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Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms [v]

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Info

The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.

Content

Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |

v

va jhayati

Renderings

Introduction

Va: three meanings

Va is a shortened form occurring only in verse, says PED, as follows:

1) the shortened form of iva: ‘like, like, as, as if’.

2) the shortened form for eva, which emphasises the word it follows, says DOP, for example: 'that very…, the same…, exactly that…, only, merely, just, indeed, really, certainly, absolutely, even, still’.

3) the shortened form of : ‘or’.

Neither PED nor DOP say va is ever redundant.

Va jhayati: he meditates mindfully or happily

The words va jhayati occur 16 times in the suttas, 14 of which in the Theragāthā. Often it is linked to another word. From the following three examples we see that meditation in nature is done ‘happily indeed.’ Otherwise it is done ‘mindfully indeed.’

1) sato va jhāyati: he meditates mindfully indeed (Tha 518-520).

• When the wise man [sees that] old age and death, to which the ignorant Everyman is attached, are intrinsically unsatisfactory, having profoundly understood what is intrinsically unsatisfactory, he meditates mindfully indeed. One does not find greater delight than this.

Yadā dukkhaṁ jarāmaraṇan ti paṇḍito aviddasū yattha sitā puthujjanā
Dukkhaṁ pariññāya sato va jhāyati tato ratiṁ paramataraṁ na vindati. (Tha 518)

2) sumano va jhāyati: he meditates happily indeed (Tha 524).

• When, seated on the banks of rivers full of flowers and beautifully garlanded woodland plants, he meditates happily indeed, one does not find greater delight than this.

Yadā nadīnaṁ kusumākulānaṁ vicittavāneyyavaṭaṁsakānaṁ
Tīre nisinno sumano va jhāyati tato ratiṁ paramataraṁ na vindati. (Tha 524)

3) bhaddova jhāyati: he meditates happily indeed (Tha 466).

• In a woodland grove on the far side of Hog-plum Monastery, Bhaddiya, having removed [the arrow of] craving together with its origin, meditates there happily indeed.

Pare ambāṭakārāme vanasaṇḍamhi bhaddiyo
Samūlaṁ taṇhaṁ abbuyha tattha bhaddova jhāyati. (Tha 466)

Va=ca: and

On one occasion we follow Norman in treating va as ca i.e. ‘and free of remissness…’ Norman likewise says ‘and’: ‘rid of distress and rid of barreness of mind he meditates.’

• When, having ended his own thinking and resorted to a cleft in the middle of the mountains, he meditates free of suffering (vītaddaro) and (va) free of remissness in practising the teaching (vigatakhilo), one does not find greater delight than this.

Yadā vitakke uparundhiyattano nagantare nagavivaraṁ samassito
Vītaddaro vigatakhilo va jhāyati tato ratiṁ paramataraṁ na vindati. (Tha 525)

Va = iva: mopes like

On one occasion, va jhāyatī stands for iva jhāyatī, i.e. ‘he mopes like’:

• So the fool, having left the teaching to follow a way opposed to the teaching, mopes like [the carter] with a broken axle when he falls into the mouth of Death.

Evaṁ dhammā apakkamma adhammamanuvattiya
Mando maccumukhaṁ patto akkhacchinno va jhāyatī ti. (SN i 57)

For meanings of jhāyati see Glossary sv Jhāyati.

The problematic forms

In the remaining cases, where va emphasises jhāyati, it is not clear how it should be emphasised. Norman uses the phrase ‘meditates indeed,’ which deals with the problem without solving it. We choose to parenthesise and to follow the context. As noted above, when meditation is in nature, we parenthesise ‘[happily]’. For example:

• When the thundercloud peals in the heavens, and the sky all around is full of rain, and the bhikkhu meditates [happily] indeed in his mountain cave, one does not find greater delight than this.

Yadā nabhe gajjati meghadundubhi dhārākulā vihagapathe samantato
Bhikkhū ca pabbhāragato va jhāyati tato ratiṁ paramataraṁ na vindati. (Tha 522)

Where the meditation is not in nature, we parenthesise ‘mindfully’:

• Having abandoned mother, father, sisters, brothers, and relatives; having abandoned the five varieties of sensuous pleasure; Anuruddha meditates [mindfully] indeed.

Pahāya mātāpitaro bhaginī ñātibhātaro
Pañcakāmaguṇe hitvā anuruddho va jhāyati. (Tha 892)

Illustrations

va jhayati

va jhayati: (main article see: va jhayati)

Illustration: va jhayati, mopes [mournfully] indeed; va jhayati, mopes like [the carter]

As the carter who abandoned the highway, a road with an even surface, and entered upon a rugged bypath, mopes [mournfully] indeed with a broken axle

Yathā sākaṭiko patthaṁ samaṁ hitvā mahāpathaṁ
Visamaṁ maggamāruyha akkhacchinno va jhāyati.

So the fool, having left the teaching to follow a way opposed to the teaching, mopes like [the carter] with a broken axle when he falls into the mouth of Death.

Evaṁ dhammā apakkamma adhammamanuvattiya
Mando maccumukhaṁ patto akkhacchinno va jhāyatī ti. (SN i 57)

Comment:

The context of the first verse suggests eva jhāyati and demands the parenthesis of a word like ‘mournfully’: mopes [mournfully] indeed. As noted above, the second suggests iva jhāyati: ‘mopes like [the carter]’.

vadha

vadhati

Renderings

Introduction

Understanding the First Brahman Truth

Understanding the First Brahman Truth is challenged by the different meanings of vadhati which range from punish to destroy. This uncertainty is reflected in translations of this Truth:

  • Bodhi: All living beings are to be spared.
  • Woodward: All living beings are not to be harmed.

We say ‘destroyed’:

• All beings ought not to be destroyed… In fully understanding the truth of this saying one is applied to the practice of sympathy and tender concern for beings.

sabbe pāṇā avajjhā ti… Api ca yadeva tattha saccaṁ tadabhiññāya pāṇānaṁ yeva anuddayāya anukampāya paṭipanno hoti. (AN ii 176)

Harming does not fit

One cannot say ‘All beings ought not to be harmed,’ because firstly, vadhati does not mean ‘to harm,’ and secondly, harming is sometimes for beings’ benefit. For example:

• If a young infant through the negligence of the nurse puts a stick or stone into its mouth, the nurse would quickly pay attention, and quickly remove it. If she could not immediately remove it, then taking hold of the head with the left hand, and crooking the finger of the right, would fetch it out even if she drew blood. Why is this?

salohitampi āhareyya taṁ kissa hetu

… There would be some injury to the boy, I do not deny it. But, really, this is what should be done by the nurse wishing for the child's well-being, seeking its welfare, from tender concern, out of tender concern.

atthesā bhikkhave kumārassa vihesā nesā natthīti vadāmi. Karaṇīyañca kho etaṁ bhikkhave dhātiyā atthakāmāya hitesiniyā anukampikāya anukampaṁ upādāya. (AN iii 6)

Striking does not fit

One cannot say ‘All beings ought not to be struck,’ for three reasons:

1) Firstly, although it is a pācittiya offence for a bhikkhu to strike a bhikkhu in anger (Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhussa kupito anattamano pahāraṁ dadeyya pācittiyan ti, Vin.4.146), and a dukkaṭa offence to strike a layperson, it no offence at all to strike an animal, and also no offence if, being trapped in a difficult situation, a bhikkhu strikes a bhikkhu in order to escape (Anāpatti kenaci viheṭhiyamāno mokkhādhippāyo pahāraṁ deti, Vin.4.146).

2) Secondly, the Buddha, faced with a weak disciple, raised the possibility of physical punishment:

• ‘Don’t go nodding, Ragamuffin, lest I strike you on the ear.’

Mā kho tvaṁ kappaṭa pacalāyi mā tvaṁ upakaṇṇamhi tāḷessaṁ. (Tha 200)

3) Thirdly, the Buddha battled with the fire-serpent in Kassapa’s fire-chamber, mastering his heat with heat, but without injuring his skin (anupahacca chaviñca, Vin.1.25).

Striking is not necessarily unvirtuous.

Gerundives

The gerundive is passive in sense, and expresses suitability, fitness, propriety, and may be translated by ‘fit to be,’ ‘must be,’ ‘ought to be,’ ‘to be’ (PGPL, para.466).

Illustrations: vadha

vadha

vadha: (main article see: vadhati)

Illustration: vadha, killing

He abstains from wounding, killing, imprisoning, brigandage, plunder, and violence.

Chedanavadhabandhanaviparāmosaālopasahasākārā paṭivirato hoti. (MN i 345-6)

vadho

vadho: (main article see: vadhati)

Illustration: vadho, destruction

For this, Kesi, is ‘destruction’ in the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system, when the Perfect One and one's knowledgeable companions in the religious life think one should not be spoken to and instructed.

Vadho hesa kesi ariyassa vinaye yaṁ na tathāgato vattabbaṁ anusāsitabbaṁ maññati napi viññū sabrahmacārī vattabbaṁ anusāsitabbaṁ maññantī ti. (AN ii 112)

Illustration: vadho, destruction

Devadatta is intent upon the destruction of the Blessed One.

devadattena kira bhagavato vadho payutto ti. (Vin.2.194)

vadhāya

vadhāya: (main article see: vadhati)

Illustration: vadhāya, destruction

Just as a plantain tree yields fruit to its own destruction and spiritual ruination, so Devadatta’s gains, honour, and renown arose to his own destruction and spiritual ruination.

Seyyathā pi bhikkhave kadali attavadhāya phalaṁ deti parābhavāya phalaṁ deti evameva kho bhikkhave attavadhāya devadattassa lābhasakkārasiloko udapādi parābhavāya devadattassa lābhasakkārasiloko udapādi. (SN ii 241)

Illustration: vadhāya, destruction

Like bait thrown out for the destruction of fish

Āmisaṁva macchānaṁ vadhāya khittā ti. (SN i 67)

Illustration: vadhāya, execution

Those who were caught were led off to execution.

ye te gahitā te vadhāya onīyanti. (Vin.1.88)

Illustration: vadho, punishment

He who has mastered the thorn of sensuous pleasure,

Yassa jito kāmakaṇṭako

Abuse, punishment, and imprisonment,

Akkoso ca vadho ca bandhanañca

Is as inwardly stable as a mountain, imperturbable,

pabbato viya so ṭhito anejo. (Uda 27)

Illustrations: vadhaka

vadhaka

vadhaka: (main article see: vadhati)

Illustration: vadhaka, murderer

With the attitude of a murderer, drew the Perfect One’s blood.

vadhakacittena tathāgatassa ruhiraṁ uppāditanti. (Vin.2.193)

vadhakaṁ

vadhakaṁ: (main article see: vadhati)

Illustration: vadhakaṁ, murderous

He does not discern according to reality murderous bodily form as murderous bodily form.

Vadhakaṁ rūpaṁ vadhakaṁ rūpanti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. (SN iii 114)

Illustrations: vadhati

Illustration: vadhitvā, destroyed

This is called a bhikkhu who has blindfolded Māra, who is trackless having destroyed Māra’s vision, and goes unseen by the Maleficent One.

Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave bhikkhu andhamakāsi māraṁ apadaṁ vadhitvā māracakkhuṁ adassanaṁ gato pāpimato. (MN i 159)

vadhitvā

vadhitvā: (main article see: vadhati)

Illustration: vadhitvā, punished

Suppose a brahman, for some reason, has had his head shaved by the brahmans, and been punished with a bag of ashes, and banished from the country or the city.

Idha brāhmaṇā brāhmaṇaṁ kismicideva pakaraṇe khuramuṇḍaṁ karitvā assapuṭena vadhitvā raṭṭhā vā nagarā vā pabbājeyyuṁ. (DN i 98)

avajjhā

avajjhā: (main article see: vadhati)

Illustration: avajjhā, unpunishable

Brahmans were unpunishable, unimpeachable, protected by law.

Avajjhā brāhmaṇā āsuṁ ajeyyo dhammarakkhitā. (Snp 288)

Norman: Brahmans were inviolable, unconquerable, protected by the law.

vadhito

vadhito: (main article see: vadhati)

Illustration: vadhito, crushed

The fool lies prostrate as if crushed by his folly.

Bālo hi bālyā vadhitova seti (Tha 783, MN ii 73)

vadhitvā

vadhitvā: (main article see: vadhati)

Illustration: vadhitvā, slaughter

A proficient butcher or his apprentice having slaughtered a cow.

dakkho goghātako vā goghātakantevāsī vā gāviṁ vadhitvā. (DN ii 294)

Illustration: vadhitvā, kill

Lion… having killed the very best of the herd

so varaṁ varaṁ migasaṅghe vadhitvā. (DN iii 23)

Illustration: vadhitvā, kill

Some foolish person takes pleasure and delight in killing beings.

ekacco bālo pāṇe vadhitvā vadhitvā attānaṁ sukheti pīṇeti. (DN iii 130)

Illustration: vadhitvā, murder

Having murdered many people, he wears a necklace of their fingers.

So manusse vadhitvā vadhitvā aṅgulīnaṁ mālaṁ dhāreti. (MN ii 98)

Illustration: vadhitvā, struck

The bhikkhunī Caṇḍakāḷī, having quarrelled with the bhikkhunīs, wept having struck herself again and again.

caṇḍakāḷī bhikkhunī bhikkhunīhi saddhiṁ bhaṇḍitvā attānaṁ vadhitvā vadhitvā rodati. (Vin.4.277)

vana

vanatha

Renderings

Introduction

Vana and vanatha: the negatives

The negatives of vana and vanatha are nibbana and nibbanatha. See quotes below.

Vanatha: controversy

The meaning of vanatha [vana + tha] is unsettled. The primary meaning is ‘underwood, brushwood, thicket.’ In its figurative sense PED says ‘lust, desire.’ Buddhaghosa says kilesa. Dhammapāla says taṇhā. For example:

Vanatha means taṇhā

Vanatha should be called taṇhā, not attachment, for two reasons:

1) the words nibbanatho visallo occur together on two occasions, indicating synonymity, (Tha 525-6; SN i 180) where visallo means ‘free of the arrow of taṇhā.’ And if nibbanatho (nis + vanatha) and visallo are synonyms, then so are vanatha and taṇhā. See illustrations below.

2) In Snp 16 vanatha is the basis of grasping. This again fits well with calling it taṇhā not attachment. See illustrations below.

Vana: controversy

Vana has two meanings, vana1 (=Vedic vana) and vana2 (=van). The former means ‘jungle,’ the latter means ‘desire’. The two words are confused in exegetical literature, says sharply critical PED:

‘The Pāli (edifying) etymology clearly takes vana1 as belonging to vana2, and dogmatically equals it with vana2 as an allegorical expression (‘jungle’) to taṇhā.’

What we said about vanatha we can repeat with vana (i.e. vana2). PED repeats its position on vanatha (i.e. ‘lust, desire’), but the commentators now switch. Dhammapāla says kilesa, and Buddhaghosa says taṇhā:

Vana and vanatha: synonyms

The following quotes treat vana and vanatha (=banatha) as synonyms:

• Having cut down all forms of craving, be free of craving, bhikkhus.

Chetvā vanañca vanathañca nibbanā hotha bhikkhavo. (Dhp 283)

• He, [wanting to be] free of craving, was intent upon [life in] the forest. [Wanting to be] free of craving he ran to the forest.

Yo nibbanatho vanādhimutto vanamutto vanameva dhāvati. (Dhp 344)

• My craving is chopped down at the root… I am free of craving.

ucchinnamūlaṁ me vanaṁ… nibbanatho. (SN i 180)

Illustrations

vanatho

vanatho: (main article see: vanatha)

Illustration: vanatho, craving

By consorting [with householders and ascetics] craving is born. By remaining aloof [from householders and ascetics] it is cut.

Saṁsaggā vanatho jāto asaṁsaggena chijjati. (SN ii 158)

Commentary (Buddhaghosa): Vanatho jāto ti kilesavanaṁ jātaṁ

vanathaṁ kareyya

vanathaṁ kareyya: (main article see: vanatha)

Illustration: vanathaṁ kareyya, cultivate craving

One should not cultivate craving for anything. One who is free of craving, being without craving, he is a bhikkhu.

Vanathaṁ na kareyya kuhiñci nibbanatho avanatho sa bhikkhu. (Tha 1214)

Commentary (Dhammapāla): Vanathaṁ na kareyya kuhiñcīti ajjhattikabāhirappabhede sabbasmiṁ vatthusmiṁ taṇhaṁ na kareyyaṁ. Nibbanatho avanatho sa bhikkhū ti yo hi sabbena sabbaṁ nittaṇho.

Illustration: vanatho, craving

He in whom there is nothing born of craving acting as a cause for emotional bondage [to individual existence]

Yassa vanathajā na santi keci vinibandhāya bhavāya hetukappā. (Snp 16)

Comment:

Vanathajā na santi keci vinibandhāya bhavāya hetukappā: ‘nothing born of craving acting as a cause for emotional bondage [to individual existence].‘ This ‘nothing’ would be grasping, because:

• Without grasping what is unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, destined to change, could there arise psychological bondage, stubborn attachment, emotional bondage, and cleaving?

Yaṁ panāniccaṁ dukkhaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ api nu taṁ anupādāya uppajjeyyuṁ saṁyojanābhinivesa-vinibandhājjhosānā ti. No hetaṁ bhante, (SN iii 187)

Commentary (Buddhaghosa): Vanathā jātāti vanathajā ti. Keci panāhu sabbepi kilesā gahanaṭṭhena vanatho ti vuccanti, aparāparuppannā pana vanathajā ti.

Illustration: vanatho, craving

So long as even the slightest craving of a man for women is not obliterated, so long is he emotionally bound to them, like a suckling calf to its mother.

Yāva hi vanatho na chijjati aṇumatto pi narassa nārisu
Paṭibaddhamano va tāva so vaccho khīrapako va mātari. (Dhp 284)

Commentary (Buddhaghosa): Yāva hi vanatho ti yāva esa aṇumattopi kilesavanatho narassa nārīsu na chijjati.

nibbanatho

nibbanatho: (main article see: vanatha)

Illustration: nibbanatho, free of craving

Free of craving, with the arrow [of craving] removed I find delight alone in the woods.

Svāhaṁ vane nibbanatho visallo eko rame. (SN i 180)

Commentary (Buddhaghosa): Nibbanatho ti nikkilesavano

vanaṁ

vanaṁ: (main article see: vanatha)

Illustration: vanaṁ, craving

There is nothing in the woods I need to do. My craving is chopped down at the root. It is dried up. Free of craving, with the arrow [of craving] removed, and with disgruntlement [with the celibate life] cast off, I find delight alone in the woods.

Na me vanasmiṁ karaṇīyamatthi ucchinnamūlaṁ me vanaṁ visūkaṁ
Svāhaṁ vane nibbanatho visallo eko rame aratiṁ vippahāyāti. (SN i 180)

Commentary (Buddhaghosa): Ucchinnamūlaṁ me vanan ti mayhaṁ kilesavanaṁ ucchinnamūlaṁ. Nibbanathoti nikkilesavano

nibbano

nibbano: (main article see: vanatha)

Illustration: nibbano, free of craving

• Free of sensuous yearning, free of craving

Commentary (Buddhaghosa): Nibbano ti kilesavanavirahito taṇhāvirahito eva vā

vanā

vanā: (main article see: vanatha)

Illustration: vanā, craving; nibbano, freedom from craving

Gone from craving to freedom from craving.

Commentary (Dhammapāla): Vanā nibbanamāgatan ti kilesavanato tabbirahitaṁ nibbanaṁ upagataṁ

vūpakaṭṭha

vavakaṭṭha

Renderings

Introduction

Vavakaṭṭha and vūpakaṭṭha

Vavakaṭṭha and vūpakaṭṭha are past participles from vavakassati. Vūpakaṭṭha is possibly a ‘re-translation’ of vavakaṭṭha, says PED. The words are identical in meaning, and interchangeable:

  • cittena vivekapoṇena vivekapabbhārena vavakaṭṭhena (AN iv 233).
  • cittena vivekapoṇena vivekapabbhārena vūpakaṭṭhena (MN iii 111).

But there is a difference: Vavakaṭṭha is rare, occurring just 5 times in the suttas, always with citta. Vūpakaṭṭha occurs 133 times in a variety of contexts.

Vivekakaṭṭha: error

We follow Bodhi in reading vavakaṭṭha for vivekakaṭṭha (NDB n.1687; n.1694, re passages at AN iv 224 and AN iv 233). He says that ‘since compounds with viveka precede this word, it is easy to see how the original word could have undergone mutation.’ The sequence at AN iv 224 is: vivekaninnaṁ cittaṁ hoti vivekapoṇaṁ vivekapabbhāraṁ vavakaṭṭhaṁ.

Vapakassati: error

PED says vapakassati (AN iii 393-4) should read vavakassati.

Vavakassati and vavakāsituṁ: their objects

Vavakassati and its infinitive vavakāsituṁ either have an explicit object, or an object that can be easily identified from context:

1) When he lives apart from the Teacher or a companion in the religious life of the standing of a teacher

Yato ca kho so vavakassateva satthārā vavakassati garuṭṭhānīyehi sabrahmacārihi(AN iii 393)

2) Bhikkhus, possessed of five factors a bhikkhu is not fit to live apart from the monastic community.

Pañcahi bhikkhave dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu nālaṁ saṅghamhā vavakāsituṁ. (AN iii 145)

3) On what grounds is there schism in the community of bhikkhus? Bhikkhus proclaim what is not the teaching to be the teaching, and visa versa… On these ten grounds they [legalistically] withdraw and separate [from the resident community of bhikkhus]. They perform legal acts separately and recite the Pātimokkha separately. It is in this way, Upāli, that there is schism in the community of bhikkhus.

Kittāvatā nu kho bhante saṅgho bhinno hotī ti? Idhūpāli bhikkhu adhammaṁ dhammo ti dipenti dhammaṁ adhammo ti dīpenti… Te imehi dasahi vatthūhi avakassanti vavakassanti āveni kammāni karonti āveni pātimokkhaṁ uddisanti. Ettāvatā kho upāli saṅgho bhinno hotī ti. (AN v 74; Vin.2.204)

4) Now at that time the bhikkhunī Thullanandā, having ordained her pupil neither withdrew her [from her husband’s whereabouts] nor had her withdrawn. Her husband seized her.

tena kho pana samayena thullanandā bhikkhunī sahajīviniṁ vuṭṭhāpetvā neva vūpakāsesi na vūpakāsāpesi. Sāmiko aggahesi. (Vin.4.326)

Vūpakaṭṭho: its objects

The two kinds of ‘withdrawal’ are 1) of body and 2) of mind, as the following quote shows:

• When one has heard the teaching from [excellent] bhikkhus one dwells withdrawn in two ways: physically withdrawn [from human fellowship], and psychologically withdrawn [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

tathārūpānaṁ bhikkhave bhikkhūnaṁ dhammaṁ sutvā dvayena vūpakaṭṭho viharati kāyavūpakāsena ca cittavūpakāsena ca. (SN v 67)

Kāyavūpakāsa: source of its parenthesis

Where necessary, we parenthesise kāyavūpakāsa (‘physically withdrawn [from human fellowship]’) in accordance with the following quote:

• A bhikkhu dwells alone, withdrawn from human fellowship.

bhikkhu eko gaṇasmā vūpakaṭṭho viharati. (MN iii 110)

Cittavūpakāsa: source of its parenthesis

We parenthesise cittavūpakāsa (‘psychologically withdrawn [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]’) in accordance with the following quotes:

1) A certain bhikkhu who had gone for his daytime abiding in a woodland grove ‘kept thinking unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts associated with the household life.’

so bhikkhu divāvihāragato pāpake akusale vitakke vitakketi gehanissite. (SN i 197)

2) Those ascetics and Brahmanists who live physically withdrawn from sensuous pleasures but whose hankering, love, infatuation, thirst, and passion for sensuous pleasures has not been fully abandoned and quelled internally… are incapable of knowledge and vision [of things according to reality], and supreme enlightenment.

ye hi keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā kāyena ceva kāmehi vūpakaṭṭhā viharanti yo ca nesaṁ kāmesu kāmacchando kāmasneho kāmamucchā kāmapipāsā kāmapariḷāho so ca ajjhattaṁ na suppahīno hoti na suppaṭippassaddho… abhabbāva te ñāṇāya dassanāya anuttarāya sambodhāya. (MN i 241)

3) Secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, a bhikkhu enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Idhāvuso visākha bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (MN i 301)

Vūpakaṭṭha: with no object

When vūpakaṭṭha has no explicit object, the considerations above show that it is a combination of kāyavūpakāsa and cittavūpakāsa, therefore needs a combination of their parentheses:

• Bhante, it would be good if the Blessed One would explain the teaching to me in brief, so that, having heard the teaching from the Blessed One, I might abide alone, withdrawn [from human fellowship, sensuous pleasures, and spiritually unwholesome factors], diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice].

sādhu me bhante bhagavā saṅkhittena dhammaṁ desetu yamahaṁ bhagavato dhammaṁ sutvā eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto vihareyyanti. (SN iv 145)

Vūpakaṭṭha, viveka, and paviveka: a comparison

Viveka applies to the mind, and means seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]. Paviveka means physical seclusion. Vūpakaṭṭha, if unqualified, means viveka plus paviveka. See Glossary sv Viveka and sv Paviveka.

Physical seclusion implies the striving for mental seclusion

That the Buddha regarded living secludedly (pavivitta) to be inseparably linked to the development of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors] (viveka) is discussed sv Paviveka.

Vavakaṭṭhaṁ: assigning its object

Vavakaṭṭha always has the same explicit object. So, in its five occurrences it has only one meaning:

Vavakaṭṭhaṁ cittaṁ hoti: psychologically withdrawn [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

Illustrations

gaṇasmā vūpakaṭṭho

gaṇasmā vūpakaṭṭho: (main article see: vavakaṭṭha)

Illustration: gaṇasmā vūpakaṭṭho, withdrawn from human fellowship

‘At present I am living crowded by bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs, by male and female lay followers, by kings and royal ministers, by non-Buddhist ascetics and their disciples.

ahaṁ kho etarahi ākiṇṇo viharāmi bhikkhūhi bhikkhunīhi upāsakehi upāsikāhi raññā rājamahāmattehi titthiyehi titthiyasāvakehi.

How about if I lived alone, withdrawn from human fellowship?

Yannūnāhaṁ eko gaṇasmā vūpakaṭṭho vihareyyanti.

He resorts to a secluded abode: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a grotto, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a quiet grove, the open air, a heap of straw.

So vivittaṁ senāsanaṁ bhajati araññaṁ rukkhamūlaṁ pabbataṁ kandaraṁ giriguhaṁ susānaṁ vanapatthaṁ abbhokāsaṁ palālapuñjaṁ. (AN iv 436)

cittena... vavakaṭṭhena

cittena... vavakaṭṭhena: (main article see: vavakaṭṭha)

Illustration: cittena... vavakaṭṭhena, psychologically withdrawn [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

In this regard, the bhikkhu living secludedly may be visited by bhikkhus, bhikkhunīs, laymen, laywomen, kings and kings’ ministers, and non-Buddhist ascetics and their disciples.

idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno pavivittassa viharato bhavanti upasaṅkamitāro bhikkhū bhikkhūniyo upāsakā upāsikāyo rājāno rājamahāmattā titthiyā titthiyasāvakā.

In that case, the bhikkhu, mentally inclining, verging, and drifting towards seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], psychologically withdrawn [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], taking delight in the practice of unsensuousness, is one whose words are exclusively connected with religious inspiration.

Tatra bhikkhu vivekaninnena cittena vivekapoṇena vivekapabbhārena vavakaṭṭhena nekkhammābhiratena aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti. (AN iv 233)

vasala

Renderings

Introduction

On insulting non-brahmans

Vasala literally means ‘little man’ (PED). It was a term of abuse used by brahmans in reference to members of other social groups. For example, when Aggika Bhāradvāja saw the Blessed One coming in the distance, he shouted:

• ‘Stop, you! Right there, shaveling! Right there, sham ascetic! Right there, wretch!

tatreva muṇḍaka tatreva samaṇaka tatreva vasalaka tiṭṭhāhī ti.

On insulting other brahmans

Brahmans also used it to insult other brahmans. For example, when a brahman’s wife praised the Buddha, the brahman said (of his own wife!):

• On the slightest pretext this wretched woman spouts praise of that shaveling ascetic!

evamevaṁ panāyaṁ vasali yasmiṁ vā tasmiṁ vā tassa muṇḍakassa samaṇassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati. (SN i 160)

On insulting one’s own posterior

Brahmans used it to insult their own bodies:

• Now at that time a certain bhikkhu who had been born a brahman, having defaecated, did not want to rinse himself, thinking: ‘Who would touch this wretched, stinking thing?’ A worm remained in his anus.

Tena kho pana samayena aññataro bhikkhu brāhmaṇa jātiko vaccaṁ katvā na icchati ācametuṁ ko imaṁ vasalaṁ duggandhaṁ āmasissatīti. Tassa vaccamagge kimi saṇṭhāsi. (Vin.2.221)

No castes, no outcastes

Caste is ‘one of the hereditary social classes in Hinduism that restrict the occupation of their members and the association with the members of other castes’ (Webster’s).

The four classes of the Buddha’s time were therefore not technically castes because intermarriage was still possible (DN i 97). Marriage to even low-class women was common amongst brahmans (AN iii 229). Queen Mallika was King Pasenadi's wife, though her father was a garland-maker.

So vasala cannot mean ‘outcaste’.

vicakkhaṇa

Renderings

Illustrations

vicakkhaṇā

vicakkhaṇā: (main article see: vicakkhaṇa)

Illustration: vicakkhaṇā, wise

By this means, those who were intelligent and wise said that this person would have much happiness.

Tenāhu naṁ atinipuṇā vicakkhaṇā
Ayaṁ naro sukhabahulo bhavissati. (DN iii 167)

vicakkhaṇo

vicakkhaṇo: (main article see: vicakkhaṇa)

Illustration: vicakkhaṇo, prudent

One who is prudent would not stay in an abode that was unconducive to his spiritual well-being.

Na tvevānatthasaṁhitaṁ vase vāsaṁ vicakkhaṇo ti. (Tha 105)

Illustration: vicakkhaṇo, prudent

When interrogated by the assembly he neither broods nor is embarrassed. His timely, prudent words, fitting as an explanation, delight the learned assembly.

Tatheva pañhaṁ parisāsu pucchito na ceva pajjhāyati na maṅku hoti
So kālāgataṁ vyākaraṇārahaṁ vaco rañjeti viññūparisaṁ vicakkhaṇo. (Vin.1.359)

Illustration: vicakkhaṇo, prudent

If by lamenting and vexing himself, one who is undiscerning of reality elicited some advantange, then one who is prudent would do likewise.

