingly] venerated by me [through my practice in accordance with the teaching] which has been pleasing, not displeasing,’ which does not fit.

Alternatively manāpa and amanāpa are synonyms of piya and appiya, meaning dear and loathsome:

• He has harmed, is harming, or will harm someone beloved and dear to me.

Piyassa me manāpassa anatthaṁ acarīti… caratīti… carissatīti

• He has benefited, is benefiting, or will benefit someone who is unbeloved or loathsome to me.

Appiyassa me amanāpassa atthaṁ acari… carati… carissatī ti. (AN v 150; DN iii 263)

In this case, Channa would be saying that his practice had been dear, not loathsome. This again is inapt, but supports us saying ‘lovingly, not unlovingly,’ which is likewise Bodhi’s solution: ‘with love, not without love.’

• But Sāriputta, friend, the Teacher has been lovingly venerated by me [through my practice in accordance with the teaching], not unlovingly, as was fitting for a disciple to do.

Api cāvuso sāriputta pariciṇṇo me satthā dīgharattaṁ manāpeneva no amanāpena. Etaṁ hi āvuso sāriputta sāvakassa patirūpaṁ yaṁ satthāraṁ paricareyya manāpeneva no amanāpena. (MN iii 264)

Illustrations

Illustration: pariciṇṇo mayā satthā, the Teacher has been [lovingly] venerated by me [through my practice in accordance with the teaching]

The Teacher has been [lovingly] venerated by me [through my practice in accordance with the teaching]. I have fulfilled the Buddha’s training system. The heavy burden [of the five grasped aggregates] is laid down. The conduit to renewed states of individual existence has been abolished.

Pariciṇṇo mayā satthā kataṁ buddhassa sāsanaṁ
Ohito garuko bhāro bhavanetti samūhatā. (Tha 604)

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paritassati

Renderings

Illustrations

paritassanā

paritassanā: (main article see: paritassati)

Illustration: paritassanā, agitation

A being passes away from the Ābhassarā world and arises in an empty Brahmā palace. After dwelling alone for a long time, there arises in him uneasiness, dissatisfaction, and agitation, and he thinks, ‘If only some other beings would come here!’

Tassa tattha ekakassa dīgharattaṁ nibbusitattā anabhirati paritassanā uppajjati aho vata aññe pi sattā itthattaṁ āgaccheyyun ti. (DN i 17)

Illustration: paritassanā, agitation

The Great Steward practised a meditation on [unlimited] compassion for four months, hoping to see Brahmā with his eyes, but after that time just felt dissatisfaction and agitation.

Atha kho bho mahāgovindasasa brāhmaṇassa catunnaṁ māsānaṁ accayena ahu deva ukkaṇṭhanā ahu paritassanā. (DN ii 239)

Illustration: paritassanā, agitation

Then it occurred to Venerable Channa:

‘I too think in this way: “Bodily form is unlasting… fields of sensation are unlasting. Bodily form is void of personal qualities… fields of sensation are void of personal qualities. All originated phenomena are unlasting; all things are void of personal qualities.”’

‘But my mind is not energised for the quelling of all originated phenomena, the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment, the destruction of craving, the passing away [of originated phenomena], the ending [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled; nor does it become serene, settled, intent upon it.

Atha ca pana me sabbasaṅkhārasamathe sabbūpadhipaṭinissagge taṇhakkhaye virāge nirodhe nibbāne cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati nādhimuccati

Instead, agitation and grasping arise [in me], and my mind turns back on itself, thinking: ‘But what, then, is my [absolute] Selfhood?

paritassanā upādānaṁ uppajjati paccudāvattati mānasaṁ atha ko carahi me attā ti. (SN iii 133)

Illustration: paritassanā, agitated

In this regard, some person thinks, ‘Alas, it was mine, but now is not mine! What might have been mine, alas, I do not get it!’ He grieves, suffers, and laments, weeps beating his chest, and falls into bewilderment. Thus is he agitated about what does not exist externally.

idha bhikkhu ekaccassa evaṁ hoti ahu vata me taṁ vata me natthi siyā vata me taṁ vatāhaṁ na labhāmīti. So socati kilamati paridevati urattāḷiṁ kandati sammohaṁ āpajjati. Evaṁ kho bhikkhu bahiddhā asati paritassanā hotī ti. (MN i 136)

Illustration: paritassati, agitated

If a bhikkhu who is true to the ancient, primordial noble tradition (bhikkhu porāṇe aggaññe ariyavaṁse ṭhito) does not get robe material he is not agitated.

aladdhā ca cīvaraṁ na paritassati. (DN iii 224; AN ii 27)

Illustration: paritassati, agitated

When a bhikkhu is neither renowned, nor agitated by a lack of renown, in this way he can dwell at ease while living in a monastic community

bhikkhu… appaññāto ca hoti tena ca appaññātakena no paritassati ettāvatā pi kho ānanda bhikkhu saṅghe viharanto phāsuṁ vihareyyāti. (AN iii 133)

Illustration: paritassita, agitation

When those ascetics and Brahmanists who are eternalists proclaim the eternity of an [absolute] Selfhood and the world [of beings] in four ways, [that behaviour arises from] sense impression that is neither known nor seen [according to reality]. [That behaviour] is merely the agitation and mental turmoil of those overcome by craving.

Tatra bhikkhave ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññāpenti catūhi vatthūhi tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva. (DN i 40)

paritassanā

paritassanā: (main article see: paritassati)

Illustration: paritassanā, agitation; paritassati, apprehensive

When the bodily form of the ignorant Everyman changes and alters.

Tassa taṁ rūpaṁ vipariṇamati aññathā hoti.

With the change and alteration of bodily form, his mind is preoccupied with the change

Tassa rūpavipariṇāmaññathābhāvā rūpavipariṇāmānuparivatti viññāṇaṁ hoti.

Agitation and other mental states born of this preoccupation plague his mind.

Tassa rūpavipariṇāmānuparivattijā paritassanā dhammasamuppādā cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhanti.

Thus he is fearful, agitated, and full of concern,

Cetaso pariyādānā uttāsavā ca hoti vighātavā ca apekkhavā ca

and because of grasping he is agitated .

upādāya ca paritassati. (SN iii 16)

Illustration: paritassati, agitated

When a bhikkhu abides contemplating unlastingness, passing away, ending, and relinquishment of sense impression he does not grasp anything in the world [of phenomena]

so tāsu vedanāsu aniccānupassī viharanto virāgānupassī viharanto nirodhānupassī viharanto paṭinissaggānupassī viharanto na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

Being without grasping, he is not agitated.

anupādiyaṁ na paritassati.

Being not agitated, he realises the Untroubled for himself.

aparitassaṁ paccattaṁ yeva parinibbāyati. (MN i 251)

Illustration: paritassati, agitated

When the Buddha is seated indoors he is not afraid, he does not shake or tremble, he is not agitated.

So antaraghare nisinnova samāno nacchambhati na kampati na vedhati na paritassati. (MN ii 138)

Illustration: paritassati, agitated

If a bhikkhu’s mind is unattached to bodily form… the fields of sensation, it is liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping.

Rūpadhātuyā… viññāṇadhātuyā ce bhikkhave bhikkhuno cittaṁ virattaṁ vimuttaṁ hoti anupādāya āsavehi.

Being thus liberated it is inwardly stable

Being inwardly stable it is inwardly at peace

Being inwardly at peace, he is not agitated

Santusitattā na paritassati.

Being not agitated, he realises the Untroubled for himself.

Aparitassaṁ paccattaṁ yeva parinibbāyati. (SN iii 45)

na paritassati

na paritassati: (main article see: paritassati)

Illustration: na paritassati, free of agitation

He who has severed every tie to individual existence is truly free of agitation.

Sabbasaṁyojanaṁ chetvā yo ve na paritassati. (Snp 621; Dhp 397)

Illustration: paritassati, agitated

Likewise, a bhikkhu does not consider the six senses to be either [in reality] himself or [in reality] his own.

Evameva kho āvuso bhikkhu chasu phassāyatanesu neva attānaṁ nāttaniyaṁ samanupassati

Therefore he does not grasp anything in the world [of phenomena].

so evaṁ asamanupassanto na kiñci loke upādiyati

Therefore he is not agitated.

anupādiyaṁ na paritassati

Being not agitated, he realises the Untroubled for himself.

aparitassaṁ paccattaṁ yeva parinibbāyati. (SN iv 167-8)

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paribbajati

Renderings

Introduction

Paribbajati: an exalted practice

Paribbajati is one of the poetical words of Buddhism, and found only in verse. It is usually (and misleadingly) rendered as ‘wander.’ In fact it is an exalted practice that even implies arahantship.

Paribbajati means asceticism

Paribbajati is the subject of the Sammāparibbājanīya Sutta, which is the Buddha’s answer to the following question:

• Having renounced the household life [and] thrust away sensuous pleasure, how would a bhikkhu properly fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism in the world?

Nikkhamma gharā panujja kāme kathaṁ bhikkhu sammā so loke paribbajeyya. (Snp 359)

That paribbajeyya implies asceticism is obvious in the question, involving the renunciation of the household life, and the thrusting away of sensuous pleasure.

Paribbajati means arahantship

That paribbajati ultimately implies arahantship is clear in this portion of the Buddha’s answer:

• One who has destroyed all states of attachment, having realised the [Untroubled] State, having understood the teaching, having clearly seen the abandonment of all perceptually obscuring states: he would properly fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism in the world.

Aññāya padaṁ samecca dhammaṁ vivaṭaṁ disvāna pahānamāsavānaṁ
Sabbūpadhinaṁ parikkhayāno sammā so loke paribbajeyya. (Snp 374)

Sabbupadhīnaṁ parikkhayāno: ‘One who has destroyed all states of attachment.‘ Norman treats this as an instrumental: ‘because of the destruction of all acquisitions.’ We regard it as a primary derivative and a noun with a kita suffix. See Duroiselle para 563-578.

Paribbajati does not mean ‘wander’

Calling paribbajati ‘wander’ has had nonsensical results. For example, Norman says that Tha 1162 means ‘a bhikkhu should wander about as though smitten by a sword.’ This rendering has also led to the view that the bhikkhu’s life is for wandering. But the bhikkhu’s life, even for arahants, may involve no wandering at all. For example, if a bhikkhu is living in some quiet grove and his spiritual development is satisfactory, then:

• ‘that bhikkhu should continue living in that quiet grove for the rest of his life; he should not depart’

Tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā yāvajīvampi tasmiṁ vanapatthe vatthabbaṁ na pakkamitabbaṁ. (MN i 106)

Paribbajati versus cārika

The usual words for ‘wandering’ are carati and cārika. Although the scriptures say there are benefits in periodic wandering (ānisaṁsā samavatthacāre AN iii 257), there are dangers (ādīnavā) if it goes on too long (dīghacārikaṁ AN iii 257). Therefore is often criticised:

• Bhikkhus, there are these five disadvantages for one who engages in lengthy and unsettled wandering. What five?

Pañcime bhikkhave ādīnavā dīghacārikaṁ anavattha cārikaṁ anuyuttassa viharato. Katame pañca. (AN iii 257)

• He should be meditative, not wandering about.

Jhāyī na pādalolassa. (Snp 925)

• They go to different countries, wandering unrestrained. If they lose their inward collectedness, what good will this international travelling do? Therefore one should eliminate [such] harmful conduct. One should meditate unaccompanied.

Nānājanapadaṁ yanti vicarantā asaṁyatā
Samādhiñca virādhenti kiṁsu raṭṭhacariyā karissati
Tasmā vineyya sārambhaṁ jhāyeyya apurakkhato ti. (Tha 37)

By comparison, if paribbajati meant wandering, we would expect an excess of it to be likewise regarded with caution. Instead, however, it is associated solely with what is good. Indeed, one should do it to the maximum possible extent, as if threatened with a sword, or as if one’s head were on fire (see illustrations below, SN i 53).

Paribbājaka: two meanings

The term paribbājaka is derived from paribbajati, and so for etmological reasons is usually (and misleadingly) rendered ‘wanderer.’ In fact paribbājaka has two meanings:

1) non-Buddhist ascetics

2) a group of non-Buddhist ascetics renowned for their talkativeness, which we call ‘philosophiser ascetics.’

Paribbājaka: non-Buddhist ascetics

Paribbājaka can mean ‘non-Buddhist ascetics.’ For example, Pācittiya 41 says it is an offence for a bhikkhu to give food with his hand to a naked ascetic (acelaka), or to a non-Buddhist ascetic (paribbājako), or to a female non-Buddhist ascetic (paribbājikā).

Yo pana bhikkhu acelakassa vā paribbājakassa vā paribbājikāya vā sahattā khādanīyaṁ vā bhojanīyaṁ vā dadeyya pācittiyan ti.

The definition of these terms confirms that ‘non-Buddhist’ is meant:

• Naked ascetic (acelako) means: whoever being naked is a non-Buddhist ascetic (paribbājaka).

Acelako nāma yo koci paribbājaka samāpanno naggo

• Non-Buddhist ascetic (paribbājako) means: setting aside bhikkhu and sāmaṇera, whoever is an ascetic (paribbājaka).

Paribbājako nāma bhikkhuñca sāmaṇerañca ṭhapetvā yo koci paribbājaka samāpanno

• Female non-Buddhist ascetic (paribbājikā) means: setting aside bhikkhunī and sikkhamānā and sāmaṇerī, whoever is a female ascetic.

Paribbājikā nāma bhikkhuniñca sikkhamānañca sāmaṇeriñca ṭhapetvā yā kāci paribbājikasamāpannā. (Vin.4.92)

Aññatitthiyā paribbājakā: non-Buddhist ascetics

Paribbājakā is an abbreviation for aññatitthiyā paribbājakā, which therefore also means ‘non-Buddhist ascetic.’ But sometimes aññatitthiyā paribbājakā is called ‘ascetic of another sect,’ as if the Buddha’s group is also a sect. ‘Sect’ means:

  • A subdivision of a larger religious group
  • A dissenting clique (WordWeb).

Neither Buddhists nor non-Buddhist ascetics were subdivisions of a larger group. They were altogether separate groups of ascetics.

Paribbājaka: philosophiser ascetics

Paribbājaka is also the name of a certain group of non-Buddhist ascetics whose lifestyle was governed by the idea that wisdom comes from conversation (DN iii 38). We will call them ‘philosophiser ascetics.’ Calling them ‘philosopher ascetics’ would unjustly magnify them and their usually frivolous topics of conversation, for example about battles, food, drink, clothes, beds, garlands, scents, relations etc. (DN iii 36).

Philosophiser ascetics said that the Buddha's wisdom was destroyed by the solitary life (suññāgārahatā samaṇassa gotamassa paññā) and that he was no good at conversation. Apart from the practice of companionship, they praised the practice of self-mortification (DN iii 40-1). Their goal was to realise an exclusively pleasant world, and some of them practised samādhi, but only up to third jhāna (MN ii 37).

These paribbājakas are correctly known as ascetics, because their lifestyle involved not just the five precepts, but also celibacy (brahmacārī, AN iii 276). It also involved a simple lifestyle, eating just once a day, and not after noon (rattūparato ekabhattiko MN ii 89).

Of the two types of paribbājaka neither are linked in the scriptures to wandering, so that label is simply inappropriate.

Paribbājaka: arahant

Thirdly, paribbājaka is a term for an arahant, and in which case we render the word as ‘one who has fulfilled the ideals of religious asceticism.’ See the last of the Illustrations below (Snp 537).

Illustrations

paribbaje

paribbaje: (main article see: paribbajati)

Illustration: paribbaje, fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism

Recognising this danger,

That there is great peril in states of attachment,

Then, unattached, free of grasping, the bhikkhu should mindfully fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism.

Anissito anupādāno sato bhikkhu paribbaje ti. (Snp 752-3)

Illustration: paribbaje, fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism

Whichever homeless one, having abandoned sensuous pleasure in this world, should fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism, and for whom individual existence in the sensuous plane of existence is destroyed, he is what I call a Brahman.

Yodha kāme pahatvāna anāgāro paribbaje
Kāmabhavaparikkhīṇaṁ tamahaṁ brūmi brāhmaṇaṁ. (Dhp 415; Snp 639)

paribbaja

paribbaja: (main article see: paribbajati)

Illustration: paribbaja, fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism

A brahman priest seated on a low seat taught sacred texts to a king seated on a high seat. A bystander seeing this admonished the priest as follows:

• ‘Fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism, great priest, for other creatures boil. By practising what is unrighteous, may you not break like a pot.’

Paribbaja mahābrahme pacantaññepi pāṇīno
Mā tvaṁ adhammo ācarito asmā kumbhamivābhīdā ti. (Vin.4.204)

paribbaje ti

paribbaje ti: (main article see: paribbajati)

Illustration: paribbaje ti, fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism

As if threatened with a sword, or as if his head were on fire, having abandoned attachment to sensuous pleasure a bhikkhu should mindfully fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism.

Sattiyā viya omaṭṭho ḍayhamāno va matthake
Kāmarāgappahāṇāya sato bhikkhu paribbaje ti. (Tha 39; SN i 53)

As if threatened with a sword, or as if his head were on fire, having abandoned the view of personal identity, a bhikkhu should mindfully fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism.

sattiyā viya omaṭṭho ḍayhamāno va matthake
Sakkāyadiṭṭhippahāṇāya sato bhikkhu paribbaje ti. (SN i 53)

Illustration: paribbaje, fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism

Whether eating moist food or dry, one should not be oversatiated. With an ungorged stomach, eating moderately, a bhikkhu should mindfully fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism.

Allaṁ sukkhaṁ vā bhuñjanto na bāḷhaṁ suhito siyā
Ūnūdaro mitāhāro sato bhikkhu paribbaje. (Tha 982)

paribbājaka

paribbājaka: (main article see: paribbajati)

Illustration: paribbājaka, one who has fulfilled the ideals of religious asceticism

One who lives the religious life with profound understanding, shunning conduct that has an unpleasant karmic consequence, above, below, across, and in the middle (=body, speech, and mind), who has ended deceit, conceit, greed, anger, and immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form, they call him one who has fulfilled the ideals of religious asceticism, one who has attained the [supreme] attainment.

Dukkhavepakkaṁ yadatthi kammaṁ uddhamadho tiriyañcāpi majjhe
Paribbājayitvā pariññācārī māyaṁ mānamathopi lobhakodhaṁ
Pariyantamakāsi nāmarūpaṁ taṁ paribbājakamāhu pattipattanti. (Snp 537)

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parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā

Renderings

Introduction

Parimukhaṁ: objective

Here we will explain here our translation of parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā, as it occurs in this phrase:

• He seats himself. Having crossed his legs, having set his body erect, having established mindfulness within himself,

nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā. (MN ii 139)

Parimukhaṁ: ‘round the mouth’

Parimukhaṁ can mean ‘round the mouth’ and is therefore used for ‘moustache’:

• The hair round the mouth should not be coiffed.

na parimukhaṁ kārāpetabbaṁ. (Vin.2.134)

Mindfulness around the mouth

But does this necessarily mean that meditators should establish mindfulness around their mouths? Because this would only be remotely appropriate where the meditation is on breathing. In fact parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā occurs in other meditations, too. For example, as a prelude to meditation on [unlimited] goodwill:

• I seat myself cross-legged, setting my body erect, establishing mindfulness within myself. Then I abide pervading one quarter with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill…

nisīdāmi pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā so mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharāmi. (AN i 183)

Parimukhaṁ with ajjhattaṁ

Most translators agree that parimukhaṁ is an adverb of place, and commonly render our phrase ‘he establishes mindfulness in front of him.’ In the Udāna and Itivuttaka, parimukhaṁ occurs together with another adverb of place, ajjhattaṁ:

• The Blessed One saw Venerable Mahākaccāna sitting nearby, seated cross-legged, with his body upright, with mindfulness of the body well-established internally within himself (ajjhattaṁ parimukhaṁ).