Paridevayamāno ce kiñcidatthaṁ udabbahe
Sammūḷho hiṁsamattānaṁ kayirā ce naṁ vicakkhaṇo. (Snp 583)

vicikicchā

Renderings

Introduction

The four words for doubt

There are four words for doubt:

1) vicikicchā: doubt

2) kaṅkhā: unsureness

3) kathaṅkathā: uncertainty

4) vimati: uncertainty

Classical objects of doubt

The classical objects of doubt are the Buddha, Dhamma, Saṅgha, and the training. Our renderings for these are as follows, with explanations to follow:

  • Buddha: doubt about the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment]
  • Dhamma: doubt about the [excellence of the] teaching
  • Saṅgha: doubt about the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples
  • The training: doubt about the [excellence of the] training

Doubt about the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment]

A noble disciple who has unshakeable faith in the Buddha (ariyasāvako buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti) has come to the conclusion that:

• He is indeed the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, perfect in insightfulness into reality and in conduct, the Sublime One, one who knows the world [of phenomena] [according to reality], the unexcelled trainer of men to be tamed, the teacher of devas and men, the Enlightened One, the Blessed One.

iti pi so bhagavā arahaṁ sammā sambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidu anuttaro purisadammasārathī satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā ti. (SN v 390)

According to this, the noble disciple’s faith is not in the person of the Buddha, but in the perfection of his enlightenment. This is in accordance with the definition of saddhindriyaṁ which is linked to tathāgatassa bodhiṁ:

• And what is the faculty of faith? In this regard, the noble disciple has faith. He has faith in the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s enlightenment: ‘He is indeed the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, perfect in insightfulness into reality and in conduct, the Sublime One, one who knows the world [of phenomena] [according to reality], the unexcelled trainer of men to be tamed, the teacher of devas and men, the Enlightened One, the Blessed One.’

Katamañca bhikkhave saddhindriyaṁ idha bhikkhave ariyasāvako saddho hoti saddahati tathāgatassa bodhiṁ iti pi so bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathī satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā ti. Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave saddhindriyaṁ. (SN v 196)

Therefore doubt about the Buddha would mean ‘doubt about the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment].’

Doubt about the [excellence of the] teaching

A noble disciple who has unshakeable faith in the teaching (ariyasāvako dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti) has come to the conclusion that:

• The teaching is well explained by the Blessed One, fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally applicable, to be realised by the wise for themselves.

svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhī ti SN v 390).

In the light of these qualities, the teaching’s excellence and effectiveness, doubt about the Dhamma means ‘doubt about the [excellence of the] teaching.’

Doubt about the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples

A noble disciple who has unshakeable faith in the community of disciples (ariyasāvako saṅghe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti) has come to the conclusion that:

• The community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the excellent practice, the correct practice, the noble practice, the proper practice; that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals. This is the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples. They are worthy of offerings, hospitality, gifts, and honouring with joined palms. They are the unsurpassed field of merit for the world.

supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho ujupaṭipanno bhagato sāvakasaṅgho ñāyapaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho sāmīcipaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṁ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭhapurisapuggalā esabhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṁ puññakkhettaṁ lokassāti SN v 390).

‘Unshakeable faith in the community of disciples’ is therefore in their excellent qualities. Therefore doubt about the Saṅgha would mean ‘doubt about the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples.’

Doubt about the [excellence of the] training

The fourth area of doubt concerns ‘the training’ (sikkhāya kaṅkhati vicikicchati (AN iii 249). But what is doubtful about the training? The scriptures say:

• This religious life is lived for the sake of a benefit from the training… to inspire faith in those without faith, and to increase the faith of those with faith… for the complete destruction of suffering.

Sikkhānisaṁsamidaṁ bhikkhave brahmacariyaṁ vussatiappasannānaṁ pasādāya pasannānaṁ bhiyyobhāvāya… sabbaso sammā dukkhakkhayāya. (AN ii 243)

Therefore, in relation to the training, doubt would mean ‘doubt about the [excellence of the] training.’

Doubt about the [excellence of the] Path and the practice

With the Path (magga) and practice (paṭipadā), we also render them in terms of ‘significance’:

• The Perfect One, Ānanda, has the actual knowledge that there is not one bhikkhu in this assembly of bhikkhus who is unsure or uncertain about the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment], or about the [excellence of the] teaching, or about the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples, or about the [excellence of the] Path and the practice.

ñāṇameva hettha ānanda tathāgatassa natthi imasmiṁ bhikkhu saṅghe ekabhikkhussāpi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā magge vā paṭipadāya vā. (DN ii 155)

Unspecified doubt in the scriptures

Often the scriptures do not specify the object of doubt, whether it means doubt about the Buddha, or the teachings, or the community of disciples, or the training. However, most contexts suggest that unspecified doubt refers to the teachings, and there is definite evidence for this, too, as follows:

1) The second of the five ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence (pañcorambhāgiyāni saṁyojanāni) is usually called unspecified vicikicchā (DN iii 234). But in the Mahāmāluṅkya Sutta, this unspecified doubt is plainly linked to the teachings:

• A young infant does not have the notion ‘teachings’ (dhammā ti pi na hoti), so how could doubt about the [excellence of the] teachings arise in him? Yet the proclivity to it lurks within him

dhammā ti pi na hoti. Kuto panassa uppajjissati dhammesu vicikicchā anusetitvevassa vicikicchānusayo. (MN i 433)

2) The fifth of the five hindrances is usually called unspecified vicikicchā, but when the bhikkhu in the Upajjhāya Sutta experienced doubt, he linked it to the teachings, dhammesu vicikicchā:

• Bhante, my body now seems as if drugged. I have lost my bearings. The teachings do not occur to my mind. Lethargy and torpor plague my mind. I live the celibate life disgruntled. I am doubtful about the [excellence of the] teaching (dhammesu vicikicchā)

etarahi me bhante madhurakajāto ceva kāyo. Disā ca me na pakkhāyanti. Dhammā ca maṁ nappaṭibhanti. Thīnamiddhañca me cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati. Anabhirato ca brahmacariyaṁ carāmi. Atthi ca me dhammesu vicikicchā ti. (AN iii 69)

3) In several suttas doubt is openly linked to saddhamma:

• The ignorant Everyman… is unsure, doubtful, undecided about the [perfection of the] true teaching (saddhamme).

assutavā puthujjano… kaṅkhī hoti vicikicchī aniṭṭhaṅgato saddhamme. (SN iii 99)

• Some person here is unsure, doubtful, undecided about the [perfection of the] true teaching (saddhamme).

Puna ca paraṁ brāhmaṇa idhekacco kaṅkhī hoti vicikicchī aniṭṭhaṅgato saddhamme. (AN ii 174)

4) Because all aspects of faith stem from faith in the teachings (see following quotes), doubt in the teachings necessarily implies doubt in all objects of faith. Therefore doubt in the teachings is effectively the all-embracing term, and can be used as such when the object of doubt is unspecified. That faith in the teachings is the basis of other aspects of faith is shown in these quotes:

• On hearing the teaching he acquires faith in the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment]

So taṁ dhammaṁ sutvā tathāgate saddhaṁ paṭilabhati. (MN i 179)

• As the Blessed One explained the teaching to me with its increasingly higher and more sublime levels, concerning what is inwardly dark and bright with their correlative combinations, thus through transcendent insight into a certain one of those teachings, I came to a conclusion about the teachings. I gained faith in the Teacher thus: “The Blessed One is perfectly enlightened. The teaching is well explained by the Blessed One. The community of disciples is applied to the excellent practice.”

Yathā yathā me āvuso bhagavā dhammaṁ deseti uttaruttariṁ paṇītapaṇītaṁ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgaṁ tathā tathāhaṁ tasmiṁ dhamme abhiññāya idhekaccaṁ dhammaṁ dhammesu niṭṭhamagamaṁ satthari pasīdiṁ sammā sambuddho bhagavā svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo supaṭipanno saṅgho ti. (MN i 320)

• Faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment] has a nourishing condition, I declare, not no nourishing condition. And what is the condition that nourishes it? Listening to the true teaching, one should reply.

Saddhampahaṁ bhikkhave sāhāraṁ vadāmi saddhammasavanantissa vacanīyaṁ. (AN v 115)

Two areas of doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]: internal things and external things

The hindrance of doubt is twofold:

1) Doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] in relation to internal things is a spiritual hindrance.

Yadapi bhikkhave ajjhattaṁ dhammesu vicikicchā tadapi nīvaraṇaṁ

2) Doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] in relation to external things is also a spiritual hindrance.

Yadapi bahiddhā dhammesu vicikicchā tadapi nīvaraṇaṁ

Thus what is concisely called the hindrance of doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] becomes twofold by this method of exposition.

Vicikicchā nīvaraṇanti itihidaṁ uddesaṁ gacchati tadamināpetaṁ pariyāyena dvayaṁ hoti. (SN v 110)

Vicikicchā saṁyojana and nīvaraṇa: what is the difference?

Vicikicchā saṁyojana is abandoned at stream-entry. Vicikicchā nīvaraṇa is abandoned at arahantship. We call both terms ‘doubt [about the excellence of the teaching].’ What is the difference?

1) Vicikicchā saṁyojana is a powerful form of doubt that is a tie to individual existence in the low plane of existence:

• The ignorant Everyman abides with a mind absorbed in and overcome by doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]. He does not discern according to reality the deliverance from the arisen doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]. When that doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] is powerful and unsubdued in him, it is a tie to individual existence in the low plane of existence.

vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vicikicchāparetena. Uppannāya ca vicikicchāya nissaraṇaṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. Tassa sā vicikicchā thāmagatā appaṭivinītā orambhāgiyaṁ saṁyojanaṁ. (MN i 434)

2) Vicikicchā nīvaraṇa is a less powerful form of doubt that lingers till arahantship. Whereas arahants have abandoned the five hindrances so that they are chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, never to arise again in future (pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā SN v 327), disciples in training are still in the process of abandoning them (nīvaraṇe pahāya viharanti, SN v 327).

Purification of doubt and perfection of faith

The purification of doubt corresponds to an increasing faith which reaches perfection at arahantship. At levels below arahantship, the faculties, including the faculty of faith, are weaker, implying that doubt is stronger:

• One who has completed and fulfilled the five spiritual faculties is an arahant. If they are weaker than that, one is a non-returner; if still weaker, a once-returner; if still weaker, a stream-enterer.

Imesaṁ kho bhikkhave pañcannaṁ indriyānaṁ samattā paripūrattā arahaṁ hoti. Tato mudutarehi anāgāmī hoti. Tato mudutarehi sakadāgāmī hoti. Tato mudutarehi sotāpanno hoti. (SN v 200)

Although aveccappasāda is associated with stream-entry, and with the phrase ‘The Blessed One is perfectly enlightened,’ the Cūḷahatthipadopama Sutta says one cannot in fact conclude that the Blessed One is perfectly enlightened until arahantship:

• And it is not until this point that a noble disciple can come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is perfectly enlightened; the teaching is well explained by the Blessed One; the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the excellent practice.’

Ettāvatā kho brāhmaṇa ariyasāvako niṭṭhaṁ gato hoti sammāsambuddho bhagavā svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho ti. (MN i 184)

Doubt: what are the consequences?

The scriptures say that if one is unsure, doubtful, undecided about, and has no faith in

  • the [perfection of the] Teacher’s [enlightenment]
  • the [excellence of the] teaching
  • the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples
  • the [excellence of the] training

then one’s mind does not incline to vigour, application, perseverance, and inward striving.

idhāvuso bhikkhu satthari… dhamme… saṅghe… sikkhāya… kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati… tassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccāya padhānāya. Yassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccayā padhānāya. (DN iii 237)

In contrast, Venerable Sāriputta said a noble disciple who has faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment] will dwell energetically applied to the abandoning of spiritually unwholesome factors and the undertaking of spiritually wholesome factors; that he will be steadfast, unwavering in application [to the practice], not shirking the responsibility of [undertaking] spiritually wholesome factors.

Saddhassa hi bhante ariyasāvakassa etaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ: yaṁ āraddhaviriyo viharissati akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānāya kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ upasampadāya thāmavā daḷhaparakkamo anikkhittadhuro kusalesu dhammesu SN v 410).

Sometimes a noble disciple might abide negligently applied [to the practice] (ariyasāvako pamādavihārī hoti). Although he has unshakeable faith in the Buddha and the teaching, he is content with that faith, and does not make further effort for physical seclusion by day nor for solitary retreat at night.

aveccappasādena santuṭṭho na uttariṁ vāyamati divā pavivekāya rattiṁ paṭisallānāya. (SN v 398)

According to Venerable Sāriputta’s statement, this negligence is due to a relative lack of faith, or in other words, the fifth hindrance, doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]. Thus, even amongst stream-enterers, some have stronger faith than others, which can be seen in their levels of diligence.

Cause of doubt about the excellence of the teaching: craving

Doubt about the excellence of the teaching comes from craving (taṇhā):

• The ignorant Everyman… is unsure, doubtful, undecided about the [perfection of the] true teaching.

assutavā puthujjano… kaṅkhī hoti vicikicchī aniṭṭhaṅgato saddhamme

… That unsureness, doubt, and undecidedness about the [perfection of the] true teaching is an originated phenomenon.

yā kho pana sā bhikkhave kaṅkhitā vicikicchitā aniṭṭhaṅgatatā saddhamme saṅkhāro so.

… What is the basis, origin, object of genesis and production of that originated phenomenon?

So pana saṅkhāro kinnidāno kiṁsamudayo kiñjātiko kimpabhavoti

… When the ignorant Everyman is affected by sense impression born of sensation and uninsightfulness into reality, craving arises.

avijjāsamphassajena bhikkhave vedayitena phuṭṭhassa assutavato puthujjanassa uppannā taṇhā

… That originated phenomenon is born from that

tatojo so saṅkhāro. (SN iii 99)

Cause of doubt about the excellence of the teaching: improper contemplation

I do not see any one thing on account of which unarisen doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] arises, and arisen doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] increases and expands, as improper contemplation.

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave aññaṁ ekadhammampi samanupassāmi yena anuppannā vā vicikicchā uppajjati uppannā vā vicikicchā bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṁvattati yathayidaṁ bhikkhave ayoniso manasikāro

For one of improper contemplation, unarisen doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] arises, and arisen doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] increases and expands.

Ayoniso bhikkhave manasikaroto anuppannā ceva vicikicchā uppajjati uppannā ca vicikicchā bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṁvattatī ti. (AN i 4)

I do not see any one thing on account of which unarisen doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] does not arise, and arisen doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] is abandoned, as proper contemplation.

Nāhaṁ bhikkhave aññaṁ ekadhammampi samanupassāmi yena anuppannā vā vicikicchā nuppajjati uppannā vā vicikicchā pahīyati yathayidaṁ bhikkhave yoniso manasikāro

For one of proper contemplation unarisen doubt [about the excellence of the teaching], and arisen doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] is abandoned.

Yoniso bhikkhave manasikaroto anuppannā ceva vicikicchā nuppajjati uppannā ca vicikicchā pahīyatī ti. (AN i 4-5)

Overcoming doubt about the excellence of the teaching by meditation

Any unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching] in relation to what is experienced by oneself or by others, either here or in the world beyond, is completely abandoned by those who meditate, by those who are vigorously applied [to the practice], by those who live the religious life

Yā kāci kaṅkhā idha vā huraṁ vā sakavediyā vā paravediyā vā
Jhāyino tā pajahanti sabbā ātāpino brahmacariyaṁ carantā ti. (Uda 60)

Overcoming doubt about the excellence of the teaching by overcoming self-centredness

The Nissāraṇīya Sutta (AN iii 291-2) says doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] persists as long as the notion “I am” has not vanished, which happens at arahantship (SN iii 131). So, although the scriptures say that to enter first jhāna the five hindrances must first be suppressed (MN iii 136; DN i 204), this can be only relatively true. According to the Nissāraṇīya Sutta, the hindrance of doubt is not properly suppressed before arahantship. Of course, this relative impurity of jhāna is maybe true for all five hindrances.

• If the notion “I am” has vanished, and one does not regard anything as “[in reality] what I am,”’ it is impossible, out of the question, that the arrow of doubt and uncertainty [about the excellence of the teaching] would plague your mind.

aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ asmī ti vigate ayamahamasmī ti asamanupassato atha ca panassa vicikicchākathaṅkathāsallaṁ cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī ti. (DN iii 250)

However, according to the Cūḷasaccaka Sutta, doubt about the excellence of the teaching can be suppressed before arahantship by contemplating the voidness of personal qualities [in the five aggregates], as follows:

• On what grounds is a disciple of Master Gotama one who practises his training system, who responds to his advice, who has overcome doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] (tiṇṇavicikiccho), one who is free of uncertainty [about the excellence of the teaching] (vigatakathaṅkatho), who has gained confidence [in the teaching], and abides no longer dependent on others regarding the [understanding of the] Teacher’s training system?

Kittāvatā nu kho bhoto gotamassa sāvako sāsanakaro hoti ovādapatikaro tiṇṇavicikiccho vigatakathaṅkatho vesārajjappatto aparappaccayo satthusāsane viharatī ti

• A disciple of mine sees each of the five aggregates according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment: This is “not [in reality] mine,” this is “not [in reality] what I am,” this is “not my [absolute] Selfhood”

Idha aggivessana mama sāvako yaṁ kiñci rūpaṁ… viññāṇaṁ atītānāgata paccuppannaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā yaṁ dūre santike vā sabbaṁ viññāṇaṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passati

• On what grounds is a bhikkhu an arahant with perceptually obscuring states destroyed, one who has fulfilled [the religious life], done what had to be done, laid down the burden, achieved his objective, destroyed the ties to individual existence, and is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through the complete knowledge [of things according to reality]?

Kittāvatā pana bho gotama bhikkhu arahaṁ hoti khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṁyojano sammadaññā vimutto ti?

• In this regard, having seen any kind of bodily form… field of sensation according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood,” a bhikkhu is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through being without grasping.

Idha aggivessana bhikkhu yaṁ kiñci rūpaṁ atītānāgata paccuppannaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā yaṁ dūre sannike vā sabbaṁ rūpaṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā anupādā vimutto hoti.

Yā kāci vedanā… saññā… saṅkhārā… viññāṇaṁ…. (MN i 235)

Overcoming doubt about the excellence of the teaching: seeing with penetrative discernment

• Bhikkhus, is doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] abandoned in one who perceives according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment: ‘This is brought about’?

Bhūtamidan ti bhikkhave yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato yā vicikicchā sā pahīyatī ti

• Yes, bhante.

• Bhikkhus, is doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] abandoned in one who perceives according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment: ‘It is arisen with that as its nourishing condition’?

Tadāhārasambhavan ti bhikkhave yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato yā vicikicchā sā pahīyatī ti

• Yes, bhante.

• Bhikkhus, is doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] abandoned in one who perceives according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment: ‘With the ending of that nourishing condition, what is brought about is destined to cease’?

Tadāhāranirodhā yaṁ bhūtaṁ taṁ nirodhadhamman ti bhikkhave yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato yā vicikicchā sā pahīyatī ti.

• Yes, bhante. (MN i 260)

Doubt about the excellence of the teaching, the unexplained issues, and dogmatism

• Bhante, what is the cause and reason that doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] does not arise in the learned noble disciple on account of the unexplained issues?

Ko nu kho bhante hetu ko paccayo yena sutavato ariyasāvakassa vicikicchā nūppajjati avyākatavatthusu

• To the learned noble disciple, through the ending of dogmatism, doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] does not arise on account of the unexplained issues

diṭṭhinirodhā kho bhikkhu sutavato ariyasāvakassa vicikicchā nūppajjati avyākatavatthusu.

• Asserting that the Perfect One exists after death: this is acquiescence in dogmatism.

Hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti kho bhikkhu diṭṭhigatametaṁ

• Asserting that the Perfect One does not exist after death: this is acquiescence in dogmatism,

na hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti kho bhikkhu diṭṭhigatametaṁ

• Asserting that the Perfect One both exists and does not exist after death: this is acquiescence in dogmatism,

hoti ca na hoti ca tathāgato parammaraṇā ti kho bhikkhu diṭṭhigatametaṁ

• Asserting that the Perfect One neither exists nor does not exist after death: this is acquiescence in dogmatism.

neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti kho bhikkhu diṭṭhigatametaṁ

The ignorant Everyman (assutavā puthujjano) does not discern

• dogmatism

• the origin of dogmatism

• the ending of dogmatism

• the practice leading to the ending of dogmatism

diṭṭhinirodhagāminiṁ paṭipadaṁ nappajānāti

For him dogmatism grows

tassa sā diṭṭhi pavaḍḍhati

He is not freed from birth, old age, and death, from grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation. He is not freed, I declare, from suffering.

So na parimuccati jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi na parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmi.

The learned noble disciple discerns

sutavā ca kho bhikkhu ariyasāvako

• dogmatism

• the origin of dogmatism

• the ending of dogmatism

• the practice leading to the ending of dogmatism

diṭṭhinirodhagāminiṁ paṭipadaṁ pajānāti

• For him, dogmatism ceases

tassa sā diṭṭhi nirujjhati

• He is freed from birth, old age, and death, from grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation. He is freed, I declare, from suffering.

So parimuccati jātiyā jarāmaraṇe sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāyehi parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmi. (AN iv 69-70)

Doubt regarding the periods of the past, future, and present

The scriptures speak of ‘doubt about the periods of the past, future, and present,’ which makes better sense if taken as ‘doubt about the [nature of reality in the] periods of the past, future, and present,’ thus:

• Three states of unsureness: one is unsure, doubtful, undecided, unsettled, about the [nature of reality in the] periods of the past, the future, and the present

Tisso kaṅkhā. Atītaṁ vā addhānaṁ… anāgataṁ vā addhānaṁ… etarahi vā paccuppannaṁ addhānaṁ ārabbha kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati. (DN iii 217)

This interpretation is illustrated in the following conversation:

• If, headman, I were to teach you about the origination and vanishing of suffering with reference to the past, saying, ‘So it was in the past,’ unsureness about the [nature of reality in the] past might arise in you.

Ahañce te gāmaṇi atītaṁ addhānaṁ ārabbha dukkhassa samudayañca atthaṅgamañca deseyyaṁ: evaṁ ahosi atītamaddhānan ti tatra te siyā kaṅkhā siyā vimati.

… And if I were to teach you about the origination and vanishing of suffering with reference to the future, saying, ‘So it will be in the future,’ unsureness about the [nature of reality in the] future might arise in you.

Ahañce te gāmaṇi anāgatamaddhānaṁ ārabbha dukkhassa samudayañca atthaṅgamañca deseyyaṁ. Evaṁ bhavissati anāgatamaddhānan ti tatrāpi te siyā kaṅkhā siyā vimati.

… Instead, headman, while I am sitting right here, and you are sitting right there, I will teach you about the origination and vanishing of suffering. Listen, pay careful attention, and I will speak.

Api cāhaṁ gāmaṇi idheva nisinno ettha ca te nisinnassa dukkhassa samudayañca atthaṅgamañca desissāmi. Taṁ suṇāhi sādhukaṁ manasikarohi bhāsissāmī ti

Having shown the headman that suffering in the present stems from fondness and attachment in the present, the Buddha then extends the discussion to the past and future:

• Through this profound truth that is seen, understood, realised in the here and now, penetrated, you can deduce about the past and the future thus:

Iminā tvaṁ gāmaṇi dhammena diṭṭhena viditena akālikena pattena pariyogāḷhena atītānāgate nayaṁ nehi

… Whatever suffering arose in the past, all of it stemmed from fondness, with fondness as its basis; for fondness is the origin of suffering.

yaṁ kho kiñci atītamaddhānaṁ dukkhaṁ uppajjamānaṁ uppajjati sabbantaṁ chandamūlakaṁ chandanidānaṁ chando hi mūlaṁ dukkhassa

… Whatever suffering will arise in the future, all of it will stem from fondness, with fondness as its basis; for fondness is the origin of suffering.

yaṁ hi kiñci anāgatamaddhānaṁ dukkhaṁ uppajjamānaṁ uppajjissati sabbantaṁ chandamūlakaṁ chandanidānaṁ chando hi mūlaṁ dukkhassā ti. (SN iv 327)

Doubt [about the perfection of the Blessed One’s body]

Brahmans who searched the Buddha’s body for the thirty-two marks of a Great Man, which, for them, were signs of perfect enlightenment, of a Great Man, were always ‘doubtful’ about the two marks which were not immediately obvious. To make any sense, this unspecified doubt is best understood as ‘doubt [about the perfection of the Blessed One’s body],’ as these three examples show:

1) All thirty two of the marks that you have heard are the marks of a Great Man are to be found on my body. So, brahman, do not be unsure [about the perfection of the Blessed One’s body].

Ye te dvattiṁsāti sutā mahāpurisalakkhaṇā
Sabbe te mama kāyasmiṁ. Mā te kaṅkhāhu brāhmaṇa. (MN ii 143)

2) Then Ambaṭṭha, the young brahman, while pacing back and forth with the Blessed One, looked for the thirty-two marks of a Great Man on the Blessed One's body, and could see all but two of them.

Atha kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhagavantaṁ caṅkamantaṁ anucaṅkamamāno kāye dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇāni samannesi. Addasa kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhagavato kāye dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇāni yebhuyyena ṭhapetvā dve

… He was unsure, doubtful, undecided, unsettled [about the perfection of the Blessed One’s body] in respect of two of these marks: the sheathed genitals and the large tongue.

Dvīsu mahāpurisalakkhaṇesu kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati kosohite ca vatthaguyhe pahūtajivhatāya ca ;

… And so, being aware of this, the Blessed One arranged by psychic power that Ambaṭṭha could see his sheathed genitals, and then, sticking out his tongue, he licked both ears and both nostrils backwards and forwards, and covered the whole width of his forehead with his tongue.

Atha kho bhagavā tathārūpaṁ iddhābhisaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkāsi yathā addasa ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhagavato kosohitaṁ vatthaguyhaṁ. Atha kho bhagavā jivhaṁ ninnāmetvā ubho pi kaṇṇasotāni anumasi parimasi. Ubho pi nāsikāsotāni anumasi parimasi. Kevalampi naḷāṭamaṇḍalaṁ jivhāya chādesi.

… Then Ambaṭṭha thought: ‘The ascetic Gotama is possessed of all thirty-two marks of a Great Man, with all present and none missing.

Atha kho ambaṭṭhassa māṇavassa etadahosi samannāgato kho samaṇo gotamo dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇehi paripuṇṇehi no aparipuṇṇehī ti. (DN i 105-6)

Ajita’s quest: doubt [about the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment]

The brahman Ajita was sent by his teacher to examine the Buddha as to whether he was perfectly enlightened or not, and to put him through a series of tests:

• ‘If he is the Enlightened One, one of unobstructed vision, he will answer in speech the questions you ask in your mind.’ (Snp 1005)

In this quest, Ajita used the word kaṅkhā and kaṅkhati which should be parenthesised as follows:

• Give a detailed account of Bāvari’s marks, best of men, the destroyer of unsureness. Let there be no unsureness in us [about the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment].

Lakkhaṇānaṁ pavicayaṁ, bāvarissa naruttama;
Kaṅkhacchida pakāsehi, mā no kaṅkhāyitaṁ ahu. (Snp 1021)

Sakka’s Questions: doubt about the way of spiritual fulfilment, and of unfulfilment

The Buddha removed the arrow of doubt and uncertainty long lurking in Sakka, Lord of the Devas, through answering his four main questions plus six subsidiary questions (DN ii 283). But doubt and uncertainty about what? The answer is found at the end of the conversation in the Sakkapañha Sutta, when Sakka explained the history of his inquiry:

• Thinking that ascetics living secludedly were enlightened, and that I should go and follow them, I had asked them, ‘What is the way of spiritual fulfilment? What is the way of spiritual unfulfilment?’ But when asked, they were unable to explain the relevant path and practices.

Yassu maññāmi samaṇe pavivittavihārino;
Sambuddhā iti maññāno gacchāmi te upāsituṁ.
Kathaṁ ārādhanā hoti kathaṁ hoti virādhanā;
Iti puṭṭhā na sampāyanti magge paṭipadāsu ca. (DN ii 287)

This shows that the doubt and uncertainty long lurking in Sakka concerned the way of spiritual fulfilment (ārādhanā), and of unfulfilment (virādhanā). This qualification can therefore be parenthesised in translation. For example, after the Buddha answered each question, Sakka exclaimed:

• 'So it is, Blessed One, so it is, Sublime One. Having heard the Blessed One’s answer to my question, unsureness [about the way of spiritual fulfilment, and of unfulfilment] is overcome in me; uncertainty [about the way of spiritual fulfilment, and of unfulfilment] has disappeared!'

Evametaṁ bhagavā evametaṁ sugata tiṇṇā me'ttha kaṅkhā vigatā kathaṅkathā bhagavato pañhaveyyākaraṇaṁ sutvā ti.

Likewise, Sakka’s exclamation at the end of the conversation can be rendered:

• Long I wandered, objective unfulfilled, doubtful and uncertain [about the way of spiritual fulfilment, and of unfulfilment], in quest of the Perfect One.

Apariyositasaṅkappo vicikiccho kathaṅkathī.
Vicariṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ anvesanto tathāgataṁ. (DN ii 287)

Sakka’s four main questions are all consistent with an inquiry about the way of spiritual fulfilment, and of unfulfilment. They are as follows:

1) Because of what bond is it, that devas, humans, asuras, magical serpents, heavenly musicians and whatever other kinds there may be, although they wish to abide free of unfriendliness, violence, enmity, hostility, and uncordiality, why do they in fact abide with all these things?

kiṁsaṁyojanā nu kho mārisa devā manussā asurā nāgā gandhabbā ye caññe santi puthukāyā te averā adaṇḍā asapattā avyāpajjhā viharemu averino ti iti ce nesaṁ hoti. Atha ca pana saverā sadaṇḍā sasapattā savyāpajjā viharanti saverino ti

2) How does he conduct himself, the bhikkhu who practises within the constraints of the rules of discipline?

kathaṁ paṭipanno pana mārisa bhikkhu pātimokkhasaṁvarāya paṭipanno hotī ti

3) How does he conduct himself, the bhikkhu who applies himself to the restraint of the sense faculties [from grasping, through mindfulness]?

kathaṁ paṭipanno pana mārisa bhikkhu indriyasaṁvarāya paṭipanno hotī ti

4) Do all ascetics and Brahmanists have the same doctrine, the same standard of discipline, the same aspiration, and pursue the same goal?

sabbeva nu kho mārisa samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekantavādā ekantasīlā ekantachandā ekantaajjhosānā ti. (DN ii 276-83)

Māra’s seventh army: doubt [about the significance of abandoning spiritually unwholesome factors and undertaking spiritually wholesome factors]

Before his enlightenment, the Buddha was tempted by Māra to abandon his struggle. It was here that the Buddha said that Māra’s seventh army is doubt (Sattamī vicikicchā te, Snp 437). Usually we would call vicikicchā ‘doubt [about the excellence of the teaching].’ See IGPT sv Vicikicchā. But here, as yet, there is no Buddha or teaching. We therefore take the object of vicikicchā to be kusalesu dhammesu from this quote:

• Abandoning doubt [about the excellence of the teaching], he abides having overcome doubt [about the excellence of the teaching], with no uncertainty about [the significance of abandoning spiritually unwholesome factors and undertaking] spiritually wholesome factors.

Vicikicchaṁ pahāya tiṇṇavicikiccho viharati akathaṅkathī kusalesu dhammesu. (MN iii 136; DN i 204)

Accordingly, Māra’s seventh army is ‘doubt [about the significance of abandoning spiritually unwholesome factors and undertaking spiritually wholesome factors]’. This also accords with the nature of the Buddha’s search at that time:

• Having gone forth [into the ascetic life] in search of what is spiritually wholesome, seeking the supreme state of sublime peace, I approached Āḷāra Kālāma.’