Addasā kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ mahākaccānaṁ avidūre nisinnaṁ pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya kāyagatāya satiyā ajjhattaṁ parimukhaṁ supaṭṭhitāya. (Uda 77-8)

• When mindfulness with breathing is well-established internally within yourself (ajjhattaṁ parimukhaṁ), the proclivity to extraneous thoughts that are vexatious does not exist.

Ānāpānasatiyā ajjhattaṁ parimukhaṁ sūpaṭṭhitāya ye bāhirā vitakkāsayā vighātapakkhikā te na honti. (Iti 80)

There are three reasons why parimukhaṁ must mean ‘within himself’:

1) The stringing together of synonyms is a common feature of Pāli. If this is also the case here, then parimukhaṁ is simply a synonym of ajjhattaṁ, meaning ‘within himself.’

2) If parimukhaṁ is an adverb of place, then it must inevitably be a synonym of ajjhattaṁ, because otherwise it leads to this contradiction:

  • His body upright, with mindfulness of the body well-established internally in front of himself (Uda 77-8).
  • When mindfulness with breathing is well-established internally in front of yourself (Iti 80).

3) In the construction of similar expressions in other contexts, mindfulness is shown to be established in a locative sense in relation to the meditator:

• Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the nature of the body, on that occasion unmuddled mindfulness is established within him (tassa).

Yasmiṁ samaye ānanda bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati upaṭṭhitā tassa tasmiṁ samaye sati hoti asammuṭṭhā.

… Whenever, Ānanda, unmuddled mindfulness is established in a bhikkhu (bhikkhuno), on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is aroused in the bhikkhu (bhikkhuno).

Yasmiṁ samaye ānanda bhikkhuno upaṭṭhitā sati hoti asammuṭṭhā satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti. (SN v 331)

Genitives rendered as locatives

We will now digress to justify our rendering of genitives tassa and bhikkhuno as locatives, and hence show that according to the passage just quoted, that mindfulness is established in a locative sense, namely ‘within oneself.’ Our justification is that both Bodhi and Horner also render them as locatives in a similar passage at MN iii 85:

  • Bodhi: On whatever occasion unremitting mindfulness is established in a bhikkhu—on that occasion the mindfulness enlightenment factor is aroused in him.
  • Horner: At the time, monks, when unmuddled mindfulness is aroused in the monk, at that time the link in awakening that is mindfulness is stirred up in the monk.

Yasmiṁ samaye bhikkhave bhikkhuno upaṭṭhitā sati hoti asammuṭṭhā satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti. (MN iii 85)

In conclusion, parimukhaṁ has a locative sense and is a synonym of ajjhattaṁ. Therefore mindfulness is established within oneself, not in front of oneself.

Expansion of meditation: parimukhaṁ the first step

We have seen that parimukhaṁ means that mindfulness is established within oneself because it is a synonym of ajjhattaṁ. Following this, we can now see that parimukhaṁ is the first of several steps, because meditations that begin with oneself are repeatedly said to be expanded outwards:

1) As he abides contemplating the nature of the body internally he becomes perfectly inwardly collected and perfectly serene. Being thus perfectly inwardly collected and perfectly serene he arouses knowledge and vision externally of others’ bodies [according to reality].

Ajjhattaṁ kāye kāyānupassī viharanto tattha sammāsamādhiyati sammāvippasīdati. So tattha sammā samāhito sammāvippasanno bahiddhā parakāye ñāṇadassanaṁ abhinibbatteti. (DN ii 216)

2) You should develop the [contemplation of the] four bases of mindfulness in a threefold way. Which four?

cattāro satipaṭṭhāne tividhena bhaveyyāsi. Katame cattāro. Idha tvaṁ bhikkhu

• In this regard, bhikkhu, abide contemplating the nature of the body internally

idha tvaṁ bhikkhu ajjhattaṁ kāye kāyānupassī viharāhi

• abide contemplating the nature of the body externally

bahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharāhi

• abide contemplating the nature of the body internally and externally

ajjhattabahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharāhi. (SN v 143)

3) Having washed his feet he seats himself. Having crossed his legs, having set his body erect, having established mindfulness within himself,

So pāde pakkhāletvā nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā.

… He sits reflecting on his own welfare, on the welfare of others and on the welfare of both, indeed on the welfare of the whole world.

Attahitaṁ parahitaṁ ubhayahitaṁ sabbalokahitameva so bhavaṁ gotamo cintento nisinno hoti. (MN ii 139)

Connecting the absolutives

Ānandajoti says:

• ‘The absolutives here and in the next line are connected with the finite verbs assasati and passasati, and not with nisīdati in the preceding line, in which case the folding of the legs, setting the body straight, and establishment of mindfulness would all occur before he sat down!’

We render pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā as ‘having crossed his legs,’ (‘having bent in the round lap,’ says PED, sv Ābhujati), and thus the sentence as follows:

• He seats himself. Having crossed his legs, having set his body erect, having established mindfulness within himself, mindfully he breathes in; mindfully he breathes out.

nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā. So satova assasati sato passasati. (MN i 56)

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pariyāya

Renderings

Introduction

Imaṁ pariyāyamakāsi yadidaṁ idhāgamanāya: found an opportunity to come here

This phrase occurs 12 times in the suttas. Its meaning is clarified in this exchange:

[The Buddha:]

• At long last, lay follower, you have found an opportunity to come here.

cirassaṁ kho tvaṁ upāsakaṁ imaṁ pariyāyamakāsi yadidaṁ idhāgamanāyā ti.

[Lay follower:]

• Bhante, I have wanted to come and see the Blessed One for ages, but I have been busy with various tasks and duties so I have not been able to do so.

Cirapaṭikāhaṁ bhante bhagavantaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamitukāmo api cāhaṁ kehi ci kehi ci kiccakaraṇiyehi vyāvaṭo. Evāhaṁ nāsakkhiṁ bhagavantaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamitun tī. (Uda 13)

Illustrations

pariyāyena

pariyāyena: (main article see: pariyāya)

Illustration: pariyāyena, way

In this way, friend, it has been declared by the Blessed One that fields of sensation are void of personal qualities

imināpi kho etaṁ āvuso pariyāyena bhagavatā akkhātaṁ vivaṭaṁ pakāsitaṁ itipidaṁ viññāṇaṁ anattā ti. (SN iv 166)

Illustration: pariyāya, ways

Proficient [in discerning] the ways of others’ minds.

Illustration: pariyāyena, ways

Just so, bhante, has the Blessed One expounded the teaching in various ways

evamevaṁ bhotā gotamena anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. (MN iii 7)

Illustration: pariyāyena, ways

Have not obstructive things been called obstructions in many ways by me?

Nanu mayā moghapurisa anekapariyāyena antarāyikā dhammā antarāyikā vuttā. (MN i 132)

Illustration: pariyāya, ways

This bhikkhu is called a master of the ways and paths of thought.

Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave bhikkhu vasī vitakkapariyāyapathesu

He thinks whatever thought he wishes to think, and does not think whatever thought he does not wish to think.

yaṁ vitakkaṁ ākaṅkhissati taṁ vitakkaṁ vitakkessati yaṁ vitakkaṁ nākaṅkhissati na taṁ vitakkaṁ vitakkessati. (MN i 122)

pariyāyaṁ

pariyāyaṁ: (main article see: pariyāya)

Illustration: pariyāyaṁ, method

He should organise the use of a method that involves two or three layers of facing material around the door

dvatticchadanassa pariyāyaṁ adhiṭṭhātabbanti. (Vin.4.47-8)

pariyāye

pariyāye: (main article see: pariyāya)

Illustration: pariyāye, some other

The karmic consequence of karmically consequential deeds is threefold: that which arises in this life, or on rebirth, or in some other subsequent [existence].

Tividhāhaṁ bhikkhave kammānaṁ vipākaṁ vadāmi diṭṭhevā dhamme upajje vā apare vā pariyāye. (AN iii 415)

Illustration: pariyāye, some other

By chicanery or some other strategem or artifice, for the sake of a [luxurious] lifestyle they accumulate vast wealth.

Lesakappe pariyāye parikappenudhāvitā
Jīvikatthā upāyena saṅkaḍḍhanti bahuṁ dhanaṁ. (Tha 941)

COMMENT

Parikappenudhāvitā: ‘strategem.’ Literally: ‘pursuing a strategem.’

COMMENT

Upāyena: ‘artifice.’ PED (sv Upāya): ‘by artifice or by means of a trick.’

Illustration: pariyāye, other kinds

Four kinds of knowledge

• knowledge of the nature of reality

• knowledge of conformity

anvaye ñāṇaṁ

• other kinds of knowledge [of things according to reality]

pariyāye ñāṇaṁ

• common knowledge

COMMENT

Pariyāye ñāṇaṁ: ‘Other kinds of knowledge [of things according to reality].’ For notes on the parenthesis, see Glossary sv Ñāṇa.

pariyāyo

pariyāyo: (main article see: pariyāya)

Illustration: pariyāyo, another way

And this is another way of explaining in brief that same point

ayampi kho sāriputta pariyāyo etasseva atthassa saṅkhittena veyyākaraṇāya

• I am not unsure about the perceptually obscuring states spoken of by the Ascetic

ye āsavā samaṇena vuttā tesvāhaṁ na kaṅkhāmi;

• I do not doubt they have been abandoned by me

te me pahīṇāti na vicikicchāmī ti. (SN ii 54)

Illustration: pariyāyo, another reason

But is there another reason, Prince, that leads you to think: ‘There is not a world beyond. There are no spontaneously born beings. There is no fruit or result of good and bad deeds’?

Atthi pana rājañña pariyāyo yena te pariyāyena evaṁ hoti: 'iti pi natthi paro loko natthi sattā opapātikā natthi sukaṭadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko ti?

There is another reason, Master Kassapa, that leads me to think: ‘There is not a world beyond. There are no spontaneously born beings. There is no fruit or result of good and bad deeds.’

Atthi bho kassapa pariyāyo yena me pariyāyena evaṁ hoti: 'iti pi natthi paro loko natthi sattā opapātikā natthi sukaṭadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko ti. (DN ii 329-30)

Illustration: pariyāyena, other way

A bhikkhu asked Ānanda:

‘Was it after applying his whole mind to [the matter] that the Blessed One declared of Devadatta: “Devadatta is bound for [rebirth in] the plane of sub-human existence, bound for hell, and he will remain there for the period of a universal cycle, unredeemable,” or was it in some other way?’

Kiṁ nu ko āvuso ānanda sabbaṁ cetaso samannāharitvā nu kho devadatto bhagavatā vyākato āpāyiko devadatto nerayiko kappaṭṭho atekiccho ti udāhu kenacideva pariyāyenā ti. (AN iii 402)

Comment:

‘In some other way?’ This implies the question: ‘Was the Buddha fully conscious when he said that?’ Ānanda relayed the question to the Buddha, who replied with the following two statements:

1) ‘Ānanda, that bhikkhu must be either newly ordained, or a foolish and incompetent elder. When [the statement] was declared by me categorically, how on earth could he be unclear about it?’

So vā kho ānanda bhikkhu navo bhavissati acirapabbajito thero vā pana bālo avyatto. Kathaṁ hi nāma yaṁ mayā ekaṁsena vyākataṁ tattha dvejjhaṁ āpajjissati?

He continued:

2) ‘I do not see any other single person about whom I have made a declaration after [more completely] applying my whole mind to [the matter] as [I did with] Devadatta.’

Nāhaṁ ānanda aññaṁ ekapuggalampi samanupassāmi yo evaṁ mayā sabbaṁ cetaso samannāharitvā vyākato yathayidaṁ devadatto. (AN iii 403)

Illustration: pariyāyena, in a way that is qualified

It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified, because again there is something inwardly troublesome. What is troublesome in this case?

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā pariyāyena. Tattha’patthi sambādho. (AN iv 449-451)

nippariyāyena

nippariyāyena: (main article see: pariyāya)

Illustration: nippariyāyena, in a way that is unqualified

It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One in a way that is unqualified.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā nippariyāyenāti. (AN iv 449-451)

Illustration: pariyāyena, consecutively

There are two religious discourses of the Perfect One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One proclaimed consecutively. Which two?

Tathāgatassa bhikkhave arahato sammāsambuddhassa dve dhammadesanā pariyāyena bhavanti. Katamā dve?

1) Recognise unvirtuousness as unvirtuous. This is the first religious discourse.

Pāpaṁ pāpakato passathā ti ayaṁ paṭhamā dhammadesanā.

2) Seeing unvirtuousness as unvirtuous, become in that respect disillusioned, unattached, and liberated. This is the second religious discourses

Pāpaṁ pāpakato disvā tattha nibbindatha virajjatha vimuccathā ti ayaṁ dutiyā dhammadesanā. (Iti 33)

See the two statements proclaimed consecutively by the Perfect One, the Buddha, tenderly concerned for all beings. These are ‘Recognise unvirtuousness’ and then ‘Be unattached to it.’ With a mind that is unattached, you will put an end to suffering.’

Tathāgatassa buddhassa sabbabhūtānukampino
Pariyāyavacanaṁ passa dve ca dhammā pakāsitā
Pāpakaṁ passatha cetaṁ tattha cā pi virajjatha
Tato virattacittā se dukkhassantaṁ karissathā ti. (Iti 33-4)

Illustration: pariyāyena, in turn

Each of you has spoken well in turn

Sabbesaṁ vo bhikkhave subhāsitaṁ pariyāyena. (AN iii 402)

Illustration: pariyāya, systematic schedule

I ate only once a day, once in two days, once in seven days. In this way, eating even only once a fortnight, I dwelt given to eating food according to a systematic schedule.

Ekāhikampi āhāraṁ āhāremi dvīhikampi āhāraṁ āhāremi sattāhikampi āhāraṁ āhāremi. Iti evarūpaṁ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharāmi.. (MN i 78)

Illustration: pariyāya, systematic schedule

I do not say that the asceticism of one who eats according to a systematic schedule is merely due to his eating according to a systematic schedule.

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave pariyāyabhattikassa pariyāyabhattikamattena sāmaññaṁ vadāmi (MN i 282)

Illustration: pariyāya, proper method of exposition

One who explains the teaching to others should establish within himself five principles. Which five?

Paresaṁ ānanda dhammaṁ desentena pañca dhamme ajjhattaṁ upaṭṭhapetvā paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo. Katame pañca:

One should explain the teaching to others with the thought:

1) I will speak step-by-step.

Ānupubbīkathaṁ kathessāmīti paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo

2) I will speak observing a proper method of exposition.

Pariyāyadassāvī kathaṁ kathessāmīti paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo

3) I will speak out of sympathy.

Anuddayataṁ paṭicca kathaṁ kathessāmīti paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo

4) I will speak not for the sake of worldly benefits.

Na āmisantaro kathaṁ kathessāmīti paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo

5) I will speak without hurting myself or others.

Attānañca parañca anupahacca kathaṁ kathessāmī ti paresaṁ dhammo desetabbo. (AN iii 184)

Illustration: pariyāyaṁ, systematic exposition

I will expound for your benefit a systematic exposition of the teaching that involves a comparison with oneself.

Attūpanāyikaṁ vo gahapatayo dhammapariyāyaṁ desissāmī ti

What is the systematic exposition of the teaching that involves a comparison with oneself?

Katamo ca gahapatayo attūpanāyiko dhammapariyāyo:

In this regard, householders, a noble disciple reflects thus: ‘I am one who wishes to live, who does not wish to die; I desire happiness and loathe pain. Since I am one who wishes to live… and loathe pain, if someone were to take my life, that would not be agreeable and pleasing to me.

idha gahapatayo ariyasāvako iti paṭisañcikkhati ahaṁ khosmi jīvitukāmo amaritukāmo sukhakāmo dukkhapaṭikkūlo. Yo kho maṁ jīvitukāmaṁ amaritukāmaṁ sukhakāmaṁ dukkhapaṭikkūlaṁ jīvitā voropeyya na me taṁ assa piyaṁ manāpaṁ

Now if I were to take the life of another―of one who wishes to live, who does not wish to die, who desires happiness and loathes pain―that would not be agreeable and pleasing to the other either. What is disagreeable and displeasing to me is disagreeable and displeasing to the other too. How can I inflict upon another what is disagreeable and displeasing to me?’

ahañceva kho pana paraṁ jīvitukāmaṁ. Sukhakāmaṁ dukkhapaṭikkūlaṁ jīvitā voropeyya parassapi taṁ assa appiyaṁ amanāpaṁ. Yo kho myāyaṁ dhammo appiyo amanāpo. Parassapeso dhammo appiyo amanāpo. Yo kho myāyaṁ dhammo appiyo amanāpo kathāhaṁ paraṁ tena saṁyojeyyanti

In reflecting thus, he himself abstains from killing, exhorts others to abstain from killing, and speaks in praise of abstaining from killing.

So iti paṭisaṅkhāya attanā ca pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti. Parañca pāṇātipātā veramaṇiyā samādapeti. Pāṇātipātā veramaṇiyā ca vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati. (SN v 354)

Illustration: pariyāyaṁ, systematic exposition

I will expound for your benefit a systematic exposition on the essence of the whole teaching.

Sabbadhammamūlapariyāyaṁ vo bhikkhave desessāmi. (MN i 1)

Illustration: pariyāyaṁ, systematic exposition

Then, while the Blessed One was alone in solitary retreat, he spoke this systematic exposition of the teaching.

Atha kho bhagavā rahogato paṭisallīno imaṁ dhammapariyāyaṁ abhāsi:

Dependent on the visual sense and visible objects, the visual field of sensation arises. The association of the three is sensation. Sense impression arises dependent on sensation. Craving arises dependent on sense impression. Grasping arises dependent on craving. Individual existence arises dependent on grasping. Birth arises dependent on individual existence. Dependent on birth, there arises old-age-and-death, grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation. Such is the origination of this whole mass of suffering.

Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṁ. Tiṇṇaṁ saṅgati phasso. Phassapaccayā vedanā. Vedanāpaccayā taṇhā. Taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ. Upādānapaccayā bhavo. Bhavapaccayā jāti. Jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti. (SN ii 74)

pariyāyassa

pariyāyassa: (main article see: pariyāya)

Illustration: pariyāyassa, systematic exposition

These teachings go to the Far Shore, hence this systematic exposition of the teaching is called The Way to the Far Shore.

Pāraṅgamanīyā ime dhammā ti tasmā imassa dhammapariyāyassa pārāyananteva adhivacanaṁ. (Snp 218)

Comment:

The Pārāyanavagga is in fact a collection of teachings, not a systematic exposition.

Illustration: pariyāyaṁ, systematic exposition; pariyāyaṁ, theme

Bhikkhus, I will expound for your benefit a systematic exposition of the teaching on the theme of ‘The one who proclaims that an effort should be made.’ Please listen…

yogakkhemipariyāyaṁ vo bhikkhave dhammapariyāyaṁ desissāmi taṁ suṇātha.

And what is the systematic exposition of the teaching on the theme of ‘The one who proclaims that an effort should be made’?

Katamo ca bhikkhave yogakkhemipariyāyo dhammapariyāyo?

There are visible objects known via the visual sense that are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming. These have been abandoned by the Perfect One, chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, never to arise again in future.

Santi bhikkhave cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā te tathāgatassa pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā

He proclaims that an effort should be made for their abandonment. Therefore the Perfect One is called ‘The one who proclaims that an effort should be made.’

tesañca pahānāya akkhāsi yogaṁ tasmā tathāgato yogakkhemī ti vuccati. (SN iv 85)

Illustration: pariyāyaṁ, systematic exposition; pariyāyaṁ, on the theme of

I will expound for your benefit a systematic exposition of the teaching on the theme of burning.

Ādittapariyāyaṁ vo bhikkhave dhammapariyāyaṁ desissāmi. Taṁ suṇātha.

And what is the systematic exposition of the teaching on the theme of burning?

Katamo ca bhikkhave ādittāpariyāyo dhammapariyāyo?