So evaṁ pabbajito samāno kiṁkusalagavesī anuttaraṁ santivarapadaṁ pariyesamāno yena āḷāro kālāmo tenupasaṅkamiṁ. (MN i 163)

Uncertainty about [the significance of abandoning spiritually unwholesome factors and undertaking] spiritually wholesome factors

We used this quote in the section above:

• Abandoning doubt [about the excellence of the teaching], he abides having overcome doubt [about the excellence of the teaching], with no uncertainty about [the significance of abandoning spiritually unwholesome factors and undertaking] spiritually wholesome factors. He cleanses his mind of doubt [about the excellence of the teaching].

Vicikicchaṁ pahāya tiṇṇavicikiccho viharati akathaṅkathī kusalesu dhammesu. Vicikicchāya cittaṁ parisodheti. (MN iii 136; DN i 204)

We make two points:

1) Applying the same parentheses, i.e. ‘[significance of],’ would only be justified if ‘the teaching’ concerns ‘the abandoning of spiritually unwholesome factors and undertaking of spiritually wholesome factors.’ Which it does, says this quote:

• The refraining from everything unvirtuous; the undertaking of what is spiritually wholesome; the purification of one’s mind: this is the training system of the Buddhas.

Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṁ kusalassa upasampadā
Sacittapariyodapanaṁ etaṁ buddhānaṁ sāsanaṁ. (Dhp 183)

2) According to our parenthesis, spiritually unwholesome factors are ‘abandoned’ and spiritually wholesome factors are ‘undertaken’. The parentheses come from these two quotes:

• The Blessed One praises the abandonment of spiritually unwholesome factors.

bhagavā akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānaṁ vaṇṇeti. (SN iii 8)

• The Blessed One praises the undertaking of spiritually wholesome factors.

bhagavā kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ upasampadaṁ vaṇṇetī ti. (SN iii 9)

Illustrations

Illustration: vicikicchā, doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]

The man ignorant of the path would ask the knowledgeable man a question about the path, and the latter would say: ‘Come, good man, this is the path. Go along it a little way and you will see a fork in the road. Avoid the left-hand branch and take the right-hand branch…

‘The man ignorant of the path’ represents the common man.

puriso amaggakusalo ti kho tissa puthujjanassetaṁ adhivacanaṁ

‘The man knowledgeable about the path’ represents the Perfect One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One.

Puriso maggakusalo ti kho tissa tathāgatassetaṁ adhivacanaṁ arahato sammāsambuddhassa

‘The forked road’ represents doubt [about the excellence of the teaching].

Dvidhāpatho ti kho tissa vicikicchāyetaṁ adhivacanaṁ

‘The left-hand branch’ represents the wrong eightfold path; that is, wrong view [of reality]… wrong inward collectedness.

Vāmomaggo ti kho tissa aṭṭhaṅgikassetaṁ micchāmaggassa adhivacanaṁ seyyathīdaṁ micchādiṭṭhiyā… micchāsamādhissa.

‘The right-hand branch’ represents the noble eightfold path; that is, right perception [of reality]… right inward collectedness.

Dakkhiṇo maggo ti kho tissa ariyassetaṁ aṭṭhaṅgikassa maggassa adhivacanaṁ seyyathīdaṁ sammādiṭṭhiyā… sammāsamādhissa. (SN iii 108-9)

Illustration: vicikicchā, doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]

The hindrance of doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] produces spiritual blindness, uninsightfulness, ignorance [of things according to reality], is destructive of penetrative discernment, vexatious, and not conducive to the Untroubled.

Vicikicchānīvaraṇaṁ bhikkhave andhakaraṇaṁ acakkhukaraṇaṁ aññāṇakaraṇaṁ paññānirodhiyaṁ vighātapakkhiyaṁ anibbānasaṁvattanikaṁ. (SN v 97)

Illustration: vicikicchā, doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]

Again, brahman, when one dwells with a mind absorbed in and overcome by doubt [about the excellence of the teaching], and one does not discern according to reality the escape from the arisen doubt [about the excellence of the teaching], on that occasion one neither knows nor sees [according to reality] one’s own good, nor the good of others, nor the good of both.

Puna ca paraṁ brāhmaṇa yasmiṁ samaye vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vicikicchāparetena. Uppannassa ca vicikicchāya nissaraṇaṁ yathābhūtaṁ na jānāti. Attatthampi tasmiṁ samaye yathābhūtaṁ na jānāti na passati. Paratthampi tasmiṁ samaye yathābhūtaṁ na jānāti na passati. Ubhayatthampi tasmiṁ samaye yathābhūtaṁ na jānāti na passati. (SN v 123-4)

Illustration: vicikicchā, doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]

This quote shows that doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] comes from clinging when one is assailed by entrenched perception and conception:

• For whatever the reason that entrenched perception and conception assail a man

yatonidānaṁ purisaṁ papañcasaññāsaṅkhā samudācaranti

… if there is found nothing there to be delighted in, welcomed, or clung to

ettha ce natthi abhinanditabbaṁ abhivaditabbaṁ ajjhositabbaṁ

… this is the end of the proclivity to doubt [about the excellence of the teaching]

kaṅkhī vecikicchī

kaṅkhī vecikicchī: (main article see: vicikicchā)

Illustration: kaṅkhī vecikicchī, unsure and doubtful [about the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment]

[Sabhiya:]

‘Unsure and doubtful [about the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], I have come longing to ask [these] questions. Put an end to them for me. Being asked, answer my questions truthfully one by one.’

Kaṅkhī vecikicchī āgamaṁ pañhe pucchituṁ abhikaṅkhamāno
Tes’antakaro bhavāhi pañhe me puṭṭho
Anupubbaṁ anudhammaṁ vyākarohi me. (Snp 510)

COMMENT:

Kaṅkhī vecikicchī: ‘Unsure and doubtful [about the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment].’ The object of Sabhiya’s unsureness and doubt is unspecified, but there are two reasons we can say that his doubt is not ‘doubt about the questions’ (an expression which anyway is meaningless), but about the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment.

1) The original purpose of the questions was not to discover their answers, but to find out under whom he should live the religious life.

2) It is indicated by the second sentence in this quote, beginning with ‘Certainly’ (addhā):

• The unsureness I formerly had [about the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], that you have dealt with, O Seer. Certainly you are a perfectly enlightened sage. There are no hindrances in you.

Yā me kaṅkhā pure āsi taṁ me vyākāsi cakkhumā
Addhā munīsi sambuddho natthi nīvaraṇā tava. (Snp 541)

kaṅkho

kaṅkho: (main article see: vicikicchā)

Illustration: kaṅkho, unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching]

Having crossed to the Far Shore he is free of remissness in practising the teaching, and free of unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching].

tiṇṇo ca pāraṁ akhilo akaṅkho. (Snp 1059)

kaṅkhī

kaṅkhī: (main article see: vicikicchā)

Illustration: kaṅkhī, unsure about the [perfection of the] true teaching; vicikicchī,doubtful about the [perfection of the] true teaching

Again, some person here is unsure, doubtful, undecided about the [perfection of the] true teaching.

Puna ca paraṁ brāhmaṇa idhekacco kaṅkhī hoti vicikicchī aniṭṭhaṅgato saddhamme.

When he incurs a severe disease or illness, he thinks: 'Alas, I am unsure, doubtful, undecided about the [perfection of the] true teaching.

Tamenaññataro gāḷho rogātaṅko phusati. Tassaññatarena gāḷhena rogātaṅkena phuṭṭhassa evaṁ hoti: kaṅkhī vatamhi vicikicchī aniṭṭhaṅgato saddhammo ti.

He grieves, suffers, and laments, weeps beating his chest, and falls into bewilderment. This, too, is one subject to death who is frightened and terrified of death.

So socati kilamati paridevati urattāḷiṁ kandati sammohaṁ āpajjati. Ayampi kho brāhmaṇa maraṇadhammo samāno bhāyati santāsaṁ āpajjati maraṇassa. (AN ii 174)

kaṅkhā

kaṅkhā: (main article see: vicikicchā)

Illustration: kaṅkhā, unsureness about the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment]; vimati, uncertainty about the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment]

In the Sampasādaniya Sutta Venerable Sāriputta recounts, in sixteen ways, the Buddha’s unsurpassed ability to explain the teaching (etadānuttariyaṁ yathā bhagavā dhammaṁ deseti). Then the Buddha said:

• And therefore you, Sāriputta, should frequently repeat this systematic exposition of the teaching to the bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs, and to male and female lay-followers. And, by listening to such talk, any worthless persons’ unsureness or uncertainty about the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment] will be abandoned.

tasmātiha tvaṁ sāriputta imaṁ dhammapariyāyaṁ abhikkhaṇaṁ bhāseyyāsi bhikkhunaṁ bhikkhunīnaṁ upāsakānaṁ upāsikānaṁ. Yesampi hi sāriputta moghapurisānaṁ bhavissati tathāgate kaṅkhā vā vimati vā tesamimaṁ dhammapariyāyaṁ sutvā yā tathāgate kaṅkhā vā vimati vā sā pahīyissatī ti. (DN iii 116)

Illustration: kaṅkhā, unsureness; vimati, uncertainty [about what I have said]

This will be a discourse by way of questions. Those who understand, should say ‘We understand.’ Those who do not understand, should say ‘We do not understand.’ Anyone who is unsure or uncertain [about what I have said] should ask me, ‘How is this, bhante? What is the meaning of this?.’

paṭipucchakathā kho bhaginiyo bhavissati. Tattha ājānantīhi ājānāmātissa vacanīyaṁ na ājānantīhi na ājānāmātissa vacaniyaṁ. Yassā vā panassa kaṅkhā vā vimati vā ahameva tattha paṭipucchitabbo: idaṁ bhante kathaṁ imassa kvattho ti. (MN iii 271)

Illustration: kaṅkhā, unsureness; vimati, uncertainty

On an Observance Day, a fourteenth, there is neither unsureness nor uncertainty among the general public as to whether the moon is not full or full, for the moon is then not full.

tadahuposathe cātuddase na hoti bahuno janassa kaṅkhā vā vimati vā ūno nu kho cando puṇṇo nu kho cando ti atha kho ūno cando tveva hoti. (MN iii 276)

Illustration: kaṅkhā, unsureness; vimati, uncertainty

Suppose a man were knowledgeable about the sound of a conch. While walking along the highway he might hear the sound of a conch. He would not be at all unsure or uncertain about [the source of the sound]; rather, he would conclude: ‘That is indeed the sound of a conch.’

Seyyathā pi bhikkhave puriso kusalo bherisaddassa. So addhānamagga paṭipanno bherisaddaṁ suṇeyya tassa na heva kho assa kaṅkhā vā vimati vā bherisaddo nu kho na nu kho bherisaddoti. Atha kho bherisaddotveva niṭṭhaṁ gaccheyya. (AN ii 185)

Illustration: kaṅkhā, unsureness; vimati, uncertainty

I am one of the Blessed One's white-robed female lay disciples who maintains perfect virtue. If anyone has any unsureness or uncertainty about [the truth of] this, the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One is dwelling among the Bhaggas at Sumsumaragira, in the deer park at Bhesakala Grove. They can go and ask him.

Yāvatā kho gahapati tassa bhagavato sāvikā gihī odātavasanā sīlesu paripūrakāriṇiyo ahaṁ tāsaṁ aññatarā. Yassa kho panassa kaṅkhā vā vimati vā ayaṁ so bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho bhaggesu viharati suṁsumāragire bhesakalāvane migadāye taṁ bhagavantaṁ upasaṅkamitvā pucchatu. (AN iii 296)

Illustration: kaṅkhā, unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching]

Spiritual purification through [the purification of] one’s perception [of reality] is for the sake of spiritual purification through overcoming one’s unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching].

Diṭṭhivisuddhi yāvadeva kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhatthā.

Spiritual purification through overcoming one’s unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching] is for the sake of spiritual purification through knowledge and vision of what is the Path and what is not the Path.

Kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhi yāvadeva maggāmaggañāṇadassanavisuddhatthā. (MN i 149-150)

Illustration: kaṅkhā, unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching]

When profound truths become manifest to the vigorous, meditative Brahman, then all his unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching] disappears, for he discerns the conditioned nature of reality.

Yadā have pātubhavanti dhammā ātāpino jhāyato brāhmaṇassa
Athassa kaṅkhā vapayanti sabbā yato pajānāti sahetudhamman ti. (Uda 1)

vijānata

Renderings

Introduction

Vijānata plus object

Vijānata associated with an object means ‘one who knows’ or ‘one who understands’:

• He mindfully conducts himself in such a way that when knowing a mentally known object or encountering a sense impression [within himself], [attachment] is exhausted not built up.

Yathāssa vijānato dhammaṁ sevato vāpi vedanaṁ
Khīyati no pacīyati evaṁ so caratī sato. (SN iv 76)

Often it is linked to ‘the teaching,’ where it means ‘one who understands’:

• Long is the round of birth and death for the fool who does not understand the true teaching.

Dīgho bālānaṁ saṁsāro saddhammaṁ avijānataṁ. (Dhp 60)

Vijānata minus object: parenthesising an object

Without an object, various passages show that vijānata’s object is ‘the teaching’:

• He listens but does not understand [the teaching], he looks but does not see [the nature of reality]. Though the teaching is being spoken, the fool does not understand the meaning.

Suṇāti na vijānāti āloketi na passati
Dhammasmiṁ bhaññamānasmiṁ atthaṁ bālo na bujjhati. (SN i 198)

• When the teaching has been so well explained, how can one who understands [it] be negligent [in practising it]?

Evaṁ sudesite dhamme ko pamādo vijānataṁ. (SN i 193)

Illustrations

vijānataṁ

vijānataṁ: (main article see: vijānata)

Illustration: vijānataṁ, one who understands [the teaching]

For one who understands [the teaching], there is no bondage [to individual existence].

natthi saṅgo vijānatan ti. (Tha 14)

Illustration: vijānata, one who understands [the teaching]

One who understands [the teaching] is worthy of a gift from those desiring merit.

Puññamākaṅkhamānena deyyaṁ hoti vijānatāti. (SN i 20)

vijānato

vijānato: (main article see: vijānata)

Illustration: vijānato, one who understands [the teaching]

For one who is imperturbable, for one who understands [the teaching], there is no accumulated merit or demerit.

Anejassa vijānato natthi kāci nisaṅkhiti. (Snp 953)

Illustration: vijānataṁ, one who understands [the teaching]

‘One who is endowed with the three final knowledges, who is inwardly at peace, who has destroyed renewed states of individual existence, thus know, Vāseṭṭha, he is Brahmā. For one who understands [the teaching], he is Sakka [Lord of the Devas].’

Tīhi vijjāhi sampanno santo khīṇapunabbhavo
Evaṁ vāseṭṭha jānāhi brahmā sakko vijānatan ti. (Snp 656)

Illustration: vijānataṁ, understands [the teaching]

Perfect Ones, great Heroes, lead [others] by means of the true teaching. How could one who understands [the teaching] be jealous of those who lead [others] by the [true] teaching?

Nayanti ve mahāvīrā saddhammena tathāgatā
Dhammena nayamānānaṁ kā usūyā vijānatan ti. (SN i 127)

Illustration: vijānato, understands [the teaching]

The fool thinks victory is through speech, and speaks harshly. One who understands [the teaching knows that] victory is for the one who endures [his foe’s anger].

Jayaṁ ve maññati bālo vācāya pharusaṁ bhaṇaṁ
Jayaṁ ve cassa taṁ hoti yā titikkhā vijānato. (SN i 163)

vijānatā

vijānatā: (main article see: vijānata)

Illustration: vijānatā, understand [the teaching]

For one who understands [the teaching], the night is for staying awake.

Paṭijaggitumevesā ratti hoti vijānatā. (Tha 193)

viññāṇa

Renderings

Introduction

Viññāṇa: mechanism by which sensation is made conscious

As a component of phassa, viññāṇa arises dependent on the association of the internal and external sense bases. For example:

• Dependent on the visual sense and visible objects, the visual field of sensation arises

cakkhuñcāvuso paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṁ. (MN i 111)

There are six fields of sensation corresponding to the six senses. We call these: the visual field of sensation, the auditory field of sensation, the olfactory field of sensation, the gustatory field of sensation, the tactile field of sensation, and the mental field of sensation (cakkhuviññāṇaṁ sotaviññāṇaṁ ghānaviññāṇaṁ jivhāviññāṇaṁ kāyaviññāṇaṁ manoviññāṇaṁ, MN iii 281).

Viññāṇakkhandha: fields of sensation

The phenomenon of viññāṇakkhandha is also ‘the fields of sensation,’ and is defined as that by which one discerns objects and sense impression, for instance different flavours (Quote 1, SN iii 87) or pleasure and pain (Quote 2, MN i 292-3):

Quote 1)

• And why do you call it the fields of sensation? One knows therefore it is called the fields of sensation. And what does one know? One knows sour, one knows bitter, one knows pungent, one knows sweet, one knows sharp, one knows mild, one knows salty, one knows bland. ‘One knows,’ bhikkhus, therefore it is called the fields of sensation.

Vijānātī ti kho bhikkhave tasmā viññāṇan ti vuccati. Kiñca vijānāti: ambilampi vijānāti tittakampi vijānāti kaṭukampi vijānāti madhurakampi vijānāti khārikampi vijānāti akhārikampi vijānāti loṇikampi vijānāti aloṇikampi vijānāti. Vijānātī ti kho bhikkhave tasmā viññāṇan ti vuccati. (SN iii 87)

Quote 2)

• One knows, one knows. Therefore fields of sensation is said. What does one know? One knows what is pleasant, one knows what is unpleasant, one knows what is neutral.

Vijānāti vijānātī ti kho āvuso tasmā viññāṇan ti vuccati. Kiñca vijānāti sukhan ti pi vijānāti dukkhan ti pi vijānāti adukkhamasukhan ti pi vijānāti. (MN i 292-3)

Viññāṇa: the instrument of knowledge

The instrumental case in the following quote (tena ca viññāṇena) shows that viññāṇa is the instrument through which one knows sensation.

• What does one know with that viññāṇa? One knows what is pleasant, one knows what is unpleasant, one knows what is neutral.

Tena ca viññāṇena kiṁ vijānāti: sukhan ti pi vijānāti dukkhan ti pi vijānāti adukkhamasukhan ti pi vijānāti. (MN iii 242)

Viññāṇakkhandha = viññāṇa of phassa: Mahāhatthipadopama Sutta

The viññāṇa of the fifth aggregate is the viññāṇa of phassa. This can be demonstrated in three ways:

1) The Mahāhatthipadopama Sutta says:

• If the visual sense is operational and visible objects come into its range, and there is an operative interaction between them, then the appropriate class of viññāṇa is manifested… The viññāṇa in whatever is thus brought about comprises viññāṇūpādānakkhandha.’

ajjhattikañce cakkhuṁ aparibhinnaṁ hoti bāhirā ca rūpā āpāthaṁ āgacchanti tajjo ca samannāhāro hoti evaṁ tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti… yaṁ tathābhūtassa viññāṇaṁ taṁ viññāṇūpādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṁ gacchati. (MN i 190)

2) If the fifth aggregate was different from the viññāṇa of phassa, then the viññāṇa of phassa would have no aggregate to belong to. It is not material, so it could not belong to the first aggregate of bodily form. Nor could it belong to the three immaterial aggregates, because they depend on phassa:

• Sensation is the indispensible and necessary condition by which the aggregates of sense impression, perception, and mental factors are to be discerned.

phasso hetu phasso paccayo vedanakkhandhassa… saññākkhandhassa… saṅkhārakkhandhassa paññāpanāya. (MN iii 17)

3) Viññāṇakkhandha and phasso have the same source, i.e. nāmarūpaṁ:

• Immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form is the indispensible and necessary condition by which the aggregate of the fields of sensation is to be discerned.

nāmarūpaṁ hetu nāmarūpaṁ paccayo viññāṇakkhandhassa paññāpanāyā ti. (SN iii 102)

• Sensation arises dependent on immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form.

Nāmañca rūpañca paṭicca phasso. (Snp 872)

Viññāṇakkhandha = viññāṇa of phassa: puzzling relationship to nāmarūpa

If the viññāṇa of the fifth aggregate is identical with the viññāṇa of phassa, then it must also arise from the six senses and their objects. But the quotes above say it arises from nāmarūpa. To explain this, we will now show that ‘nāmarūpa’ can mean the six senses and their objects because of the expression ‘external nāmarūpa’ which we now discuss.

External nāmarūpa + internal nāmarūpa = senses + objects

Our explanation is based on the following quote:

• There is this body and the external nāmarūpa. Thus is this dyad. Because of the dyad there is sensation.

Iti ayañceva kāyo bahiddhā ca nāmarūpaṁ. Itthetaṁ dvayaṁ. Dvayaṁ paṭicca phasso. (SN ii 24)

In this quote, ‘this body’ seems to stand for ‘internal nāmarūpa.’ The quote corresponds to the more common explanation:

• Dependent on the visual sense and visible objects, the visual field of sensation arises. The association of the three is sensation.

Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṁ. Tiṇṇaṁ saṅgati phasso. (MN iii 281)

‘The visual sense’ is the first of the six senses (ajjhattikāni āyatanāni, DN iii 243), and ‘visible objects’ is the first of the six sense objects (bāhirāni āyatanāni, DN iii 243).

By comparison of quotes, internal nāmarūpa corresponds to the six senses, and external nāmarūpa corresponds to the six sense objects. So when the scriptures say that ‘nāmarūpa is the indispensible and necessary condition by which the aggregate of the fields of sensation is to be discerned’ it is likely that nāmarūpa corresponds to the six senses and their objects.

Viññāṇa of paṭiccasamuppāda: stream of consciousness

In the context of paṭiccasamuppāda, we call viññāṇa the ‘stream of consciousness.’ Bodhi calls this ‘the underlying stream of consciousness which sustains personal continuity through a single life and threads together successive lives’ (CDB p.769 n.154). This viññāṇa arises in the mother’s womb and supports the development of nāmarūpa:

• If a stream of consciousness did not arise in the womb, would immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form develop there? No, bhante.

viññāṇañca hi ānanda mātukucchismiṁ na okkamissatha api nu kho nāmarūpaṁ mātukucchismiṁ samuccissathā ti? No hetaṁ bhante. (DN ii 63)

• If the stream of consciousness of a young boy or girl were eradicated, would immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form grow, mature, and develop? No, bhante.

viññāṇañca hi ānanda daharasseva sato vocchijjissatha kumārakassa vā kumārikāya vā api nu kho nāmarūpaṁ vuddhiṁ virūḷhiṁ vepullaṁ āpajjissathā ti? No hetaṁ bhante. (DN ii 63)

At death, this same viññāṇa finds a new place to establish itself (viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitan ti, SN i 122), and can be named after the individual it used to be, for example:

• The stream of consciousness of the noble young man Godhika

godhikassa kulaputtassa viññāṇaṁ. (SN i 122)

In arahants, because there is no rebirth, their viññāṇa is not established anywhere (appatiṭṭhitena viññāṇena parinibbuto ti). Other suttas say the viññāṇa is demolished (viññāṇaṁ uparujjhatī ti Snp 1111). The mysterious relationship between these two apparently equal events―’not established viññāṇa’ and ‘demolished viññāṇa’―is presumably no more to be resolved than the question as to whether an arahant continues to exist after death, or not.

Stream of consciousness: six streams

This viññāṇa is comprised of six streams (MN i 53; SN ii 44). These streams are named in Pāli in the same way as the viññāṇa of phasso. We call these:

The stream of consciousness plays an important role in rebirth.

The stream of consciousness and rebirth

The stream of consciousness plays a key role in rebirth:

• For beings [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving

avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ

… the stream of consciousness is established in the low plane of existence

hīnāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ

… the stream of consciousness is established in the middle plane of existence

majjhimāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ

… the stream of consciousness is established in the high plane of existence

paṇītāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ

In this way renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future

evaṁ āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hoti. (AN i 223-4)

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The stream of consciousness and kamma

The effect of kamma on the stream of consciousness is explained in this quote:

• Bhikkhus, if one who has acquiesced in uninsightfulness into reality undertakes a karmically consequential deed that is meritorious, his stream of consciousness is furnished with merit;

Avijjāgatoyaṁ bhikkhave purisapuggalo puññaṁ ce saṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti puññopagaṁ hoti viññāṇaṁ.

• If he undertakes a karmically consequential deed that is demeritorious, his stream of consciousness is furnished with demerit;

Apuññaṁ ce saṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti apuññopagaṁ hoti viññāṇaṁ.

• If he undertakes a karmically consequential deed that is karmically neutral, his stream of consciousness is furnished with what is karmically neutral.

Āneñjaṁ ce saṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti āneñjūpagaṁ hoti viññāṇaṁ.

… When a bhikkhu has abandoned uninsightfulness into reality and aroused insightfulness into reality, then, with the fading away of uninsightfulness into reality and the arising of insightfulness into reality, he does not undertake a karmically consequential deed that is meritorious, demeritorious, or karmically neutral.

Yato kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno avijjā pahīṇā hoti vijjā uppannā so avijjāvirāgā vijjūppādā neva puññābhisaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti na apuññābhisaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti na āneñjābhisaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti. (SN ii 82)

The stream of consciousness is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

Some suttas say that at arahantship, the stream of consciousness is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], like this:

• Bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu has abandoned attachment to bodily form, with the abandonment of attachment the basis is removed: there is no establishment of his stream of consciousness.

Rūpadhātuyā ce bhikkhave bhikkhuno rāgo pahīno hoti rāgassa pahānā vocchijjatārammaṇaṁ patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa na hoti

… When the stream of consciousness is unestablished, not [egoistically] matured, without the performance of [karmically consequential deeds], it is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

tadappatiṭṭhitaṁ viññāṇaṁ avirūḷhaṁ anabhisaṅkhacca vimuttaṁ. (SN iii 53)

Being thus liberated it is inwardly stable

Being inwardly stable it is inwardly at peace

Being inwardly at peace, he is not agitated

Santusitattā na paritassati.

Being not agitated, he realises the Untroubled for himself.

Aparitassaṁ paccattaṁ yeva parinibbāyati. (SN iii 54)

Vimuttaṁ, ṭhitaṁ, and santusitaṁ are neuter singulars in agreement with viññāṇaṁ. But paritassati seems to refer to the individual who is individually liberated.

In other suttas, the same process is described, but where the liberated entity is the citta, or the bhikkhu:

• If a bhikkhu’s mind is unattached to bodily form… the fields of sensation, it is liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping.

Rūpadhātuyā… viññāṇadhātuyā ce bhikkhave bhikkhuno cittaṁ virattaṁ vimuttaṁ hoti anupādāya āsavehi. (SN iii 45)

• When a bhikkhu sees it thus according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment, he is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through being without grasping.

bhikkhu… evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā anupādā vimutto hoti. (MN i 235)

In the latter case, vimutto is masculine singular in agreement with bhikkhu.

The stream of consciousness ceases with arahantship

Arahants have no stream of consciousness because they are free of karmically consequential deeds:

• What do you think, bhikkhus: can a bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed, undertake a karmically consequential deed that is meritorious, demeritorious, or karmically neutral?

• No, bhante.

When there are utterly no karmically consequential deeds, with the ending of karmically consequential deeds, would the stream of consciousness be discerned?

Sabbaso vā pana saṅkhāresu asati saṅkhāranirodhā api nu kho viññāṇaṁ paññāyethā ti?

• No, bhante.

• When there is utterly no stream of consciousness, with the ending of the stream of consciousness, would immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form be discerned?

Sabbaso vā pana viññāṇe asati viññāṇanirodhā api nu kho nāmarūpaṁ paññāyethā ti?

• No, bhante. (SN ii 83)

Viññāṇasota: stream of consciousness

The suttas say that viññāṇasotaṁ is a stream that is established in this world and the world beyond, which is indistinguishable from the stream of consciousness. Viññāṇa is apparently an abbreviation for viññāṇasotaṁ.

• He comes to know man’s stream of consciousness as an unbroken stream that is established in both this world and the world beyond. That is the third attainment of vision [of things according to reality].

purisassa ca viññāṇasotaṁ pajānāti ubhayato abbocchinnaṁ idha loke patiṭṭhitañca paraloke patiṭṭhitaṁ ca. Ayaṁ tatiyā dassanasamāpatti. (DN iii 105)

• He comes to know man’s stream of consciousness as an unbroken stream that is established neither in this world nor in the world beyond. That is the fourth attainment of vision [of things according to reality].

purisassa ca viññāṇasotaṁ pajānāti ubhayato abbocchinnaṁ idha loke appatiṭṭhitañca paraloke appatiṭṭhitañca. Ayaṁ catutthā dassanasamāpatti. (DN iii 105)

This is therefore an ‘unestablished stream,’ which we now discuss.

Stream of consciousness that is not established in arahants

The last paragraph presumably refers to arahants because the arahants viññāṇa is not established anywhere. For example, when the arahant Godhika died, the Buddha said that with the stream of consciousness unestablished, the noble young man Godhika had passed away to the Untroubled-without-residue’ (appatiṭṭhitena ca bhikkhave viññāṇena godhiko kulaputto parinibbutoti) (SN i 122).

It is easily understandable how the viññāṇa of a living arahant could be called ‘unestablished,’ because the arahant still has a stream of sense impression but no sense of a personal identity. But after his death, the issue of an unestablished viññāṇa is inexplicable, because other suttas say the arahant’s viññāṇa is demolished (viññāṇaṁ uparujjhatī ti Snp 1111). We have noted this problem above. It is one of the unexplained issues (avyākatavatthū, AN iv 68-70).

Refining of consciousness

Consciousness (viññāṇaṁ) becomes purified and refined when one detaches the mind (cittaṁ) from the material phenomena through seeing them as being void of personal qualities:

• The internal Solidness Phenomenon and the external Solidness Phenomenon are simply the Solidness Phenomenon, which should be seen according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood.”’

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā paṭhavīdhātu yā ca bāhirā paṭhavīdhātu paṭhavīdhāturevesā taṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.

… When one sees it thus according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment, one is disillusioned with the Solidness Phenomenon and one detaches the mind from the Solidness Phenomenon

Evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā paṭhavīdhātuyā nibbindati paṭhavīdhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti

… and similarly for the Liquidness Phenomenon, Warmth Phenomenon, Gaseousness Phenomenon, Space Element.

… Then there remains only consciousness, purified and refined

Athāparaṁ viññāṇaṁ yeva avasissati parisuddhaṁ pariyodātaṁ.

What does one know with that consciousness? One knows what is pleasant, one knows what is unpleasant, one knows what is neutral.

Tena ca viññāṇena kiṁ vijānāti: sukhan ti pi vijānāti dukkhan ti pi vijānāti adukkhamasukhan ti pi vijānāti. (MN iii 242)

Boundless consciousness

Viññāṇa can be used as a kasiṇa object (viññāṇakasiṇa) and stands in contrast to the kasiṇas of earth, water, fire, wind, blue, yellow, red, white, space. Therefore we again call it consciousness. Thus one perceives the kasiṇa of consciousness extending above, below, and across from oneself, with no subject/object duality and without limitation (viññāṇakasiṇameko sañjānāti uddhaṁ adho tiriyaṁ advayaṁ appamāṇaṁ AN v 60).

Boundless consciousness: sphere of meditation

Boundless consciousness is a sphere of meditation, perhaps similar to the viññāṇakasiṇa. To enter the state of awareness of boundless consciousness a bhikkhu must completely transcend the state of awareness of boundless space, and enter and abide in the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, where one perceives that consciousness is boundless

sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma anantaṁ viññāṇan ti viññāṇañcākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma anantaṁ viññāṇan ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. (MN ii 13)

Boundless consciousness: station for the stream of consciousness

The state of awareness of boundless consciousness is the sixth station for the stream of consciousness.

• There are beings, Ānanda, that, by completely transcending the state of awareness of boundless space, arise in the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, where one perceives that consciousness is boundless. This is the sixth station for the stream of consciousness.

Santānanda sattā sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma anantaṁ viññāṇan ti viññāṇañcāyatanūpagā. Ayaṁ chaṭṭhā viññāṇaṭṭhiti. (DN ii 69)

Viññāṇa: Mind

Viññāṇa is used to mean mind:

• The ignorant Everyman considers bodily form to be the [absolute] Selfhood, or the [absolute] Selfhood to be corporeal. If that bodily form changes and alters, his mind is preoccupied with the change.

Tassa taṁ rūpaṁ vipariṇamati aññathā hoti. Tassa rūpavipariṇāmaññathābhāvā rūpavipariṇāmānuparivatti viññāṇaṁ hoti. (MN iii 227)

  • If a bhikkhu sees a visible object via the visual sense, and his mind pursues the phantasm of the visible object (rūpanimittānusāri viññāṇaṁ hoti)… then his mind is called ‘distracted and scattered externally (bahiddhā viññāṇaṁ vikkhittaṁ visaṭanti vuccati (MN iii 225).
  • There are, Lord of the Devas, visible objects known via the visual sense that are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming. If a bhikkhu takes delight in them, welcomes them, and persists in cleaving to them, then the mind is attached to them (tannissitaṁ viññāṇaṁ hoti). That is grasping.

Santi kho devānaminda cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā tañce bhikkhu abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati tassa taṁ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato tannissitaṁ viññāṇaṁ hoti tadupādānaṁ. (SN iv 102)

Viññāṇa: Thoughts

Viññāṇa is used in the plural to mean ‘thoughts’ (viññāṇānaṁ):

• (The eightfold path) causes the thunderbolt of knowledge [of things according to reality] to fall on thoughts which have been taken hold of.

Viññāṇānaṁ pariggahe ñāṇavajīranipātino. (Tha 419)

Viññāṇa: Insight

Viññāṇa can mean insight:

• Wanting insight into the teaching, one should associate with a disciple of the Buddha who has great learning, who is an expert in the teaching, and who is wise.

Bahussutaṁ dhammadharaṁ sappaññaṁ buddhasāvakaṁ dhammaviññāṇamākaṅkhaṁ taṁ bhajetha tathāvidhaṁ. (Tha 1035)

• I thought, ‘By this practice of austerities, I have not attained any superhuman attainment of knowledge and vision worthy of the Noble Ones. Could there be another path to enlightenment? (siyā nu kho añño maggo bodhāyā ti).

… Then something occurred to me. Once, while my Sakyan father was working, while I was sitting in the cool shade of a roseapple tree, secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, and having entered and abided in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], I recalled asking myself ‘Could this be the way to enlightenment’ (siyā nu kho eso maggo bodhāyā ti).

Tassa mayhaṁ aggivessana etadahosi abhijānāmi kho paṇāhaṁ pitusakkassa kammante sītāya jambucchāyāya nisinno vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharitā. Siyā nu kho eso maggo bodhāyāti.

… Following that memory came the insight

tassa mayhaṁ aggivessana satānusāriviññāṇaṁ ahosi

… ‘This indeed is the way to enlightenment’

esova maggo bodhāyā ti. (MN i 246)

Personal viññāṇa: the bhikkhu Sāti

The bhikkhu Sāti used the term viññāṇa to indicate his idea of a personal viññāṇa, calling it tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ. This stands opposed to what the Buddha called ‘dependently arisen viññāṇa’ (paṭiccasamuppannaṁ viññāṇaṁ) in the following conversation:

• Bhante, as I understand the teaching explained by the Blessed One, it is this personal viññāṇa that roams and wanders the round of birth and death, not another’

ahaṁ bhante bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati anaññan ti.

• What is that viññāṇa, Sāti?

Katamaṁ taṁ sāti viññāṇan ti

• Bhante, it is that which speaks and experiences and feels here and there the karmic consequences of meritorious and demeritorious deeds

yvāyaṁ bhante vado vedeyyo tatra tatra kalyāṇapāpakānaṁ kammānaṁ vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedetī ti

• Worthless man, to whom indeed have you known me to explain the teaching that way? Worthless man, have I not in many ways stated that viññāṇa is dependently arisen; and that without necessary conditions there is no arising of viññāṇa.

anekapariyāyena paṭiccasamuppannaṁ viññāṇaṁ vuttaṁ aññatra paccayā natthi viññāṇassa sambhavo ti. (MN i 258)

Illustrations

Illustration: viññāṇa, fields of sensation

The sixfold body of fields of sensation should be understood.

• Dependent on the visual sense and visible objects, the visual field of sensation arises

Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṁ

• Dependent on the auditory sense and audible objects, the auditory field of sensation arises

Sotañca paṭicca sadde ca uppajjati sotaviññāṇaṁ

• Dependent on the olfactory sense and smellable objects, the olfactory field of sensation arises

Ghānañca paṭicca gandhe ca uppajjati ghānaviññāṇaṁ

• Dependent on the gustatory sense and tasteable objects, the gustatory field of sensation arises

Jivhañca paṭicca rase ca uppajjati jivhāviññāṇaṁ

• Dependent on the tactile sense and tangible objects, the tactile field of sensation arises

Kāyañca paṭicca phoṭṭhabbe ca uppajjati kāyaviññāṇaṁ

• Dependent on the mental sense and mentally known objects, the mental field of sensation arises

Manañca paṭicca dhamme ca uppajjati manoviññāṇaṁ. (MN iii 281)

Illustration: viññāṇa, stream of consciousness

And what is the stream of consciousness (viññāṇaṁ)?

Katamañca bhikkhave viññāṇaṁ?

There are these six streams of consciousness:

Chayime bhikkhave viññāṇakāyā

• the stream of visual consciousness

• the stream of auditory consciousness

• the stream of olfactory consciousness

• the stream of gustatory consciousness

• the stream of tactile consciousness

• the stream of mental consciousness

Illustration: viññāṇa, stream of consciousness

“Then it occurred to me:

tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave etadahosi

When there is what, does immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form arise? What is immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form dependent on?

kimhi nu kho sati nāmarūpaṁ hoti. Kiṁ paccayā nāmarūpan ti.

Then through proper contemplation, there took place in me a realisation through penetrative discernment

Tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo ti

When there is the stream of consciousness, immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form arises. Immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form arises dependent on the stream of consciousness.

viññāṇe kho sati nāmarūpaṁ hoti viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpan ti

“Then it occurred to me:

tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave etadahosi

When there is what, does the stream of consciousness arise? What is the stream of consciousness dependent on?

kimhi nu kho sati viññāṇaṁ hoti. Kiṁ paccayā viññāṇan ti.

Then through proper contemplation, there took place in me a realisation through penetrative discernment

Tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:

When there is immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form, the stream of consciousness arises. The stream of consciousness arises dependent on immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form.

nāmarūpe kho sati viññāṇaṁ hoti nāmarūpapaccayā viññāṇan ti

“Then it occurred to me:

tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave etadahosi

The stream of consciousness turns back at immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form; it does not go further

paccudāvattati kho idaṁ viññāṇaṁ nāmarūpamhā nāparaṁ gacchati

On account of this one can be born, age and die, pass away and be reborn

Ettāvatā jāyetha vā jīyetha vā mīyetha vā cavetha vā upapajjetha vā

Namely through the stream of consciousness being dependent on immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form; and immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form being dependent on the stream of consciousness.

yadidaṁ nāmarūpapaccayā viññāṇaṁ viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ. (SN ii 104)

Illustration: viññāṇa, stream of consciousness

With the ending of immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form comes the ending of the stream of consciousness.

Illustration: viññāṇa, stream of consciousness

“Bhikkhus, one who is full of attachment is unliberated; one who is free of attachment is liberated.

Upayo bhikkhave avimutto anupayo vimutto.

The stream of consciousness (viññāṇaṁ) while standing, might stand clinging to bodily form (rūpūpayaṁ); with bodily form as its basis (rūpārammaṇaṁ) established on bodily form (rūpappatiṭṭhaṁ) with a sprinkling of spiritually fettering delight, it might [egoistically] grow, mature, and develop.

rūpūpayaṁ vā bhikkhave viññāṇaṁ tiṭṭhamānaṁ tiṭṭheyya rūpārammaṇaṁ rūpappatiṭṭhaṁ nandūpasecanaṁ vuddhiṁ virūḷahiṁ vepullaṁ āpajjeyya

Bhikkhus, one who is full of attachment is unliberated; one who is free of attachment is liberated. The stream of consciousness, while standing, might stand

  • clinging to sense impression (vedanūpayaṁ)…
  • clinging to perception (saññūpayaṁ)…
  • clinging to mental factors (saṅkhārūpayaṁ)…
  • With them as its basis, established on them, with a sprinkling of spiritually fettering delight, the stream of consciousness might [egoistically] grow, mature, and develop. (SN iii 53)

Comment:

The first four aggregates are called catasso viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo (DN iii 228).

Illustration: viññāṇa, the stream of consciousness

Bhikkhus, though someone might say: ‘Apart from bodily form, apart from sense impression, apart from conception, apart from mental factors, I will make known the coming and going of the stream of consciousness, its transmigration, its [egoistic] growth, maturation, and development,’ that would be impossible.

Yo bhikkhave evaṁ vadeyya: ahamaññatra rūpā aññatra vedanāya aññatra saññāya aññatra saṅkhārehi viññāṇassa āgatiṁ vā gatiṁ vā cutiṁ vā uppattiṁ vā vuddhiṁ vā virūḷhiṁ vā vepullaṁ vā paññāpessāmīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (SN iii 53)

Illustration: viññāṇa, stream of consciousness and arahantship

Bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu has abandoned attachment to bodily form, with the abandonment of attachment the basis is removed: there is no establishment of his stream of consciousness.

Rūpadhātuyā ce bhikkhave bhikkhuno rāgo pahīno hoti rāgassa pahānā vocchijjatārammaṇaṁ patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa na hoti

If he has abandoned attachment

  • to the phenomenon of sense impression…
  • to the phenomenon of perception…
  • to the phenomenon of mental factors…
  • to the phenomenon of fields of sensation,

with the abandonment of attachment the basis is removed: there is no establishment of his stream of consciousness.

vedanādhātuyā .. saññādhātuyā… saṅkhāradhātuyā… viññāṇadhātuyā ce bhikkhave bhikkhunā rāgo pahīno hoti. Rāgassa pahānā vocchijjatārammaṇaṁ patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa na hoti

… When the stream of consciousness is unestablished, not [egoistically] matured, without the performance of [karmically consequential deeds], it is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

tadappatiṭṭhitaṁ viññāṇaṁ avirūḷhaṁ anabhisaṅkhacca vimuttaṁ. (SN iii 53)

Illustration:viññāṇa, stream of consciousness

How is the stream of consciousness destroyed for one who is mindful, for one living the religious life? Having come to ask the Blessed One, let us hear that word of yours.

Kathaṁ satassa carato viññāṇaṁ uparujjhati
Bhagavantaṁ puṭṭhumāgamma taṁ suṇoma vaco tava.

For one who is mindful, for one living the religious life, if he does not take delight in sense impression either internally or externally, in this way his stream of consciousness is destroyed.

Ajjhattañca bahiddhā ca vedanaṁ nābhinandito
Evaṁ satassa carato viññāṇaṁ uparujjhatī ti. (Snp 1110-11)

Illustration: viññāṇa, stream of consciousness

Bhikkhus, when the devas with Inda, Brahmā, and Pajāpati seek a bhikkhu who is liberated in mind, they do not find [anything of which they could say]: ‘The stream of consciousness of the Perfect One is attached to this. For what reason? The Perfect One is untraceable even in this lifetime, I declare.

evaṁ vimuttacittaṁ kho bhikkhave bhikkhuṁ saindā devā sabrahmakā sapajāpatikā anvesaṁ nādhigacchanti idaṁ nissitaṁ tathāgatassa viññāṇan ti. Taṁ kissa hetu? Diṭṭhevāhaṁ bhikkhave dhamme tathāgataṁ ananuvejjoti vadāmi. (MN i 140)

Illustration: viññāṇa, consciousness

Not long, indeed, till it will rest, this [wretched human] body here, beneath the clod, discarded, void of consciousness, like a useless block of wood.

Aciraṁ vatayaṁ kāyo paṭhaviṁ adhisessati
Chuddho apetaviññāṇo niratthaṁ va kaliṅgaraṁ. (Dhp 41)

Illustration: viññāṇa, consciousness

This my body is material, made of the four great material phenomena, arisen from parents, and fed on rice and gruel. It is unlasting, and is liable to be injured, abraded, broken, and demolished. And this is my consciousness which is connected and bound to it.

ayaṁ kho me kāyo rūpī cātummahābhūtiko mātāpettikasambhavo odanakummāsūpacayo aniccucchādana-parimaddana-bhedana-viddhaṁsanadhammo. Idañca pana me viññāṇaṁ ettha sitaṁ ettha paṭibaddhan ti. (DN i 76)

Illustration: viññāṇa, consciousness

Six elements

• the Solidness Phenomenon

• the Liquidness Phenomenon

• the Warmth Phenomenon

• the Gaseousness Phenomenon

• the Space Element

• the Consciousness Element

Illustration: viññāṇa, Consciousness

Bhikkhus, fondness and attachment regarding the Solidness Phenomenon… the Liquidness Phenomenon… the Warmth Phenomenon… the Gaseousness Phenomenon… the Space Element… the Consciousness Element is a spiritual defilement.

Yo bhikkhave paṭhavidhātuyā chandarāgo cittasse'so upakkileso. Yo āpodhātuyā chandarāgo cittasse'so upakkileso yo tejodhātuyā chandarāgo cittasse'so upakkileso yo vāyodhātuyā chandarāgo cittasse 'so upakkileso yo ākāsadhātuyā chandarāgo cittasse'so upakkilesoyo viññāṇadhātuyā chandarāgo cittasse'so upakkileso. (SN iii 232)

Illustration: viññāṇa, consciousness

When this [wretched human] body is bereft of three states―vitality, warmth, and consciousness―it is then discarded and forsaken, left lying senseless like a log.

Yadā kho āvuso imaṁ kāyaṁ tayo dhammā jahanti āyu usmā ca viññāṇaṁ athāyaṁ kāyo ujjhito avakkhitto seti yathā kaṭṭhaṁ acetananti. (MN i 296)

Illustration: viññāṇa, consciousness

When in his mother’s womb the first thought has arisen, the first consciousness manifested, his birth is (to be reckoned) from that time.

Yaṁ bhikkhave mātukucchismiṁ paṭhamaṁ cittaṁ uppannaṁ paṭhamaṁ viññāṇaṁ pātubhūtaṁ tadupādāya sāvassa jāti. (Vin.1.93)

viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ

Renderings

Introduction

Viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ = saññāvedayitanirodha

Viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ occurs in the scriptures twice (DN i 223; MN i 329). Its meaning is unsettled. We will show here that it means the ending of perception and sense impression (saññāvedayitanirodha). Let us examine the phrase step by step.

1) The phrase cannot mean nibbāna because although anidassanaṁ is indeed a synonym for nibbāna (SN iv 370), nibbāna is never elsewhere in the scriptures called viññāṇaṁ; and furthermore, nibbāna is never described as sabbato pabhaṁ. See synonyms of nibbāna at SN iv 368-373.

2) In the scriptures pabhassara is commonly linked to cittaṁ. For example:

• the mind is pliable and workable and radiant

cittaṁ mudu ca kammaniyañca pabhassarañca. (AN iii 16-17)

That the related word pabhaṁ is linked in our verse to viññāṇaṁ suggests that viññāṇaṁ is the phenomenon more usually known as cittaṁ. This is not greatly surprising because the two words are already used as synonyms elsewhere in the scriptures. For example:

• That which is called ‘mind’ or ‘cognition’ or ‘consciousness’ arises as one thing and ceases as another by day and by night.

Yañca kho etaṁ bhikkhave vuccati cittaṁ iti pi mano iti pi viññāṇaṁ iti pi taṁ rattiyā ca divasassa ca aññadeva uppajjati aññaṁ nirujjhati. (SN ii 95)

Therefore the viññāṇaṁ in our phrase might make more sense if understood as cittaṁ. Accordingly, we will call it ‘mind.’

3) Anidassanaṁ can mean invisible. For example:

• Because empty space is formless and invisible; it is not easy to draw pictures there

ākāso arūpī anidassano tattha na sukaraṁ rūpaṁ likhituṁ. (MN i 127)

However, PED gives nine meanings to nidassana including ‘attribute.’ Therefore we render anidassana as ‘with no attribute.’

4) If viññāṇaṁ has no attribute, then sabbato pabhaṁ cannot rationally be rendered as ‘altogether radiant.’ We therefore adopt the via negativa approach. This is easily accomplished because in the scriptures pabhassara means liberation from defilement. For example:

• The mind is intrinsically radiant: it is defiled by extrinsic defilements

Pabhassaramidaṁ bhikkhave cittaṁ tañca kho āgantukehi upakkilesehi upakkiliṭṭhan ti. (AN i 10)

Therefore sabbato pabhaṁ can be rendered as ‘altogether free of defilement.’ This is compatible with ‘having no attribute.’

5) Our phrase is associated with the ending of all phenomena because it is linked in its two references to these two statements:

a) Here immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form is completely ended

Ettha nāmañca rūpañca asesaṁ uparujjhati. (DN i 223)

b) It is not reached by the totality of everything

sabbassa sabbattena ananubhūtaṁ. (MN i 329)

These statements both suggest our phrase means the ending of perception and sense impression (saññāvedayitanirodha) because:

a) Nāma includes sense impression and perception

Vedanā saññā cetanā phasso manasikāro idaṁ vuccatāvuso nāmaṁ. (MN i 53)

b) ‘Everything’ (sabba) by definition includes ‘whatever sense impression that arises due to mental sensation’ (yampidaṁ manosamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṁ sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ, SN iv 27).

Therefore our phrase implies a state ‘not reached by’ sense impression.

6) Our phrase is part of a five-line verse, which is quoted in full in the Illustrations below. The last line of that verse includes the term ‘the ending of viññāṇa’ (viññāṇassa nirodhena) (DN i 223). So whereas we are researching the meaning of ‘viññāṇa with no attribute’ (viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ), we are faced with the fact that it is equivalent to the ending of viññāṇa. This appears to be a combination of incompatible terms, unless the two viññāṇas have different meanings. Since we have already decided to call viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ ‘mind with no attribute,’ let us now quickly settle the meaning of the ‘ending of viññāṇa.’

7) Since we have agreed that viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ concerns the ending of perception and sense impression (saññāvedayitanirodha), therefore viññāṇassa nirodhena means saññāvedayitanirodhena, the ending of perception and sense impression.

In conclusion, the mind with no attribute means the ending of perception and sense impression.

Not to be confused: tadāyatanaṁ

Viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ should not be confused with the following quote in which these three phrases show that nibbāna is meant:

1) supreme state of deliverance

2) no foundation

3) truly the end of suffering

The quote is this:

• There is that supreme state of deliverance where there is neither solidness, liquidness, warmth, nor gaseousness; no state of awareness of boundless space, no state of awareness of boundless consciousness, no state of awareness of nonexistence, no state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception; neither this world, nor a world beyond, nor both; neither sun nor moon. There, I declare, there is no coming, no going, no staying, no passing away, no being reborn. It is neither fixed, nor moving, and has no foundation. This is truly the end of suffering.

Atthi bhikkhave tadāyatanaṁ yattha neva paṭhavī na āpo na tejo na vāyo na ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ na viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ na ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ na nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ nāyaṁ loko na paraloko na ubho candimasūriyā. Tatrāpāhaṁ bhikkhave neva āgatiṁ vadāmi na gatiṁ na ṭhitiṁ na cutiṁ na upapattiṁ; appatiṭṭhaṁ appavattaṁ anārammaṇamevetaṁ. Esevanto dukkhassā ti. (Uda 80)

Illustrations

Illustration: viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ

The mind with no attribute, boundless, altogether free of defilement: that is not reached by the solidness of earth, the liquidness of water, the warmth of fire, the gaseousness of wind… the totality of everything.

Viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ taṁ paṭhaviyā paṭhavattena ananubhūtaṁ āpassa āpattena ananubhūtaṁ tejassa tejattena ananubhūtaṁ vāyassa vāyattena ananubhūtaṁ… sabbassa sabbattena ananubhūtaṁ. (MN i 329)

Illustration: viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ

The mind with no attribute, boundless, altogether free of defilement:

Viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ

Here liquidness, solidness, warmth, and gaseousness have no footing;

Ettha āpo ca paṭhavī tejo vāyo na gādhati

Here long and short, small and large, fair and foul, and immaterial-factors-and-bodily-form are completely ended.

Ettha dīghañca rassañca aṇuṁthūlaṁ subhāsubhaṁ;
Ettha nāmañca rūpañca asesaṁ uparujjhati

Through the ending of perception and sense impression, these are thereby completely ended.

Viññāṇassa nirodhena etthetaṁ uparujjhatī ti. (DN i 223)

vineti

vinaya

Renderings

Introduction:

Vineyya: absolutive and optative

Vineyya is both an absolutive (‘having eliminated’) and an optative (‘should dispel):

• having eliminated greed and dejection .

vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. (DN ii 94)

• one should dispel lamentation

Vinaya: training system

That vinaya can mean ‘training system’ is most obvious in relation to lay people. For example, when Sigālaka was venerating the six directions, the Buddha told him:

• But, young man, that is not how the six directions would be venerated in the Noble One’s training system.

Na kho gahapatiputta ariyassa vinaye evaṁ chaddisā namassitabbā ti. (DN iii 180)

It is also more obvious when it occurs without ‘dhamma’:

• So, too, whatever in the world [of phenomena] is agreeable and pleasing is called a thorn in the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system.

evaṁ kho bhikkhave yaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ ayaṁ vuccati ariyassa vinaye kaṇṭako. (SN iv 189)

Dhammavinaya occurring together can mean ‘the teaching and discipline’:

• The teaching and discipline that I have explained and established will, after my passing, be your teacher.

Yo kho ānanda mayā dhammo ca vinayo ca desito paññatto so vo mamaccayena satthā ti. (DN ii 154)

But dhammavinaya occurring together can also mean ‘teaching and training system’:

• I am one of the Blessed One's white-robed female lay disciples who have attained a foothold… in this teaching and training system.

Yāvatā kho gahapati tassa bhagavato sāvikā gihī odātavasanā imasmiṁ dhammavinaye… ahaṁ tāsaṁ aññatarā. (AN iii 297)

Illustrations

vinayetha

vinayetha: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinayetha, eliminate

You must completely eliminate grasping and craving

Ādānataṇhaṁ vinayetha sabbaṁ. (Snp 1103)

vinayanti

vinayanti: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinayanti, eliminate

The world’s attractive things remain as they are

Tiṭṭhanti citrāni tatheva loke

The wise eliminate their hankering for them

Athettha dhīrā vinayanti chandan ti. (AN iii 411)

vinayetha

vinayetha: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinayetha, eliminate

A bhikkhu should eliminate his attachment to sensuous pleasures, whether human or divine.

Rāgaṁ vinayetha mānusesu dibbesu kāmesu vāpi bhikkhu. (Snp 361)

Illustration: vinaya, eliminate

Eliminate greed for sensuous pleasure.

Kāmesu vinaya gedhaṁ. (Snp 1098)

vinayassu

vinayassu: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinayassu, dispel

Dispel your unsureness about me, [about whether or not I am the Enlightened One]. Be decided about me, brahman.

vinayassu mayi kaṅkhaṁ. Adhimuccassu brāhmaṇa. (Snp 559)

vinetuṁ

vinetuṁ: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinetuṁ, allay

I can allay my thirst with water, whey, porridge, or soup.

sakkā kho me ayaṁ surāpipāsitā pānīyena vā vinetuṁ dadhimaṇḍakena vā vinetuṁ matthaloṇikāya vā vinetuṁ loṇasovīrakena vā vinetuṁ. (SN ii 111)

avinīto

avinīto: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: avinīto, uninstructed

The ignorant Everyman, who has no regard for the Noble Ones or for spiritually outstanding people, and who is ignorant of and uninstructed in their teaching, considers bodily form to be the [absolute] Selfhood.

Idha gahapati assutavā puthujjano ariyānaṁ adassāvī ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinīto sappurisānaṁ adassāvī sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme avinīto rūpaṁ attato samanupassati. (SN iv 286-7)

vinessatī

vinessatī: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinessatī, instruct

Today the Blessed One will instruct Venerable Rāhula further in the destruction of perceptually obscuring states

ajja bhagavā āyasmantaṁ rāhuḷaṁ uttariṁ āsavānaṁ khaye vinessatī ti. (SN iv 105)

vinesi

vinesi: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinesi, discipline

• Kesi, how do you discipline a horse-in-training?

Kathaṁ pana tvaṁ kesī assadammaṁ vinesī ti?

• Bhante, I discipline one horse mildly, another harshly, and another both mildly and harshly.

Ahaṁ kho bhante assadammaṁ saṇhenapi vinemi pharusenapi vinemi saṇhapharusenapi vinemī ti.

• But, Kesi, if a horse-in-training won't submit to mild discipline, nor harsh discipline, nor mild and harsh discipline, how do you deal with him?

Sace te kesi assadammo saṇhenapi vinayaṁ na upeti pharusenapi vinayaṁ na upeti saṇhapharusenapi vinayaṁ na upeti kinti naṁ karosī ti?. (AN ii 112)

vinītā

vinītā: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinītā, trained

Now, bhante, the Blessed One has female lay-follower disciples who are competent, trained, accomplished.

Santi kho pana bhante etarahi upāsikā bhagavato sāvikā viyattā vinītā visāradā. (Uda 64)

vinetuṁ

vinetuṁ: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinetuṁ, train

They will offer others formal spiritual support but will not be able to train them in the higher virtue, the higher mental states, and the higher penetrative discernment.

Aññesaṁ nissayaṁ dassanti. Te na sakkhissanti vinetuṁ adhisīle adhicitte adhipaññāya. (AN iii 106)

vinayo

vinayo: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinayo, acquittal

Bhikkhus, there are these seven procedures for quelling and settling disciplinary issues that have arisen. Which seven?

Sattime bhikkhave adhikaraṇasamatha dhammā uppannuppannānaṁ adhikaraṇānaṁ samathāya vūpasamāya. Katame satta:

• An acquittal “in the presence of” may be given.

Sammukhā vinayo dātabbo

• An acquittal due to complete mindfulness may be given.

• An acquittal due to past insanity may be given.

• An act of acknowledgement may be applied.

paṭiññāta karaṇaṁ dātabbaṁ

• A majority vote may be applied.

• The procedure for one of increasing wickedness may be applied.

• The covering over as with grass may be applied.

Illustration: vinayo, elimination

This, bhikkhu, is a designation for the Untroubled: the elimination of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.

Nibbānadhātuyā kho etaṁ bhikkhu adhivacanaṁ rāgavinayo dosavinayo mohavinayo ti. (SN v 8)

Illustration: vinayo, elimination

The elimination of self-centredness is happiness supreme.

Asmimānassa vinayo etaṁ ve paramaṁ sukhan ti. (Uda 10)

vinayaṁ

vinayaṁ: (main article see: vinaya)

Illustration: vinayaṁ, the discipline

The Group-of-Six bhikkhus said:

• Come on, friends, let us disparage the discipline.

handa mayaṁ āvuso vinayaṁ vivaṇṇemā ti

They did this by asking:

• Why recite these lesser and minor training rules? They only lead to anxiety, vexation, and perplexity.

kiṁ panimehi khuddānukhuddakehi sikkhāpadehi uddiṭṭhehi yāvadve kukkuccāya vibhesāya vilekhāya saṁvattanti ti.

The Buddha rebuked them:

• How can you, worthless men, disparage the discipline?

kathaṁ hi nāma tumhe moghapurisā vinayaṁ vivaṇṇessatha

He established the rule:

• Whatever bhikkhu, when the Pātimokkha is being recited, should speak thus: ‘Why recite these lesser and minor training rules? They only lead to anxiety, vexation, and perplexity,’ in disparaging a rule of training, there is an offence of pācittiya.”

Yo pana bhikkhu pātimokkhe uddissamāne evaṁ vadeyya kiṁ panimehi khuddānukhuddakehi sikkhāpadehi uddiṭṭhehi yāvadve kukkuccāya vibhesāya vilekhāya saṁvattantīti sikkhāpadavivaṇṇake pācittiyan ti. (Vin.4.143)

So ‘discipline’ means:

1) the Pātimokkha

2) training rules (sikkhāpada)

Illustration: vinayaṁ, the discipline

Venerable Mahā Kassapa said

• ‘I could question Upāli on the discipline’

ahaṁ upāliṁ vinayaṁ puccheyyan ti.

MahāKassapa questioned Upāli on the subject of the first pārājika rule and its provenance, on the individual, on what was laid down, on what was an offence, and on what was no offence.

Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo āyasmantaṁ upāliṁ paṭhamassa pārājikassa vatthumpi pucchi nidānampi pucchi puggalampi pucchi paññattimpi pucchi anupaññattimpi pucchi āpattimpi pucchi anāpattimpi pucchi

… In this same way he questioned him about both divisions (i.e. both Pātimokkhas, bhikkhus’ and bhikkhunīs’)

eteneva upāyena ubhato vibhaṅge pucchi. (Vin.2.286)

Here ‘the discipline’ means the Pātimokkhas of bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs and associated details.

Illustration: vinayo, the discipline

Gotamī, things of which you might consider

ye ca kho tvaṁ gotami dhamme jāneyyāsi

• These things lead to non-attachment [to originated phenomena], not to attachment to originated phenomena

ime dhammā virāgāya saṁvattanti no sarāgāya

• lead to emancipation [from individual existence], not bondage [to individual existence]

visaṁyogāya saṁvattanti no saṁyogāya

• lead to a dwindling away of the five grasped aggregates, not to a proliferation of the five grasped aggregates

apacayāya saṁvattanti no ācayāya

• lead to fewness of needs, not abundance of needs

appicchatāya saṁvattanti no mahicchatāya

• lead to contentment, not to discontentment

santuṭṭhiyā saṁvattanti no asantuṭṭhiyā

• lead to physical seclusion, not to gregariousness

pavivekāya saṁvattanti no saṅgaṇikāya

• lead to right effort, not to indolence

viriyārambhāya saṁvattanti no kosajjāya

• lead to being easy to support, not to being difficult to support

subharatāya saṁvattanti no dubbharatāyā

You can definitely consider

ekaṁsena gotami dhāreyyāsi

• this is [in accordance with] the teaching

• this is [in accordance with] the discipline

• this is [in accordance with] the Teacher’s training system

etaṁ satthusāsanan ti. (AN iv 280)

Illustration: vinayo, the discipline

Rare in the world is a person able to understand when taught the teaching and discipline proclaimed by the Perfect One

tathāgatappaveditassa dhammavinayassa desitassa viññātā puggalo dullabho lokasmiṁ. (AN iii 169)

Illustration: vinaya, the discipline

A forest bhikkhu should endeavour [to study and master] advanced aspects of the teaching and discipline.

Āraññakenāvuso bhikkhunā abhidhamme abhivinaye yogo karaṇīyo. (MN i 472)

Illustration: vinaya, the discipline

It is hard to find one who has gone forth [into the ascetic life] in old age (buḍḍhapabbajito) … who is an expert in the discipline.