It would be better for the faculty of sight to be blotted out by a red-hot iron pin, burning, blazing, and glowing, than for one to grasp the features or aspects of a visible object known via the visual sense. For if one’s stream of consciousness should stand tied to the sweetness of the features or aspects of the object, and if one should die on that occasion, it is possible that one will go to one of two places of rebirth: hell or the animal realm. Seeing this danger, I speak thus.

Varaṁ bhikkhave tattāya ayosalākāya ādittāya sampajjalitāya sajotibhūtāya cakkhundriyaṁ sampalimaṭṭhaṁ na tveva cakkhuviññeyyesu rūpesu anuvyañjanaso nimittaggāho. Nimittassādagathitaṁ vā bhikkhave viññāṇaṁ tiṭṭhamānaṁ tiṭṭheyya anuvyañjanassādagathitaṁ vā tasmiṁ ce samaye kālaṁ kareyya ṭhānametaṁ vijjati yaṁ dvinnaṁ gatīnaṁ aññataraṁ gatiṁ gaccheyya nirayaṁ vā tiracchānayoniṁ vā. Imaṁ khvāhaṁ bhikkhave ādīnavaṁ disvā evaṁ vadāmi. (SN iv 168)

imaṁ pariyāyamakāsi yadidaṁ idhāgamanāya

imaṁ pariyāyamakāsi yadidaṁ idhāgamanāya: (main article see: pariyāya)

Illustration: imaṁ pariyāyamakāsi yadidaṁ idhāgamanāya, found an opportunity to come here

At long last, bhante, the Blessed One has found an opportunity to come here.

Cirassaṁ kho bhante bhagavā imaṁ pariyāyamakāsi yadidaṁ idhāgamanāya. (DN i 179)

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pariyuṭṭhita

pariyuṭṭhāna

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: pariyuṭṭhāna, absorption; pariyuṭṭhita, absorbed; pariyuṭṭhita, preoccupied

Is there any absorption unabandoned in myself that might so preoccupy my mind that I could not know or see things according to reality?

atthi nu kho me taṁ pariyuṭṭhānaṁ ajjhattaṁ appahīnaṁ yenāhaṁ pariyuṭṭhānena pariyuṭṭhitacitto yathābhūtaṁ na jāneyyaṁ na passeyyanti

• If a bhikkhu is absorbed in attachment to sensuous pleasure then his mind is preoccupied

Sace bhikkhave bhikkhu kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhito hoti pariyuṭṭhitacittova hoti.

• If a bhikkhu is absorbed in ill will then his mind is preoccupied

Sace bhikkhave bhikkhu vyāpādapariyuṭṭhito hoti pariyuṭṭhitacittova hoti.

If a bhikkhu is absorbed in lethargy and torpor then his mind is preoccupied

Sace bhikkhave bhikkhu thīnamiddhapariyuṭṭhito hoti pariyuṭṭhitacittova hoti.

• If a bhikkhu is absorbed in restlessness and anxiety then his mind is preoccupied

Sace bhikkhave bhikkhu uddhaccakukkuccapariyuṭṭhito hoti pariyuṭṭhitacittova hoti.

• If a bhikkhu is absorbed in doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] then his mind is preoccupied

Sace bhikkhave bhikkhu vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhito hoti pariyuṭṭhitacittova hoti.

• if a bhikkhu is absorbed in speculation about this world then his mind is preoccupied

Sace bhikkhave bhikkhu idhalokacintāya pasuto hoti pariyuṭṭhitacittova hoti

• if a bhikkhu is absorbed in speculation about the world hereafter then his mind is preoccupied

Sace bhikkhave bhikkhu paralokacintāya pasuto hoti pariyuṭṭhitacittova hoti

• if a bhikkhu abides quarrelsome, cantankerous, contentious, stabbing others with verbal daggers, then his mind is preoccupied.

Sace bhikkhave bhikkhu bhaṇḍanajāto kalahajāto vivādāpanno aññamaññaṁ mukhasattīhi vitudanto viharati pariyuṭṭhitacittova hoti. (MN i 323)

pariyuṭṭhitena

pariyuṭṭhitena: (main article see: pariyuṭṭhāna)

Illustration: pariyuṭṭhitena, absorbed

Ānanda, the ignorant Everyman

• abides with a mind absorbed in and overcome by the view of personal identity.

sakkāyadiṭṭhipariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati sakkāyadiṭṭhiparetena

• abides with a mind absorbed in and overcome by doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]

vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vicikicchāparetena

• abides with a mind absorbed in and overcome by adherence to observances and practices

sīlabbataparāmāsapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati sīlabbataparāmāsaparetena

• abides with a mind absorbed in and overcome by attachment to sensuous pleasure

kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati kāmarāgaparetena

• abides with a mind absorbed in and overcome by ill will

vyāpādapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vyāpādaparetena. (MN i 434)

pariyuṭṭhitaṁ

pariyuṭṭhitaṁ: (main article see: pariyuṭṭhāna)

Illustration: pariyuṭṭhitaṁ, absorbed

Bhikkhus, when the noble disciple reflects on the Perfect One,

Yasmiṁ bhikkhave samaye ariyasāvako tathāgataṁ anussarati

his mind is not absorbed in attachment, hatred, or undiscernment of reality;

nevassa tasmiṁ samaye rāgapariyuṭṭhitaṁ cittaṁ hoti. Na dosapariyuṭṭhitaṁ cittaṁ hoti. Na mohapariyuṭṭhitaṁ cittaṁ hoti. (AN iii 313)

pariyuṭṭhita

pariyuṭṭhita: (main article see: pariyuṭṭhāna)

Illustration: pariyuṭṭhita, absorbed in

The ignorant Everyman lives absorbed in the views: ‘I am bodily form. Bodily form is mine.’

assutavā puthujjano… ahaṁ rūpaṁ mama rūpan ti pariyuṭṭhitaṭṭhāyī hoti.

Whilst absorbed in such a way, that bodily form changes and alters

Tassa ahaṁ rūpaṁ mama rūpan ti pariyuṭṭhitaṭṭhāyino taṁ rūpaṁ vipariṇamati aññathā hoti

And there arises grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation.

Tassa rūpavipariṇāmaññathābhāvā uppajjanti sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. (SN iii 3)

Comment:

PED (sv Pariyuṭṭhita) says pariyuṭṭhaṭṭhāyin should read pariyuṭṭhitaṭṭhāyin.

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pariḷāha

Renderings

Introduction

Passion and anguish: associated with burning

Pariḷāha means passion or anguish. Both are associated with torment:

• tormented by sensuous passion

• they are tormented by the anguish of birth

jātipariḷāhena pi pariḍayhanti. (SN v 451)

Anguish stems from rāga, dosa, and moha

• Being tormented by the anguish born of attachment he would sleep badly

rāgajehi pariḷāhehi pariḍayhamāno dukkhaṁ sayeyyāti

• Being tormented by the anguish born of hatred he would sleep badly

dosajehi pariḷāhehi pariḍayhamāno dukkhaṁ sayeyyāti

• Being tormented by the anguish born of undiscernment of reality he would sleep badly

mohajehi pariḷāhehi pariḍayhamāno dukkhaṁ sayeyyāti. (AN i 137)

Bad passions

Bad passions are:

These lead to sensuous, unbenevolent and malicious quests, engaged in which the ignorant Everyman conducts himself wrongly by way of body, speech, and mind.

Kāmapariyesanaṁ… Vyāpādapariyesanaṁ… Vihiṁsāpariyesanaṁ bhikkhave pariyesamāno assutavā puthujjano tīhi ṭhānehi micchā paṭipajjati: kāyena vācāya manasā. (SN ii 151-3)

Good passions

Good passions are:

These lead to unsensuous, benevolent and compassionate quests, engaged in which the learned noble disciple conducts himself rightly by way of body, speech, and mind.

Nekkhammapariyesanaṁ… Avyāpādapariyesanaṁ… Avihiṁsāpariyesanaṁ bhikkhave pariyesamāno sutavā ariyasāvako tīhi ṭhānehi sammā paṭipajjati: kāyena vācāya manasā. (SN ii 151-3)

Sensuous passion

Pariḷāha usually has an object, for example:

Where it has no object, sensuous passion (kāmapariḷāha) is often implied:

• Because they spend an excessive amount of time gazing at each other, lust was aroused and sensuous passion arose in their bodies. Out of [sensuous] passion they engaged in sexual intercourse.

Tesaṁ ativelaṁ aññamaññaṁ upanijjhāyataṁ sārāgo udapādi pariḷāho kāyasmiṁ okkami. Te pariḷāhapaccayā methunaṁ dhammaṁ paṭiseviṁsu. (DN iii 88)

This helps interpret Thi 33-34, where we take pariḷāho as ‘sensuous passion,’ as follows:

Interpreting Thi 33-34

• From the soles of the feet up, mother, and down from the hair on the crown of the head, contemplate this foul, malodorous body

Uddhaṁ pādatalā amma adho ve kesamatthakā
Paccavekkhassu’maṁ kāyaṁ asuciṁ pūtigandhikaṁ

… As I abide in this way, all my attachment is abolished. My [sensuous] passion is annihilated. I am freed from inward distress. I have realised the Untroubled.

Evaṁ viharamānāya sabbo rāgo samūhato
Pariḷāho samucchinno sītibhūtāmhi nibbutā ti. (Thi 33-4)

Rendering pariḷāha as ‘sensuous passion’ is supported by the fact that reflecting on the parts of body is associated with ‘the abandonment of attachment to sensuous pleasure’ (Idaṁ bhante anussatiṭṭhānaṁ evaṁ bhāvitaṁ evaṁ bahūlikataṁ kāmarāgassa pahānāya saṁvattati, AN iii 323).

Illustrations

pariḷāhaṁ

pariḷāhaṁ: (main article see: pariḷāha)

Illustration: pariḷāhaṁ, passion

Having dispelled sensuous passion I abide without sensuous thirst, with a mind inwardly at peace.

kāmapariḷāhaṁ paṭivinodetvā vigatapipāso ajjhattaṁ vūpasantacitto viharāmi. (MN i 506)

pariḷāhena

pariḷāhena: (main article see: pariḷāha)

Illustration: pariḷāhena, passion

Beings… who are tormented by sensuous passion

sattā… kāmapariḷāhena pariḍayhamānā. (MN i 508)

pariḷāho

pariḷāho: (main article see: pariḷāha)

Illustration: pariḷāho, passion

Because of sensuous hankering, sensuous passion

Kāmacchandaṁ paṭicca uppajjati kāmapariḷāho

Because of sensuous passion, sensuous quests

Kāmapariḷāhaṁ paṭicca uppajjati kāmapariyesanā. (SN ii 152)

Illustration: pariḷāho, passion

Because of unsensuous hankering, unsensuous passion

Nekkhammacchandaṁ paṭicca uppajjati nekkhammapariḷāho

Because of unsensuous passion, unsensuous quests

Nekkhammapariḷāhaṁ paṭicca uppajjati nekkhammapariyesanā. (SN ii 152)

pariḷāhā

pariḷāhā: (main article see: pariḷāha)

Illustration: pariḷāhā, anguishing

Vexatious and anguishing perceptually obscuring states

Illustration: pariḷāhā, anguishing

So too, Māgandiya, in the past contact with sensuous pleasures was unpleasant, very hot, and anguishing; in the future contact with sensuous pleasures will be unpleasant, very hot, and anguishing; and now at present contact with sensuous pleasures is unpleasant, very hot, and anguishing.

Evameva kho māgandiya atītampi addhānaṁ kāmā dukkhasamphassā ceva mahābhitāpā ca mahāpariḷāhā ca. Anāgatampi addhānaṁ kāmā dukkhasamphassā ceva mahābhitāpā ca mahāpariḷāhā ca etarahipi paccuppannaṁ addhānaṁ kāmā dukkhasamphassā ceva mahābhitāpā ca mahāpariḷāhā ca. (MN i 507-8)

pariḷāhena

pariḷāhena: (main article see: pariḷāha)

Illustration: pariḷāhena, anguish

They are tormented by the anguish of birth,

jātipariḷāhena pi pariḍayhanti

They are tormented by the anguish of old age

Jarāpariḷāhena pi pariḍayhanti

They are tormented by the anguish of death

maraṇapariḷāhena pi pariḍayhanti

They are tormented by the anguish of grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation.

sokaparidevadukkhadomassupāyāsapariḷāhena pi pariḍayhanti. (SN v 451)

Illustration: pariḷāho, anguish

Bhikkhus, sensuous pleasure, a vile pleasure, the pleasure of the common man, an ignoble pleasure, this is a state associated with pain, distress, vexation, and anguish;

Tatra bhikkhave yamidaṁ kāmasukhaṁ mīḷhasukhaṁ pothujjanasukhaṁ anariyasukhaṁ sadukkho eso dhammo saupaghāto saupāyāso sapariḷāho. (MN iii 236)

Illustration: pariḷāhā, anguishes

For one who abides attached, tethered [to individual existence], undiscerning of reality, contemplating sweetness, the five grasped aggregates accumulate in the future;

Tassa sārattassa saṁyuttassa sammūḷhassa assādānupassino viharato āyatiṁ pañcupādānakkhandhā upacayaṁ gacchanti.

Craving that leads to renewed states of individual existence, accompanied by spiritually fettering delight and attachment, taking delight in this and that, grows.

Taṇhā cassa ponobhavikā nandirāgasahagatā tatra tatrābhinandinī sā cassa pavaḍḍhati.

One’s physical and psychological sufferings, torments, and anguishes increase.

tassa kāyikāpi darathā pavaḍḍhanti cetasikāpi darathā pavaḍḍhanti kayikāpi santāpā pavaḍḍhanti cetasikāpi santāpā pavaḍḍhanti kāyikāpi pariḷāhā pavaḍḍhanti cetasikāpi pariḷāhā pavaḍḍhanti

One experiences physical and psychological unpleasantness

so kāyadukkhampi cetodukkhampi paṭisaṁvedeti. (MN iii 287)

Illustration: pariḷāho, anguish

While he is contemplating the nature of the body, there arises in him, with the body as the object of mindfulness, either bodily anguish, or mental sluggishness, or his mind is distracted outwardly.

tassa kāye kāyānupassino viharato kāyārammaṇo vā uppajjati kāyasmiṁ pariḷāho cetaso vā līnattaṁ bahiddhā vā cittaṁ vikkhipati

That bhikkhu should then direct his mind towards some faith inspiring meditation object.

kismiñcideva pasādaniye nimitte cittaṁ paṇidahitabbaṁ. (SN v 156)

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paviveka

Renderings

Introduction

Paviveka: physical seclusion

Paviveka means physical seclusion except in the Paviveka Sutta, where the Buddha indicates that its use is inappropriate.

Paviveka: the Paviveka Sutta

In the Paviveka Sutta (AN i 240-1) non-Buddhist ascetics used paviveka to mean seclusion from luxurious items:

• Bhikkhus, non-Buddhist ascetics expound three forms of seclusion.

Tīṇimāni bhikkhave aññatitthiyā paribbājakā pavivekāni paññāpenti

1) robe material cīvarapavivekaṁ

2) almsfood piṇḍapātapavivekaṁ

3) abodes senāsanapavivekaṁ

These forms of seclusion meant:

1) wearing coarse robes, including hair blankets (kesakambalampi dhārenti)

2) eating coarse almsfood, including cowdung (gomayabhakkhā pi honti)

3) living in the open air (abbhokāsaṁ)

But to confirm that paviveka is wrong useage, in his retort the Buddha used the term vivitto hoti. He said:

• There are three forms of seclusion (pavivekāni) for a bhikkhu in this teaching and training system

tīṇi kho panimāni bhikkhave imasmiṁ dhammavinaye bhikkhuno pavivekāni.

1) He is virtuous. Having abandoned immorality, he is secluded from it

sīlavā ca hoti dussīlyañcassa pahīṇaṁ hoti tena ca vivitto hoti

• He has right perception [of reality]. Having abandoned wrong view [of reality], he is secluded from it

sammādiṭṭhiko hoti micchādiṭṭhi ca'ssa pahīṇā hoti tāya ca vivitto hoti

• He is free of perceptually obscuring states. Having abandoned them, he is secluded from them

khīṇāsavo hoti āsavā ca'ssa pahīṇā honti tehi ca vivitto hoti. (AN i 240-1)

The Buddha’s use of vivitto proves that paviveka should be corrected to viveka.

Dutiyadasabala Sutta: pavivitto exception

In the Dutiyadasabala Sutta (SN ii 28-9) pavivitto occurs in the phrase pavivitto pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi, where one would have expected vivitto. This word combination occurs just once in the suttas, and is considered a mistake even by the commentary, which says: Pavivitto ti vivitto viyutto hutvā. Usually akusalehi dhammehi is linked with vivicca, a word combination that occurs 185 times, always in this phrase:

• Secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, he enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (MN i 435)

The combination with pavivitto is this:

• The energetic person abides happily, secluded from unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors, and great is the personal good that he achieves.

Āraddhaviriyo ca kho bhikkhave sukhaṁ viharati pavivitto pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi mahantañca sadatthaṁ paripūreti. (SN ii 28-9)

Paviveka: in verse ‘viveka’

Sometimes in verse, paviveka is shortened to viveka. This is illustrated sv Viveka.

Paviveka and viveka: inseparably linked

That the Buddha regarded living secludedly (pavivitta) to be inseparably linked to the development of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors] (viveka) is clear in these two quotes:

1) This teaching is for those who live secludedly, not for those given to the enjoyment of company. So it was said. And in reference to what was it said?

Pavivittassāyaṁ bhikkhave dhammo nāyaṁ dhammo saṅgaṇikārāmassā' ti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ

… In this regard, the bhikkhu living secludedly may be visited by bhikkhus, bhikkhunīs, laymen, laywomen, kings and kings’ ministers, and non-Buddhist ascetics and their disciples.

idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno pavivittassa viharato bhavanti upasaṅkamitāro bhikkhū bhikkhūniyo upāsakā upāsikāyo rājāno rājamahāmattā titthiyā titthiyasāvakā.

… In that case, the bhikkhu, mentally inclining, verging, and drifting towards seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], psychologically withdrawn [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], taking delight in the practice of unsensuousness, is one whose words are exclusively connected with religious inspiration.

Tatra bhikkhu vivekaninnena cittena vivekapoṇena vivekapabbhārena vavakaṭṭhena nekkhammābhiratena aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti. (AN iv 233)

The Buddha regarded the training in viveka to be part of the burden of paviveka:

2) The disciples of a teacher who lives secludedly do not likewise train themselves in seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]. They do not abandon those things which the teacher tells them to abandon. They are luxurious and careless, leaders in backsliding, throwing off the burden of physical seclusion

Idhāvuso satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṁ nānusikkhanti. Yesañca dhammānaṁ satthā pahānamāha te ca dhamme nappajahanti. Bāhulikā ca honti sāthalikā okkamane pubbaṅgamā paviveke nikkhittadhurā. (MN i 14)

Illustrations

paviveko

paviveko: (main article see: paviveka)

Illustration: paviveko, physical seclusion

Is there any benefit for you in the rainy season in a forest like Ujjuhāna? [The town of] Veramba would be delightful for you. Physical seclusion is really only for those who meditate.

Kiṁ tavattho vane tāta ujjuhāno va pāvuse
Verambā ramaṇīyā te paviveko hi jhāyinaṁ. (Tha 597)

Comment:

Ujjuhāna was a jungle abounding in streams which made living there uncomfortable during the rains.

pavivekāya

pavivekāya: (main article see: paviveka)

Illustration: pavivekāya, physical seclusion

Not content with his unshakeable faith in the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment], [a noble disciple] makes further effort for physical seclusion by day and for solitary retreat by night.

So tena buddhe aveccappasādena asantuṭṭho uttariṁ vāyamati divā pavivekāya rattiṁ paṭisallānāya. (SN v 398)

pavivekassa

pavivekassa: (main article see: paviveka)

Illustration: pavivekassa, physical seclusion

I have lived secludedly and have spoken in praise of physical seclusion

pavivitto ceva pavivekassa ca vaṇṇavādī. (SN ii 203)

pavivekaṁ

pavivekaṁ: (main article see: paviveka)

Illustration: pavivekaṁ, physical seclusion

Come now, let us, from time to time, enter and abide in the rapture that comes of physical seclusion.

kinti mayaṁ kālena kālaṁ pavivekaṁ pītiṁ upasampajja vihareyyāmā ti. (AN iii 206)

Illustration: paviveka, physical seclusion

Indeed, Ānanda, is impossible that a bhikkhu who takes pleasure and delight in company, who is given to the enjoyment of company, taking pleasure and delight in human fellowship, given to the enjoyment of human fellowship, can be one who attains at will, without trouble, without difficulty, that which is the pleasure of the practice of unsensuousness, the pleasure of physical seclusion, the pleasure of inward peace, the pleasure of enlightenment.

So vatānanda bhikkhu saṅgaṇikārāmo saṅgaṇikārato saṅgaṇikārāmataṁ anuyutto gaṇārāmo gaṇarato gaṇasammudito. Yaṁ taṁ nekkhammasukhaṁ pavivekasukhaṁ upasamasukhaṁ sambodhasukhaṁ tassa sukhassa nikāmalābhī bhavissati akicchalābhī akasiralābhīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (MN iii 110)

pavivekāya

pavivekāya: (main article see: paviveka)

Illustration: pavivekāya, physical seclusion

Gotamī, things (dhamme) of which you might consider: ‘These things lead to

Ye kho tvaṁ gotamī dhamme jāneyyāsi ime dhammā

• physical seclusion, not company

pavivekāya no saṅgaṇikāya

You can definitely consider

• this is [in accordance with] the teaching

• this is [in accordance with] the discipline

• this is [in accordance with] the Teacher’s training system

etaṁ satthusāsanan ti. (AN iv 280)

Illustration: paviveka, physical seclusion

To one who is given to the enjoyment of physical seclusion, being given to the enjoyment of company is a thorn

pavivekārāmassa saṅgaṇikārāmatā kaṇṭako. (AN v 134)

Illustration: paviveka, physical seclusion

Bhikkhus, be given to the enjoyment and delight of physical seclusion.

Pavivekārāmā bhikkhave viharatha pavivekaratā. (Iti 32)

@

pasanna

pasāda

pasīdati

Renderings

Introduction

Introduction: word family

The word family considered here is:

Introduction: prefixes

These terms are straightforward, but their number of associated prefixes is daunting. Fortunately the effect of these prefixes (abhi- vi- and sam-) is negligible except in two respects:

1) Whereas pasīdati and sampasīdati mean ‘have faith in,’ abhippasīdati means ‘have complete faith’

2) The unprefixed word family has a larger range of meaning than the prefixed words, and so the meanings of prefixed words all fall within the range of unprefixed words, with one exception: whereas vippasanna can mean limpid, pasanna cannot.

Introduction: objects of faith

The objects of faith are sometimes explicit:

• A brahman lady had complete faith in the Buddha, the teaching, and the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples.

Tena kho pana samayena aññatarassa bhāradvājagottassa brāhmaṇassa dhanañjānī nāma brāhmaṇī abhippasannā hoti buddhe ca dhamme ca saṅghe ca. (SN i 160)

If not, the object can be easily gathered from context:

• Hearing your voice, best of seers, I have faith [in you].

Esa sutvā pasīdāmi vaco te isisattama. (Tha 1276)

Faith: technically speaking

Pasanna is a synonym of saddha, as seen in the following quotes:

  • tīhi bhikkhave ṭhānehi saddho pasanno veditabbo (AN i 150).
  • so saddho pasanno (DN i 212).

Because the object of saddha is ‘the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment,’ the same applies to pasanna.

• The noble disciple who has complete faith in the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment] does not have any unsureness or doubt about the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment], or about the [excellence of the] Perfect One’s training system.

Yo so bhante ariyasāvako tathāgate ekantagato abhippasanno na so tathāgate vā tathāgatasāsane vā kaṅkheyya vā vicikiccheyya vā. (SN v 225)

• Having heard the teaching of great flavour, I have even more faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment].

Esa bhiyyo pasīdāmi sutvā dhammaṁ mahārasaṁ. (Tha 673)

Introduction: aveccappasāda

Aveccappasāda is presented separately, sv Aveccappasāda.

Illustrations: abhippasanno

abhippasannā

abhippasannā: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: abhippasannā, have complete faith in

Many learned khattiyas, brahmans, householders and ascetics have complete faith in Master Gotama.

bahū hi tassa bhoto gotamassa khattiyapaṇḍitāpi brāhmaṇapaṇḍitāpi gahapatipaṇḍitāpi samaṇapaṇḍitāpi abhippasannā. (MN i 502)

abhippasanno

abhippasanno: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: abhippasanno, have complete faith

From the time when I had complete faith in the Blessed One, from then on for a long time I have perceived that I will not be reborn in the plane of damnation, that [I will not go to] the plane of damnation.

Yadagge ahaṁ bhante bhagavati ekantagato abhippasanno tadagge ahaṁ bhante dīgharattaṁ avinipāto avinipātaṁ sañjānāmi. (DN ii 206)

Illustration: abhippasannā, complete faith in

Truly sirs, many devas and men have complete faith in the ascetic Gotama

Samaṇe khalu bho gotame bahū devā manussā ca abhippasannā. (DN i 116)

Illustration: abhippasannā, complete faith in

This Nāḷandā is rich, prosperous, populous, and crowded with people with complete faith in the Blessed One. It were well if the Blessed One got a bhikkhu to perform superhuman displays of psychic power. In this way even more people in Nāḷandā would have complete faith in the Blessed One.

ayaṁ bhante nāḷandā iddhā ceva thitā ca bahujanā ākiṇṇamanussā bhagavati abhippasannā. Sādhu bhante bhagavā ekaṁ bhikkhuṁ samādisatu yo uttarimanussadhammā iddhipāṭihāriyaṁ karissati. Evāyaṁ nāḷandā bhiyyosomattāya bhagavati abhippasīdissatī ti. (DN i 211)

Illustration: abhippasanno, complete faith in

The matted-hair ascetic had complete faith in the brahman Sela.

tena kho pana samayena keṇiyo jaṭilo sele brāhmaṇe abhippasanno hoti. (MN ii 146)

Illustrations: vippasīdati

sammāvippasīdati

sammāvippasīdati: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: sammāvippasīdati, become serene

As he abides contemplating the nature of the body internally he becomes perfectly inwardly collected and perfectly serene. Being thus perfectly inwardly collected and perfectly serene he arouses knowledge and vision externally of others’ bodies [according to reality].

Ajjhattaṁ kāye kāyānupassī viharanto tattha sammāsamādhiyati sammāvippasīdati. So tattha sammā samāhito sammāvippasanno bahiddhā parakāye ñāṇadassanaṁ abhinibbatteti. (DN ii 216)

vippasīdati

vippasīdati: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: vippasīdati, become serene

When Master Gotama is spoken to offensively the colour of his skin brightens and his countenance becomes serene as is to be expected of one who is accomplished and perfectly enlightened.

chavivaṇṇo ceva pariyodāyati mukhavaṇṇo ca vippasīdati, yathā taṁ arahato sammā sambuddhassa. (MN i 250)

Illustration: vippasīdati, become serene

One who practises [unlimited] goodwill, their countenance becomes serene

mettāya bhikkhave cetovimuttiyā āsevitāya bhāvitāya… mukhavaṇṇo vippasīdati. (AN v 342)

Illustrations: vippasādeti

vippasādehi

vippasādehi: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: vippasādehi, make serene

Make offerings, Māgha, and while offering make your mind serene in every respect

yajassu yajamāno sabbattha ca vippasādehi cittaṁ. (Snp 506)

Illustrations: vippasannaṁ

vippasanno

vippasanno: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: vippasanno, limpid

Just as if there were a gem, a beryl, exquisite, of genuine quality, a well-cut octahedron, translucent, limpid, unblemished, excellent in every respect, strung on a blue, yellow, white, or orange cord

Seyyathā pi mahārāja maṇi veḷuriyo subho jātimā aṭṭhaṁso suparikammakato accho vippasanno anāvilo sabbākārasampanno tatra'ssa suttaṁ āvutaṁ nīlaṁ vā pītaṁ vā lohitaṁ vā odātaṁ vā paṇḍusuttaṁ vā. (DN i 76)

Illustration: vippasanno, limpid

Just as in a mountain valley there were a lake of water, crystal clear, limpid, unturbid, and a man standing on the bank with eyes to see should perceive the oysters and shells, the gravel and pebbles, and shoals of fish as they move about or lie within it.

Seyyathā pi mahārāja pabbatasaṅkhepe udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo. Tattha cakkhumā puriso tīre ṭhito passeyya sippisambūkampi sakkharakaṭhalampi macchagumbampi carantampi tiṭṭhantamp. (DN i 84)

vippasannā

vippasannā: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: vippasannā, limpid

As Venerable Ānanda approached, that shallow water, stirred up by the wheels and flowing muddied, flowed crystal clear, limpid, and pure.

Atha kho sā nadī cakkacchinnā parittā luḷitā āvilā sandamānā āyasmante ānande upasaṅkamante acchā vippasannā anāvilā sandati. (Uda 84)

vippasanna

vippasanna: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: vippasanna, limpid

Bowl of water that is crystal clear, limpid, unturbid, set out in the light.

udapatto accho vippasanno anāvilo āloke nikkhitto. (SN v 125)

Illustration: vippasanna, serene

[One whose mind is] as stainless as the moon, purified, serene, and free of impurity

candaṁ va vimalaṁ suddhaṁ vippasannamanāvilaṁ. (MN ii 196)

vippasannāni

vippasannāni: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: vippasannāni, serene

Your faculties are serene, your countenance is pure and bright. Under whom have you gone forth friend?

vippasannāni kho te āvuso indriyāni parisuddho chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto. Kaṁsi tvaṁ āvuso uddissa pabbajito. (MN i 171)

vippasannattā

vippasannattā: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: vippasannattā, serene

The Blessed One’s looks peaceful, his countenance is radiant, his faculties are serene.

Upasantapadisso bhante bhagavā bhātiriva bhagavato mukhavaṇṇo vippasannattā indriyānaṁ. (DN ii 205)

vippasannaṁ

vippasannaṁ: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: vippasannaṁ, serene

The assembly of bhikkhus remained completely silent like a serene lake

The king wished that Prince Udāyibhaddo were possessed of such peacefulness.

iminā me upasamena udāyibhaddo kumāro samannāgato hotu yenetarahi upasamena bhikkhusaṅgho samannāgato ti. (DN i 50)

Illustration: vippasanna, serene

Bhikkhus, those bhikkhus abide contemplating the nature of the body, vigorously applied [to the practice], fully conscious, mentally concentrated, serene, inwardly collected, inwardly undistracted, in order to know the body according to reality.

kāye kāyānupassino viharatha ātāpino sampajānā ekodibhūtā vippasannacittā samāhitā ekaggacittā kāyassa yathābhūtaṁ ñāṇāya. (SN v 144)

Illustration: vippasanno, serene

Inwardly at peace, free of vexation, with a serene and undefiled [mind]

Upasanto anāyāso vippasanno anāvilo. (Tha 1008)

vippasannena

vippasannena: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: vippasannena, serene

Rid of the stain of stinginess, with a serene mind, he would give at the right time to the Noble Ones where giving is of great fruit.

Vineyyuṁ maccheramalaṁ vippasannena cetasā
Dajjuṁ kālena ariyesu yattha dinnaṁ mahapphalaṁ. (Iti 19)

Comment:

‘Make offerings, Māgha, and while offering make your mind serene in every respect. For one making offerings, the act of charity is the basis [for spiritual development]. Based on this one abandons one’s spiritual flaws.

Yajassu yajamāno sabbattha ca vippasādehi cittaṁ
Ārammaṇaṁ yajamānassa yañño etthappatiṭṭhāya jahāti dosaṁ. (Snp 506)

Illustration: vippasannena, serene

One who drinks the teaching sleeps well, with a serene mind.

Dhammapīti sukhaṁ seti vippasannena cetasā. (Dhp 79)

Illustrations: sampasīdati

na sampasīdati

na sampasīdati: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: na sampasīdati, to be unsettled

• One is unsure

• one is doubtful about

• one is undecided

• one is unsettled

about the [nature of reality in the] periods of the past, the future, and the present

atītaṁ vā addhānaṁ ārabbha kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati anāgataṁ vā addhānaṁ ārabbha kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati etarahi vā paccuppannaṁ addhānaṁ ārabbha kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati. (DN iii 217)

sampasīdati

sampasīdati: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: sampasīdati, to have faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment]

Suppose a bhikkhu is unsure, doubtful, undecided about, and has no faith in the [perfection of the] Teacher’s [enlightenment], his mind is not inclined to vigorous endeavour, application, perseverance, and inward striving

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu satthari kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati. Yo so bhikkhave bhikkhu satthari kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati tassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccāya padhānāya. (AN iii 248)

Illustration: sampasīdati, to have faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment]

In this regard a bhikkhu is not unsure or doubtful about the [perfection of the] Teacher’s [enlightenment], he is decided about him, has faith in him.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu satthari na kaṅkhati na vicikicchati adhimuccati sampasīdati. (AN v 19)

Illustrations: sampasāda

sampasāde

sampasāde: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: sampasāde, serenity

Practising and frequently abiding in this way, his mind becomes serene through that practice of spiritual development.

Tassa evaṁ paṭipannassa tabbahulavihārino āyatane cittaṁ pasīdati.

When there is serenity, he either attains the Imperturbable now, or else he is intent upon discernment.

Sampasāde sati etarahi vā āneñjaṁ samāpajjati paññāya vā adhimuccati. (MN ii 262)

sampasādaṁ

sampasādaṁ: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: sampasādaṁ, faith

This was how Venerable Sāriputta proclaimed his faith face to face with the Blessed One.

Itihidaṁ āyasmā sāriputto bhagavato sammukhā sampasādaṁ pavedesi.

And so the name for this exposition is The Inspiring of Faith

Tasmā imassa veyyākaraṇassa sampasādaniyantveva adhivacananti. (DN iii 116)

Illustration: sampasādaṁ, faith

Those devas who, having lived the religious life under the Blessed One, had recently appeared in the Tāvatiṁsā Heaven, outshone the other devas in brightness and glory. And for that reason the Tāvatiṁsā devas were pleased, happy, filled with rapture and joy

attamanā honti pamuditā pītisomanassajātā

They said ‘The deva hosts are growing; the āsura hosts are declining.’

Dibbā vata bho kāyā paripūranti hāyanti asurā kāyā

Then Sakka, Lord of the Devas, realising the faith of the Tāvatiṁsā devas, uttered these verses of rejoicing

devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ sampasādaṁ viditvā imāhi gāthāhi anumodi. (DN ii 208)

Illustrations: sampasādana

sampasādanaṁ

sampasādanaṁ: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: sampasādanaṁ, serenity

With the subsiding of thinking and pondering, and [the development of] internal serenity and concentration, he enters and abides in second jhāna which is without thinking and pondering, and is filled with rapture and physical pleasure born of inward collectedness.

Vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyajjhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (SN v 307)

Illustrations: pasīdati

pasīdanti

pasīdanti: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasīdanti, believe in

The religious philosophers outside this [training system] believe in dogmatic views.

Ito bahiddhā pāsaṇḍā diṭṭhīsu pasīdanti te

I do not approve of their teachings; they are ignorant of the Buddha’s teaching.

na tesaṁ dhammaṁ rocemi na te dhammassa kovidā. (SN i 133)

Illustration: pasīdati, to gain faith in

As the teacher explains the teaching, through transcendent insight into a certain one of those teachings the bhikkhu comes to a conclusion about the teachings

so tasmiṁ dhamme abhiññāya idhekaccaṁ dhammaṁ dhammesu niṭṭhaṁ gacchati.

He gains faith in the Teacher thus

satthari pasīdati.

The Blessed One is perfectly enlightened. The teaching is well explained by the Blessed One. The community of disciples is applied to the excellent practice

sammāsambuddho bhagavā svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo supaṭipanno saṅgho ti. (MN i 319)

Illustration: pasīdanti, to gain faith

When the community of bhikkhus is divided, those without faith do not gain faith, and some with faith start wavering.

Saṅghe kho pana bhikkhave bhinne… Tattha appasannā ceva nappasīdanti. Pasannānañca ekaccānaṁ aññathattaṁ hotī ti. (Iti 11)

Illustration: pasīdati, to gain faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment]

He explained the noble practice which is of benefit to devas and men, hearing and understanding which the manyfolk gain faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment].

Hitaṁ devamanussānaṁ ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ pakāsayī
Yaṁ ve disvā ca sutvā ca pasīdati bahujjano. (AN ii 37)

pasīdi

pasīdi: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasīdi, to become serene

When I first saw the Blessed One a long way off, at the mere sight of him my mind became serene (cittaṁ pasīdi). This is the first astounding and extraordinary quality found in me. Then with a serene mind (pasannacitto) I paid respect to the Blessed One… When he knew my mind was ready, teachable, free of the five hindrances, uplifted, and serene (pasannacittaṁ), then he preached the religious discourse unique to the Buddhas. (AN iv 209-210)

Illustration: pasīdanti, become serene

Such a sacrifice is truly vast and the devas, too, become serene.

Yañño ca vipulo hoti pasīdanti ca devatā ti. (SN i 76)

Illustration: pasīdati, to become serene

Those we slaughtered in the past, either for sacrifice or for robbery, were paralysed with fear. They trembled and wailed. But with you, you are fearless. Your countenance is even more serene. Why do you not weep when in such danger?

Tassa te natthī bhītattaṁ bhiyyo vaṇṇo pasīdati
Kasmā na paridevesi evarūpe mahabbhaye. (Tha 706)

Illustration: pasīdatī, to be serene

“Those who dwell deep in the forest, peaceful, leading the religious life, eating but a single meal a day: why is their countenance so serene?”

kena vaṇṇo pasīdatī ti

“They do not grieve over the past, nor do they long for the future. They maintain themselves with what is present. Hence their countenance is so serene.”

Atītaṁ nānusocanti nappajappanti'nāgataṁ
Paccuppannena yāpenti tena vaṇṇo pasīdati. (SN i 5)

pasīdati

pasīdati: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasīdati, to become serene

[But] as the flesh wastes away, my mind becomes serene. My mindfulness, penetrative discernment, and inward collectedness stand firmly all the more.

Maṁsesu khīyamānesu bhiyyo cittaṁ pasīdati
Bhiyyo sati ca paññā ca samādhi mama tiṭṭhati. (Snp 434)

Illustration: pasīdati, to become serene

When the teaching is being explained to someone to put an end to personal identity, if his mind does not become energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it then he can be regarded as like a feeble man.

Evameva kho ānanda yassa kassaci sakkāya nirodhāya dhamme desiyamāne cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati). Seyyathā pi so dubbalako puriso evamete daṭṭhabbā. (MN i 435)

Illustration: pasīdati, to become serene

In this regard, when a bhikkhu is contemplating sensuous pleasure, his mind is not energised, nor does it becomes serene, settled, intent upon it. But when contemplating the practice of unsensuousness his mind becomes energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno kāmaṁ manasikaroto kāmesu cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati). Nekkhammaṁ kho panassa manasikaroto nekkhamme cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati). (AN iii 245)

Illustration: pasīdati, to become serene

Further, Ānanda, the bhikkhu, ignoring the perception of the state of awareness of nonexistence and of the state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception, he focuses undistractedly on the inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].

His mind becomes energised, serene, settled, and intent upon inward collectedness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena].