Illustration: vinaya, training system

• Sāriputta, friend, what is difficult to do in this teaching and training system?

Kinnu kho āvuso sāriputta imasmiṁ dhammavinaye dukkaran ti

• Going forth [into the ascetic life], friend, is difficult to do in this teaching and training system.

Pabbajjā kho āvuso imasmiṁ dhammavinaye dukkarā ti. (SN iv 260)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

Bhikkhus, you have lost your way. Bhikkhus, you are conducting yourselves wrongly. Bhikkhus, how far you have strayed, you worthless men, from this teaching and training system.

Vippaṭipannā'ttha bhikkhave. Micchāpaṭipannā'ttha bhikkhave. Kīvadūrevime bhikkhave moghapurisā apakkantā imasmā dhammavinayā. (MN i 480)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

Whoever was formerly a non-Buddhist ascetic and wishes to go forth [into the ascetic life] and receive ordination in this teaching and training system, he is granted probation for four months.

Yo kho kassapa aññatitthiyapubbo imasmiṁ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhati pabbajjaṁ ākaṅkhati upasampadaṁ so cattāro māse parivasati. (DN i 176)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

Now on that occasion Sunakkhatta, the young Licchavi, had recently left this teaching and training system.

tena kho pana samayena sunakkhatto licchaviputto acirapakkanto hoti imasmā dhammavinayā. (MN i 68)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

• How many Emancipated Ones are there in this teaching and training system, Master Ānanda?

Kīva bahukā pana bho ānanda imasmiṁ dhammavinaye niyyātāroti.

• There are not only one hundred, Sandaka, or two hundred, three hundred, four hundred, or five hundred, but far more Emancipated Ones than that in this teaching and training system.

Na kho sandaka ekaṁ yeva sataṁ na dve satāni na tīṇi satāni na cattāri satāni na pañca satāni atha kho hiyyova ye imasmiṁ dhammavinaye niyyātāro ti. (MN i 523)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

In this teaching and training system there is a gradually advancing training, a gradually advancing application, a gradually advancing practice, and there is no sudden attainment of arahantship.

evameva kho bhikkhave imasmiṁ dhammavinaye anupubbasikkhā anupubbakiriyā anupubbapaṭipadā nāyatakeneva aññāpaṭivedho. (Uda 54)

Illustration: vinaya, training system=sikkhaṁ

• Sāriputta, friend, the bhikkhu Moliyaphagguṇa has abandoned the training and returned to lay life.

Moliyaphagguṇo āvuso sāriputta bhikkhu sikkhaṁ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattoti.

• Then surely that venerable did not find consolation in this teaching and training system.

Naha nūna so āyasmā imasmiṁ dhammavinaye assāsamalatthāti. (SN ii 50)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

Ānanda, friend, I wish to live the religious life in this teaching and training system.

icchāmahaṁ āvuso ānanda imasmiṁ dhammavinaye brahmacariyaṁ caritun ti. (SN ii 120)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

Bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu does not discern according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from the six senses, then he has not lived the religious life; he is far from this teaching and training system.

Yo hi koci bhikkhave bhikkhu channaṁ phassāyatanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti; avusitaṁ tena brahmacariyaṁ ārakā so imamhā dhammavinayā ti. (SN iv 43)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

In this regard, let your light shine forth so that you who have thus gone forth [into the ascetic life] in this teaching and training system which is so well explained may be respectful, deferential, and courteous towards teachers and preceptors, and those of the standing of teachers and preceptors.

Idha kho taṁ bhikkhave sobhetha yaṁ tumhe evaṁ svākkhāte dhammavinaye pabbajitā samānā ācariyesu ācariyamattesu upajjhāyesu upajjhāyamattesu agāravā appatissā asabhāgavuttikā vihareyyātha? (Vin.1.187)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

It is considered growth in the Noble One’s training system for one who sees a wrongdoing as such, to make amends for it in accordance with the teaching, and to show restraint in the future.

Vuddhi hesā bhikkhu ariyassa vinaye yo accayaṁ accayato disvā yathā dhammaṁ paṭikaroti āyatiṁ saṁvaraṁ āpajjatī ti. (MN iii 246)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

A master of the three final knowledges in the Noble One’s training system, Master Gotama, is quite different from a master of threefold Vedic knowledge of the brahmans.

Aññathā bho gotama brāhmaṇānaṁ tevijjo. Aññathā ca pana ariyassa vinaye tevijjo hoti. (AN i 168)

Illustration: vinaya, training system

Whatever is destined to decay is called ‘the world [of phenomena]’ in the [terminology of the] Noble One’s training system.

Yaṁ kho ānanda palokadhammaṁ ayaṁ vuccati ariyassa vinaye loko. (SN iv 53)

vinicchaya

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: vinicchaya, analysis

‘One should know the analysis of pleasure, and knowing that, one should devote oneself to inward pleasure.’ So it was said. In reference to what was it said?

Sukhavinicchayaṁ jaññā sukhavinicchayaṁ ñatvā ajjhattaṁ sukhamanuyuñjeyyā ti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ:

There are these five varieties of sensuous pleasure. What five? Visible objects known via the visual sense… tangible objects known via the tactile sense that are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming. These are the five varieties of sensuous pleasure.

pañcime bhikkhave kāmaguṇā. Katame pañca: cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā… kāyaviññeyyā poṭṭhabbā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā. Ime kho bhikkhave pañcakāmaguṇā.

The physical and psychological pleasure that arises from the five varieties of sensuous pleasure: this is called sensuous pleasure, a vile pleasure, the pleasure of the common man, an ignoble pleasure. This pleasure should not be pursued, developed, and cultivated, I declare. It should be feared.

Yaṁ kho bhikkhave ime pañcakāmaguṇe paṭicca uppajjati sukhaṁ somanassaṁ idaṁ vuccati kāmasukhaṁ mīḷhasukhaṁ puthujjanasukhaṁ anariyasukhaṁ. Na āsevitabbaṁ na bhāvetabbaṁ na bahulīkātabbaṁ bhāyitabbaṁ etassa sukhassāti vadāmi.

In this regard, secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, a bhikkhu enters and abides in first jhāna… a bhikkhu enters and abides in fourth jhāna.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati… catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

This is called the pleasure of the practice of unsensuousness, the pleasure of physical seclusion, the pleasure of inward peace, the pleasure of enlightenment. This pleasure should be pursued, developed, and cultivated, I declare. It should not be feared.

Idaṁ vuccati nekkhammasukhaṁ pavivekasukhaṁ upasamasukhaṁ sambodhisukhaṁ āsevitabbaṁ bhāvetabbaṁ bahulīkātabbaṁ. Na bhāyitabbaṁ etassa sukhassāti vadāmi.

‘One should know the analysis of pleasure, and knowing that, one should devote oneself to inward pleasure.’ So it was said. It was in reference to this that it was said.

Sukhavinicchayaṁ jaññā sukhavinicchayaṁ ñatvā ajjhattaṁ sukhamanuyuñjeyyā ti iti yaṁ taṁ vuttaṁ idametaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ (MN iii 233-4)

vinicchayo

vinicchayo: (main article see: vinicchaya)

Illustration: vinicchayo, examination

Because of acquisition, examination

lābhaṁ paṭicca vinicchayo

Because of examination, fondness and attachment

vinicchayaṁ paṭicca chandarāgo. (AN iv 401)

vinicchayā

vinicchayā: (main article see: vinicchaya)

Illustration: vinicchayā, dogmatic opinions

[The Buddha:]

‘In regards to dogmatic religious views, of none of them have I said “I proclaim this.” But rather, in scrutinising views, without grasping, while searching, I realised inward peace.’

Idaṁ vadāmī ti na tassa hoti dhammesu niccheyya samuggahītaṁ
Passañca diṭṭhīsu anuggahāya ajjhattasantiṁ pacinaṁ adassaṁ. (Snp 837)

[Māgandiya:]

‘About dogmatic opinions that have been conceived, you indeed speak without grasping.’

Vinicchayā yāni pakappitāni te ve munī brūsi anuggahāya. (Snp 838)

Comment:

Vinicchayā is obviously a synonym of dhammesu niccheyya samuggahītaṁ.

Illustration: vinicchayā, dogmatic opinions; vinicchayaṁ, dogmatic opinions

From where do dogmatic opinions come from, anger, lies, uncertainty [about the excellence of the teaching], and other such things spoken of by the Ascetic?

vinicchayā cā pi kutopahūtā
Kodho mosavajjañca kathaṅkathā ca ye vāpi dhammā samaṇena vuttā. (Snp 866)

A person develops dogmatic opinions from seeing the cessation and continuance of bodily forms in the world.

Rūpesu disvā vibhavaṁ bhavañca vinicchayaṁ kubbati jantu loke. (Snp 867)

vinicchitāni

vinicchitāni: (main article see: vinicchaya)

Illustration: vinicchitāni, divided

Both Pātimokkhas have been properly transmitted to him in detail, properly classified, well mastered, properly divided by rule and phrase.

ubhayāni kho panassa pātimokkhāni vitthārena svāgatāni honti suvibhattāni suppavattīni suvinicchitāni suttaso anuvyañjanaso. (AN iv 140-1; Vin.1.65)

vinicchiyamāne

vinicchiyamāne: (main article see: vinicchaya)

Illustration: vinicchiyamāne, investigating

While bhikkhus are investigating that legal matter endless brawls arise.

Tehi ce bhikkhave tasmiṁ adhikaraṇe vinicchiyamāne anaggāni ceva bhassāni jāyanti. (Vin.2.95)

vinicchinitvā

vinicchinitvā: (main article see: vinicchaya)

Illustration: vinicchinitvā, investigate

If the community of bhikkhus, not having investigated that case, not having got to the root of it, achieves concord, that concord is unrighteous.

saṅgho taṁ vatthuṁ avinicchinitvā amūlā mūlaṁ gantvā saṅghasāmaggiṁ karoti adhammikā sā upāli saṅghasāmaggī ti

If the community of bhikkhus, having investigated the case, having got to the root of it, achieves concord in the community of bhikkhus, that concord is righteous

saṅgho taṁ vatthuṁ vinicchinitvā mūlā mūlaṁ gantvā saṅghasāmaggiṁ karoti, dhammikā sā upāli saṅghasāmaggī ti. (Vin.1.358)

vinicchinī

vinicchinī: (main article see: vinicchaya)

Illustration: vinicchinī, investigates

Wisdom investigates what is heard

vipāka

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: vipāko, consequence

What is the consequence of sensuous yearnings?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kāmānaṁ vipāko

In one yearning for sensuous pleasure a corresponding personal disposition is manifested, either meritorious or demeritorious.

yaṁ kho bhikkhave kāmayamāno tajjaṁ tajjaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinibbatteti puññabhāgiyaṁ vā apuññabhāgiyaṁ vā ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave kāmānaṁ vipāko. (AN iii 411)

vipāko

vipāko: (main article see: vipāka)

Illustration: vipāko, consequence

What is the consequence of sense impressions?

Katamo ca bhikkhave vedanānaṁ vipāko

In one experiencing [a sense impression] a corresponding personal disposition is manifested, either meritorious or demeritorious. This is called the consequence of sense impression.

yaṁ bhikkhave vediyamāno tajjaṁ tajjaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinibbatteti puññabhāgiyaṁ vā apuññabhāgiyaṁ vā ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave vedanānaṁ vipāko. (AN iii 412)

Illustration: vipāko, consequence

What is the consequence of perceptions?

Katamo ca bhikkhave saññānaṁ vipāko

Speech is the consequence of perception, I declare.

vohāra vepakkāhaṁ bhikkhave saññaṁ vadāmi

In whatever way one perceives something, one speaks accordingly: ‘I perceived thus.’

Yathā yathā naṁ sañjānāti tathā tathā voharati evaṁ saññi ahosin ti. . (AN iii 413)

Illustration: vipāko, consequence

And what is the consequence of perceptually obscuring states?

Katamo ca bhikkhave āsavānaṁ vipāko

In one who has acquiesced in uninsightfulness into reality a corresponding personal disposition is manifested, either meritorious or demeritorious.

yaṁ kho bhikkhave avijjāgato tajjaṁ tajjaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinibbatteti puññabhāgiyaṁ vā apuññabhāgiyaṁ vā. (AN iii 414)

Illustration: vipāko, consequence

And what is the consequence of suffering?

Katamo ca bhikkhave dukkhassa vipāko

Consider one overpowered and overcome by suffering, he grieves, suffers, and laments, weeps beating his chest, and falls into bewilderment; or roams abroad in search of one who knows a spell or two to put an end to this suffering.

idha bhikkhave ekacco yena dukkhena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto socati kilamati paridevati urattāḷiṁ kandati sammohaṁāpajjati. Yena vā pana dukkhena abhibhūto pariyādinna citto bahiddhā pariyeṭṭhiṁ ājjati ko ekapadaṁ dipadaṁ pajānāti imassa dukkhassa nirodhāyā ti.

Suffering yields either bewilderment or search, I declare.

Sammohavepakkaṁ vāhaṁ bhikkhave dukkhaṁ vadāmi pariyeṭṭhivepakkaṁ vā. (AN iii 416)

Illustration: vipāko, karmic consequence

What is the karmic consequence of karmically consequential deeds?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kammānaṁ vipāko

The karmic consequence of karmically consequential deeds is threefold: that which arises in this life, or on rebirth, or in some other subsequent [existence].

Tividhāhaṁ bhikkhave kammānaṁ vipākaṁ vadāmi diṭṭhevā dhamme upajje vā apare vā pariyāye. (AN iii 415)

vipākaṁ

vipākaṁ: (main article see: vipāka)

Illustration: vipākaṁ, karmic consequence

Previous demeritorious conduct whose karmic consequence has not yet ripened.

pubbe pāpakammaṁ kataṁ avipakkavipākaṁ. (AN ii 196)

santindriyāni

vippasannāni indriyāni

Renderings

Introduction

Which indriyāni?

The problem of assigning indriyāni a meaning is summarised in PED’s Comment:

• ‘It is often to be guessed from the context only, which of the sets of 5 indriyāni is meant.’

The confusion over vippasannāni indriyāni is obvious in DOP’s comment as follows, with which we disagree:

• ‘The serenity of the senses is perceptible to others.’

In the present context we call indriyāni ‘[mental] faculties’, a rendering unsupported by either of the dictionaries. In the suttas, the state of the mental faculties is visible through its effect on firstly the countenance (mukhavaṇṇo), and secondly, the complexion (chavivaṇṇo):

1) Moggallāna, friend, your [mental] faculties are serene, your countenance is pure and bright. Venerable MahāMoggallāna surely spent today in a peaceful abiding.

vippasannāni kho te āvuso moggallāna indriyāni parisuddho mukhavaṇṇo pariyodāto santena nūnāyasmā mahāmoggallāno ajja vihārena vihāsī ti. (SN ii 275)

2) King Mahāsudassana’s [mental] faculties are serene, his complexion is pure and bright. May indeed he not be dead!

vippasannāni kho rañño mahāsudassanassa indriyāni parisuddho chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto mā heva kho rājā mahāsudassano kālamakāsī ti. (DN ii 190)

Linking vippasannāni indriyāni to citta: the Kāmada Sutta

Although many suttas support our rendering, irrefutable support comes from the dialogue in the Kāmada Sutta, where indriyūpasame is linked to citta, as follows:

[The young deva Kāmada:]

• ‘That is hard to compose, Blessed One, namely, the mind.’

Dussamādahaṁ bhagavā yadidaṁ cittan ti.

[The Blessed One:]

‘They compose even what is hard to compose, those who delight in calming the [mental] faculties.’

Dussamādahaṁ vāpi samādahanti indriyūpasame ratā. (SN i 48)

Illustrations

Illustration: vippasannāni indriyāni, serene [mental] faculties

It is astounding and extraordinary, Master Gotama, how serene are Master Gotama’s [mental] faculties, and how pure and bright is his complexion. Just as in autumn a yellow jujube fruit is pure and bright, so Master Gotama’s [mental] faculties are serene and his complexion is pure and bright.

Acchariyaṁ bho gotama abbhutaṁ bho gotama yāvañcidaṁ bhoto gotamassa vippasannāni indriyāni parisuddho chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto. Seyyathā pi bho gotama sāradaṁ badarapaṇḍu parisuddhaṁ hoti pariyodātaṁ. Evameva bhoto gotamassa vippasannāni indriyāni parisuddho chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto. (AN i 181)

Illustration: vippasannāni indriyāni, serene [mental] faculties

In one who is dead and passed away, his activities of body, speech, and mind have ceased and are quelled, his vitality is destroyed, his bodily warmth has dissipated, and his [mental] faculties are broken up.

Yvāyaṁ gahapati mato kālakato tassa kāyasaṅkhāro niruddho paṭippassaddho vacīsaṅkhāro niruddho paṭippassaddho cittasaṅkhāro niruddho paṭippassaddho āyu parikkhīṇaṁ usmā vūpasantā indriyāni viparibhinnāni

In one who has attained the ending of perception and sense impression his activities of body, speech, and mind have ceased and are quelled, his vitality is not destroyed, his bodily warmth has not dissipated, and his [mental] faculties are serene.

yo ca khvāyaṁ gahapati bhikkhu saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ samāpanno tassapi kāyasaṅkhāro niruddho paṭippassaddho vacīsaṅkhāro niruddho paṭippassaddho cittasaṅkhāro niruddho paṭippassaddho āyu aparikkhīṇaṁ usmā avupasantā indriyāni vippasannāni. (SN iv 294)

indriyāni vippasidiṁsū

indriyāni vippasidiṁsū: (main article see: vippasannāni indriyāni)

Illustration: indriyāni vippasidiṁsū, [mental] faculties were serene

Then Venerable approached the Blessed One, venerated him, and sat down at a respectful distance. Sitting there, he told the Blessed One:

‘Shortly after the Blessed One’s departure, Venerable Phagguṇa died. At the time of his death his [mental] faculties were serene.’

āyasmā bhante phagguṇo acirapakkantassa bhagavato kālamakāsi. Tamhi cassa samaye maraṇakāle indriyāni vippasidiṁsūti.

‘Why, Ananda, shouldn't the bhikkhu Phagguna's [mental] faculties have been serene? Though his mind was not yet liberated from the five ties to individual existence in the low plane of existence, when he heard that religious discourse, his mind was liberated from them.’

Kiṁ hānanda phagguṇassa bhikkhuno indriyāni nappasīdissanti phagguṇassa ānanda bhikkhuno pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṁyojanehi cittaṁ avimuttaṁ ahosi. Tassa taṁ dhammadesanaṁ sutvā pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṁyojanehi cittaṁ vimuttaṁ. (AN iii 380-1)

santindriyaṁ

santindriyaṁ: (main article see: vippasannāni indriyāni)

Illustration: santindriyaṁ, peaceful [mental] faculties

You will see the Blessed One

dakkhissasi tvaṁ soṇa taṁ bhagavantaṁ

who is beautifully behaved, faith inspiring,

who has peaceful [mental] faculties and a peaceful mind,

santindriyānaṁ

santindriyānaṁ: (main article see: vippasannāni indriyāni)

Illustration: santindriyānaṁ, peaceful [mental] faculties

When you have peaceful [mental] faculties and peaceful minds, your bodily conduct will be peaceful, your verbal conduct will be peaceful, and your mental conduct will be peaceful.

Santindriyānaṁ hi vo sāriputta santamānasānaṁ santaṁ yeva kāyakammaṁ bhavissati santaṁ vacīkammaṁ santaṁ manokammaṁ. (AN i 65)

samāhitindriyo

samāhitindriyo: (main article see: vippasannāni indriyāni)

Illustration: samāhitindriyo, [mental] faculties collected

One whose [mental] faculties are collected

indriyāni samathaṁ gatāni

indriyāni samathaṁ gatāni: (main article see: vippasannāni indriyāni)

Illustration: indriyāni samathaṁ gatāni, [mental] faculties calmed

Mine are the [mental] faculties which have been calmed like horses well-tamed by a handler.

Mayhindriyāni samathaṁ gatāni assā yathā sārathinā sudantā. (Tha 206)

vimutti

vimutta

Renderings

Correcting the texts

On reading vimuccati as adhimuccati

Both VRI and BJT Pāli editions agree that the word sequence cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati is followed by either vimuccati or adhimuccati. In every case we prefer adhimuccati. The commentaries support us in two cases. The readings are as follows:

Horner vs. Trenkner

Concerning the occurrence at MN i 435, Horner praises the reading pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati, saying:

• ‘The compilers were right to vary the last of the four verbs.’

However, she admits that in saying so she contradicts Trenkner, who ‘says he should have adopted’ adhimuccati.

Bodhi: adhimuccati ‘makes better sense’

Bodhi supports Trenckner. In two notes to the Aṅguttara references he says:

  • ‘Though all three editions here read vimuccati, Mp glosses the word with adhimuccati. The latter makes better sense to me. The manuscript traditions, as well as printed editions, show irregular variations between these two readings throughout the Nikāyas.’ (note to AN iii 245, NDB n.1206).
  • Mp glosses vimuccati here as “liberated from the opposing qualities” (paccanlkadhammehi ca vimuccati). Since all three editions, with the support of Mp, have vimuccati, I translate in conformity with this reading, but I think it likely that the original reading was adhimuccati, “resolved upon” or “focused on.” As the text unfolds with respect to the successive meditative attainments, in each case the bodhisatta is vimuccati/adhimuccati upon the attainment before he actually achieves it. In such a context being “focused on” rather than “liberated in” makes better sense (note to AN iv 439, NDB n.1943).

Conclusion

At all references we follow Trenckner and Bodhi, reading adhimuccati.

Liberation (from specified objects)

The vimuccati cognates: specified object

The vimuccati cognates are associated with various specified objects. For example:

1) Vimuccituṁ: to be liberated (from all originated phenomena)

It is time enough, bhikkhus, to be disillusioned with all originated phenomena, to be unattached to them, to be liberated from them.

Yāvañcidaṁ bhikkhave alameva sabbasaṅkhāresu nibbindituṁ alaṁ virajjituṁ alaṁ vimuccituṁ. (SN ii 191)

2) Vimutto, liberated (from being reckoned)

The Perfect One is liberated from being reckoned in terms of bodily form… field of sensation, Vaccha, he is profound, immeasurable, unfathomable like the ocean

Rūpasaṅkhāvimutto… Viññāṇasaṅkhāvimutto kho vaccha tathāgato gambhīro appameyyo duppariyogāho seyyathā pi mahāsamuddo. (MN i 488)

3) Vimuttan, liberated (from āsavas)

Through being without grasping his mind was liberated from perceptually obscuring states

anupādāya āsavehi cittaṁ vimuttan ti. (MN iii 30)

Vimuccati means ‘to be liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]’

Where there is no specified object, we render vimutta / vimutti with parenthesis: liberated/liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]. These next two quotes support the parenthesis:

1) For him thus knowing and seeing, his mind is liberated from perceptually obscuring states due to pursuing sensuous pleasure, liberated from perceptually obscuring states due to pursuing individual existence, and liberated from perceptually obscuring states due to uninsightfulness into reality. Being liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], the knowledge arises that he is [thus] liberated.

Tassa evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati. Vimuttasmiṁ vimuttami ti ñāṇaṁ hoti. (MN i 183-4)

2) This is the first occasion of liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] in which, for a bhikkhu abiding diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice], his unliberated mind is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], his undestroyed perceptually obscuring states are destroyed, the unreached safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence] is reached.

Idaṁ bhikkhave paṭhamaṁ vimuttāyatanaṁ yattha bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ vimuccati aparikkhīṇā vā āsavā parikkhayaṁ gacchanti ananuppattaṁ vā anuttaraṁ yogakkhemaṁ anupāpuṇāti. (AN iii 21)

Temporary liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]

Introduction

Vimutti/vimutta sometimes mean ‘temporarily liberated,’ and are then often called sāmayikaṁ vimuttiṁ or samayavimutta. Sometimes this needs parenthesising, as in two of the following illustrations.

vimuttiṁ

vimuttiṁ: (main article see: vimutta)

Illustration: vimuttiṁ, liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]

It is an impossibility for one who who takes delight in company to obtain [even] temporary liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

Aṭṭhānataṁ saṅgaṇikāratassa yaṁ phassaye sāmayikaṁ vimuttiṁ. (Snp 54; MN iii 110)

Comment:

The following quote shows that ‘temporary liberation’ means attaining the jhānas:

• Indeed, Ānanda, there is no possibility that a bhikkhu who finds enjoyment in company… can be one who attains at will, without trouble, without difficulty, that which is the pleasure of the practice of unsensuousness, the pleasure of physical seclusion, the pleasure of inward peace, the pleasure of enlightenment.

So vatānanda bhikkhu saṅgaṇikārāmo… yaṁ taṁ nekkhammasukhaṁ pavivekasukhaṁ upasamasukhaṁ sambodhasukhaṁ tassa sukhassa nikāmalābhī bhavissati akicchalābhī akasiralābhīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (MN iii 110)

vimuttassa

vimuttassa: (main article see: vimutta)

Illustration: vimuttassa, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

Five thing lead to the falling away [from spiritually wholesome factors] of a bhikkhu who is temporarily liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]:

Pañcime bhikkhave dhammā samayavimuttassa bhikkhuno parihānāya saṁvattanti. Katame pañca:

Being given to the enjoyment of work, talk, sleep, company, and not reviewing the extent to which his mind is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

Kammārāmatā bhassārāmatā niddārāmatā saṅgaṇikārāmatā yathāvimuttaṁ cittaṁ na paccavekkhati. (AN iii 173)

vimuttaṁ

vimuttaṁ: (main article see: vimutta)

Illustration: vimuttaṁ, [temporarily] liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

My mind is [temporarily] liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]. I have abolished lethargy and torpor and thoroughly dispelled restlessness and anxiety. My energy is aroused. I pay attention as a matter of vital concern, not sluggishly.

cittañca me suvimuttaṁ thīnamiddhañca me susamūhataṁ. Uddhacca kukkuccañca me suppaṭivinītaṁ. Āraddhañca me viriyaṁ aṭṭhikatvā manasikaromi no ca līnan ti. (SN v 76-7)

Comment:

Because this seems not to be the practice of the arahant, we parenthesise ‘temporarily.’

suvimuttaṁ

suvimuttaṁ: (main article see: vimutta)

Illustration: suvimuttaṁ, [temporarily] liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

And how, Kuṇḍaliya, is restraint of the sense faculties [from grasping, through mindfulness] developed and cultivated so that it brings to perfection the three kinds of good conduct?

Kathaṁ bhāvito ca kuṇḍaliya indriyasaṁvaro kathaṁ bahulīkato tīṇi sucaritāni paripūreti?

In this regard, Kuṇḍaliya, seeing a pleasing visible object via the visual sense, a bhikkhu does not long for it or get excited by it or become attached to it.

Idha kuṇḍaliya bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā manāpaṁ nābhijjhati nābhihaṁsati na rāgaṁ janeti

His body is steady and his mind is steady, inwardly settled and [temporarily] liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

tassa ṭhito ca kāyo hoti ṭhitaṁ cittaṁ ajjhattaṁ susaṇṭhitaṁ suvimuttaṁ

In seeing a displeasing visible object via the visual sense, he is not disconcerted by it, not daunted, not dejected, free of ill will.

cakkhunā kho paneva rūpaṁ disvā amanāpaṁ na maṅku hoti apatitthinacitto adīnamanaso avyāpannacetaso.

His body is steady and his mind is steady, inwardly settled and [temporarily] liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

Tassa ṭhito ca kāyo hoti ṭhitaṁ cittaṁ ajjhattaṁ susaṇṭhitaṁ suvimuttaṁ. (SN v 74)

Comment:

Because this seems not to be the practice of the arahant, we parenthesise ‘temporarily.’

cetovimuttiṁ

cetovimuttiṁ: (main article see: vimutta)

Illustration: cetovimuttiṁ, liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]

Then Venerable Godhika, abiding diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice] attained temporary liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]. But then Venerable Godhika fell away from that temporary liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

Atha kho āyasmā godhiko appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto sāmayikaṁ cetovimuttiṁ phusi. Atha kho āyasmā godhiko tāya sāmayikāya cetovimuttiyā parihāyi. (SN i 120)

Comment:

We discuss cetovimutti sv Cetovimutti, but include this well-known quote to show how cetovimutti and vimutti are sometimes synonyms. Just as vimutti can be temporary, so can cetovimutti.

Perpetual liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]

Introduction: asamayavimutti

When vimutti is ‘perpetual’ it is sometimes designated as such (asamayavimutti) and is then equivalent to perpetual vimokkha:

• Being diligently applied [to the practice], he attains perpetual deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states] (asamayavimokkhaṁ ārādheti). And it is impossible for that bhikkhu to fall away from that perpetual liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] (asamayavimuttiyā parihāyetha).

Appamatto samāno asamayavimokkhaṁ ārādheti. Aṭṭhānametaṁ bhikkhave anavakāso yaṁ so bhikkhu tāya asamayavimuttiyā parihāyetha. (MN i 197)

In the quote above, even though asamayavimuttiyā has no designated object, other suttas say that āsavas (perceptually obscuring states) are the object. For example, in the following quote vimuttacitto is defined as cittaṁ virajjati vimuccati anupādāya āsavehi.

kathañca sāriputta vimuttacitto hoti</div>

… In this regard a bhikkhu abides contemplating the nature of the body, vigorously, fully consciously, and mindfully, having eliminated greed and dejection in regard to the world [of phenomena]. As he abides contemplating the nature of the body his mind is unattached [to originated phenomena], it is liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping (cittaṁ virajjati vimuccati anupādāya āsavehi).

Idha sāriputta bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ tassa kāye kāyānupassino viharato cittaṁ virajjati vimuccati anupādāya āsavehi. (SN v 158)

Thus when vimutta has no specified object, its object is ‘perceptually obscuring states’ (āsavas).

Introduction: three synonymous formulations

Liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] is stated in three ways, namely, with reference to the following liberated agents:

1) the stream of consciousness (viññāṇa).

2) a bhikkhu’s mind (citta).

3) a bhikkhu (bhikkhu)

We illustrate this in three paragraphs:

1) Liberation of the stream of consciousness (viññāṇa)

Bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu has abandoned attachment to bodily form, with the abandonment of attachment the basis is removed: there is no establishment of his stream of consciousness.

Rūpadhātuyā ce bhikkhave bhikkhuno rāgo pahīno hoti rāgassa pahānā vocchijjatārammaṇaṁ patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa na hoti

If he has abandoned attachment

  • to the phenomenon of sense impression…
  • to the phenomenon of perception…
  • to the phenomenon of mental factors…
  • to the phenomenon of fields of sensation,

with the abandonment of attachment the basis is removed: there is no establishment of his stream of consciousness.

vedanādhātuyā .. saññādhātuyā… saṅkhāradhātuyā… viññāṇadhātuyā ce bhikkhave bhikkhunā rāgo pahīno hoti. Rāgassa pahānā vocchijjatārammaṇaṁ patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa na hoti

When the stream of consciousness is unestablished, not [egoistically] matured, without the performance of [karmically consequential deeds], it is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

tadappatiṭṭhitaṁ viññāṇaṁ avirūḷhaṁ anabhisaṅkhacca vimuttaṁ. (SN iii 53)

2) Liberation of a bhikkhu’s mind (cittaṁ)

If a bhikkhu’s mind is unattached to bodily form… the fields of sensation, it is liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping.

Rūpadhātuyā… viññāṇadhātuyā ce bhikkhave bhikkhuno cittaṁ virattaṁ vimuttaṁ hoti anupādāya āsavehi. (SN iii 45)

3) Liberation of a bhikkhu

In this regard, having seen any kind of bodily form… field of sensation according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment as “not [in reality] mine,” “not [in reality] what I am,” “not my [absolute] Selfhood,” a bhikkhu is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through being without grasping.

Idha aggivessana bhikkhu yaṁ kiñci rūpaṁ atītānāgata paccuppannaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā yaṁ dūre sannike vā sabbaṁ rūpaṁ n’etaṁ mama n’eso’hamasmi na me so attā ti evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā anupādā vimutto hoti.

Yā kāci vedanā… saññā… saṅkhārā… viññāṇaṁ…. (MN i 235)

suvimutta

suvimutta: (main article see: vimutta)

Illustration: suvimutta, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

Householder, in regards to bodily form… fields of sensation

Rūpadhātuyā… Viññāṇadhātuyā kho gahapati

… through the destruction, fading away, ending, giving up, and relinquishment of fondness, attachment, spiritually fettering delight, craving, clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification

yo chando yo rāgo yā nandi yā taṇhā ye upayupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā tesaṁ khayā virāgā nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā

… one’s mind is said to be liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

cittaṁ suvimuttan ti vuccati. (SN iii 13)

Comment:

Chando, rāgo etc are therefore perceptually obscuring states (āsavas).

Illustration: suvimutta, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

He should overcome attachment to forms, sounds, tastes, smells, and tangible objects.

Rūpesu saddesu atho rasesu gandhesu phassesu sahetha rāgaṁ

Through eliminating his fondness for these things, the bhikkhu, being mindful, is one whose mind is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

Etesu dhammesu vineyya chandaṁ bhikkhu satimā suvimuttacitto. (Snp 974-5)

Comment:

Chanda is a therefore perceptually obscuring state (āsava).

suvimuttaṁ

suvimuttaṁ: (main article see: vimutta)

Illustration: suvimuttaṁ, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

In what way is a bhikkhu’s mind liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu suvimuttacitto hoti:

In this regard a bhikkhu’s mind is liberated from

• attachment

rāgā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ hoti

• hatred

dosā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ hoti

• undiscernment of reality

mohā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ hoti. (AN v 31)

Comment:

Rāgā, dosā, and mohā are therefore perceptually obscuring states (āsavas).

Illustration: suvimutta, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

In what way is a bhikkhu one who knows that his mind is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu suvimuttapañño hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu

In this regard a bhikkhu knows that his

  • attachment
  • hatred
  • undiscernment of reality

is abandoned, chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, never to arise again in future.

rāgo… doso… moho me pahīno ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṁkato āyatiṁ anuppādadhammoti pajānāti. (AN v 32)

Comment:

Rāgā, dosā, and mohā are therefore perceptually obscuring states (āsavas).

suvimuttan

suvimuttan: (main article see: vimutta)

Illustration: suvimuttan, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

With the destruction of spiritually fettering delight and attachment one’s mind is said to be liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

nandirāgakkhayā cittaṁ suvimuttan ti vuccati. (SN iv 142)

Comment:

Nandirāga are therefore perceptually obscuring states (āsavas).

vimutto

vimutto: (main article see: vimutta)

Illustration: vimutto, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

And what is the individual liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] both through [penetrative discernment and through attaining the immaterial states of awareness]?

Katamo ca bhikkhave puggalo ubhatobhāgavimutto

In this regard, some person abides touching with his very being those immaterial states of awareness, those peaceful states of refined awareness that transcend the refined material states of awareness, and by seeing [reality] with penetrative discernment, his perceptually obscuring states are destroyed.

idha bhikkhave ekacco puggalo ye te santā vimokkhā atikkamma rūpe āruppā te kāyena phassitvā viharati paññāya cassa disvā āsavā parikkhīṇā honti. (MN i 477-9)

Comment:

Vimutto thus means āsavā parikkhīṇā honti.

vimutti

vimutti: (main article see: vimutta)

Illustration: vimutti, liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]

Through proper contemplation, through proper and right inward striving, I attained and realised the unsurpassed liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

mayhaṁ kho bhikkhave yoniso manasikārā yoniso sammappadhānā anuttarā vimutti anuppattā anuttarā vimutti sacchikatā. (Vin.1.22; SN i 105)

Illustration: vimutto, liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], permanently

A bhikkhu who is permanently liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] does not see in himself anything still to be done inwardly, or any need to increase what has been done.

bhikkhu asamayavimutto karaṇīyaṁ attano na samanupassati katassa vā paṭicayaṁ. (AN v 336)

vimuttiñāṇadassana

Renderings

Introduction

Vimuttiñāṇadassana: finding the connective

Vimuttiñāṇadassana is usually translated with the connective ‘of’:

  • ‘the knowledge and vision of liberation’ (Bodhi, AN v 3)
  • the knowledge and vision of freedom (Horner, MN i 146).

But the suttas do not say that liberation is associated with knowledge ‘of’ liberation. They say that following liberation, the bhikkhu has the knowledge ‘that’ he is liberated, and ‘that’ birth is destroyed etc.:

• Being liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], the knowledge arises that he is [thus] liberated. He knows that birth is destroyed; the religious life has been fulfilled; what had to be done has been done; there will be no further arising in any state of individual existence.

Vimuttasmiṁ vimuttami ti ñāṇaṁ hoti. Khīṇā jāti vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ nāparaṁ itthattāyā ti pajānāti. (MN iii 108)

Vimutti equals āsavakkhaya

We have shown (sv Vimutta) that vimutta / vimutti should be parenthesised: liberated/liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]. We used this quote to demonstrate this:

• For him thus knowing and seeing, his mind is liberated from perceptually obscuring states due to pursuing sensuous pleasure, liberated from perceptually obscuring states due to pursuing individual existence, and liberated from perceptually obscuring states due to uninsightfulness into reality. Being liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], the knowledge arises that he is [thus] liberated.

Tassa evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati. Vimuttasmiṁ vimuttami ti ñāṇaṁ hoti. (MN i 183-4)

In other words, vimutti equals āsavakkhaya, as further indicated in this quote:

• This is the first occasion of liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] in which, for a bhikkhu abiding diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice], his unliberated mind is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], his undestroyed perceptually obscuring states are destroyed, the unreached safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence] is reached.

Idaṁ bhikkhave paṭhamaṁ vimuttāyatanaṁ yattha bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ vimuccati aparikkhīṇā vā āsavā parikkhayaṁ gacchanti ananuppattaṁ vā anuttaraṁ yogakkhemaṁ anupāpuṇāti. (AN iii 21)

Vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandha implies multiplicity

Vimuttiñāṇadassana is one of the five aggregates that should be realised for oneself:

Katame pañca dhammā sacchikātabbā? Pañca dhammakkhandhā: sīlakkhandho samādhikkhandho paññākkhandho vimuttikkhandho vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandho. (DN iii 279)

Following his enlightenment, the Buddha said that he sought to perfect each of these five aggregates. For example, he said:

• It would be for the sake of fulfilling the unfulfilled aggregate of the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] that I would honour, respect, and dwell under another ascetic or brahman in spiritual discipleship. But I do not see another ascetic or brahman in the world [of beings] with its devas, māras, and brahmās, in the world of mankind with its ascetics and Brahmanists, its royalty and commoners who is more perfect that I in the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] that I could honour, respect, and dwell under in spiritual discipleship.

aparipuṇṇassa kho vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandhassa pāripuriyā aññaṁ samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā sakkatvā garukatvā upanissāya vihareyyaṁ. na kho panāhaṁ passāmi sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya attanā vimutti ñāṇadassanasampannataraṁ aññaṁ samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā yamahaṁ sakkatvā garukatvā upanissāya vihareyyaṁ. (SN i 139)

If vimuttiñāṇadassana is an aggregate, it is a group of knowledges. It cannot be simply ‘knowledge and vision of liberation.’

Vimuttiñāṇadassana before enlightenment

Vimuttiñāṇadassana is usually associated with arahants. However, the Buddha’s question to the unenlightened Ānanda indicates that it may be operative even before enlightenment:

• ‘Why, Ānanda, when Sāriputta passed away, did he take away your aggregate of virtuous practices, inward collectedness, penetrative discernment, liberation [from perceptually obscuring states], and the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]?’ ‘No, bhante.’

Kinnu kho te ānanda sāriputto sīlakkhandhaṁ vā ādāya parinibbuto samādhikkhandhaṁ vā ādāya parinibbuto paññākkhandhaṁ vā ādāya parinibbuto vimuttikkhandhaṁ vā ādāya parinibbuto vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandhaṁ vā ādāya parinibbuto ti? Na kho me bhante. (SN v 162)

Although the destruction of perceptually obscuring states (āsavakkhaya) is prominently associated with arahantship, āsavas are in fact destroyed from stream-entry onwards. The three types of individuals who are at least stream-enterers but not arahants are called kāyasakkhī, diṭṭhappatto and saddhāvimutto. The Kīṭāgiri Sutta (MN i 438) says that for each of these individuals some of his perceptually obscuring states are destroyed (ekacce āsavā parikkhīṇā honti). Therefore vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandha likely begins at stream-entry. Before stream-entry, no perceptually obscuring states are destroyed (āsavā aparikkhīṇā honti, MN i 479).

The knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]: further aspects

If vimuttiñāṇadassana is an aggregate, then it has various of its aspects of knowledge that become apparent to an arahant, and perhaps even before that. We have already noted various instances of knowledge in this quote:

• Being liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], the knowledge arises that he is [thus] liberated. He knows that birth is destroyed; the religious life has been fulfilled; what had to be done has been done; there will be no further arising in any state of individual existence.

Vimuttasmiṁ vimuttami ti ñāṇaṁ hoti. Khīṇā jāti vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ nāparaṁ itthattāyā ti pajānāti. (MN iii 108)

Other instances of knowledge are given as the conclusion of other suttas:

1) He knows that birth is destroyed; the religious life has been fulfilled; what had to be done has been done; there will be no further arising in any state of individual existence. This, too, is called a footprint of the Perfect One, a scratch mark of the Perfect One, a tusk slash of the Perfect One. And it is not until this point that a noble disciple can come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is perfectly enlightened; the teaching is well explained by the Blessed One; the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the excellent practice.

Khīṇā jāti vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ nāparaṁ itthattāyāti pajānāti. Idampi vuccati brāhmaṇa tathāgatapadaṁ iti pi tathāgatanisevitaṁ iti pi tathāgatārañjitaṁ itipi. Ettāvatā kho brāhmaṇa ariyasāvako niṭṭhaṁ gato hoti sammāsambuddho bhagavā svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho ti. (MN i 183-4)

2) He knows that birth is destroyed; the religious life has been fulfilled; what had to be done has been done; there will be no further arising in any state of individual existence.

Tassa evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati. Vimuttasmiṁ vimuttami ti ñāṇaṁ hoti. Khīṇā jāti vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ nāparaṁ itthattāyā ti pajānāti.

He knows that whatever states of suffering there are because of perceptual obscuration due to pursuing sensuous pleasure, of perceptual obscuration due to pursuing individual existence, and of perceptual obscuration due to uninsightfulness into reality, are absent. And there is only this amount of suffering, namely what is connected with the six senses which are dependent on the body and have life as their necessary condition.

So evaṁ pajānāti ye assu darathā kāmāsavaṁ paṭicca tedha na santi ye assu darathā bhavāsavaṁ paṭicca tedha na santi ye assu darathā avijjāsavaṁ paṭicca tedha na santi atthi cevāyaṁ darathamattā yadidaṁ imameva kāyaṁ paṭicca saḷāyatanikaṁ jīvitapaccayā ti.

He knows that “This state of perception is void of perceptual obscuration due to pursuing sensuous pleasure, of perceptual obscuration due to pursuing individual existence, and of perceptual obscuration due to uninsightfulness into reality. And there is just this state which is not absent, namely what is connected with the six senses which are dependent on the body and have life as their necessary condition. He regards it as void of whatever is not there. Of the remainder, he discerns: “That [absence] being, this [relative voidness] is.” This is for him the undistorted, pure, supreme, unsurpassed realisation of [the perception of] [relative] voidness according to reality.

So suññamidaṁ saññāgataṁ kāmāsavenā ti pajānāti suññamidaṁ saññāgataṁ bhavāsavenā ti pajānāti suññamidaṁ saññāgataṁ avijjāsavenā ti pajānāti atthi cevidaṁ asuññataṁ yadidaṁ imameva kāyaṁ paṭicca saḷāyatanikaṁ jīvitapaccayā ti. Iti yaṁ hi kho tattha na hoti tena taṁ suññaṁ samanupassati yaṁ pana tattha avasiṭṭhaṁ hoti taṁ santamidaṁ atthī ti pajānāti. Evam pi’ssa esā ānanda yathābhuccā avipallatthā parisuddhā paramānuttarā suññatāvakkanti bhavati. (MN iii 108)

Illustrations

vimuttiñāṇadassanaṁ

vimuttiñāṇadassanaṁ: (main article see: vimuttiñāṇadassana)

Illustration: vimuttiñāṇadassanaṁ, the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]

For one who is disillusioned [with originated phenomena] and unattached [to originated phenomena], there is no need to harbour the aspiration: ‘May I realise the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]’:

Nibbindassa bhikkhave virajjantassa na cetanāya karaṇīyaṁ vimuttiñāṇadassanaṁ sacchikaromī ti.

It is quite natural that one who is disillusioned [with originated phenomena] and unattached [to originated phenomena] will realise the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

Dhammatā esā bhikkhave yaṁ nibbiṇṇo viratto vimuttiñāṇadassanaṁ sacchikaroti. (AN v 3)

Illustration: vimuttiñāṇadassanaṁ, the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]

Talk about liberation [from perceptually obscuring states], talk about the knowledge and vision that follows liberation [from perceptually obscuring states], he thinks: 'I will utter speech like this.'

vimuttikathā vimuttiñāṇadassanakathā iti evarūpiṁ kathaṁ kathessāmīti. (MN iii 113)

vimokkha

Renderings

Introduction

Vimokkha: arahantship

Vimokkha occasionally means arahantship:

• This is the Deathless, namely the mind’s deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states] through being without grasping.

etaṁ amataṁ yadidaṁ anupādā cittassa vimokkho. (MN ii 265)

Sometimes this is called ‘perpetual’ and it is then equivalent to perpetual vimutti:

• Being diligently applied [to the practice], he attains perpetual deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states] (asamayavimokkhaṁ ārādheti). And it is impossible for that bhikkhu to fall away from that perpetual liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] (asamayavimuttiyā parihāyetha).

Appamatto samāno asamayavimokkhaṁ ārādheti. Aṭṭhānametaṁ bhikkhave anavakāso yaṁ so bhikkhu tāya asamayavimuttiyā parihāyetha. (MN i 197)

Cases where vimokkha is not perpetual will be presented below.

Vimokkha of arahantship: deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states]

Although in the cases mentioned, vimokkho has no specified object, the scriptures show that āsavas (perceptually obscuring states) are the object, therefore in English, that parenthesis should be used. For example, in this conversation:

• ’But, Sāriputta, if they were to ask you: ‘Sāriputta, friend, through what state of deliverance (kathaṁ vimokkhā) have you declared your [attainment of] arahantship (aññā vyākatā) thus: “I know that birth is destroyed; the religious life has been fulfilled; what had to be done has been done; there will be no further arising in any state of individual existence?” Being asked thus, how would you answer?’

• ’If they were to ask me this, bhante, I would answer thus: “Friends,

• through an internal deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states]

ajjhattavimokkhā khvāhaṁ āvuso

• through the destruction of all grasping

• I abide mindfully in such a way that perceptually obscuring states (āsavā) do not pursue me

tathā sato viharāmi yathā sataṁ viharantaṁ āsavā nānussavanti

• and I do not despise myself.”

attānañca nāvajānāmī ti

Being asked thus, bhante, I would answer in such a way.’

• ’Very good, Sāriputta! And this is another way of explaining in brief that same point

ayampi kho sāriputta pariyāyo etasseva atthassa saṅkhittena veyyākaraṇāya

• “I am not unsure about the perceptually obscuring states spoken of by the Ascetic

ye āsavā samaṇena vuttā tesvāhaṁ na kaṅkhāmi;

• I do not doubt they have been abandoned by me”

te me pahīṇāti na vicikicchāmī ti. (SN ii 54)

Vimokkha: eight states of refined awareness:

Vimokkha usually means the eight vimokkhas (aṭṭha vimokkhā). These correspond to the four jhānas, the four immaterial states and the ending of perception and sense impression (saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ).

‘Immaterial states’ (āruppā, DN iii 224) is the shorter term for ‘the immaterial states of awareness, those peaceful states of refined awareness that transcend the refined material states of awareness’ (santā vimokkhā atikkamma rūpe āruppā) (MN i 34).

The eight vimokkhas

Here we list the eight vimokkhas. We call vimokkha ‘state of refined awareness,’ and will explain this in due course.

There are eight states of refined awareness

Aṭṭhime bhikkhave vimokkhā katame aṭṭha:

1) Being in a refined material state of awareness, one sees visible objects. This is the first state of refined awareness

Rūpī rūpāni passati. Ayaṁ paṭhamo vimokkho.

2) Being in an immaterial state of awareness, one sees visible objects. This is the second state of refined awareness

Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati. Ayaṁ dutiyo vimokkho.

3) One is focused exclusively on the Exquisite. This is the third state of refined awareness

Subhanteva adhimutto hoti. Ayaṁ tatiyo vimokkho.

4) By completely transcending refined material states of awareness, with the vanishing of states of refined awareness involving physical sensation, not focusing upon states of refined awareness involving the external senses, one enters and abides in the state of awareness of boundless space where one perceives that space is boundless. This is the fourth state of refined awareness

Sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā ananto ākāso ti ākāsanañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ catuttho vimokkho.

5) By completely transcending the state of awareness of boundless space, one enters and abides in the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, where one perceives that consciousness is boundless. This is the fifth state of refined awareness

Sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma anantaṁ viññāṇan ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ pañcamo vimokkho.

6) By completely transcending the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, one enters and abides in the state of awareness of nonexistence, where one perceives that there is [nowhere] anything at all. This is the sixth state of refined awareness

Sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma natthi kiñcī ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ chaṭṭho vimokkho.

7) By completely transcending the state of awareness of nonexistence, one enters and abides in the state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception. This is the seventh state of refined awareness

Sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ sattamo vimokkho.

8) By completely transcending the state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception, one enters and abides in the ending of perception and sense impression. This is the eighth state of refined awareness

Sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma saññāvedayitaṁ nirodhaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ aṭṭhamo vimokkho ti. Ime kho bhikkhave aṭṭha vimokkhāti. (DN ii 71; DN ii 112; DN iii 262; DN iii 288; MN ii 13; AN iv 307)

The vimokkhās are ‘levels of refined awareness’: the Poṭṭhapāda Sutta

The Poṭṭhapāda Sutta shows why we call the eight vimokkhas ‘states of refined awareness’ (saññā), because this is the term it uses:

• Secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, he enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

So vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

… For him the mental imagery of previous sensuous pleasure ceases.

Tassa yā purimā kāmasaññā sā nirujjhati.

… And at that time there is a subtle but true perception of the rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]. He is one with a subtle but true perception of the rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Vivekajapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Vivekajapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññī yeva tasmiṁ samaye hoti.

… In this way one state of refined awareness arises through the training, and one state of refined awareness ceases through the training. And that is the training, said the Blessed One…

Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati. Sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayaṁ sikkhā ti bhagavā avoca…

… and so on, through the jhānas, up to the state of awareness of boundless consciousness (viññāṇañcāyatana). Then the sutta continues:

… Further, Poṭṭhapāda, by completely transcending the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, he enters and abides in the state of awareness of nonexistence, where one perceives that there is [nowhere] anything at all, and the previous subtle but true perception of the state of awareness of boundless consciousness ceases. And at that time there is a subtle but true perception of the state of awareness of nonexistence. He is one with a subtle but true perception of the state of awareness of nonexistence.

Puna ca paraṁ poṭṭhapāda bhikkhu sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma natthi kiñcī ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā viññāṇañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññā sā nirujjhati. Ākiñcaññāyatanasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Ākiñcaññāyatanasukhumasaccasaññiyeva tasmiṁ samaye hoti.

… In this way one state of refined awareness arises through the training, and one state of refined awareness ceases through the training. And that is the training, said the Blessed One.

Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati. Sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā ti bhagavā avoca.

… Poṭṭhapāda, once the bhikkhu is possessed of that preliminary state of refined awareness, he proceeds from stage to stage till he reaches the highest state of refined awareness.

Yato kho poṭṭhapāda bhikkhu idha sakasaññī hoti so tato amutra tato amutra anupubbena saññaggaṁ phusati.

… He attains to the ending [of originated phenomena].

So nirodhaṁ phusati.

And that, Poṭṭhapāda, is how the ending of successively refined states of refined awareness is attained in full consciousness.

Evaṁ kho poṭṭhapāda anupubbābhisaññānirodhasampajānasamāpatti hoti. (DN i 183-4)

Vimokkha: the Commentary

We will now discuss why vimokkhas are called ‘deliverances.’ This meaning is a mystery even to the Commentary, because it explains the vimokkhas as follows:

• ‘In what sense are they emancipations? In the sense of releasing. In what sense releasing? In the sense of thoroughly freeing from adverse qualities, and in the sense of thoroughly freeing through delight in the object. What is meant is [the mind's] occurrence on the object without constraint, free from worry, like a child sleeping on his father's lap, his body completely relaxed.’

Vimokkhāti kenaṭṭhena vimokkhā? Adhimuccanaṭṭhena. Ko panāyaṁ adhimuccanaṭṭho nāma? Paccanīkadhammehi ca suṭṭhu muccanaṭṭho ārammaṇe ca abhirativasena suṭṭhu muccanaṭṭho pituaṅke vissaṭṭhaṅgapaccaṅgassa dārakassa sayanaṁ viya aniggahitabhāvena nirāsaṅkatāya ārammaṇe pavattīti vuttaṁ hoti (tr. Bodhi, NDB n.1776).

But the ‘adverse qualities’ which are overcome by the eight vimokkhās are none other than the vimokkhās themselves. This is made clear in the Sambādha Sutta which we now consider.

Sambādha Sutta (AN iv 450): meaning of sambādho

The Sambādha Sutta states that the jhānas and immaterial states are sambādho. Ordinarily this word means ‘crowded,’ but in the figurative sense PED calls it ‘difficulty, trouble.’ In the Sambādha Sutta we accordingly render it as ‘trouble’ or ‘something troublesome’ or ‘what is troublesome,’ and the adjective as ‘troublesome.’

Sambādha Sutta: the troublesomeness of jhānas and immaterial states

The Sambādha Sutta concerns the deliverance from troublesome states of refined awareness through more refined states of refined awareness. Having considered this sutta, we will see that the eight vimokkhas are deliverances in the same sense.

The Sambādha Sutta is as follows:

The five varieties of sensuous pleasure are called inwardly troublesome by the Blessed One.

Ime kho āvuso pañcakāmaguṇā sambādho vutto bhagavatā.

… In this regard a bhikkhu, secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Idhāvuso bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

… It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified, because again there is something inwardly troublesome.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā pariyāyena. Tattha’patthi sambādho.

… What is troublesome in this case?

Kiñca tattha sambādho?

… The thinking and pondering that are unended is troublesome in this case.

Yadeva tattha vitakkavicārā aniruddhā honti ayamettha sambādho.

… Again, in this regard, with the subsiding of thinking and pondering, and [the development of] internal serenity and concentration, a bhikkhu enters and abides in second jhāna which is without thinking and pondering, and is filled with rapture and physical pleasure born of inward collectedness.

Puna ca paraṁ āvuso bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

… It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified, because again there is something inwardly troublesome.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā pariyāyena. Tattha’patthi sambādho.

… What is troublesome in this case?

Kiñca tattha sambādho?

… The rapture that is unended is troublesome in this case.

Yadeva tattha pīti aniruddhā hoti ayamettha sambādho.

… Again, in this regard, with the fading away of rapture, a bhikkhu abides serene, mindful, and fully conscious, experiencing physical pleasure. He enters and abides in third jhāna in which the Noble Ones declare that he abides serene, mindful, and in physical pleasure.

Puna ca paraṁ āvuso pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti yantaṁ ariyā ācikkhanti upekkhako satimā sukhavihārīti taṁ tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

… It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified, because again there is something inwardly troublesome.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā pariyāyena. Tattha’patthi sambādho.

… What is troublesome in this case?

Kiñca tattha sambādho?

… The serenity with physical pleasure that is unended is troublesome in this case.

Yadeva tattha upekkhāsukhaṁ aniruddhaṁ hoti ayamettha sambādho.

… Again, in this regard, with the abandonment of physical pleasure and pain, and following the vanishing of psychological pleasure and pain, a bhikkhu enters and abides in fourth jhāna, which is free of pleasure and pain, and [is imbued with] purified detached awareness and mindfulness.

Puna ca paraṁ āvuso bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

… It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified, because again there is something inwardly troublesome.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā pariyāyena. Tattha’patthi sambādho.

… What is troublesome in this case?

Kiñca tattha sambādho?

… The perception of the refined material states of awareness that is unended is troublesome in this case.

Yadeva tattha rūpasaññā aniruddhā hoti ayamettha sambādho.

… Again, in this regard, by completely transcending refined material states of awareness, with the vanishing of states of refined awareness involving physical sensation, not focusing upon states of refined awareness involving the external senses, a bhikkhu enters and abides in the state of awareness of boundless space where one perceives that space is boundless.

Puna ca paraṁ āvuso bhikkhu sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā ananto ākāso ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati.

… It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified, because again there is something inwardly troublesome.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā pariyāyena. Tattha’patthi sambādho.

… What is troublesome in this case?

Kiñca tattha sambādho?

… The perception of the state of awareness of boundless space that is unended is troublesome in this case.

Yadeva tattha ākāsānañcāyatanasaññā aniruddhā hoti. Ayamettha sambādho.

… Again, in this regard, by completely transcending the state of awareness of boundless space, a bhikkhu enters and abides in the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, where one perceives that consciousness is boundless.

Puna ca paraṁ āvuso bhikkhu sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma anantaṁ viññāṇan ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati.

… It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified, because again there is something inwardly troublesome.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā pariyāyena. Tattha’patthi sambādho.

… What is troublesome in this case?

Kiñca tattha sambādho?

… The perception of the state of awareness of boundless consciousness that is unended is troublesome in this case.

Yadeva tattha viññāṇañcāyatanasaññā aniruddhā hoti. Ayamettha sambādho.

… Again, in this regard, by completely transcending the state of awareness of boundless consciousness, a bhikkhu enters and abides in the state of awareness of nonexistence, where one perceives that there is [nowhere] anything at all.

Puna ca paraṁ āvuso bhikkhu sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma natthi kiñcīti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati.

… It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified, because again there is something inwardly troublesome.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā pariyāyena. Tattha’patthi sambādho.

… What is troublesome in this case?

Kiñca tattha sambādho?

… The perception of the state of awareness of nonexistence that is unended is troublesome in this case.

Yadeva tattha ākiñcaññāyatanasaññā aniruddhā hoti ayamettha sambādho.

… Again, in this regard, By completely transcending the state of awareness of nonexistence, a bhikkhu enters and abides in the state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception.

Puna ca paraṁ āvuso bhikkhu sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati.

… It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified, because again there is something inwardly troublesome.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā pariyāyena. Tattha’patthi sambādho.

… What is troublesome in this case?

Kiñca tattha sambādho?

… The perception of the state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception that is unended is troublesome in this case.

Yadeva tattha nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasaññā aniruddhā hoti ayamettha sambādho.

… Again, in this regard, by completely transcending the state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception, a bhikkhu enters and abides in the ending of perception and sense impression. And, by seeing [reality] with penetrative discernment, his perceptually obscuring states are destroyed

Puna ca paraṁ āvuso bhikkhu sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ upasampajja viharati. Paññāya cassa disvā āsavā parikkhīṇā honti.

… It is in reference to this that a deliverance from what is inwardly troublesome is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is unqualified.

Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso sambādhe okāsādhigamo vutto bhagavatā nippariyāyenāti. (AN iv 450-1)

What to call vimokkha?

The Sambādha Sutta concerns the deliverances from the troublesomeness associated with states of refined awareness by attaining more refined states of refined awareness. If the eight vimokkhas are considered deliverances in the same sense, it explains why they have been called deliverances. We will now discuss why we do not call them ‘deliverances,’ but instead call them ‘states of refined awareness.’

Let us first translate the list of vimokkhas as ‘deliverances [from troublesomeness through states of refined awareness],’ and we will see, and then resolve, the cumbersomeness it creates:

• There are eight deliverances [from troublesomeness through states of refined awareness].

Aṭṭhime bhikkhave vimokkhā katame aṭṭha:

1) Being in a refined material state of awareness, one sees visible objects. This is the first deliverance [from troublesomeness through states of refined awareness].

Rūpī rūpāni passati. Ayaṁ paṭhamo vimokkho.

2) Being in an immaterial state of awareness, one sees visible objects. This is the second deliverance [from troublesomeness through states of refined awareness].

Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati. Ayaṁ dutiyo vimokkho.

It is cumbersome to label vimokkha like this, and it adds nothing to the understanding of the text. Accordingly, we label vimokkha as ‘state of refined awareness.’ That is:

1) Being in a refined material state of awareness, one sees visible objects. This is the first state of refined awareness.

Rūpī rūpāni passati. Ayaṁ paṭhamo vimokkho.

2) Being in an immaterial state of awareness, one sees visible objects. This is the second state of refined awareness.

Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati. Ayaṁ dutiyo vimokkho.

Vimokkho cetaso: deliverance of his mind [from individual existence]

At the passing away of the Buddha, Venerable Anuruddha said:

• The deliverance of his mind [from individual existence] was like the quenching of a lamp

pajjotasseva nibbānaṁ vimokkho cetaso ahūti. (SN i 159)

Here we parenthesise ‘[from individual existence]’ because when the arahant dies, states of individual existence altogether cease:

• These two aspects of the Untroubled were made known by the Seer, free of attachment, and of excellent qualities.

Duve imā cakkhumatā pakāsitā
Nibbānadhātu anissitena tādinā

… One aspect is realisable in this lifetime, with residue, but with the conduit to renewed states of individual existence destroyed;

Ekā hi dhātu idha diṭṭhadhammikā
Saupādisesā bhavanettisaṅkhayā.

… The other, having no residue, is that wherein states of individual existence altogether cease.

Anupādisesā pana samparāyikā
Yamhi nirujjhanti bhavāni sabbaso. (Iti 38-9)

Illustrations

Illustration: vimokkha, states of refined awareness

The Perfect One discerns according to reality the attainment, the defilement, the purification and the emergence in regard to the jhānas, the states of refined awareness, and states of inward collectedness.

jhānavimokkhasamādhisamāpattīnaṁ saṅkilesaṁ vodānaṁ vuṭṭhānaṁ yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. (MN i 69-71)

vimokkhaṁ

vimokkhaṁ: (main article see: vimokkha)

Illustration: vimokkhaṁ, state of refined awareness

When someone attains the state of refined awareness that is exquisite, he knows that it is exquisite

yasmiṁ samaye subhaṁ vimokkhaṁ upasampajja viharati subhantveva tasmiṁ samaye pajānātī ti. (DN iii 34)

sāmiso vimokkho

sāmiso vimokkho: (main article see: vimokkha)

Illustration: sāmiso vimokkho, material state of refined awareness; nirāmiso vimokkho, immaterial state of refined awareness;

And what is the material state of refined awareness?