Tassa animitte cetosamādhimhi cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati adhimuccati. (MN iii 108)

Illustration: pasīdati, to become serene

One gives thinking, ‘When this gift is given, my mind will become serene. Satisfaction and joy will arise in me

imaṁ me dānaṁ dadato cittaṁ pasīdati attamanatā somanassaṁ upajāyatī ti. (AN iv 61)

Illustration: pasīdati, to become serene

As he reflects on the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment] his mind becomes serene;

Tassa tathāgataṁ anussarato cittaṁ pasīdati.

gladness arises

pāmujjaṁ uppajjati.

the spiritual defilements are abandoned

ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti. (AN i 207)

pasīdeyyā

pasīdeyyā: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasīdeyyā, to become serene

Can we not today honour some ascetic or Brahmanist through whom our mind would become serene?

kannu khvajja samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā payirupāseyyāma yanno payirupāsato cittaṁ pasīdeyyā ti. (DN i 47)

Illustrations: pasādeti

pasādeti

pasādeti: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādeti, to become serene

In giving his mind becomes serene.

dadaṁ cittaṁ pasādeti

After giving he is pleased.

datvā attamano hoti. (AN iv 244)

pasādenti

pasādenti: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādenti, to become serene

In thinking, ‘This is the stupa of the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One,’ Ānanda, the minds of the manyfolk become serene

Ayaṁ tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa thūpo ti ānanda bahū janā cittaṁ pasādenti

and having serene minds, with the demise of the body at death, they are reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds.

te tatthacittaṁ pasādetvā kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ papajjanti. (DN ii 143)

pasādetvā

pasādetvā: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādetvā, became serene

Then I saw the Perfectly Enlightened One, the Teacher who is free of fear from any quarter. My mind became serene, I went forth into the ascetic life.

Athaddasāsiṁ sambuddhaṁ satthāraṁ akutobhayaṁ
Tasmiṁ cittaṁ pasādetvā pabbajiṁ anagāriyaṁ. (Tha 912)

Illustrations: pasāda

pasādaṁ

pasādaṁ: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādaṁ, serenity

As a man afflicted by hunger and weakness may find a honey-cake, and wherever he tastes it, he enjoys a sweet delicious flavour.

yato yato sāyetha labhateva sādhurasaṁ asecanakaṁ

Even so, whenever one hears Master Gotama’s teaching… one wins satisfaction, and one attains mental serenity.

yato yato tassa bhoto gotamassa dhammaṁ suṇāti… tato tato labhateva attamanataṁ labhati cetaso pasādaṁ. (AN iii 237)

pasādaye

pasādaye: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādaye, serene

Where one is happy even before the offering; where in giving one’s mind is serene; where, having given, one is pleased: this is an accomplished act of generosity.

Pubbeva dānā sumano dadaṁ cittaṁ pasādaye
Datvā attamano hoti esā yaññassa sampadā. (AN iii 337)

pasādāya

pasādāya: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādāya, inspire faith

For two good reasons the Perfect One establishes training rules for his disciples. To inspire faith in those without faith; and to increase the faith of those with faith.

Dveme bhikkhave atthavase paṭicca tathāgatena sāvakānaṁ sikkhāpadaṁ paññattaṁ. Katame dve? appasannānaṁ pasādāya pasannānaṁ bhiyyobhāvāya. (AN i 98)

pasādaṁ

pasādaṁ: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādaṁ, faith

Bhikkhus, possessed of two qualities a foolish, incompetent, ordinary person wanders about hurting and injuring himself; he is blameworthy, criticised by the wise, and begets much demerit. Which two? Through lack of investigation and penetration (ananuvicca apariyogāhetvā) he exhibits

• faith in a matter that is not worthy of faith;

appasādaniye ṭhāne pasādaṁ upadaṁseti

• lack of faith in a matter that is worthy of faith.

pasādaniye ṭhāne appasādaṁ upadaṁseti. (AN i 90)

Illustration: pasādaṁ, faith

The Blessed One has inspired in me

ajanesi vata me bhante bhagavā samaṇesu

• an affection for ascetics

• faith in ascetics

• a respect for ascetics

puggalappasāde

puggalappasāde: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: puggalappasāde, having faith which is based on a single individual

Five dangers of having faith which is based on a single individual.

Pañcime bhikkhave ādīnavā puggalappasāde. Katame pañca:

When a person’s complete faith is based on a single individual (puggale puggalo abhippasanno hoti) and that person falls into an error such that the community of bhikkhus suspends him, then he will think: ‘The community of bhikkhus has suspended he who is beloved and dear to me.’ And he will be no more full of faith in the bhikkhus (bhikkhūsu appasādabahulo hoti), and from being without faith he will not follow other bhikkhus, and from not following other bhikkhus he will not hear the true teaching, and from not hearing the true teaching he will fall away from the true teaching.

Yasmiṁ bhikkhave puggale puggalo abhippasanno hoti so tathārūpaṁ āpattiṁ āpanno hoti yathārūpāya āpattiyā saṅgho ukkhipati. Tassa evaṁ hoti: yo kho myāyaṁ puggalo piyo manāpo so saṅghena ukkhitto ti bhikkhūsu appasādabahulo hoti. Bhikkhūsu appasādabahulo samāno aññe bhikkhū na bhajati aññe bhikkhū na bhajanto saddhammaṁ na suṇāti saddhammaṁ asuṇanto saddhammā parihāyati. Ayaṁ bhikkhave paṭhamo ādīnavo puggalappasāde. (AN iii 270)

pasādā

pasādā: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādā, faith

There are three foremost kinds of faith

aggappasādā

Those who have faith in Buddha have faith in best. Those who have faith in best will have the best result

ye bhikkhave buddhe pasannā agge te pasannā. Agge kho pana pasannānaṁ aggo vipāko hoti. (Iti 88)

pasādo

pasādo: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādo, faith

You, householder, do not have that lack of faith in the Buddha (buddhe appasādena) which the ignorant Everyman possesses because of which the latter, with the demise of the body at death, is reborn in hell. (SN v 381)

Illustrations: pasādaniya

pasādaniye

pasādaniye: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādaniye, worthy of faith

Bhikkhus, possessed of two qualities a foolish, incompetent, ordinary person wanders about hurting and injuring himself; he is blameworthy, criticised by the wise, and begets much demerit. Which two? Through lack of investigation and penetration (ananuvicca apariyogāhetvā) he exhibits

• faith in a matter that is not worthy of faith

appasādaniye ṭhāne pasādaṁ upadaṁseti

• lack of faith in a matter that is worthy of faith

pasādaniye ṭhāne appasādaṁ upadaṁseti. (AN i 90)

Illustration: pasādaniye, faith inspiring

That bhikkhu should then direct his mind towards some faith inspiring meditation object.

kismiñcideva pasādaniye nimitte cittaṁ paṇidahitabbaṁ

When he directs his mind to some faith inspiring meditation object, gladness arises.

tassa kismicideva pasādanīye nimitte cittaṁ paṇidahato pāmujjaṁ jāyati. (SN v 156)

pasādaniyā

pasādaniyā: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādaniyā, faith inspiring

The Blessed One declared ten faith inspiring qualities (dasa pasādaniyā dhammā) that if they are found in someone, we honour, revere, respect, and venerate him:

dasa pasādaniyā dhammā akkhātā

(Namely: virtue, learning, contentment, four jhānas, psychic powers, divine ear, knowledge of others’ minds, recollects many past lives, sees beings’ death and rebirth, destruction of perceptually obscuring states) (MN iii 11).

pasādaniyaṁ

pasādaniyaṁ: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasādaniyaṁ, faith inspiring

Undertaking [what is virtuous], refraining [what is unvirtuous], having a deportment that is faith inspiring, and being applied to the higher mental states, this is fitting for an ascetic.

Cārittaṁ atha vārittaṁ iriyāpathiyaṁ pasādaniyaṁ
Adhicitte ca āyogo etaṁ samaṇassa patirūpaṁ. (Tha 591)

Illustration: pasādaniyaṁ, faith inspiring

You will see the Blessed One

dakkhissasi tvaṁ soṇa taṁ bhagavantaṁ

who is beautifully behaved, faith inspiring,

who has peaceful [mental] faculties and a peaceful mind,

Illustration: pasādaniyaṁ, faith inspiring

The brahman Doṇa followed the Blessed One’s footprints and saw him sitting at the root of some tree, beautifully behaved, faith inspiring, with peaceful [mental] faculties and a peaceful mind

pāsādikaṁ pasādaniyaṁ santindriyaṁ santamānasaṁ. (AN ii 38)

Illustrations: pasanno

pasannacittaṁ

pasannacittaṁ: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasannacittaṁ, serene

When the Blessed One knew that Pokkharasāti’s mind was ready, teachable, free of the five hindrances, uplifted, and serene, then he preached the religious discourse unique to the Buddhas:

Yadā bhagavā aññāsi brāhmaṇaṁ pokkharasātiṁ kallacittaṁ muducittaṁ vinīvaraṇacittaṁ udaggacittaṁ pasannacittaṁ atha yā buddhānaṁ sāmukkaṁsikā dhammadesanā taṁ pakāsesi. (DN i 110)

pasanna

pasanna: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasanna, serene

You have serene eyes, a fair face

pasannena

pasannena: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasannena, pure

If one speaks or acts with a defiled mind (manasā ce paduṭṭhena bhāsati vā karoti vā), suffering thence follows one as surely as the cartwheel follows the foot of the ox. (Dhp 1)

If one speaks or acts with a pure mind (manasā ce pasannena bhāsati vā karoti vā), happiness thence follows one as surely as one’s never-departing shadow (Dhp 2)

Illustration: pasannena, pure

If with a pure mind he teaches others, he does not become tethered [to them] by his tender concern and sympathy.

Manasā ce pasannena yadaññamanusāsati
Na tena hoti saṁyutto sānukampā anuddayāti. (SN i 206)

pasannā

pasannā: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasannā, being serene

Therefore, being serene, free of vacillation, present your offering to one who is worthy of gifts.

Tasmiṁ pasannā avikampamānā
patiṭṭhapesi dakkhiṇaṁ dakkhiṇeyye. (SN i 142)

pasannacitto

pasannacitto: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasannacitto, being serene

He with a serene mind who goes to the Buddha for refuge (pasannacitto buddhaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchati), the teaching, and the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples―this is a sacrifice (yañño) which is greater.(DN i 146)

pasanna

pasanna: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasanna, serene

Any who die whilst on pilgrimage to these shrines with a serene mind, with the demise of the body at death, all will be reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds.

Ye hi keci ānanda cetiyacārikaṁ āhiṇḍantā pasannacittā kālaṁ karissanti sabbe te kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjissanti ti/(DN ii 141)

pasannā

pasannā: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasannā, have faith

Let stupas far and wide be established so that many people will have faith in the Seer.

Vitthārikā hontu disāsu thūpā
Bahū janā cakkhumato pasannā ti. (DN ii 166)

pasanno

pasanno: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasanno, faith

Four persons in the world:

He who guages by appearance, and whose faith is inspired by appearance

He who guages by voice, and whose faith is inspired by voice

He who guages by asceticism, and whose faith is inspired by asceticism

He who guages by the teaching, and whose faith is inspired by the teaching

pasannaṁ

pasannaṁ: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasannaṁ, faith

In this regard, bhante, some issue concerning the teaching may arise. The Blessed One might take one side, and the bhikkhus’ and bhikkhunīs’ communities might take the other side. Whatever side the Blessed One would take, I would take that same side.

Idha bhante kocideva dhammasamuppādo uppajjeyya ekato assa bhagavā ekato bhikkhusaṅgho ekato bhikkhunīsaṅgho ca yeneva bhagavā tenevāhaṁ assaṁ.

Let the Blessed One remember me as one who has such faith in him.

Evaṁ pasannaṁ maṁ bhante bhagavā dhāretu. (SN v 374)

appasannā

appasannā: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: appasannā, have no faith in

Now, bhante, there are disciples of the Blessed One who live in remote forest abodes. And there are high ranking deities settled there who have no faith in the teaching of the Blessed One (ye imasmiṁ bhagavato pāvacane appasannā). To inspire faith in them (tesaṁ pasādāya), bhante, may the Blessed One learn this Āṭānāṭiyaṁ protection. (DN iii 195)

Illustration: appasannā, those without faith

When the community of bhikkhus is divided, those without faith do not gain faith, and some with faith start wavering.

Tattha appasannā ceva nappasīdanti. Pasannānañca ekaccānaṁ aññathattaṁ hotī ti. (Iti 11)

Illustration: pasannā, faith

Those with faith in the Buddha have faith in the best. They with faith in the best will have the best result.

Ye bhikkhave buddhe pasannā agge te pasannā agge kho pana pasannānaṁ aggo vipāko hoti. (AN ii 34)

pasannānaṁ

pasannānaṁ: (main article see: pasīdati)

Illustration: pasannānaṁ, faith

Foremost amongst my lay disciples whose faith is based on a single individual is Jīvaka Komārabhacca.

Etadaggaṁ bhikkhave mama sāvakānaṁ upāsakānaṁ puggalappasannānaṁ yadidaṁ jīvako komārabhacco. (AN i 26)

Compare:

Five dangers of having faith which is based on a single individual

Pañcime bhikkhave ādīnavā puggalappasāde. (AN iii 270)

Illustration: pasanno, faith

By three features a person with faith and confidence in the Perfect One is to be known.

tīhi bhikkhave ṭhānehi saddho pasanno veditabbo. (AN i 150)

Illustration: pasannā, believe in

Devadatta promoted forest-dwelling, almsgathering, rag-robe wearing, tree-root dwelling, vegetarianism. He said it would be possible to create a schism with these five items because people believe in asceticism (lukhappasannā hi āvuso manussā ti). (Vin.2.197)

Illustration: pasanno, convinced

A state of unsureness has arisen in me. I am convinced that the ascetic Gotama can explain the issue so I might abandon that state of unsureness

atthi ca me ayaṁ kaṅkhādhammo uppanno. Evaṁ pasanno ahaṁ samaṇe gotame pahoti me samaṇo gotamo tathā dhammaṁ desetuṁ yathāhaṁ imaṁ kaṅkhādhammaṁ pajaheyyan ti. (DN ii 149)

Illustration: pasanno, convinced

Then Venerable Ānanda said this to the Blessed One:

• ’It is astounding, bhante, it is extraordinary, bhante, I am convinced, bhante (evaṁ pasanno ahaṁ bhante), that in this assembly of bhikkhus there is not one bhikkhu in this assembly of bhikkhus who is unsure or uncertain about the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment], or about the [excellence of the] teaching, or about the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples, or about the [excellence of the] Path and the practice.’

• ’Out of faith, Ānanda, you speak (pasādā kho tvaṁ ānanda vadesi), but the Perfect One, Ānanda, has the actual knowledge that there is not one bhikkhu in this assembly of bhikkhus who is unsure or uncertain about the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment], or about the [excellence of the] teaching, or about the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples, or about the [excellence of the] Path and the practice’. (DN ii 155)

Illustration: pasanno, convinced

• I am convinced, Blessed One, that there never has been, there never will be, and there does not exist in the present another ascetic or Brahmanist who has greater transcendent insight regarding enlightenment than the Blessed One.

evaṁ pasanno ahaṁ bhante bhagavatī na cāhu na ca bhavissati na cetarahi vijjati añño samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo bhagavatā bhiyyo'bhiññataro yadidaṁ sambodhiyanti. (DN ii 82)

@

vipassati

passati

Renderings

Introduction

See

Passati means ‘see’:

• He sees Brahmā.

so brahmānaṁ passati. (DN ii 237)

• One sees no odious dreams.

Na pāpakaṁ supinaṁ passati. (Vin.1.295)

Synonyms of ‘see’

Passati can also be rendered with words like ‘perceive,’ ‘regard,’ or ‘contemplate’ etc:

• Perceive: A bhikkhu perceives as unlasting, bodily form which is indeed unlasting.

Aniccaññeva bhikkhave bhikkhu rūpaṁ aniccanti passati. (SN iii 51)

• Regard: The wise call that thing a spiritual shackle if, on account of it, one regards other people as inferior.

Taṁ vāpi ganthaṁ kusalā vadanti
Yaṁ nissito passati hinamaññaṁ. (Snp 798)

• Contemplate: Better than the life of one who lives a hundred years not contemplating arising and disappearance, is the life of a single day of one who contemplates arising and disappearance.

Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve apassaṁ udayabbayaṁ
Ekāhaṁ jīvitaṁ seyyo passato udayabbayaṁ. (Dhp 113)

• Find: Viewing the world in this way, the King of Death does not find one.

Evaṁ lokaṁ avekkhantaṁ maccurājā na passatī ti. (Snp 1119)

• Examine: A mirage is shimmering. A clear-sighted man would examine it, ponder it, and properly investigate it.

marici phandati tamenaṁ cakkhumā puriso passeyya nijjhāyeyya yoniso upaparikkheyya. (SN iii 141)

• Acknowledge: Now at that time Venerable Channa, having fallen into an offence, did not want to acknowledge the offence.

Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā chanto āpattiṁ āpajjitvā na icchati āpattiṁ passituṁ. (Vin.2.21)

• Notice: Whoever notices the pots of water for drinking, washing, or for the toilets is empty or drained, he replenishes them.

Yo passati pānīyaghaṭaṁ vā paribhojanīyaghaṭaṁ vā vaccaghaṭaṁ vā rittaṁ tucchaṁ so upaṭṭhapeti. (MN i 207)

• Understand: Better than the life of one who lives a hundred years not understanding the supreme teaching, is the life of a single day of one who understands the supreme teaching.

Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve apassaṁ dhammamuttamaṁ
Ekāhaṁ jīvitaṁ seyyo passato dhammamuttamaṁ. (Dhp 115)

• Realise: Better than the life of one who lives a hundred years not realising the Deathless State, is the life of a single day of one who realises the Deathless State.

Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve apassaṁ amataṁ padaṁ
Ekāhaṁ jīvitaṁ seyyo passato amataṁ padaṁ. (Dhp 114)

• Experience: Even a virtuous person experiences misfortune as long as his merit does not bear fruit. But when his merit bears fruit, then the virtuous person experiences [the karmic consequences of] his virtuous [deeds].

Bhadro pi passati pāpaṁ yāva bhadraṁ na paccati
Yadā ca paccati bhadraṁ atha bhadro bhadrāni passati. (Dhp 120)

With yathābhūtaṁ

In its exalted sense, passati is sometimes linked to yathābhūtaṁ:

• A disciple of mine… perceives all bodily form according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood.”

Idha aggivessana mama sāvako… sabbaṁ rūpaṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passati. (MN i 234-5)

• There is no fear for one who perceives according to reality
The pure and simple origination of phenomena
And the pure and simple continuity of originated phenomena, captain.

suddhaṁ dhammasamuppādaṁ suddhaṁ saṅkharasantatiṁ
passantassa yathābhūtaṁ na bhayaṁ hoti gāmaṇi. (Tha 716)

• On perceiving this according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment

evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato. (Uda 32-3)

• I know and see things according to reality

yathābhūtaṁ jānāmi passāmī ti. (AN v 313)

With dhamma

In its exalted sense, passati is sometimes linked to dhamma, which together means ‘see the nature of reality’ and is equivalent to arahantship. The parentheses in this section will be explained in the following section.

• Who could possibly explain the teaching to me such that I might see the nature of reality?

ko nu kho me tathā dhammaṁ deseyya yathāhaṁ dhammaṁ passeyyan ti. (SN iii 132-3)

• He who sees dependent origination [according to reality] sees the nature of reality; he who sees the nature of reality sees dependent origination [according to reality].

yo paṭiccasamuppādaṁ passati so dhammaṁ passati. Yo dhammaṁ passati so paṭiccasamuppādaṁ passatī ti. (MN i 190)

• One who sees the nature of reality sees me [according to reality]. One who sees me [according to reality] sees the nature of reality.

yo kho vakkali dhammaṁ passati so maṁ passati yo maṁ passati so dhammaṁ passati. (SN iii 120)

• He who, after hearing just a little, realises the nature of reality with his very being, and is not negligent of the practice, is truly expert in the teaching.