Katamo ca bhikkhave sāmiso vimokkho

The state of refined awareness connected with refined material states of awareness is the material state of refined awareness.

rūpapaṭisaṁyutto vimokkho sāmiso vimokkho.

And what is the immaterial state of refined awareness?

Katamo ca bhikkhave nirāmiso vimokkho:

The state of refined awareness connected with immaterial states of awareness is the immaterial state of refined awareness

arūpapaṭisaṁyutto vimokkho nirāmiso vimokkho

And what is the state of refined awareness more than immaterial?

Katamo ca bhikkhave nirāmisā nirāmisataro vimokkho.

When a bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed reviews his mind

yo kho bhikkhave khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno

• liberated from attachment

rāgā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ paccavekkhato

• liberated from hatred

dosaṁ cittaṁ vimuttaṁ paccavekkhato

• liberated from undiscernment of reality

mohā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ paccavekkhato

there arises in him a state of refined awareness

This is called the state of refined awareness more than immaterial

ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave nirāmisā nirāmisataro vimokkho ti. (SN iv 237)

vimokkhā

vimokkhā: (main article see: vimokkha)

Illustration: vimokkhā, states of refined awareness

A forest bhikkhu should endeavour [to attain] those immaterial states of awareness, those peaceful states of refined awareness that transcend the refined material states of awareness.

Āraññakenāvuso bhikkhunā ye te santā vimokkhā atikkamma rūpe āruppā tattha yogo karaṇīyo. (MN i 472)

vimokkho

vimokkho: (main article see: vimokkha)

Illustration: vimokkho, state of refined awareness

State of refined awareness (vimokkho) means:

• the state of refined awareness that is void [of the perception of personal qualities]

• the state of refined awareness that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena]

• the state of refined awareness that is void of aspiration

appaṇihito vimokkho. (Vin.3.92)

Illustration: vimokkhā, state of refined awareness

And what is the individual liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] both through [penetrative discernment and through attaining the immaterial states of awareness]?

Katamo ca bhikkhave puggalo ubhatobhāgavimutto

In this regard, some person abides touching with his very being those immaterial states of awareness, those peaceful states of refined awareness that transcend the refined material states of awareness, and by seeing [reality] with penetrative discernment, his perceptually obscuring states are destroyed.

idha bhikkhave ekacco puggalo ye te santā vimokkhā atikkamma rūpe āruppā te kāyena phassitvā viharati paññāya cassa disvā āsavā parikkhīṇā honti.

This is called an individual liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] both through [penetrative discernment and through attaining the immaterial states of awareness].

Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave puggalo ubhatobhāgavimutto. (MN i 477-9)

Illustration: vimokkho, deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states]

The deliverance of my mind [from individual existence] was like the quenching of the lamp.

padīpasseva nibbānaṁ vimokkho ahu cetaso. (Thi 116)

vimokkhāya

vimokkhāya: (main article see: vimokkha)

Illustration: vimokkhāya, deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states]

“Bhante, the bhikkhu Vakkali is intent upon deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states].”

vakkali bhante bhikkhu vimokkhāya cetetī ti.

The other deva said ‘Surely, bhante, he will be liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].’

Aparā devatā bhagavantaṁ etadavoca so hi nūna bhante suvimutto vimuccissatī ti (SN iii 121)

Illustration: vimokkho, deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states]

But if one profoundly understands what can be expressed, and does not think ‘I am the expressor.’

Akkheyyañca pariññāya akkhātāraṁ na maññati

The mind’s deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states] is achieved, the unsurpassed Peaceful State.

Phūṭṭho vimokkho manasā santipadamanuttaraṁ. (Iti 53)

Illustration: vimokkho, deliverance from perception

Being liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] through the highest deliverance from perception

Saññāvimokkhe parame vimutto. (Snp 1072)

COMMENT:

Saññāvimokkhe parame: ‘through the highest deliverance from perception.’ Although perception ceases with the ending of perception and sense impression (saññāvedayitaṁ nirodhaṁ), the ‘highest deliverance’ would be arahantship, which lies beyond it. This is confirmed by the statement ‘not subject to [renewed states of individual existence]’ in the next verse.

virājetvā

viratta

virajjati

Renderings

Introduction

Virajjati: to be unattached [to originated phenomena]

Often virajjati has an object:

• The Buddha is unattached to the world.

buddho loke virajjati. (AN iii 347)

Where it does not have an object we parenthesise ‘to originated phenomena’:

• Being disillusioned [with originated phenomena], he is unattached [to originated phenomena]. Being unattached [to originated phenomena], he is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

nibbindaṁ virajjati virāgā vimuccati. (MN iii 20)

This is accordance with our parenthesis of Nibbidā. See Glossary sv Nibbidā. It is also in accordance with other similar quotes:

• It is time enough, bhikkhus, to be disillusioned with all originated phenomena, to be unattached to them, to be liberated from them.

Yāvañcidaṁ bhikkhave alameva sabbasaṅkhāresu nibbindituṁ alaṁ virajjituṁ alaṁ vimuccituṁ. (SN ii 191)

Illustrations: virajjati

Illustration: virajjati, unattached

Seeing ‘I am not this, this is not mine,’ thus is one unattached in that respect.

N’eso’hamasmi n’etaṁ me evaṁ tattha virajjati. (SN i 112)

Illustration: virajjati, disgusted

He does not think he is spiritually purified by that means, namely [through further attachment to] what is seen, heard, sensed, [or cognised], nor does he want to be spiritually purified by means of further [attachment]. He is neither attached [to these things] nor disgusted [by them].

Dhono na hi tena maññati yadidaṁ diṭṭhasutaṁ mutesu vā
Nāññena visuddhimicchati na hi so rajjati no virajjatī ti. (Snp 813)

Comment:

‘He is neither attached [to these things] nor disgusted [by them].’ This continues a theme of Snp 811:

He does not hold anything as either beloved or unbeloved.

na piyaṁ kubbati no pi appiyaṁ. (Snp 811)

Illustration: virajjati, filled with disgust

Not infatuated with objects of pleasure, not given to arrogance, gentle, intuitively insightful, not credulous, not filled with disgust;

Sātiyesu anassāvī atimāne ca no yuto
Saṇho ca paṭibhānavā na saddho na virajjati. (Snp 853)

Illustrations: viratta

viratta

viratta: (main article see: virajjati)

Illustration: viratta, unattached

In seeing a visible object with mindfulness muddled, focusing on the agreeable aspect, one experiences it with a mind of attachment and persists in cleaving to it.

Rūpaṁ disvā sati muṭṭhā piyaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto
Sārattacitto vedeti tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati.

But

On seeing a visible object, one who is mindful is not attached to visible objects. He experiences it with an unattached attitude and does not persist in cleaving to it.

Na so rajjati rūpesu rūpaṁ disvā patissato
Virattacitto vedeti tañca nājjhosa tiṭṭhati. (SN iv 73-6)

virattaṁ

virattaṁ: (main article see: virajjati)

Illustration: virattaṁ, unattached

Who is unattached to things that are charming

Illustration: virattaṁ, unattached

If a bhikkhu’s mind is unattached to bodily form… the fields of sensation, it is liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping.

Rūpadhātuyā… viññāṇadhātuyā ce bhikkhave bhikkhuno cittaṁ virattaṁ vimuttaṁ hoti anupādāya āsavehi. (SN iii 45)

Illustration: viratta, unattached

Those whose minds are unattached to future individual existence.

Virattacittā āyatike bhavasmiṁ. (Snp 235)

Illustration: viratta, disgusted

Now at that time Nathaputta the Nigaṇṭha had just died at Pāvā. And at his death the Nigaṇṭhas divided into two parties, in mutual strife and conflict, quarrelling and wounding each other with their speech…

• Even the white-robed lay disciples were shocked, disgusted, and indignant at the Nigaṇṭhas.

ye pi nigaṇṭhassa nātaputtassa sāvakā gihī odātavasanā te tesu nigaṇṭhesu nātaputtiyesu nibbinnarūpā virattarūpā paṭivānarūpā. (DN iii 118)

Illustration: viratta, disgusted

Who, I wonder, has set me at odds with this family?

kosudāni maṁ imasmiṁ kule paribhindi

These men seem disgusted by me

virattarūpā’dāni me manussāti. (AN iv 87)

Illustration: viratta, disgusted

This householder Citta is now full of hatred. He has no regard for me. He is disgusted by me.

duṭṭho'dānāyaṁ citto gahapati anapekkho virattarūpo mayī ti. (Vin.2.16)

Illustrations: virājetvā

virājetvā

virājetvā: (main article see: virajjati)

Illustration: virājetvā, having detached

Having detached his mind from things that are charming

so rajanīyesu dhammesu cittaṁ virājetvā. (AN ii 196)

Illustration: virājetvā, having discarded

Five varieties of sensuous pleasure are taught in the world, with [sensuous pleasure of] the mind as sixth. Having discarded hankering for these, [the world of beings] is released from suffering.

Pañcakāmaguṇā loke manochaṭṭhā paveditā
Ettha chandaṁ virājetvā evaṁ dukkhā pamuccati. (Snp 171)

Illustration: virājetvā, having discarded

Having discarded fondness for individual existence you will live the religious life inwardly at peace.

Bhave chandaṁ virājetvā upasantā carissasī ti. (Thi 14)

Illustration: virājetvā, having discarded

Having discarded attachment to sensuous pleasure he reached the brahmā world.

Kāmarāgaṁ virājetvā brahmalokūpago ahu. (Snp 139)

Illustration: virājetvā, having discarded

Having discarded sensuous hankering for sensuous pleasures.

kāmesu kāmacchandaṁ virājetvā idhūpapannā ti. (DN ii 51)

virāga

Renderings

Introduction

Virāga: two meanings

Virāga has two broad meanings:

1) ‘Non-attachment,’ the opposite of attachment (rāga).

2) ‘Fading away’ or ‘passing away.’ Accordingly, PED says virāgin means ‘fading in colour’, and rāgavirāgin, ‘fading in the original dye’ (sv Virāgin).

Virāga without a specified object

Virāga commonly has no specified object. This same issue arises with nirodha, and has been discussed sv Nirodha, and we resolve it in the same way, namely, that ‘originated phenomena’ is taken as the object. Proof for this was given for nirodha, and we extend it here to virāga because of the common association of the two words, for example in this phrase:

• Destruction of craving, the passing away [of originated phenomena], the ending [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled.

taṇhakkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānaṁ. (AN iii 164)

We apply the same parenthesis where virāga means ‘non-attachment’:

• The black crow dwelling [and feasting] in its home in the charnel ground arouses mindfulness in me regarding the body that conduces to non-attachment [to originated phenomena].

Apaṇḍaro aṇḍasambhavo sīvathikāya niketacāriko uppādayātava me satiṁ sandehasmiṁ virāganissitaṁ. (Tha 599)

Association with nibbidā: non-attachment

When virāga is associated with nibbidā (‘disillusionment’), the context demands that is is rendered as ‘non-attachment’, not ‘fading or passing away’:

• If a bhikkhu is applying himself to disillusionment with old age and death, to non-attachment to it, and to the ending of it, he is fit to be called a bhikkhu who is practising in accordance with the teaching.

Jarāmaraṇassa ce bhikkhu nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti dhammānudhammapaṭipanno bhikkhū ti alaṁ vacanāya. (SN ii 18)

Otherwise, the context demands that is is rendered as ‘fading or passing away’ not ‘non-attachment.’ For example:

1) But with the complete fading away and ending of this craving comes the ending of grasping.

tassāyeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodhā upādānanirodho. (SN ii 73; SN iv 87)

2) With the destruction of all forms of craving comes the complete passing away and ending [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled.

sabbaso taṇhānaṁ khayā asesavirāganirodho nibbānaṁ. (Uda 32-3)

Virāga in mindfulness with breathing

In mindfulness with breathing virāga occurs without an object:

• I will breathe in… I will breathe out contemplating passing away.

virāgānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati

The discussion above would support this being parenthesised: ‘I will breathe in… I will breathe out contemplating the passing away [of originated phenomena].’ However, the object is already allocated in the Kimbila Sutta (SN v 325) and Ānāpānasati Sutta (MN iii 78):

• When a bhikkhu is training himself to breathe in and breathe out contemplating passing away, at that time he abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings.

Yasmiṁ samaye ānanda bhikkhu… virāgānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati virāgānupassī passasissāmī ti sikkhati… dhammesu dhammānupassī ānanda bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye viharati. (SN v 325)

‘The phrase should be parenthesised accordingly:

• I will breathe in… I will breathe out contemplating passing away [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings].

virāgānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati

The ‘objects of the systematic teachings’ are listed in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta:

• In this regard a bhikkhu abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings in respect of the five hindrances… the five aggregates… the six senses and their objects… the seven enlightenment factors… the four noble truths.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu… pañcasupādānakkhandhesu… chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu… sattasu bojjhaṅgesu… catusu ariyasaccesu. (MN i 59-62)

We discuss this same issue sv Paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati.

Virāga as adjective

Virāga as an adjective we say ‘evanescent’:

• Knowing bodily form to be powerless, evanescent, and unconsoling

rūpaṁ kho ahaṁ āvuso abalaṁ virāgaṁ anassāsikan ti viditvā. (MN iii 31)

Illustrations

virāgī

virāgī: (main article see: virāga)

Illustration: virāgī, fade away

Attachment is moderately blameworthy, and slow to fade away.

rāgo kho āvuso appasāvajjo dandhavirāgī

Hatred is very blameworthy, and quick to fade away.

doso mahāsāvajjo khippavirāgī

Undiscernment of reality is very blameworthy, and slow to fade away.

moho mahāsāvajjo dandhavirāgī ti. (AN i 200)

virāgaṁ

virāgaṁ: (main article see: virāga)

Illustration: virāgaṁ, fade away

And what are the varieties of suffering?

Katamā va bhikkhave dukkhassa vemattatā

• Suffering that is inordinate

atthi bhikkhave dukkhaṁ adhimattaṁ

• Suffering that is slight

• Suffering that fades away quickly

• Suffering that fades away slowly

virāgā

virāgā: (main article see: virāga)

Illustration: virāgā, fading away

With the fading away of rapture, a bhikkhu abides serene, mindful, and fully conscious, experiencing physical pleasure. He enters and abides in third jhāna in which the Noble Ones declare that he abides serene, mindful, and in physical pleasure.

Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī ti taṁ tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (DN iii 265)

virāgo

virāgo: (main article see: virāga)

Illustration: virāgo, fades away

When I confront the source of this suffering with effort, by confronting it with effort [the suffering] fades away.

imassa kho me dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṁ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti

When the source of this suffering is passively observed, through developing detached awareness, [the suffering] fades away.

imassa pana me dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṁ bhāvayato virāgo hotī ti. (MN ii 223)

Illustration: virāga, fading away

Therefore, with the destruction, fading away, ending, giving up, and relinquishment of all forms of craving the Perfect One has fully awakened to unsurpassed, complete enlightenment, I declare.

Tasmātiha bhikkhave tathāgato sabbaso taṇhānaṁ khayā virāgā nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho ti vadāmi. (MN i 5-6)

Illustration: virāga, fading away

Bhante, I understand the teaching to have been taught by the Blessed One for the fading away of attachment.

Rāgavirāgatthañca khvāhaṁ bhante bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmī ti. (SN iv 46-7)

Compare:

Therefore the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] is due to the fading away of attachment.

Iti kho bhikkhave rāgavirāgā cetovimutti

And the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment is due to the fading away of uninsightfulness into reality.

avijjāvirāgā paññāvimuttī ti. (AN i 61)

Illustration: virāga, fading away

For the fading away of attachment, two things should be developed. Which two? Inward calm and insightfulness.

Rāgassa bhikkhave virāgāya dve dhammā bhāvetabbā. Katame dve? Samatho ca vipassanā ca. (AN i 100)

Illustration: virāga, passing away

With the complete passing away and ending of the six senses comes the ending and subsiding of entrenched perception

channaṁ āvuso phassāyatanānaṁ asesavirāganirodhā papañcanirodho papañcavūpasamo ti. (AN ii 161)

virāgānupassī

virāgānupassī: (main article see: virāga)

Illustration: virāgānupassī, passing away

He abides contemplating unlastingness in relation to the body and pleasant sense impression

so kāye ca sukhāya ca vedanāya aniccānupassī viharati

• their disappearance

• their passing away

• their ending

• their relinquishment

Illustration: virāga, the passing away [of originated phenomena]

And what, Ānanda, is the perception of the passing away [of originated phenomena]. In this regard, Ānanda, a bhikkhu… contemplates thus: ‘This is peaceful, this is sublime, namely: the quelling of all originated phenomena, the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment, the destruction of craving, the passing away [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled.’

Katamācānanda virāgasaññā? Idhānanda bhikkhu… iti paṭisañcikkhati etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhakkhayo virāgo nibbānan ti. (AN v 110)

Illustration: virāga, the passing away [of originated phenomena]

Bhikkhus, I will teach you the passing away [of originated phenomena] and the path leading to the passing away [of originated phenomena]. Please listen.

Virāgañca vo bhikkhave desissāmi virāgagāmiñca maggaṁ taṁ suṇātha

What is the passing away [of originated phenomena]?

Katamañca bhikkhave virāgaṁ

The destruction of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality. This is called the passing away [of originated phenomena].

yo bhikkhave rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave virāgaṁ

What is the path leading to the passing away [of originated phenomena]. Mindfulness of the body.

Katamo ca bhikkhave virāgagāmī maggo? Kāyagatāsati. (SN iv 368-373)

Comment:

This chapter of the Saṁyutta Nikāya concerns synonyms of nibbāna, where virāga is not associated with nibbidā, so it is in accordance with the rule noted in the introduction to call this ‘passing away’ not ‘non-attachment.’

Illustration: virāgo, the passing away [of originated phenomena]

Of phenomena either originated or unoriginated

Yāvatā bhikkhave dhammā saṅkhatā vā asaṅkhatā vā

the passing away [of originated phenomena] is reckoned as best of them

virāgo tesaṁ dhammānaṁ aggamakkhāyati

in other words

• the quelling of exuberance

• the elimination of thirst

• the uprooting of clinging

• the curtailment of the round of rebirth

• the destruction of craving

• the passing away [of originated phenomena]

• the ending [of originated phenomena]

• the Untroubled

Comment:

Virāga is not associated here with nibbidā, so it is in accordance with the rule noted in the introduction to call this ‘passing away’ not ‘non-attachment.’ Virāga here is a synonym of nibbāna, as it also is in this quote:

• The destruction of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality. This is called the passing away [of originated phenomena].

yo bhikkhave rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave virāgaṁ. (SN iv 368-373)

Comment:

Note that virāgo (passing away [of originated phenomena]) at AN ii 34 runs parallel to rāgavirāgāya (‘fading away of attachment’) at Vin.3.20:

Is not, friend, the teaching explained in many ways by the Blessed One for the fading away of attachment?

Nanu āvuso bhagavatā anekapariyāyena rāgavirāgāya dhammo desito?

Is not the teaching explained for

• the quelling of exuberance

• the elimination of thirst

pipāsavinayāya. (Vin.3.20)

virāgadhammaṁ

virāgadhammaṁ: (main article see: virāga)

Illustration: virāgadhammaṁ, destined to pass away

Bodily form, Ānanda, is unlasting, originated, and dependently arisen. It is destined to be destroyed, to disappear, to pass away, to cease.

Rūpaṁ kho ānanda aniccaṁ saṅkhataṁ paṭiccasamuppannaṁ khayadhammaṁ vayadhammaṁ virāgadhammaṁ nirodhadhammaṁ. (SN iii 24)

Illustration: virāgadhammaṁ, destined to pass away

This [wretched human] body is perishable, bhikkhus; consciousness is destined to pass away;

Bhidurāyaṁ bhikkhave kāye viññāṇaṁ virāgadhammaṁ. (Iti 69)

virāgāya

virāgāya: (main article see: virāga)

Illustration: virāgāya, non-attachment

How do those who are clear-sighted see [the nature of reality]?

Kathañca bhikkhave cakkhumanto passanti?

In this regard a bhikkhu sees what is brought about as what is brought about

Idha bhikkhu bhūtaṁ bhūtato passati

Seeing it thus

bhūtaṁ bhūtato disvā

he applies himself to disillusionment with what is brought about, to non-attachment to what is brought about, and to the ending of what is brought about

bhūtassa nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti.

Thus do those who are clear-sighted see [the nature of reality]

evaṁ kho bhikkhave cakkhumanto ca passantī ti. (Iti 44)

Illustration: virāgāya, non-attachment

The noble disciple is indifferent to the visual sense of the past, he does not long for the visual sense of the future, he applies himself to disillusionment with the visual sense of the present, to non-attachment to it, and to the ending of it.

sutavā ariyasāvako atītasmiṁ cakkhusmiṁ anapekkho hoti; anāgataṁ cakkhuṁ nābhinandati paccappannassa cakkhussa nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti. (SN iv 4)

Illustration: virāga, non-attachment [to originated phenomena]

In this regard a bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness (… detached awareness) which conduces to seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], to non-attachment [to originated phenomena], to the ending [of originated phenomena], and which results in the relinquishment [of the whole phenomenon of attachment].

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu satisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti (… upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti) vivekanissitaṁ virāganissitaṁ nirodhanissitaṁ vossaggapariṇāmiṁ. (SN v 78)

Illustration: virāga, non-attachment

• For what purpose, bhante, is right vision [of things according to reality]?

Sammādassanaṁ pana bhante kimatthiyan ti?

• Right vision [of things according to reality], Rādha, is for the sake of disillusionment [with originated phenomena].

Sammādassanaṁ kho rādha nibbidatthaṁ

• For what purpose, bhante, is disillusionment [with originated phenomena]?

Nibbidā pana bhante kimatthiyā ti?

• Disillusionment [with originated phenomena] is for the sake of non-attachment [to originated phenomena].

Nibbidā kho rādha virāgatthā. (SN iii 189)

• For what purpose, bhante, is non-attachment [to originated phenomena]?

Virāgo pana bhante kimatthiyo ti?

• Non-attachment is for the sake of liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

Virāgo kho rādha vimuttattho

• For what purpose, bhante, is liberation [from perceptually obscuring states]?

Vimutti pana bhante kimatthiyā ti?

• Liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] is for the sake of [realising] the Untroubled.

Vimutti kho rādha nibbānatthā. (SN iii 189)

virāgena

virāgena: (main article see: virāga)

Illustration: virāgena, non-attachment [to originated phenomena]

In the past I was fond of the teachings in verse so long as I had not realised non-attachment [to originated phenomena].

Ahu pure dhammapadesu chando yāva virāgena na samāgamimha

But when, through knowledge [of things according to reality] I realised non-attachment [to originated phenomena], I became what good men call ‘One who has laid down whatever is seen, heard, or sensed.’

Yato virāgena samāgamimha yaṁ kiñci diṭṭhaṁ vā sutaṁ mutaṁ vā
Aññāya nikkhepanamāhu santo ti. (SN i 203)

Illustration: virāgāya, non-attachment [to originated phenomena]

Bhikkhus, there is one thing if developed and cultivated leads to complete disillusionment [with originated phenomena] (ekantanibbidāya), non-attachment [to originated phenomena] (virāgāya), the ending [of originated phenomena] (nirodhāya), inward peace (upasamāya), transcendent insight (abhiññāya), enlightenment (sambodhāya), the Untroubled (nibbānāya).

Ekadhammo bhikkhave bhāvito bahulīkato ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṁvattati

What one thing? Meditation on the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment]

Katamo ekadhammo? Buddhānussati. (AN i 30)

Illustration: virāgā, unattached [to originated phenomena]

Seeing thus, the noble disciple is disillusioned with bodily form… fields of sensation; Being disillusioned [with originated phenomena], he is unattached [to originated phenomena]. Being unattached [to originated phenomena], he is liberated [from perceptually obscuring states].

Evaṁ passaṁ bhikkhave sutavā ariyasāvako rūpasmiṁ nibbindati vedanāyapi nibbindati saññāyapi nibbindati saṅkhāresupi nibbindati viññāṇasmimpi nibbindati nibbindaṁ virajjati virāgā vimuccati. (MN iii 20)

viriya

Renderings

Introduction

Āraddhaviriyo: energetically applied

Āraddhaviriyo means being somehow energetically applied, for example to the supreme goal:

• One who is energetically applied to the attainment of the supreme goal.

Where āraddhaviriyo occurs without qualification, we qualify it with ‘to the practice’ in accordance with this definition:

• “One who is energetically applied [to the practice], one who is energetically applied [to the practice]” is said. On what grounds is one energetically applied [to the practice]?

āraddhaviriyo āraddhaviriyo ti bhante vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho bhante āraddhaviriyo hotī ti?

… ‘In this regard, Moggallāna, a bhikkhu abides energetically thus: “Willingly, let only skin, sinews, and bones remain, and let the flesh and blood dry up in my body, but I will not relax my energy so long as I have not attained what can be attained by manly strength, by manly energy, by manly application [to the practice].

idha moggallāna bhikkhu āraddhaviriyo viharati kāmaṁ taco ca nahārū ca aṭṭhī ca avasissatu sarīre upasussatu maṁsalohitaṁ yaṁ taṁ purisathāmena purisaviriyena purisaparakkamena pattabbaṁ na taṁ apāpuṇitvā viriyassa saṇṭhānaṁ bhavissatī ti.

… In this way is one energetically applied [to the practice].

Evaṁ kho moggallāna āraddhaviriyo hotī ti. (SN ii 276)

For the rendering ‘application [to the practice]’ for parakkama, see Glossary sv Parakkama.

Viriyasambojjhaṅga: the enlightenment factor of energetic application [to the practice]

That viriyasambojjhaṅga means ‘the enlightenment factor of energetic application [to the practice]’ can be judged from the following two quotes:

1) “While he scrutinises the teaching with penetrative discernment, examines it, inquires into it, unflagging energy is aroused. Whenever a bhikkhu’s unflagging energy is aroused as he scrutinises the teaching with penetrative discernment, examines it, inquires into it, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of energetic application [to the practice] is aroused in the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of energetic application [to the practice]; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of energetic application [to the practice] is perfected through spiritual cultivation in the bhikkhu.

Yasmiṁ samaye ānanda bhikkhuno taṁ dhammaṁ paññāya pavicanato pavicarato parivīmaṁsamāpajjato āraddhaṁ hoti viriyaṁ asallīnaṁ viriyasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti. Viriyasambojjhaṅgaṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti. Viriyasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṁ gacchati. Āraddhaviriyassa uppajjati pīti nirāmisā. (SN v 332)

2) On an occasion when the mind becomes sluggish, it is timely to develop… the enlightenment factor of energetic application [to the practice]… For what reason? Because the mind is sluggish.

Yasmiñca kho bhikkhave samaye līnaṁ cittaṁ hoti kālo tasmiṁ samaye… viriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya… Taṁ kissa hetu: līnaṁ bhikkhave cittaṁ. . (SN v 113)

Viriyindriya: faculty of energetic application [to the practice]

That viriyindriya means ‘the faculty of energetic application [to the practice]’ can be judged from this quote:

• It is indeed to be expected, bhante, that a noble disciple who has faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment] will dwell energetically applied to the abandoning of spiritually unwholesome factors and the undertaking of spiritually wholesome factors; that he will be steadfast, unwavering in application [to the practice], not shirking the responsibility of [undertaking] spiritually wholesome factors. That energy, bhante, is his faculty of energetic application [to the practice].

saddhassa hi bhante ariyasāvakassa etaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ: yaṁ āraddhaviriyo viharissati akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānāya kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ upasampadāya thāmavā daḷhaparakkamo anikkhittadhuro kusalesu dhammesu. Yaṁ hissa bhante viriyaṁ tadassa viriyindriyaṁ. (SN v 225)

Viriyabalaṁ: the power of energetic application [to the practice]

That viriyabalaṁ means ‘the power of energetic application [to the practice]’ can be judged from this quote:

• And what is the power of energetic application [to the practice]. In this regard, a noble disciple abides energetically applied to the abandoning of spiritually unwholesome factors and the undertaking of spiritually wholesome factors, steadfast, unwavering in application [to the practice], not shirking the responsibility of [undertaking] spiritually wholesome factors.

Katamañca bhikkhave viriyabalaṁ idha bhikkhave ariyasāvako āraddhaviriyo viharati akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānāya kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ upasampadāya thāmavā daḷha parakkamo anikkhittadhuro kusalesu dhammesu. Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave viriyabalaṁ. (AN iii 2)

Viriyaṁ ārabhituṁ: to be energetically applied [to the practice]

That viriyaṁ ārabhituṁ means ‘to be energetically applied [to the practice]’ can be judged from this quote:

• When the teaching has thus been well explained by me, elucidated, disclosed, revealed, free of patchwork, it is indeed fitting for a noble young man who has gone forth [into the ascetic life] out of faith to be energetically applied [to the practice] thus:

Evaṁ svākkhāte kho bhikkhave mayā dhamme uttāne vivaṭe pakāsite chinnapilotike alameva saddhā pabbajitena kulaputtena viriyaṁ ārabhituṁ:

… ‘Willingly, let only skin, sinews, and bones remain, and let the flesh and blood dry up in my body, but I will not relax my energy so long as I have not attained what can be attained by manly strength, by manly energy, by manly application [to the practice].’

kāmaṁ taco ca nahāru ca aṭṭhi ca avasissatu sarīre upasussatu maṁsalohitaṁ yaṁ taṁ purisatthāmena purisaviriyena purisaparakkamena pattabbaṁ na taṁ apāpuṇitvā viriyassa saṇṭhānaṁ bhavissati. (SN ii 28)

Illustrations

Illustration: viriya, effort

“Did you earlier have the effort, ‘I will go to the monastery,’ and after you arrived at the monastery, was the corresponding effort quelled?” “Yes, sir.”

Ahosi te pubbe viriyaṁ ārāmaṁ gamissāmī ti tassa te ārāmagatassa yaṁ tajjaṁ viriyaṁ taṁ paṭippassaddhanti evaṁ bho. (SN v 273)

Illustration: viriya, energy

‘Struggling with hands and feet’ represents the exertion of energy.

satthehi ca pādehi ca vāyāmo ti kho bhikkhave viriyārambhassetaṁ adhivacanaṁ. (Iti 114)

Illustration: viriya, [application of] energy; viriyasambojjhaṅgo, the enlightenment factor of energetic application [to the practice]

Whatever [application of] bodily energy there is, is the enlightenment factor of energetic application [to the practice]; whatever [application of] mental energy there is, is also the enlightenment factor of energetic application [to the practice]. Thus what is concisely called the enlightenment factor of energetic application [to the practice] becomes twofold by this method of exposition.

Yadapi bhikkhave kāyikaṁ viriyaṁ tadapi viriyasambojjhaṅgo. Yadapi cetasikaṁ viriyaṁ tadapi viriyasambojjhaṅgā. Viriyasambojjhaṅgoti itihidaṁ uddesaṁ gacchati. Tadamināpetaṁ pariyāyena dvayaṁ hoti. (SN v 111)

viriyaṁ

viriyaṁ: (main article see: viriya)

Illustration: viriyaṁ, energy

If one’s energy is excessive it leads to restlessness; if too lax it leads to indolence. Therefore Soṇa, resolve [to apply yourself] moderately energetically, and achieve a balance in the faculties, and in this manner pick up the object of meditation.