Yo ca appampi sutvāna dhammaṁ kāyena passati sa ve dhammadharo hoti yo dhammaṁ nappamajjati. (Dhp 259)

Exalted sense: objectless

In its exalted sense, passati is sometimes objectless. We have noticed this already in the parentheses of the previous paragraph. This is the aspect which justifies our particular interest in the word. For sentences to remain comprehensible, some exalted noun or adverb needs adding. We do this in accordance with word combinations noted above. Accordingly:

1) for the noun, we parenthesise dhammaṁ (=‘see [the nature of reality]’)

2) for the adverb we parenthesise yathābhūtaṁ (=’see [according to reality]’).

Noun parentheses

Similar parentheses may need adding to passato:

• For one who sees [the nature of reality], there is [nowhere] anything at all.

passato natthi kiñcanaṁ ti. (Uda 79)

• For one who sees [the nature of reality], attachment is destroyed.

Synonym parentheses

The same parentheses may need adding to synonyms. For example, in the following quote, na dissati is linked to yathābhūtaṁ. Therefore the adassanā that follows stands for yathābhūtaṁ adassanā:

• Camouflaged by skin, the body is not seen according to reality (yathābhūtaṁ na dissati)…

Chaviyā kāyo paṭicchanno yathābhūtaṁ na dissati…

… Whoever would think to be swelled-headed because of such a body, or would disparage another, what is this except not seeing it [according to reality] (adassanā)?

… kimaññatra adassanā ti. (Snp 194; Snp 206)

Vipassati: to see [according to reality]; to see [the nature of reality]

We treat vipassati as passati in its exalted form, parenthesising accordingly:

• Spiritually blind is this world [of beings]: few [men] here see [the nature of reality].

Andhabhūto ayaṁ loko tanuk’ettha vipassati. (Dhp 174)

• Knowing the arising of nonexistence [according to reality], and knowing that spiritually fettering delight is a tie to individual existence, knowing this thus, then he sees this matter [according to reality].

Ākiñcaññasambhavaṁ ñatvā nandi saṁyojanaṁ iti
Evametaṁ abhiññāya tato tattha vipassati. (Snp 1115)

• Seeing all states of individual existence [according to reality] as unlasting? This wish of mine, when, oh when, will it be [fulfilled]?

Aniccato sabbabhavaṁ vipassaṁ taṁ me idaṁ taṁ nu kadā bhavissati. (Tha 1091)

Sometimes it is not necessary to parenthesise, because the qualification is explicit:

• There is not such delight in the music of the fivefold ensemble as there is for one with an undistracted mind who rightly sees the nature of reality.

Na pañcaṅgikena turiyena na ratī hoti tādisī
Yathā ekaggacittassa sammā dhammaṁ vipassato. (Tha 1071)

Illustrations: see the nature of reality

dhammaṁ passeyyaṁ

dhammaṁ passeyyaṁ: (main article see: passati)

Illustration: dhammaṁ passeyyaṁ, see the nature of reality

Venerable Ānanda is capable of explaining the teaching to me such that I might see the nature of reality.

pahoti ca me āyasmā ānando tathā dhammaṁ desetaṁ yathāhaṁ dhammaṁ passeyyaṁ. (SN iii 132)

dhammaṁ vipassato

dhammaṁ vipassato: (main article see: passati)

Illustration: dhammaṁ vipassato, see the nature of reality with insight

What difference does womanhood make when the mind is well-collected, when knowledge [of things according to reality] exists in one who rightly sees the nature of reality?

Itthibhāvo kiṁ kayirā cittamhi susamāhite
Ñāṇamhi vattamānamhi sammā dhammaṁ vipassato. (SN i 129)

Illustrations: see [according to reality]

Illustration: passati, see [according to reality]

On that occasion one neither knows nor sees [according to reality] one’s own good.

Attatthampi tasmiṁ samaye yathābhūtaṁ na jānāti na passati. (SN v 121)

Illustration: passati, see [according to reality]

There are these eighteen elements of sensation:

Aṭṭhārasa kho imā ānanda dhātuyo:

The phenomenon of sight… phenomenon of the mental field of sensation.

cakkhudhātu… manoviññāṇadhātu ti

Through knowing and seeing these eighteen elements of sensation [according to reality], a bhikkhu can be called knowledgeable about elements of existence

Imā kho ānanda aṭṭhārasa dhātuyo yato jānāti passati ettāvatā pi kho ānanda dhātukusalo bhikkhū ti alaṁ vacanāyā ti. (MN iii 62)

Illustration: passati, see [according to reality]

For in knowing, the Blessed One knows [according to reality]; in seeing, he sees [according to reality].

So hāvuso bhagavā jānaṁ jānāti passaṁ passati. (MN i 111)

Illustration: passati, seeing [according to reality]

Through knowing and seeing these six phenomena [according to reality] a bhikkhu can be called knowledgeable about elements of existence.

Imā kho ānanda cha dhātuyo yato jānāti passati ettāvatā pi kho ānanda dhātukusalo bhikkhū ti alaṁ vacanāyā ti. (MN iii 62)

passami

passami: (main article see: passati)

Illustration: passami, see [according to reality]

Being in a refined material state of awareness, one sees a limited quantity of shapes, beautiful or ugly. By gaining mastery over them, he is aware that he knows and sees them [according to reality]. This is the first practice of spiritual development leading to mastery.

Ajjhattaṁ rūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati parittāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ paṭhamaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ. (DN ii 110-111)

Illustrations: see [the nature of reality]

Illustration: passato, see [the nature of reality]

For one who has mastered craving, for one who knows and sees [the nature of reality], there is [nowhere] anything at all.

Paṭividdhā taṇhā jānato passato natthi kiñcanaṁ ti. (Uda 80)

Illustration: passato, sees [the nature of reality]

Blissful is the physical seclusion of one who is content [with what is paltry and easily gotten], who has heard the teaching, and who sees [the nature of reality].

Sukho viveko tuṭṭhassa sutadhammassa passato. (Uda 10)

passāmi

passāmi: (main article see: passati)

Illustration: passāmi, see [the nature of reality]

Those things I had previously only heard about, I now abide contacting with my very being. I see [the nature of reality] having penetrated it with discernment.

ime kho te dhammā ye me pubbe sutāva ahesuṁ tenāhaṁ etarahi kāyena ca phusitvā viharāmi. Paññāya ca ativijjha passāmī ti. (SN v 226)

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pahitatta

Renderings

Introduction

Padahati and pahitatta

Padahati means ‘to strive’, for example:

• In this regard a bhikkhu stirs up eagerness, endeavours, applies energy, exerts his mind, and strives to prevent the arising of unarisen unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu anuppannānaṁ pāpakānaṁ akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ anuppādāya chandaṁ janeti vāyamati viriyaṁ ārabhati cittaṁ paggaṇhāti padahati. (DN ii 312)

Although pahita is the past participle of padahati, it only occurs in the compound pahitatta. The relationship between the padahati and pahita can be seen in the following quote:

• Enthusiastically applying himself [to the teaching], he scrutinises [it].

… Having scrutinised [it], he strives [to practise it].

… Being resolutely applied [to the practice] he realises with his very being the supreme truth, and he sees [the nature of reality] having penetrated it with discernment.

pahitatto samāno kāyena ceva paramaṁ saccaṁ sacchikaroti paññāya ca naṁ paṭivijjha passati. (MN i 480)

The -atta suffix is therefore shown to be redundant. For further notes see IGPT sv Attā.

Pahitatta: renderings of the -atta suffix

We have noted that the past participle of padahati occurs in the compound pahitatta (‘strived self’). The PED says it occurs only in this compound, i.e. there is no word pahita. In their translations, Horner, Norman, and PED attempt to incorporate the atta suffix. See below. Like Bodhi, we ourselves regard the -atta suffix as redundant. The same redundancy is seen also in sukhitattā (May they be happy, bhavantu sukhitattā, Snp 145) and samāhitatto (inwardly collected, SN i 169). For further notes, see Glossary sv Attā.

• living diligent, ardent, self-resolute

appamattā ātāpino pahitattā viharāmā. (Horner, MN i 207)

• My self is thus intent [upon striving]

Evaṁ maṁ pahitattampi. (Norman, Snp 432)

• for a bhikkhu with intent self

• resolute will

• abide diligent, ardent, and resolute.

appamattā ātāpino pahitattā viharāmā. (Bodhi, MN i 207)

Pahitatta: qualifiers

Pahitatta often occurs in the scriptures without qualification. We consider it to be an abbreviation that should be parenthesised in translation according to suttas where it is linked to some qualifier. In the following quotes it is linked to inward striving (padhāna) and ‘practising as I instructed him’ (yathā mayānusiṭṭhaṁ tathā paṭipajjamāno). We usually choose to render it in accordance with the second quote as ‘resolutely applied [to the practice]’ (i.e. ‘as I instruct him’), because the first quote refers to the Buddha’s practice before his enlightenment, that is, before the discovery of the teaching and the practice of the teaching.

• While I was nearby the Nerañjara River, resolutely applied to inward striving.

Taṁ maṁ padhānapahitattaṁ nadiṁ nerañjaraṁ pati. (Snp 425-6)

• My disciple who abides diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice] for one night and day, practising as I instructed him, might experience exclusively happiness for a hundred years.

Idha mama sāvako… ekaṁ rattindivaṁ appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto yathā mayānusiṭṭhaṁ tathā paṭipajjamāno satampi vassāni ekanta sukhapaṭisaṁvedī vihareyya. (AN v 86)

Translations

Our translations of the passages above are therefore:

• we abide diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice]

appamattā ātāpino pahitattā viharāmā. (MN i 207)

• I am thus resolutely applied [to inward striving].

Evaṁ maṁ pahitattampi. (i.e. before enlightenment, Snp 432)

• resolute bhikkhu’s

• resolutely applied [to the practice].

Similar issue with Ātāpī

We have made similar comments about Ātāpī (sv Ātāpī). Ātāpī likewise occurs in the scriptures without qualification. We consider ātāpī to be an abbreviation to be parenthesised in translation, and we therefore render it as ‘vigorously applied [to the practice]’:

Illustrations

pahitatto

pahitatto: (main article see: pahitatta)

Illustration: pahitatto, resolutely applied [to the practice]

My disciple who abides diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice] for one night and day, practising as I instructed him, might experience exclusively happiness for a hundred years.

Idha mama sāvako… ekaṁ rattindivaṁ appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto yathā mayānusiṭṭhaṁ tathā paṭipajjamāno satampi vassāni ekanta sukhapaṭisaṁvedī vihareyya. (AN v 86)

Illustration: pahitatto, resolutely applied [to the practice]

Bhante, it would be good if the Blessed One would explain the teaching to me in brief, so that, having heard the teaching from the Blessed One, I might abide alone, withdrawn [from human fellowship, sensuous pleasures, and spiritually unwholesome factors], diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice].

sādhu me bhante bhagavā saṅkhittena dhammaṁ desetu yamahaṁ bhagavato dhammaṁ sutvā eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto vihareyyanti. (SN iv 145)

pahitattam

pahitattam: (main article see: pahitatta)

Illustration: pahitattam, resolutely applied [to inward striving]

‘Faith, energy, and wisdom are found in me [regarding the development of spiritually wholesome factors]. Why do you ask about life when I am thus resolutely applied [to inward striving].

Atthi saddhā tathā viriyaṁ paññā ca mama vijjati
Evaṁ maṁ pahitattampi kiṁ jīvamanupucchasi. (Snp 432)

Comment:

This is spoken before the discovery of the teaching, so before the practice of the teaching.

pahitattassa

pahitattassa: (main article see: pahitatta)

Illustration: pahitattassa, resolute

What should be his manner of speech? What his sphere of personal application in this world? What should be that resolute bhikkhu’s observances and practices?

Kyāssa vyappathayo assu kyāssassu idha gocarā
Kāni sīlabbatānāssu pahitattassa bhikkhuno. (Snp 961)

pahitattā

pahitattā: (main article see: pahitatta)

Illustration: pahitattā, resolute

The diligent and resolute practisers of my training system will go without your approval where, having gone, they will not grieve.

Te appamattā pahitattā mama sāsanakārakā
Akāmā te gamissanti yattha gantvā na socare. (Snp 445)

Illustration: pahitattassa, resolutely

For a bhikkhu who abides properly considering pairs [of teachings] in this way, diligently, vigorously, and resolutely, one of two fruits can be expected.

Evaṁ sammā dvayatānupassino kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ. (Snp 140)

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pāpa

pāpa see pāpaka.

@

pāpaka

Renderings

Introduction

Pāpaka: -ka suffix

The -ka suffix of pāpaka is in accordance with Duroiselle’s observation: ‘Not seldom -ka adds nothing whatever to the primary meaning of a word ’ (PGPL, Para 581). DOP agrees (sv Ka2).

Pāpa and pāpaka: schedule of renderings

Our schedule of renderings is as follows:

1) Where pāpa is antonymous to puñña we call it ‘demerit’:

• He in this world who lives the religious life having spurned [the accumulating of] merit and demerit.

Yodha puññañca pāpañca bāhetvā brahmacariyavā. (SN i 182)

2) In the context of karmically consequential conduct, where pāpaka is antonymous to kalyāṇa we call it ‘demeritorious’:

• He is the inheritor of whatever karmically consequential conduct he undertakes whether meritorious or demeritorious.

Yaṁ kammaṁ karissati kalyāṇaṁ vā pāpakaṁ vā tassa dāyādo bhavissatī ti. (AN iii 185)

3) Where pāpaka is synonymous with akusala we call it ‘unvirtuous’:

• When contemplating an object that arouses unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts (pāpakā akusalā vitakkā), a bhikkhu should ponder a meditation object connected with what is spiritually wholesome (aññaṁ nimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ kusalūpasaṁhitaṁ). (MN i 119)

4) Where pāpaka is antonymous to bhaddaka and implies a bad inner nature we call it ‘odious.’

  • Whatever a bitter gourd seed absorbs leads to bitterness, acridity, and unpleasant taste. For what reason? The seed is odious (bījaṁ hi bhikkhave pāpakaṁ) (AN v 212).
  • Whatever a sugar-cane seed absorbs leads to sweetness, pleasantness and delicious flavour. For what reason? The seed is excellent (bījaṁ hi bhikkhave bhaddakaṁ) (AN v 213).

5) In relation to diṭṭhi, where pāpika is antonymous to bhaddakaṁ we call it ‘odious’:

• his view [of reality] is odious

diṭṭhi hi bhikkhave pāpikā

• his perception [of reality] is excellent

diṭṭhi hi bhikkhave bhaddikā. (AN v 212)

6) Where pāpaka means unpleasant we call it ‘wretched.’

• what use to you is this wretched and difficult life?

kiṁ tuyhaminā pāpakena dujjīvitena. (Vin.3.73)

7) In reference to friends we call it ‘unvirtuous.’

• King Ajātasattu of Magadha has unvirtuous friends (ajātasattu vedehiputto pāpamitto). King Pasenadi of Kosala has virtuous friends (pasenadi kosalo kalyāṇamitto). (SN i 83)

8) When it implies unvirtuous behaviour we call it ‘unvirtuous.’

• free of unvirtuous conduct

pāpakammaṁ akubbato. (Vin.2.203)

• What is unvirtuous? In this regard, some person kills

Katamo ca bhikkhave pāpo? Idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti. (AN ii 222)

9) Similarly, where pāpaka is antonymous to kalyāṇa and implies bad practices, we call it ‘unvirtuous.’

• unvirtuous, of an unvirtuous moral nature

• virtuous and of a virtuous moral nature.

sīlavantehi kalyāṇadhammehī ti. (SN v 397)

10) When it describes someone who is unvirtuous we call it ‘unvirtuous.’ Thus an unvirtuous bhikkhu is unvirtuous (pāpabhikkhu dussīlo AN ii 239).

11) As a word of condemnation, we call it ‘odious.’

• excessive greed is odious

atilobho hi pāpako. (Vin.4.259)

12) Māra’s epithet is pāpimant, ‘the Maleficent One.’

Illustrations: pāpa

pāpaṁ

pāpaṁ: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpaṁ, demerit

If, with a razor-rimmed wheel, one were to make the living beings of this earth into one mass of flesh, into one heap of flesh, because of this there would be demerit and an outcome of demerit.

Khurapariyantena cepi cakkena yo imissā paṭhaviyā pāṇe ekaṁ maṁsakhalaṁ ekaṁ maṁsapuñjaṁ kareyya atthi tatonidānaṁ pāpaṁ atthi pāpassa āgamo. (SN iv 348)

Illustration: pāpaṁ, demerit

If one were to go along the south bank of the Ganges killing and slaughtering… because of this there would be demerit and an outcome of demerit.

atthi tatonidānaṁ pāpaṁ atthi pāpassa āgamo

If one were to go along the north bank of the Ganges giving gifts and making others give gifts… because of this there would be merit and an outcome of merit.

atthi tatonidānaṁ puññaṁ atthi puññassa āgamo. (SN iv 348)

Illustration: pāpaṁ, demerit

Whatever demerit was formerly generated by me in other lifetimes, that must be experienced now [in this lifetime].

Yaṁ mayā pakataṁ pāpaṁ pubbe aññāsu jātisu; Idheva taṁ vedanīyaṁ. (Tha 81)

Illustration: pāpaṁ, demerit

He in this world who lives the religious life having spurned [the accumulating of] merit and demerit, who fares in the world with reflectiveness, he is truly called a bhikkhu.

Yodha puññañca pāpañca bāhetvā brahmacariyavā
Saṅkhāya loke carati sa ve bhikkhū ti vuccati. (SN i 182)

Illustration: pāpaṁ, demerit

Demerit generated by his ego, born from his ego, arisen from his ego, crushes the fool like a diamond crushes a hard gem.

Attanā va kataṁ pāpaṁ attajaṁ attasambhavaṁ
Abhimanthati dummedhaṁ vajiraṁ v’asmamayaṁ maṇiṁ. (Dhp 161)

Illustration: pāpaṁ, something demeritorious

Something demeritorious has been done by me. I shall destroy that accumulated demerit.

Pāpaṁ hi mayā pakataṁ kammaṁ taṁ nijjaressāmi. (Thi 431)

Illustration: pāpaṁ, what is unvirtuous; pāpassa, demerit

Should a person do what is unvirtuous, he should not do it again and again. He should not develop a fondness for it. The accumulation of demerit is suffering.

Pāpaṁ ce puriso kayirā na taṁ kayirā punappunaṁ
Na tamhi chandaṁ kayirātha dukkho pāpassa uccayo.

Should a person do what is meritorious, he should do it again and again. He should develop a fondness for it. The accumulation of merit is happiness.

Puññaṁ ce puriso kayirā kayirāthetaṁ punappunaṁ
Tamhi chandaṁ kayirātha sukho puññassa uccayo. (Dhp 117-8)

Illustration: pāpaṁ, unvirtuous; pāpaṁ, demerit

He who injures someone who is pure, free of unvirtuous conduct, the demerit affects him himself, the one with a defiled mind, with no respect [for others].

Aduṭṭhassa hi yo dubbhe pāpakammaṁ akubbato;
Tameva pāpaṁ phusati duṭṭhacittaṁ anādaraṁ. (Vin.2.203)

pāpa

pāpa: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpa, demerit

I have [now] cleansed away all demerit.

Illustration: pāpaṁ, unvirtuousness

Seeing unvirtuousness as unvirtuous, become in that respect disillusioned, unattached, and liberated.

Pāpaṁ pāpakato disvā tattha nibbindatha virajjatha vimuccathā ti. (Iti 33)

Illustration: pāpa, unvirtuous

Unvirtuous friendship is an obstacle to virtuous practices.

pāpamittatā sīlānaṁ paripantho. (AN v 136)

Virtuous friendship is a condition that nourishes virtuous practices.

kalyāṇamittatā sīlānaṁ āhāro. (AN v 136)

pāpo

pāpo: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpo, unvirtuous

What is unvirtuous?

Katamo ca bhikkhave pāpo?

In this regard, some person

Idha bhikkhave ekacco

• kills

• steals

• commits adultery

kāmesu micchācārī hoti

• lies

• speaks maliciously, harshly or frivolous chatter

pisunāvāco hoti… pharusāvāco hoti… samphappalāpī hoti

• is greedy

• has an unbenevolent attitude

• is of wrong view [of reality]

Comment:

This occurs in a group of four definitions:

1) What is unvirtuous?

Katamo ca bhikkhave pāpo? Idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti… Micchādiṭṭhiko hoti.

2) What is worse than unvirtuousness?

Katamo ca bhikkhave pāpena pāpataro? Idha bhikkhave ekacco attanā ca pāṇātipātī hoti. Parañca pāṇātipāte samādapeti… Attanā ca micchādiṭṭhiko hoti parañca micchādiṭṭhiyā samādapeti. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave pāpena pāpataro.

3) What is virtuous?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kalyāṇo? Idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti… sammādiṭṭhiko hoti.

4) What is better than virtuousness?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kalyāṇena kalyāṇataro? Idha bhikkhave ekacco attanā ca pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti parañca pāṇātipātā veramaṇiyā samādapeti… Attanā ca sammādiṭṭhiko hoti parañca sammādiṭṭhiyā samādapeti.

Illustration: pāpa, unvirtuous

In future times, Ānanda, there will be members of the clan with an ochre robe round their necks, unvirtuous, of an unvirtuous moral nature.

Bhavissanti kho panānanda anāgatamaddhānaṁ gotrabhuno kāsāvakaṇṭhā dussīlā pāpadhammā. (MN iii 255-6)

Comment:

The opposite of dussīlā pāpadhammā is sīlavantehi kalyāṇadhammehī:

Whatever there is in my family that is suitable for offering, all that I share unreservedly with those who are virtuous and of a virtuous moral nature.

Yaṁ kho pana kiñci kule deyyadhammaṁ sabbaṁ taṁ appaṭivibhattaṁ sīlavantehi kalyāṇadhammehī ti. (SN v 397)

Illustration: pāpa, unvirtuous

An unvirtuous bhikkhu is unvirtuous, of an unvirtuous moral nature, impure.

pāpabhikkhu dussīlo hoti pāpadhammo asuci. (AN ii 239)

Illustration: pāpa, odious

If the pleasure and pain that beings feel are caused by fate and destiny, certainly the Nigaṇṭhas are of an odious fate and destiny in that they experience such unpleasant, racking, piercing sensations.

Sace bhikkhave sattā saṅgatibhāvahetu sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedenti addhā bhikkhave nigaṇṭhā pāpasaṅgatikā yaṁ etarahi evarūpā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyanti. (MN ii 222)

Illustration: pāpa, odious

He maintains an odious dogmatic view.

Illustrations: pāpaka

pāpakānaṁ

pāpakānaṁ: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpakānaṁ, demeritorious

Experiences here and there the karmic consequences of meritorious and demeritorious deeds

tatra tatra kalyāṇapāpakānaṁ kammānaṁ vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti. (MN i 8)

pāpakaṁ

pāpakaṁ: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpakaṁ, demeritorious

He is the inheritor of whatever karmically consequential conduct he undertakes whether meritorious or demeritorious.

Yaṁ kammaṁ karissati kalyāṇaṁ vā pāpakaṁ vā tassa dāyādo bhavissatī ti. (AN iii 185)

pāpikānaṁ

pāpikānaṁ: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpikānaṁ, unvirtuous

In this regard a bhikkhu has unvirtuous desires and is dominated by unvirtuous desires.

Idhāvuso bhikkhu pāpiccho hoti pāpikānaṁ icchānaṁ vasaṁ gato. (MN i 95)

pāpakā

pāpakā: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpakā, unvirtuous

Are there any unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors unabandoned by me which, were I to die tonight, would be a spiritual obstruction to me?

atthi nu kho me pāpakā akusalā dhammā appahīnā ye me assu rattiṁ kālaṁ karontassa antarāyāyā ti. (AN iii 306-8)

pāpake

pāpake: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpake, unvirtuous

A certain bhikkhu had gone for his daytime abiding, but kept thinking unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts associated with the household life.

pāpake akusale vitakke vitakketi gehanissite. (SN i 197)

pāpakaṁ

pāpakaṁ: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpakaṁ, unvirtuous

Although he may do an unvirtuous deed by body, speech, or mind, he is incapable of hiding it.

Kiñcāpi so kammaṁ karoti pāpakaṁ kāyena vācā uda cetasā vā
Abhabbo so tassa paṭicchādāya. (Snp 230-232)

Illustration: pāpakaṁ, unvirtuous

Neither shall our minds be troubled by this, nor shall we utter unvirtuous words

na ceva no cittaṁ vipariṇataṁ bhavissati. Na ca pāpakaṁ vācaṁ nicchāressāma. (MN i 127)

Illustration: pāpikaṁ, unvirtuous

He conceives an unvirtuous desire for respect, for gains, honour, and renown

pāpikaṁ icchaṁ panidahati anavaññapaṭilābhāya lābhasakkārasilokapaṭilābhāya. (AN ii 143)

pāpako

pāpako: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpako, unvirtuous

Greed is unvirtuous, and hatred is unvirtuous

lobho ca pāpako doso ca pāpako. (MN i 15)

Illustration: pāpako, odious, pāpa, unvirtuous

Someone who is unvirtuous (dussīlo) should be shunned. Why so? Because one gains an odious reputation of having unvirtuous friends, companions, and comrades.

pāpako kittisaddo abbhuggacchati pāpamitto purisapuggalo pāpasahāyo pāpasampavaṅko ti. (AN i 126-7)

Illustration: pāpako, odious

One should be pleased with what is received, for excessive greed is odious.

Yaṁ laddhaṁ tena tuṭṭhabbaṁ atilobho hi pāpako. (Vin.4.259)

pāpakaṁ

pāpakaṁ: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpakaṁ, odious

  • Whatever a bitter gourd seed absorbs leads to its bitterness, acridity, and unpleasant taste. For what reason? The seed is odious (bījaṁ hi bhikkhave pāpakaṁ) (AN v 212).
  • Whatever a sugar-cane seed absorbs leads to its sweetness, pleasantness and delicious flavour. For what reason? The seed is excellent (bījaṁ hi bhikkhave bhaddakaṁ) (AN v 213).

Illustration: pāpako, odious

When the yakkha Sūciloma pressed his body, the Buddha said he was not afraid, saying:

• ‘But your touch is odious.’

api ca te samphasso pāpako ti. (Snp 48)

Illustration: pāpakaṁ, odious

One sees no odious dreams.

Na pāpakaṁ supinaṁ passati… Vin.1.295).

Illustration: pāpakaṁ, odious

Odious dogmatic views,

Illustration: pāpakā, odious

We were unable to wean the bhikkhu Sāti from this odious dogmatic view.

mayaṁ bhante nāsakkhimha sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ etasmā pāpakā diṭṭhigatā vivecetuṁ. (MN i 257)

pāpakena

pāpakena: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpakena, wretched

My good fellow, what use to you is this wretched and difficult life? Death for you is better than life.

ambho purisa kiṁ tuyhaminā pāpakena dujjīvitena matante jīvitā seyyo ti. (Vin.3.73)

Illustration: pāpako, wretched

While performing unvirtuous deeds the fool does not realise that later it will be bitter for him. The karmic consequence will be truly wretched.

Atha pāpāni kammāni karaṁ bālo na bujjhati
Pacchāssa kaṭukaṁ hoti vipāko hissa pāpako ti. (Tha 146)

Illustration: pāpako, wretched

Therefore hold nothing beloved: separation from the beloved is wretched.

Tasmā piyaṁ na kayirātha piyāpāyo hi pāpako. (Dhp 211)

Illustration: pāpako, wretched

The karmic consequence of killing is wretched.

pāṇātipātassa kho pāpako vipāko. (AN v 252)

pāpakamminaṁ

pāpakamminaṁ: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpakamminaṁ, evildoer

What can the Sundarikā River do? What the Payāga? What the Bāhukā? They cannot purify a hostile man, a wrongdoer, an evildoer.

Kiṁ sundarikā karissati kiṁ payāgo kiṁ bāhukā nadī
Veriṁ katakibbisaṁ naraṁ na hi naṁ sodhaye pāpakamminaṁ. (MN i 39)

Illustrations: pāpimato

pāpimato

pāpimato: (main article see: pāpaka)

Illustration: pāpimato, the Maleficent One

By taking delight in bodily form one is held captive by Māra. By not taking delight in it one is freed from the Maleficent One.

Rūpaṁ kho bhante abhinandamāno baddho mārassa anabhinandamāno mutto pāpimato. (SN iii 75)

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pāragū

pāragata

Renderings

Introduction

‘Far Shore’: nibbāna

‘Far Shore’ (pāraṁ) means nibbāna. The Pārāyanavaggo indicates this when it says one would go from the Near Shore to the Far Shore if one developed the Supreme Way.

Apārā pāraṁ gaccheyya bhāvento maggamuttamaṁ. (Snp 1130)

‘Near Shore’: personal identity?

The (capitalised) ‘Near Shore’ likely means personal identity, because the simile in the Āsivisopama Sutta (SN iv 172) says the near shore of a great expanse of water (orimaṁ tīraṁ) is a metaphor for personal identity (sakkāyassetaṁ adhivacanaṁ) and the far shore (pārimaṁ tīraṁ) is a metaphor for Nibbāna (nibbānassetaṁ adhivacanaṁ).

Arahant: pāragato or pāragū

Therefore, because he has attained to Nibbāna, the arahant is ‘one who has reached the Far Shore,’ either pāragato (SN iv 157) or pāragū (Snp 372).

Pāraṅgata vs. Pāragata

Pāraṅgata and pāragata stem from paraṁ and para. PED explains the words as synonyms, as follows:

  • Pāragata: ‘one who has reached the opposite shore.’
  • Pāraṅgata: ‘gone to the other side, gone beyond, traversed, transcended.’

Pāli versions disagree on the spelling. For example, VRI usually spells pāraṅgata and commonly ascribes pāragata to BJT, as follows:

1) pāraṅgato [pāragato (sī. syā. kaṁ.)] (SN iv 174).

2) pāraṅgato [pāragato (sī. syā. kaṁ.)] (AN ii 5).

3) pāraṅgato [pāragato (sī. syā. kaṁ.)] (AN iv 11).

4) pāraṅgatā [pāragatā (sī. syā. pī.)] (AN iv 228).

5) pāraṅgatā [pāragatā (ka. sī. syā.)] (Iti 50).

6) tiṇṇo pāraṅgato [pāragato (sī. aṭṭha. syā.)] (Iti 57).

However, VRI itself occasionally spells pāragata. For example, in combination with tiṇṇo, the ratio is 11:2 as follows:

1) tiṇṇaṁ pāraṅgataṁ (Snp 359).

2) tiṇṇā pāraṅgatā (AN iv 411).

3) tiṇṇo pāraṅgato (MN ii 196).

4) tiṇṇo pāraṅgato (SN iv 156).

5) tiṇṇo pāraṅgato (SN iv 174).

6) tiṇṇo pāraṅgato (SN iv 175).

7) tiṇṇo pāraṅgato (AN ii 5).

8) tiṇṇo hoti pāraṅgato (AN iv 11).

9) tiṇṇo pāraṅgato (Iti 57).

10) tiṇṇo pāraṅgato (Snp 638).

11) tiṇṇo pāraṅgato (Tha 680).

1) tiṇṇo pāragato (Dhp 414).

2) tiṇṇo pāragato (Snp 21).

On the basis of these findings, we normalise spellings in the Glossary and in our translations to pāragato.

Pāraguṁ and pāragū: qualified

Where pāraguṁ and pāragū are qualified they still indicate arahantship, and should be rendered as ‘gone beyond [something]’ For example:

Pāragū: master (of the three Vedas)

Pāragū can also mean that a brahman scholar is ‘master’ of the three Vedas: tiṇṇaṁ vedānaṁ pāragū. (AN i 163)

Illustrations

pāragū

pāragū: (main article see: pāragata)

Illustration: pāragū, one who reaches the far shore

So a person, being ever mindful, should avoid sensuous pleasures. Having forsaken them he would cross the flood [of suffering] like one, having bailed a boat, who reaches the far shore.

Tasmā jantu sadā sato kāmāni parivajjaye
Te pahāya tare oghaṁ nāvaṁ sitvāva pāragū ti. (Snp 771)

pāragato

pāragato: (main article see: pāragata)

Illustration: pāragato, reached the far shore

As long as he has not gained firm ground whilst [crossing] a river, a man strains with all his limbs. But on gaining firm ground, standing on the shore, he does not strain for he has reached the far shore.

Yāva na gādhaṁ labhati nadīsu āyūhati sabbagattehi jantu
Gādhañca laddhāna thale ṭhito so nāyūhati pāragato hi soti. (SN i 48)

Illustration: pāragato, reached the Far Shore

Having reached the end of birth and death, he does not strain for he has reached the Far Shore.

pappuyya jātimaraṇassa antaṁ nāyūhati pāragato hi so ti. (SN i 48)

Illustration: pāragato, reached the Far Shore

He is blessed with profound knowledge. He has fulfilled the religious life.

Sa vedagū vusitabrahmacariyo

He is called one who has reached the end of the world [of phenomena], one who has reached the Far Shore.

Lokantagū pāragato ti vuccatī ti. (SN iv 157)

Illustration: pāragato, reached the Far Shore

I have crossed [to the Far Shore], reached the Far Shore, having eliminated the flood [of suffering].

tiṇṇo pāragato vineyya oghaṁ. (Snp 21)

Illustration: pāragū, gone beyond

You have reached the end of suffering, gone beyond suffering.

antagūsi pāragū dukkhassa. (Snp 539)

pāragā

pāragā: (main article see: pāragata)

Illustration: pāragā, gone beyond

Having vanquished both attachment and hatred

te rāgadose abhibhuyya bhikkhavo

Be those who have gone beyond birth and death.

bhavātha jātimaraṇassa pāragā ti. (SN iv 71)

Illustration: pāragū, gone beyond

They are unattached; they have gone beyond birth and death.

te asitā jātimaraṇabhayassa pāragū. (AN ii 15)

pāraguṁ

pāraguṁ: (main article see: pāragata)

Illustration: pāraguṁ, gone beyond

With self-centredness abandoned, he has gone beyond old age, I declare.

Mānaṁ jahaṁ brūmi jarāya pāraguṁ. (Iti 40)

Illustration: pāraguṁ, gone beyond

Be those who have gone beyond birth and death.

Bhavātha jātimaraṇassa pāragā ti. (Iti 40-1)

Illustration: pāragū, gone beyond

He bears his last body having gone beyond birth and death

Dhāreti antimaṁ dehaṁ jātimaraṇapāragū. (Tha 1022)

Illustration: pāraguṁ, gone beyond

One who has done what needed to be done, who is free of perceptually obscuring states, and who has gone beyond all things.

Katakiccaṁ anāsavaṁ pāraguṁ sabbadhammānaṁ. (Snp 1105)

pāragun

pāragun: (main article see: pāragata)

Illustration: pāragun, gone beyond

The devas venerate him, the one who has gone beyond individual existence.

Devā namassanti bhavassa pāragun ti. (Tha 38)

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parāyaṇa

pārāyana

Renderings

Introduction

Parāyaṇa and Parāyana

These words are synonyms, though PED is silent on the matter. VRI has not normalised them, and thus both spellings are found there. For example, sambodhiparāyaṇaṁ and -naṁ. For computer studies this is unsatisfactory, and we have normalised this Glossary to parāyaṇaṁ in accordance with both Vedic and Sanskrit spellings.

Parāyaṇa from parā

Parāyaṇa is derived from parā + i, where parā is ‘para + ā. Ā is the directional prefix emphasizing para.’ This meaning is seen, for example, when Nibbāna is called ‘the final destination’ (parāyaṇa, SN iv 373), and with the stream-enterer, who has enlightenment as his destiny (sambodhiparāyaṇo, AN iv 11-13).

Parāyaṇa: support

The meaning ‘support’ is shown here:

• In this regard one sees that very same lady after some time, eighty or ninety or a hundred years old, aged, as bent as a rafter, crooked, supported by a walking stick (daṇḍaparāyaṇaṁ), wobbling as she goes. (MN i 88)

Parāyaṇa: means of survival

The meaning ‘means of survival’ can be seen here:

• What is it that produces a person? What does he have that runs around? What enters upon the round of birth and death? What is his means of survival?

Kiṁ su janeti purisaṁ kiṁ su tassa vidhāvati
Kiṁ su saṁsāramāpādi kiṁ su tassa parāyaṇan ti

• It is craving that produces a person; his thoughts are what runs around; a being enters upon the round of birth and death; his merit is his means of survival.

Taṇhā janeti purisaṁ cittamassa vidhāvati
Satto saṁsāramāpādi kammaṁ tassa parāyaṇan ti. (SN i 38)

That merit is a means of survival is seen in this quote:

• Therefore one should do what is meritorious as a collection for a future life. Meritorious deeds are the support for living beings [when they arise] in the world hereafter.”

Tasmā kareyya kalyāṇaṁ nicayaṁ samparāyikaṁ puññāni paralokasmiṁ patiṭṭhā honti pāṇinanti. (SN i 93)

Parāyaṇa and Pārāyana: not synonyms

PED says pārāyana is the metric form of parāyaṇa. But Norman points out that Monier Williams (Sanskrit-English Dictionary) ‘does not, however, quote such a metrical form’ (GD, note on p.218.18, GD p.423).

Pārāyana from pāraṁ: ‘the way to the Far Shore’

Pārāyana occurs in relation to the fifth chapter of the Suttanipāta. Its spelling and meaning are derived from pāraṁ, i.e. ‘Far Shore’:

• This path is for going to the Far Shore, therefore it is called the way to the Far Shore.

Maggo so pāraṁ gamanāya tasmā pārāyanaṁ iti. (Snp 1130)

Illustrations

parāyaṇaṁ

parāyaṇaṁ: (main article see: pārāyana)

Illustration: parāyaṇaṁ, means of survival

When one has parted this life, the bodily, verbal, and mental self-control one has had in this world will provide a haven, a shelter, an island, a refuge, and a means of survival.

yo idha kāyena saṁyamo vācāya saṁyamo manasā saṁyamo taṁ tassa petassa tāṇañca lenañca dīpañca saraṇañca parāyaṇañcā ti. (AN i 155)

parāyaṇe

parāyaṇe: (main article see: pārāyana)

Illustration: parāyaṇe, means of survival

I pay respects to those who are perfect in virtue, who are long trained in inward collectedness, who have rightly gone forth [into the ascetic life], and have the religious life as their [sole] means of survival.

Ahañca sīlasampanne cirarattasamāhite
Sammā pabbajite vande brahmacariyaparāyaṇe. (SN i 234)

Illustration: parāyaṇaṁ, Final Destination

The destruction of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality. This is called the Final Destination.

yo bhikkhave rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave parāyaṇaṁ.

What is the path leading to the Final Destination. Mindfulness of the body.

Katamo ca bhikkhave parāyaṇagāmī maggo? Kāyagatāsati. (SN iv 373)

Illustration: parāyaṇaṁ, final destination

The religious life is lived which has the Untroubled as its culmination, final destination, and conclusion.

Nibbānogadhaṁ hi brāhmaṇa brahmacariyaṁ vussati nibbānaparāyaṇaṁ nibbānapariyosānan ti. (SN v 218)

parāyaṇo

parāyaṇo: (main article see: pārāyana)

Illustration: parāyaṇo, destiny

One who lives a hundred years, even he has death as his destiny.

Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve sopi maccuparāyaṇo. (SN v 217)

Illustration: parāyaṇo, destiny

In destroying the first three ties to individual existence, he becomes a stream-enterer, no more liable to rebirth in the plane of damnation, assured of deliverance, with enlightenment as his destiny.

So tiṇṇaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā sotāpanno hoti avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo. (AN iv 11-13)

Illustration: parāyaṇo, destiny

I am a stream-enterer, no more liable to rebirth in the plane of damnation, assured of deliverance, with enlightenment as my destiny.

sotāpanno’hamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo ti. (DN ii 93)

parāyaṇa

parāyaṇa: (main article see: pārāyana)

Illustration: parāyaṇa, destiny

You discern the possible places of rebirth and the afterlife destinations for the world [of beings] including the devas.

Tuvaṁ hi lokassa sadevakassa gatiṁ pajānāsi parāyaṇañca. (Snp 377)

parāyaṇaṁ

parāyaṇaṁ: (main article see: pārāyana)

Illustration: parāyaṇaṁ, destined

Knowing all stations for the stream of consciousness, the Perfect One knows [the stream of consciousness], whether it is established in this world, or liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], or destined to be so liberated.

Viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo sabbā abhijānaṁ tathāgato
Tiṭṭhantamenaṁ jānāti vimuttaṁ tapparāyaṇaṁ. (Snp 1114)

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pāsādika

Renderings

Illustrations

pāsādikaṁ

pāsādikaṁ: (main article see: pāsādika)

Illustration: pāsādikaṁ, beautifully behaved

You will see the Blessed One

dakkhissasi tvaṁ soṇa taṁ bhagavantaṁ

who is beautifully behaved, faith inspiring,

who has peaceful [mental] faculties and a peaceful mind,

apāsādike

apāsādike: (main article see: pāsādika)

Illustration: apāsādike, unbeautiful behaviour

Five dangers of unbeautiful behaviour

pañcime bhikkhave ādīnavā apāsādike.

• those without faith do not gain faith

• some with faith start wavering

pasannānañca ekaccānaṁ aññathattaṁ hoti

• the Teacher’s training system is not fulfilled

satthusāsanaṁ akataṁ hoti

• later disciples follow one’s example

pacchimā janatā diṭṭhānugatiṁ āpajjati

• one’s mind does not become serene

pāsādike

pāsādike: (main article see: pāsādika)

Illustration: pāsādike, beautiful behaviour

Five advantages of beautiful behaviour

pañcime bhikkhave ānisaṁsā pāsādike

• those without faith gain faith

• there is an increase of those with faith

pasannānañca bhiyyobhāvo hoti

• the Teacher’s word is fulfilled

satthusāsanaṁ kataṁ hoti

• later disciples follow one’s example

pacchimā janatā diṭṭhānugatiṁ āpajjati

• one’s mind becomes serene

pāsādikassa

pāsādikassa: (main article see: pāsādika)

Illustration: pāsādikassa, beautiful behaviour

Having in many ways spoken in praise of being easy to support and help, of fewness of needs, of being content [with what is paltry and easily gotten], of erasing defilements, of austerity, of beautiful behaviour, of a dwindling away of the five grasped aggregates, of the exertion of energy,

anekapariyāyena subharatāya supposatāya appicchassa santuṭṭhassa sallekhassa dhutassa pāsādikassa apacayassa viriyārambhassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsitvā. (Vin.1.45)

pāsādikaṁ

pāsādikaṁ: (main article see: pāsādika)

Illustration: pāsādikaṁ, beautifully behaved

In this regard, some person is beautifully behaved whether walking towards or away, looking at or away, flexing or extending his arms, or carrying his robes and bowl

Idha bhikkhave ekaccassa puggalassa pāsādikaṁ hoti abhikkantaṁ paṭikkantaṁ ālokitaṁ vilokitaṁ sammiñjitaṁ pasāritaṁ saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇaṁ. (AN ii 104)

Illustration: pāsādikaṁ, beautifully behaved

With a person who is beautifully behaved in every respect, one’s mind becomes serene.

Samantapāsādikaṁ āvuso puggalaṁ āgamma cittaṁ pasīdati. (AN iii 190)

pāsādikānaṁ

pāsādikānaṁ: (main article see: pāsādika)

Illustration: pāsādikānaṁ, beautifully behaved

Chief of those who is beautifully behaved in every respect is Upasena Vaṅgantaputta.

Etadaggaṁ bhikkhave mama sāvakānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ samantapāsādikānaṁ yadidaṁ upaseno vaṅgantaputto. (AN i 24)

pāsādikataro

pāsādikataro: (main article see: pāsādika)

Illustration: pāsādikataro, handsome

The more the devas complained, muttered, and grumbled, the more lovely, attractive, and handsome the yakkha became.

Yathā yathā kho bhikkhave devā tāvatiṁsā ujjhāyanti khīyanti vipācenti tathā tathā so yakkho abhirūpataro ceva hoti dassanīyataro ca pāsādikataro ca. (SN i 237)

pāsādikaṁ

pāsādikaṁ: (main article see: pāsādika)

Illustration: pāsādikaṁ, beautiful

Therefore their [way of] walking, eating, and conducting themselves was beautiful. Their [way of] deportment was smooth, like a stream of oil.

Tato pāsādikaṁ āsi gataṁ bhuttaṁ nisevitaṁ
Siniddhā teladhārā va ahosi iriyāpatho. (Tha 927)

pāsādikā

pāsādikā: (main article see: pāsādika)

Illustration: pāsādikā, beautiful

How delightful is the moonlit night!

ramaṇīyā vata bho dosinā ratti

How lovely is the moonlit night!

abhirūpā vata bho dosinā ratti

How attractive is the moonlit night!

dassanīyā vata bho dosinā ratti,

How beautiful is the moonlit night!

pāsādikā vata bho dosinā ratti. (DN i 47)

Illustration: pāsādikaṁ, beautifully

Venerable Pukkusāti spent most of the night seated in meditation. Then the Blessed One thought ‘This noble young man behaves beautifully

Āyasmāpi kho pukkusāti bahudeva rattiṁ nisajjāya vītināmesi. Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi pāsādikaṁ nu kho ayaṁ kulaputto iriyati. (MN iii 238)

Illustration: pāsādikaṁ, beautiful

Beautiful and delightful indeed is this mango grove.

pāsādikaṁ vatidaṁ ambavanaṁ ramaṇīyaṁ. (AN iv 355)

pāsādikāsi

pāsādikāsi: (main article see: pāsādika)

Illustration: pāsādikāsi, beautiful

You are beautiful, noble Isidāsī. Your youth is still unfaded.

Pāsādikāsi ayye Isidāsī vayopi te aparihīno. (Thi 402)

Illustration: pāsādikaṁ, beautiful

A beautiful woodland grove with a clear-flowing river

pāsādikañca vanasaṇḍaṁ nadiñca sandantiṁ. (MN i 167)

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piya

Renderings

Introduction

Two spheres: sattā vā piyā, sankhārā vā piyā

PED accepts the two applications of piya noted in the commentary, viz: dve piyā: sattā vā piyā sankhārā vā piyā, with reference to 1) living beings, 2) sensations.

We likewise recognise this division.

1) Beings are beloved or unbeloved.

2) Sense impression is agreeable or disagreeable.

In the context of ascetic renunciation, ‘beloved’ fits better than ‘agreeable’:

• The sage is not attached in any way. He does not hold anything as either beloved or unbeloved.

Sabbattha muni anissito na piyaṁ kubbati no pi appiyaṁ. (Snp 811)

• Therefore hold nothing beloved. Separation from the beloved is wretched.

Tasmā piyaṁ na kayirātha piyāpāyo hi pāpako. (Dhp 211)

Illustrations

piyaṁ

piyaṁ: (main article see: piya)

Illustration: piyaṁ, agreeable

I recall that for a long time I experienced the desirable, likeable, agreeable, and pleasing karmic consequences of meritorious deeds.

abhijānāmi kho panāhaṁ bhikkhave dīgharattaṁ katānaṁ puññānaṁ iṭṭhaṁ kantaṁ piyaṁ manāpaṁ vipākaṁ paccanubhūtaṁ. (Iti 14-16)

Illustration: piya, agreeable

Taking delight in what is agreeable;

piyarūpaṁ

piyarūpaṁ: (main article see: piya)

Illustration: piyarūpaṁ, agreeable

So, too, whatever in the world [of phenomena] is agreeable and pleasing is called a thorn in the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system.

evaṁ kho bhikkhave yaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ ayaṁ vuccati ariyassa vinaye kaṇṭako. (SN iv 189)

Illustration: piya, agreeable

In seeing a visible object with mindfulness muddled, focusing on the agreeable aspect,

Rūpaṁ disvā sati muṭṭhā piyaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto. (Tha 98)

piyarūpe

piyarūpe: (main article see: piya)

Illustration: piyarūpe, agreeable

In seeing a visible object via the visual sense a bhikkhu is attached to an agreeable visible object and troubled by a disagreeable visible object.

So cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā piyarūpe rūpe sārajjati appiyarūpe rūpe vyāpajjati. (MN i 266)

Illustration: piyaṁ, agreeable

If someone destroyed my well-being by lying to me it would not be agreeable and pleasing to me.

yo kho me musāvādena atthaṁ bhañjeyya na me taṁ assa piyaṁ manāpaṁ. (SN v 354)

Illustration: piyaṁ, beloved

Their only son, beloved and dear

taṁ ekaputtakaṁ piyaṁ manāpaṁ. (SN ii 98)

Illustration: piyaṁ, beloved

Having abandoned the household life and gone forth [into the ascetic life], having abandoned their beloved sons and cattle

Hitvā agāraṁ pabbajitā hitvā puttaṁ pasuṁ piyaṁ. (SN i 15)

piyataro

piyataro: (main article see: piya)

Illustration: piyataro, more beloved

• Is there, Mallikā, anyone more beloved to you than yourself?

atthi nu kho te mallike ko cañño attanā piyataro ti?

• There is no one, great king, more beloved to me than myself. But is there anyone, great king, more beloved to you than yourself?

Natthi kho me mahārāja ko cañño attanā piyataro. Tuyhaṁ pana mahārāja atthañño koci attanā piyataro ti?

• For me too, Mallikā, there is no one more beloved to me than myself.

Mayhampi kho mallike natthañño koci attanā piyataroti.

Then the Blessed One… recited this verse:

Having traversed all quarters with the mind,

Sabbā disā anuparigamma cetasā

One finds nowhere anyone more beloved to oneself than oneself.

Nevajjhagā piyataramattanā kvaci

Others hold themselves likewise beloved;

Evaṁ piyo puthu attā paresaṁ

Hence one who loves himself should not harm others.

Tasmā na hiṁse paraṁ attakāmo ti. (SN i 75)

piyassa

piyassa: (main article see: piya)

Illustration: piyassa, beloved

• He has harmed, is harming, or will harm someone beloved and dear to me. Thinking thus, one arouses resentment.

Piyassa me manāpassa anatthaṁ acarīti… caratīti… carissatīti āghātaṁ bandhati

• He has benefited, is benefiting, or will benefit someone who is unbeloved or loathsome to me. Thinking thus, one arouses resentment.

Appiyassa me amanāpassa atthaṁ acari… carati… carissatīti āghātaṁ bandhati. (AN v 150; DN iii 263)

piyāppiyaṁ

piyāppiyaṁ: (main article see: piya)

Illustration: piyāppiyaṁ, beloved or unbeloved

Those who have abandoned both sensuous yearning and anger, whose minds are at peace with all states of individual existence, live the religious life in the world unattached. Nothing is beloved or unbeloved for them.

Kāmakopappahīnā ye santacittā bhavābhave
Caranti loke asitā natthi tesaṁ piyāppiyaṁ. (Tha 671)

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puthujjana

Renderings

Introduction

Puthujjana vs. ariyasāvaka

Puthujjano usually occurs in the suttas as assutavā puthujjano, the ignorant Everyman. The assutavā puthujjano is repeatedly contrasted with the learned noble disciple, sutavā ariyasāvako.

Puthujjana: options

Because puthujjano usually occurs with an adjective like assutavā, rendering it as ‘common man’ or ‘ordinary person’ is avoided here, because it results in double adjectives. The assutavā puthujjano would be an ‘ignorant, ordinary person’ or an ‘ignorant, common man,’ which are clumsy and condemnatory.

Words like ‘commoner’ or ‘plebeian’ are unuseable because they designate members of a lower social class, where puthujjano implies averageness without implications of class.

Puthujjana: the Everyman

Everyman is the allegorical character in The Summoning of Everyman, a 15th Century morality play in which the central figure represents the common man. The spelling is either ‘everyman’ or ‘Everyman.’ Capitalisation is chosen here because it emphasises the individuality of the ordinary man, his helplessness, and pitifulness.

Puthujjano: contexts without an adjective

Where puthujjana occurs without an adjective, we render it ‘common man.’ As a plural we render it ‘common men’:

• The foolish common men who cherish this [wretched human] body

Yemaṁ kāyaṁ mamāyanti andhabālā puthujjanā. (Tha 575)

The Summoning of Everyman: synopsis

The synopsis of the play The Summoning of Everyman is this:

God commands Death to summon Everyman to make his final reckoning. Death allows Everyman a companion for the journey to speak for his virtues. Most of Everyman’s friends refuse to accompany him, for example Fellowship, who represents Everyman's friends, and Kindred, who represents his family.

Goods refuses, saying that since Everyman was so devoted to gathering Goods, but never shared them, Goods' presence would make God's judgement more severe.

Good Deeds says she is too weak to go because Everyman has never appreciated her. But, in the presence of Confession, Everyman repents of his sins, and as a result, Good Deeds becomes strong enough to accompany him on his final journey. Everyman then climbs into his grave with Good Deeds. They ascend into heaven where they are warmly welcomed.

The play closes with the Doctor, representing a scholar, explaining the moral: in the end, man will only have Good Deeds to accompany him beyond the grave.

About the author of the play, nothing is known.

Illustrations

Illustration: puthujjana, Everyman

When the ignorant Everyman is affected by unpleasant bodily sense impression, he grieves, suffers, and laments, weeps beating his chest, and falls into bewilderment. This is called the ignorant Everyman who has not risen up in the bottomless abyss, one who has not gained a foothold.

Assutavā bhikkhave puthujjano sārīrikāya dukkhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno socati kilamati paridevati urattāḷiṁ kandati sammohaṁ āpajjati. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave assutavā puthujjano pātāle na paccuṭṭhāsi gādhañca nājajhagā. (SN iv 207)

Illustration: puthujjana, Everyman

The ignorant Everyman is not freed from birth, old age, and death, from grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation. He is not freed, I declare, from suffering.

assutavā puthujjano na parimuccati jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi na parimuccati dukkhasmā ti vadāmi. (MN i 8)

Illustration: puthujjana, Everyman

Engaged in sensuous quests, the ignorant Everyman conducts himself wrongly in three ways: by body, speech, and mind.

Kāmapariyesanaṁ bhikkhave pariyesamāno assutavā puthujjano tīhi ṭhānehi micchā paṭipajjati: kāyena vācāya manasā. (SN ii 152)

Illustration: puthujjana, Everyman

The ignorant Everyman has no faith in the Buddha. When he considers within himself that lack of faith in the Buddha, there is fright, trepidation, and fear of death and the future life.

assutavā puthujjano buddhe appasādena samannāgato hoti. Tañca panassa buddhe appasādaṁ attani samanupassato hoti uttāso hoti chambhitattaṁ hoti samparāyikaṁ maraṇabhayaṁ. (SN v 386)

Illustration: puthujjana, Everyman

The ignorant Everyman, who has no regard for the Noble Ones or for spiritually outstanding people, and who is ignorant of and uninstructed in their teaching, considers bodily form to be the [absolute] Selfhood.

Assutavā puthujjano ariyānaṁ adassāvī ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinīto sappurisānaṁ adassāvī sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme avinīto rūpaṁ attato samanupassati. (SN iv 286-7)

Illustration: puthujjana, Everyman

When [bodily form] has been explained, taught, proclaimed, established, disclosed, analysed, and elucidated by the Perfect One, whoever does not know or see it [according to reality], what can I do with that foolish, blind, sightless, unknowing, unseeing Everyman?

Yo bhikkhave tathāgatena evaṁ ācikkhiyamāne desiyamāne paññāpiyamāne paṭṭhapiyamāne vivariyamāne vibhajiyamāne uttānīkayiramāne na jānāti na passati tamahaṁ bhikkhave bālaṁ puthujjanaṁ andhaṁ acakkhukaṁ ajānantaṁ apassantaṁ kinti karomī. (SN iii 139-40)

Illustration: puthujjana, Everyman

The ignorant Everyman does not restrain the six senses [from grasping, through mindfulness]; he indulges himself as much as he likes in the five varieties of sensuous pleasure.

assutavā puthujjano chasu phassāyatanesu asaṁvutakārī pañcasu kāmaguṇesu yāvadatthaṁ madaṁ āpajjati. (SN iv 196)

Illustration: puthujjana, common man

The pursuit of sensuous pleasures, which is low, vulgar, the way of the common man, ignoble, and unconducive to spiritual well-being.

yo cāyaṁ kāmesu kāmasukhallikānuyogo hīno gammo pothujjaniko anariyo anatthasaṁhito. (Vin.1.10)

Illustration: puthujjana, common man

‘The man ignorant of the path’ represents the common man.

puriso amaggakusalo ti kho tissa puthujjanassetaṁ adhivacanaṁ. (SN iii 109)

Illustration: puthujjana, common man

One who has faith in [the significance of] these teachings and is intent on them is called a ‘faith follower,’ one who has entered the way of rightness [comprised of spiritually wholesome factors], entered the plane of spiritually outstanding people, transcended the plane of the common man.

Yo bhikkhave ime dhamme evaṁ saddahati adhivuccati ayaṁ vuccati saddhānusārī okkanto sammattaniyāmaṁ sappurisabhumiṁ okkanto vītivatto puthujjanabhumiṁ. (SN iii 225)

Illustration: puthujjana, common man

Whoever formerly fared alone who then pursues sexual intercourse, in the world is called a ‘lurching vehicle,’ ‘contemptible,’ a ‘common man.’

Eko pubbe caritvāna methunaṁ yo nisevati
Yānaṁ bhantaṁ va taṁ loke hīnamāhu puthujjanaṁ. (Snp 820)

Illustration: puthujjana, common man

I will not think those kinds of thought which are low, vulgar, the way of the common man, ignoble, and unconducive to spiritual well-being.

ye te vitakkā hīnā gammā pothujjanikā anariyā anatthasaṁhitā… iti evarūpe vitakke na vitakkessāmī ti. (MN iii 114)

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purakkhata

Renderings

Introduction

Purekkharoti and purakkharoti

That purekkharoti and purakkharoti are variant spellings is supported by PED and Bodhi (CDB p.1049 n.25).

Purekkharoti: verb

Purakkharoti (‘to esteem’) occurs just once in the scriptures as follows:

• They neither conceive [views], nor [at all] esteem them.

Na kappayanti na purekkharonti. (Snp 803)

It occurs more frequently as the absolutive (purakkhatvā) or past participle (purakkhato).

Purakkhatvā: absolutive

The absolutive purakkhatvā is used with the accusative case, and has five meanings which can be illustrated as follows:

1) ‘face’: facing the Blessed One

bhagavantaṁ yeva purakkhatvā. (DN iii 208)

2) ‘put at the front’: bhikkhus putting me at the front

mameva bhikkhū purakkhatvā. (MN i 28)

3) ‘give precedence’: giving precedence to Venerable MahāMoggallāna

āyasmantaṁ mahāmoggallānaṁ purakkhatvā. (MN i 253)

4) ‘esteem’: esteeming wisdom

5) ‘revere’: we shall abide revering you

Purakkhato: past participle

The past participle forms (1) adjectives (2) adverbs and (3) prepositions. It occurs with six cases: nominative, accusative, instrumental, genitive, dative, and locative, though in tappurisa compounds the case ending is elided. Duroiselle illustrates elision with two examples:

1)