Evameva kho soṇa accāraddhaṁ viriyaṁ uddhaccāya saṁvattati atilīnaṁ viriyaṁ kosajjāya saṁvattati. Tasmātiha tvaṁ soṇa viriyasamataṁ adhiṭṭhahaṁ indriyānañca samataṁ paṭivijjha tattha ca nimittaṁ gaṇhāhī ti. (AN iii 376)

Illustration: viriyaṁ, energy

While he scrutinises the teaching with penetrative discernment, examines it, inquires into it, unflagging energy is aroused.

Tassa taṁ dhammaṁ paññāya pavicinato pavicarato parivīmaṁsamāpajjato āraddhaṁ hoti viriyaṁ asallīnaṁ. (SN v 67-69)

āraddhaviriyassa

āraddhaviriyassa: (main article see: viriya)

Illustration: āraddhaviriyassa, energetically applied [to the practice]

A noble disciple who has faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], who is energetically applied [to the practice], and whose mindfulness is established, having made the relinquishment [of attachment] the basis [for spiritual development], will gain inward collectedness, will gain mental concentration.

saddhassa hi bhante ariyasāvakassa āraddhaviriyassa upaṭṭhitasatino etaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ yaṁ vossaggārammaṇaṁ karitvā labhissati samādhiṁ labhissati cittassekaggataṁ. (SN v 225)

āraddhaviriyo

āraddhaviriyo: (main article see: viriya)

Illustration: āraddhaviriyo, energetic person

Bhikkhus, the lazy person abides in misery, soiled by unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors, and great is the personal good that he neglects.

dukkhaṁ hi bhikkhave kusīto viharati vokiṇṇo pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi. Mahantañca sadatthaṁ parihāpeti.

But the energetic person abides happily, secluded from unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors, and great is the personal good that he achieves.

Āraddhaviriyo ca kho bhikkhave sukhaṁ viharati pavivitto pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi mahantañca sadatthaṁ paripūreti. (SN ii 29)

Illustration: āraddhaviriyo, being energetic

Am I much given to laziness? Or am I much given to being energetic?

kusīto nu kho bahulaṁ viharāmi āraddhaviriyo nu kho bahulaṁ viharāmi. (AN v 92-3)

viriyaṁ ārabhati

viriyaṁ ārabhati: (main article see: viriya)

Illustration: viriyaṁ ārabhati, to apply energy

It can be expected that he will not stir up eagerness, endeavour, apply energy, to abandon that blemish.

tasse taṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ na chandaṁ janessati na vāyamissati na viriyaṁ ārabhissati tassaṅgaṇassa pahānāya. (MN i 25)

virodha

viruddha

Renderings

Illustrations: Viruddha

anuruddho

anuruddho: (main article see: viruddha)

Illustration: anuruddho, attracted; viruddha, repelled

Maintain detached awareness towards physical sensation, both pleasant and painful, not attracted or repelled by anything.

Phassadvayaṁ sukhadukkhe upekkhe
Anānuruddho aviruddha kenaci. (SN iv 71)

aviruddho

aviruddho: (main article see: viruddha)

Illustration: aviruddho, not repelled by

One not training himself in the hope of material gain, who is unshaken if he gets nothing, who is not repelled by flavours, nor greedy with craving for them;

Lābhakamyā na sikkhati alābhe ca na kuppati
Aviruddho ca taṇhāya rasesu nānugijjhati. (Snp 854)

aviruddhaṁ

aviruddhaṁ: (main article see: viruddha)

Illustration: aviruddhaṁ, unhostile

One who is unhostile amidst the hostile, inwardly at peace amidst the violent, free of grasping amidst the grasping, he is what I call a Brahman.

Aviruddhaṁ viruddhesu attadaṇḍesu nibbutaṁ
Sādānesu anādānaṁ tamahaṁ brūmi brāhmaṇaṁ. (Snp 630)

aviruddho

aviruddho: (main article see: viruddha)

Illustration: aviruddho, not hostile

Having abandoned sensuous pleasures completely, he is one who abstains from sexual intercourse. He is neither hostile towards nor attached to living beings, whether timid or mettlesome.

Virato methunā dhammā hitvā kāme parovare
Aviruddho asāratto pāṇesu tasathāvare. (Snp 704)

Illustration: aviruddho, free of hostility

Being free of hostility by way of speech, mind, and body, having properly understood the teaching, and longing for the Untroubled State, he would properly fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism in the world.

Vacasā manasā ca kammunā ca aviruddho sammā viditvā dhammaṁ
Nibbānapadābhipatthayāno sammā so loke paribbajeyya. (Snp 365)

Illustrations: Virodha

anurodha

anurodha: (main article see: viruddha)

Illustration: anurodha, welcoming; virodhaṁ, rejecting

In seeing a visible object via the visual sense a bhikkhu is attached to an agreeable visible object and troubled by a disagreeable visible object. He abides without mindfulness of the body established, with an undeveloped mind, and he does not discern according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where those unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors cease without remainder.

So cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā piyarūpe rūpe sārajjati appiyarūpe rūpe vyāpajjati. Anupaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati paritta cetaso tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti yatthassa te pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti.

Engaged as he is in welcoming and rejecting, whatever sense impression he experiences―whether pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral―he takes delight in it, welcomes it, and persists in cleaving to it. In so doing, spiritually fettering delight arises. Spiritually fettering delight in sense impression is grasping.

So evaṁ anurodhavirodhaṁ samāpanno yaṁ kiñci vedanaṁ vedeti sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā so taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati tassa taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandī. Yā vedanāsu nandī tadupadānaṁ. (MN i 266)

Illustration: anurodha, welcoming; virodha, rejecting

He welcomes the arisen acquisition and rejects the arisen loss. He welcomes the arisen prestige and rejects the arisen imprestige. He welcomes the arisen praise and rejects the arisen criticism. He welcomes the arisen pleasure and rejects the arisen pain.

Uppannaṁ yasaṁ anurujjhati ayase paṭivirujjhati uppannaṁ pasaṁsaṁ anurujjhati nindāya paṭivirujjhati. Uppannaṁ sukhaṁ anurujjhati. Dukkhe paṭivirujjhati

As he is thus engaged in welcoming and rejecting, he is not freed from birth, old age, or death; from grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, or despair. He is not freed, I declare, from suffering.

So evaṁ anurodhavirodhasamāpanno na parimuccati jātiyā jarāya maraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi na parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmi. (AN iv 158)

Illustration: virodha, dislike

Whether enjoying a sweet delicious tasteable object, or sometimes tasting what is unpalatable, eat the sweet tasteable object without cleaving, and do not show dislike for the unpalatable.

Rasañca bhotvā sāditañca sāduṁ athopi bhotvāna asādumekadā
Sāduṁ rasaṁ nājjhosāya bhuñje virodhamāsādusu nopadaṁsaye. (SN iv 71)

avirodha

avirodha: (main article see: viruddha)

Illustration: avirodha, non-hostility

May my enemies indeed from time to time listen to the teaching of those who preach patience and who praise non-hostility, and may they act in conformity with it.

Disā hi me khantivādānaṁ avirodhappasaṁsinaṁ
Suṇantu dhammaṁ kālena tañca anuvidhīyantu. (MN ii 105)

vivaṭṭacchadda

Renderings

Introduction

Analysis: context better than etymology

Vivaṭṭacchaddo has long been a subject of debate. Because even its spelling is unsettled, resolving its meaning must be primarily based on context, not etymology. Extensive notes that demonstrate the longstanding interest in this term can be found at:

  • PED: under Vivattacchada
  • Norman: Group of Discourses p.229 n.372
  • Bodhi: NDB n.713.
  • Bodhi: MLDB n.853

‘Removed the covering’: neologism

Many commentaries say vivaṭṭacchadda means ‘one who has removed the covering,’ as follows:

• Here, having been born into the world, he dwells having entirely removed the covering in the world (loke tam chadanam vivattetva), in the darkness of defilements covered by seven coverings (chadanehi): lust, hatred, delusion, conceit, views, ignorance, and misconduct.

Arahaṁ hoti sammāsambuddho loke vivaṭṭacchadoti ettha rāga-dosa-moha-māna-diṭṭhi-avijjā-duccaritachadanehi sattahi paṭicchanne kilesandhakāre loke taṁ chadanaṁ vivaṭṭetvā samantato sañjātāloko hutvā ṭhitoti vivaṭṭacchado. (Sv.1.250; tr. Bodhi, NDB, n.713)

But, although taṇhā is called a covering (taṇhāchadanachāditā, Uda 76), these seven factors are not. And although avijjā comes close by being called an eggshell, it is ‘broken through’ not ‘removed.’

• Amongst the manyfolk who are void of insight into reality, enveloped and smothered [in uninsightfulness into reality], having broken through the eggshell of uninsightfulness into reality (avijjaṇḍakosaṁ padāletvā), I alone in the world have fully awakened to unsurpassed, complete enlightenment.

Evameva kho ahaṁ brāhmaṇa avijjāgatāya pajāya aṇḍabhūtāya pariyonaddhāya avijjaṇḍakosaṁ padāletvā eko'va loke anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho. (AN iv 176; Vin.3.3)

Nonetheless, Bodhi accepts the commentary’s explanation, and translates vivaṭṭacchadda as ‘those who have removed the coverings,’ and explains his decision as follows:

• Though various conjectures might be proposed with respect to the original expression and its meaning, given the difficulty of settling these questions across Buddhist textual traditions, the most expedient course open to me is to translate the term as it has been preserved and interpreted in the Pāli tradition. (NDB n.713)

‘Remove the coverings’ would certainly fit the context, but to avoid its absurd connotations it would be better parenthesised to: ‘remove the coverings [of lust, hatred, delusion, conceit, views, ignorance, and misconduct],’ or, more justifiably, ‘remove the covering [of avijjā].’

‘With deceit removed’: unfitting

Norman uses the spelling vivattacchadda and calls it ‘with deceit removed,’ because in Sanskrit, according to Monier Williams, chadman has the meaning ‘deceit, disguise.’ But this rendering does not fit the contexts.

Our interpretation

Vivaṭṭacchaddo is primarily found in poetry, and we regard vi- as an unwarranted prefix, but in accordance with Warder’s comments, who says:

• The verses of the Dīgha Nikāya illustrate their most important linguistic and metrical characteristics. The linguistic features to remark are twofold: poetic licence and the use of archaic forms obsolete in everyday speech… Poetic licence is most noticeable in the freedom of word order in verse. Since the inflections generally show the relations between words in a sentence, almost any deviation from the prose order is possible without serious change of meaning… A prefix may be dropped or added where the meaning of the sentence will tolerate a slight change of nuance. (Warder, Introduction to Pāli p.354-5)

Because prefixes are subject to poetic licence, we therefore regard vivaṭṭacchaddo as standing for vaṭṭa chaḍḍo, with vi- for emphasis. Comments in the PED show that we are not the first to explain chadda as chaḍḍa: the commentaries have done likewise. But the real strength of our argument lies in the fittingness of our rendering, which we parade in the Illustrations below.

Meaning of chaḍḍeti

Chaḍḍeti means ‘throw’ or ‘pour,’ and vicchaḍḍeti means ‘scatter about’:

• He discards the bowl water neither too far nor too close, and he does not scatter it about.

So pattodakaṁ chaḍḍeti nātidūre nāccāsanne na ca vicchaḍḍayamāno. (MN ii 138)

In later Pāli, vicchaḍḍeti meant to throw out, to vomit, says PED.

Chinnaṁ vaṭṭaṁ

If vivaṭṭacchadda means ‘completely renounced the round of rebirth,’ then it is comparable to chinnaṁ vaṭṭaṁ, ‘the round of rebirth destroyed’ in this passage:

• He has destroyed the round of rebirth, abandoned longing. The dried-up stream no longer flows. The round of rebirth, destroyed, no longer continues. This is truly the end of suffering.

Acchecchi vaṭṭaṁ byagā nirāsaṁ vusukkhā saritā na sandati. Chinnaṁ vaṭṭaṁ na vattati esevanto dukkhassā ti. (Uda 75)

Illustrations

Illustration: vivaṭṭacchaddo, completely renounced the round of rebirth

One who is spiritually purified, who has conquered [all unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors], who has completely renounced the round of rebirth, who has mastery over mentally known objects, who has reached the Far Shore, who is imperturbable, and is proficient in the knowledge of the ending [of originated phenomena] [according to reality]: he would properly fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism in the world.

Saṁsuddhajino vivaṭṭacchaddo dhammesu vasī pāragū anejo
Saṅkhāranirodhañāṇakusalo sammā so loke paribbajeyya. (Snp 372)

vivaṭṭacchaddo

vivaṭṭacchaddo: (main article see: vivaṭṭacchadda)

Illustration: vivaṭṭacchaddo, one who has completely renounced the round of rebirth

But if he goes forth from the household life into the ascetic life he will become the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One in the world, one who has completely renounced the round of rebirth.

Sace kho pana agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati arahaṁ hoti sammāsambuddho loke vivaṭṭacchaddo. (DN i 89)

Comment:

Here vivaṭṭacchaddo occurs in prose.

Illustration: vivaṭṭacchaddo, one who has completely renounced the round of rebirth

But if he goes forth [from the household life into the ascetic life] he will be free of unvirtuousness, an ascetic with spiritual defilement quelled, one who has completely renounced the round of rebirth.

Atha ce pabbajati bhavati vipāpo
Samaṇo samitarajo vivaṭṭacchaddo. (DN iii 179)

Illustration: vivaṭṭacchaddo, completely renounced the round of rebirth

They in the world who have completely renounced the round of rebirth.

vivaṭṭacchaddā ye loke. (AN ii 44)

viveka

Renderings

Introduction

Parenthesis: seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

Viveka usually has no designated object. Our parenthesis comes from this quote:

• Secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, a bhikkhu enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Idhāvuso visākha bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (MN i 301)

Because vivekajaṁ corresponds to vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi, therefore viveka = seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Viveka = vavakaṭṭha & nekkhamma

Our renderings for vavakaṭṭha and nekkhamma are:

In the following quote vivekaninnaṁ cittaṁ hoti equals vavakaṭṭhaṁ plus nekkhammābhirataṁ:

• His mind inclines, verges, and drifts towards seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]. It is withdrawn [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], taking delight in the practice of unsensuousness.

vivekaninnaṁ cittaṁ hoti vivekapoṇaṁ vivekapabbhāraṁ vavakaṭṭhaṁ nekkhammābhirataṁ. (AN iv 224)

Therefore, again, viveka = ‘seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].’

Viveka means physical seclusion, metri causa

Paviveka not viveka means physical seclusion. Only in verse does viveka mean physical seclusion, metri causa. See Glossary sv Paviveka.

Illustrations

vivekā

vivekā: (main article see: viveka)

Illustration: vivekā, seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

Abiding attached within the inner recesses of the heart, covered in defilement and steeped in confusion, such a being is far from seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]. Abandoning the pleasures of the world is truly difficult.

Satto guhāyaṁ bahunābhicchanno tiṭṭhaṁ naro mohanasmiṁ pagāḷho;
Dūre vivekā hi tathāvidho so kāmā hi loke na hi suppahāyā. (Snp 772)

Illustration: viveka, seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

A person who is not attached to the future, who does not grieve over the past, who finds seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors] amidst sensation, and is not led into dogmatic views;

Nirāsatti anāgate atītaṁ nānusocati
Vivekadassī phassesu diṭṭhīsu ca na nīyati. (Snp 851)

vivekaṁ

vivekaṁ: (main article see: viveka)

Illustration: vivekaṁ, seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

I ask the enlightened kinsman of the Sun clan, the great Seer, about seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors] and about the Peaceful State. Seeing in what way is a bhikkhu freed from passion, grasping nothing in the world?

Pucchāmi taṁ ādiccabandhu vivekaṁ santipadañca mahesi;
Kathaṁ disvā nibbāti bhikkhu anupādiyāno lokasmiṁ kiñci. (Snp 915)

Illustration: viveka, seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

For a long time his mind has inclined, verged and drifted towards seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

yaṁ hi taṁ bhikkhave cittaṁ dīgharattaṁ vivekaninnaṁ vivekapoṇaṁ vivekapabbhāraṁ.

Thus there is no possibility that he will return to lay life.

Taṁ vata hīnāyāvattissatīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. (SN v 53)

Illustration: viveka, seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

When a bhikkhu has emerged from the attainment of the ending of perception and sense impression his mind inclines, verges, and drifts towards seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Saññāvedayitanirodhasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhitassa kho āvuso visākha bhikkhuno vivekaninnaṁ cittaṁ hoti vivekapoṇaṁ vivekapabbhāranti. (MN i 302)

Illustration: viveka, seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

A certain bhikkhu had gone for his daytime abiding, but kept thinking unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts associated with the household life.

pāpake akusale vitakke vitakketi gehanissite.

Then the deva inhabiting that woodland grove, being tenderly concerned for that bhikkhu, desiring his spiritual well-being, desiring to stir up in him an earnest attitude [to the practice] (saṁvejetukāmā), approached him and addressed him in verses:

Desiring seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors] you entered the woods,

Vivekakāmosi vanaṁ paviṭṭho

Yet your mind gushes outwardly.

atha te mano niccharatī bahiddhā

Eliminate, man, your fondness for people;

Jano janasmiṁ vinayassu chandaṁ

Then you’ll be truly happy, free of attachment.

tato sukhī hohisi vītarāgo. (SN i 197)

Illustration: viveka, seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

In this regard a bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness (… detached awareness) which conduces to seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], to non-attachment [to originated phenomena], to the ending [of originated phenomena], and which results in the relinquishment [of the whole phenomenon of attachment].

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu satisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti (… upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti) vivekanissitaṁ virāganissitaṁ nirodhanissitaṁ vossaggapariṇāmiṁ. (SN v 78)

Illustration: viveka, seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

He who is not relying on [the fulfilment of any] expectation [for anything in the world], who has discovered seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], who has gone beyond the dogmatism experienced by others, and for whom there are no bases whatsoever [for the establishment of his stream of consciousness]: the Perfect One is worthy of the oblation.

Āsaṁ anissāya vivekadassī paravediyaṁ diṭṭhimupātivatto
Ārammaṇā yassa na santi keci tathāgato arahati pūraḷāsaṁ. (Snp 474)

Illustration: viveka, seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

One is the path to worldly gain, another the path leading to the Untroubled. Fully understanding this, the bhikkhu, the disciple of the Buddha, should not take delight in worldly honour. He should cultivate seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors] instead.

Aññā hi lābhūpanisā aññā nibbānagāminī
Evametaṁ abhiññāya bhikkhu buddhassa sāvako
Sakkāraṁ nābhinandeyya vivekamanubrūhaye. (Dhp 75)

viveke

viveke: (main article see: viveka)

Illustration: viveke, seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors]

Tell us of the distress, dear sir, that befalls one who is applied to sexual intercourse. Having heard your explanation we will train ourselves in seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors].

Methunamanuyuttassa vighātaṁ brūhi mārisa
Sutvāna tava sāsanaṁ viveke sikkhissāmase. (Snp 818)

viveko

viveko: (main article see: viveka)

Illustration: viveko, physical seclusion (=paviveko)

Blissful is the physical seclusion of one who is content [with what is paltry and easily gotten], who has heard the teaching, and who sees [the nature of reality].

Sukho viveko tuṭṭhassa sutadhammassa passato. (Uda 10)

Illustration: viveka, physical seclusion (=paviveka)

Just as the Veramba wind blows clouds in the rainy season, so [in the city of Veramba] mental images connected with physical seclusion [would] overwhelm me.

Yathā abbhāni verambo vāto nudati pāvuse
Saññā me abhikīranti vivekapaṭisaṁyuttā. (Tha 589)

vihaññati

Renderings

Illustrations

vihaññāmi

vihaññāmi: (main article see: vihaññati)

Illustration: vihaññāmi, inconvenienced

Then it occurred to one of those beings who was inclined to laziness: 'Well now, why should I be inconvenienced by having to gather rice in the evening for supper and in the morning for breakfast? Why shouldn't I gather it all at once for both meals?

Atha kho vāseṭṭhā aññatarassa sattassa alasajātikassa etadahosi ambho kimevāhaṁ vihaññāmi sāliṁ āharanto sāyaṁ sāyamāsāya pāto pātarāsāya? Yannūnāhaṁ sāliṁ āhareyyaṁ sakideva sāyapātarāsāyā ti. (DN iii 89)

Illustration: vihaññanti, inconvenienced

They were inconvenienced as they were ascending. ‘I allow, bhikkhus, three [kinds of] staircases.’

Ārohantā vihaññanti. Anujānāmi bhikkhave tayo sopāṇe. (Vin.2.117)

vihaññamānaṁ

vihaññamānaṁ: (main article see: vihaññati)

Illustration: vihaññamānaṁ, troubled

See how they are troubled, those who are attached to the perception of existence.

Sakiñcanaṁ passa vihaññamānaṁ. (Uda 14)

avihaññamāno

avihaññamāno: (main article see: vihaññati)

Illustration: avihaññamāno, without being troubled by

Mindful and fully conscious, enduring without being troubled [by it], sense impression that was unpleasant, acute, sharp, and severe, arisen as a karmic consequence of previous deeds’

purāṇakammavipākajaṁ dukkhaṁ tibbaṁ kharaṁ kaṭukaṁ vedanaṁ adhivāsento sato sampajāno avihaññamāno. (Uda 21)

vihaññamāne

vihaññamāne: (main article see: vihaññati)

Illustration: vihaññamāne, troubled by

‘Seeing people being troubled by [attachment to] bodily forms―for people negligently applied [to the practice] are troubled by [attachment to] bodily forms―therefore you, Pingiya, being diligently applied [to the practice], abandon bodily form for the sake of avoiding renewed states of individual existence.’

Disvāna rūpesu vihaññamāne ruppanti rūpesu janā pamattā
Tasmā tuvaṁ piṅgiya appamatto jahassu rūpaṁ apunabbhavāya. (Snp 1121)

COMMENT:

Rūpesu vihaññamāne: ‘troubled by [attachment to] bodily forms.’ The locative shows the cause, reason, or motive of an action (PGPL, para601). The parenthesis ‘attachment’ is justified by the advice to ‘abandon’ (jahassu) in pāda d. The principle is repeated with upādāya in verse 169:

• Because of grasping the six [sense objects] the world [of beings] suffers hardship.

upādāya chassu loko vihaññati. (Snp 169)

COMMENT:

Troubled… troubled: vihaññati and ruppati are synonyms.

vihaññittho

vihaññittho: (main article see: vihaññati)

Illustration: vihaññittho, troubled by

You abide out in the open air. These winter nights are cold. Do not be troubled, overcome by the cold. Snuggle into your dwelling with fastened bolts.

Abbhokāse viharasi sītā hemantikā imā rattiyo
Mā sītena pareto vihaññittho pavisa tvaṁ vihāraṁ phassit’aggaḷaṁ. (Tha 385)

I will fasten onto the four unlimited states, and I will abide well-pleased with them. I will not be troubled by the cold, dwelling in the Imperturbable.

Phassissaṁ catasso appamaññāyo tāhi ca sukhito viharissaṁ
Nāhaṁ sītena vihaññissaṁ aniñjito viharanto ti. (Tha 386)

Illustration: vihaññati, troubled

In this world he grieves, having passed on he grieves. The evildoer grieves in both places. He grieves, he is troubled, on considering his own immoral activities.

Idha socati pecca socati pāpakārī ubhayattha socati
So socati so vihaññati disvā kammakiliṭṭhamattano. (Dhp 15)

avihaññamāno

avihaññamāno: (main article see: vihaññati)

Illustration: avihaññamāno, without being troubled by

He politely eats whatever food they give him, whether poor or excellent, without being troubled [by it].

yaṁ kho panassa bhojanaṁ denti lūkhaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā taṁ sakkaccaṁyeva paribhuñjati avihaññamāno. (AN iv 189)

Illustration: vihaññati, troubled by

This brahman Soṇadaṇḍa is troubled by his own mind.

vihaññati kho ayaṁ soṇadaṇḍo brāhmaṇo sakena cittena. (DN i 119)

Illustration: vihaññati, troubled by

‘I have sons. I have wealth’: [thinking thus] the fool is troubled [by craving].

Puttā matthi dhanammatthi iti bālo vihaññati. (Dhp 62)

COMMENT:

Commentary: puttataṇhāya ceva dhanataṇhāya ca haññati vihaññati dukkhayati puttā me nassiṁsū ti vihaññati nassantī ti vihaññati nassissantī ti vihaññati.

Illustration: vihaññati, suffers hardship

Because of grasping the six [sense objects] the world [of beings] suffers hardship.

upādāya chassu loko vihaññati. (Snp 169)

vihaññanti

vihaññanti: (main article see: vihaññati)

Illustration: vihaññanti, suffer hardship

Whereas some suffer hardship when climbing a mountain, there climbs Kassapa, an inheritor of the Buddha’s [teaching], fully conscious and mindful, assisted by his psychic power.

Yattha eke vihaññanti āruhantā siluccayaṁ
Tattha buddhassa dāyādo sampajāno patissato
Iddhibalenupatthaddho kassapo abhirūhati. (Tha 1058)

vihaññasi

vihaññasi: (main article see: vihaññati)

Illustration: vihaññasi, suffer hardship

Should you ravish one who knows [the nature of reality], you will [thereafter] suffer hardship.

Tvaṁ tādisikaṁ palobhaya jānantiṁ so imaṁ vihaññasi. (Thi 387)

Illustration: vihaññasi, suffer hardship

Do not later suffer hardship like a carp swallowing a fishhook.

Mā puthulomova baḷisaṁ gilitvā pacchā vihaññasi. (Thi 508)

Illustration: vihaññati, suffers hardship

Having gone from here to hell, the one-eyed person suffers hardship.

Ito so nirayaṁ gantvā ekacakkhu vihaññati. (AN i 129)

Illustration: vihaññati, suffers hardship

A poor person who becomes indebted suffers hardship while enjoying himself.

Daḷiddo iṇamādāya bhuñjamāno vihaññati. (AN iii 353)

Illustration: vihaññanti, suffer hardship

Affiliates suffer hardship.

vihiṁsā

vihesā

Renderings

Illustrations: vihesā

Illustration: vihesā, doing harm

One who delights in doing harm, a beast

Illustration: vihesa, injury

Those in this world who are unrestrained in [the harming of] living beings, stealing their possessions, intent on injury, unvirtuous, ferocious, harsh, disrespectful: what is rotten is this, not the eating of meat.

Ye idha pāṇesu asaṁyatā janā paresamādāya vihesamuyyutā
Dussīlaluddā pharusā anādarā esāmagandho na hi maṁsabhojanaṁ. (Snp 247)

vihesaṁ

vihesaṁ: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: vihesaṁ, injury

Injuring one who has spiritually developed himself

vihesesi

vihesesi: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: vihesesi, trouble

He did not trouble me through [failure to quickly understand] the teaching.

na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi. (MN ii 146)

Comment:

See Glossary sv Na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi

viheseti

viheseti: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: viheseti, trouble

He troubles the assembly of bhikkhus by keeping silent.

tuṇhibhāvena saṅghaṁ viheseti. (AN iv 194)

vihesā

vihesā: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: vihesā, troublesome

If I were to explain the teaching to others and they did not understand, it would be wearisome and troublesome for me.

ahañce ca kho pana dhammaṁ deseyyaṁ pare ca me na ājāneyyuṁ so mamassa kilamatho sā mamassa vihesā ti. (DN ii 36)

Illustration: vihesā, troublesome

If you come and ask the Perfect One the fate of everyone who dies, it would be troublesome for him.

tasmiñce kālakate tathāgataṁ upasaṅkamitvā etamatthaṁ pucchissatha vihesā cesā ānanda tathāgatassa. (DN ii 93)

Illustration: vihesā, vexation

When there are disputes there are quarrels; with quarrels, distress; with distress, vexation.

Iti viggahe sati vivādo vivāde sati vighāto vighāte sati vihesā. (MN i 498)

Illustration: vihesā, vexation

Many sense impressions arising from the visible object blossom [within oneself], greed and vexation as well, by which one’s mind becomes disturbed.

Tassa vaḍḍhanti vedanā anekā rūpasambhavā
Abhijjhā ca vihesā ca cittamassūpahaññati. (Tha 794-5)

Illustration: vihesā, vexation

Why recite these lesser and minor training rules? They only lead to anxiety, vexation, and perplexity.

kiṁ panimehi khuddisante vā sikkhāpadehi uddiṭṭhehi yāvadve kukkuccāya vihesāya vilekhāya saṁvattanti. (Vin.4.143)

viheseyyam

viheseyyam: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: viheseyyam, harass

If an elder bhikkhu corrects me, he would do so not tenderly concerned for my welfare. I should then tell him “No!” and harass him.

thero cepi maṁ vadeyya ahitānukampī maṁ vadeyya no hitānukampī noti naṁ vadeyyaṁ viheseyyampi. (AN i 78)

vihesiyamānaṁ

vihesiyamānaṁ: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: vihesiyamānaṁ, harass

Ānanda, would you just simply passively observe an elder bhikkhu while he is being harassed? Truly, Ānanda, there is certainly no compassion in allowing an elder bhikkhu to be harassed.

atthi nāma ānanda theraṁ bhikkhuṁ vihesiyamānaṁ ajjhupekkhissatha. Na hi nāma ānanda kāruññampi bhavissati theramhi bhikkhumhi vihesiyamānamhī ti. (AN iii 194)

Illustration: vihesaṁ, maliciousness

Furthermore, when a bhikkhu is contemplating maliciousness his mind does not become energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it.

Puna ca paraṁ āvuso bhikkhuno vihesaṁ manasikaroto vihesāya cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati (read as adhimuccati. See IGPT sv adhimuccati).

But when contemplating compassion his mind becomes energised, serene, settled, and intent upon it.

Avihesaṁ kho panassa manasikaroto avihesāya cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati (read as adhimuccati) . (DN iii 240)

Illustration: vihesā, maliciousness

It is impossible, friend, out of the question, that one might develop and cultivate the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] compassion, make it one’s vehicle and practice, carry it out, pursue it, and properly undertake it, yet still maliciousness would plague your mind. There is no such possibility.

Aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ karuṇāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya anuṭṭhitāya paricitāya susamāraddhāya atha ca panassa vihesā cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī'ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ āvuso vihesāya yadidaṁ karuṇā cetovimutti. (DN iii 249)

avihesā

avihesā: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: avihesā, compassion

This worthless man must have absolutely no sympathy, tender concern, or compassion for living beings.

Na hi nāma bhikkhave tassa moghapurisassa pāṇesu anuddayā anukampā avihesā bhavissati. (Vin.3.42)

Illustrations: vihiṁsa

vihiṁseyya

vihiṁseyya: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: vihiṁseyya, harm

One should speak only that speech which is neither a torment to oneself, nor harmful to others. That speech [i.e. speech spoken gently, and with a mind of unlimited goodwill] is indeed well-spoken.

Tameva vācaṁ bhāseyya yāyattānaṁ na tāpaye
Pare ca na vihiṁseyya sā ve vācā subhāsitā. (Tha 1227)

avihiṁsāya

avihiṁsāya: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: avihiṁsāya, unharmed

The Atanatiya protective verses are beneficial, and through them bhikkhus, bhikkhunīs, and lay-followers may dwell guarded, protected, unharmed and at ease.

Atthasaṁhitā bhikkhave āṭānāṭiyā rakkhā bhikkhūnaṁ bhikkhuṇīnaṁ upāsakānaṁ upāsikānaṁ guttiyā rakkhāya avihiṁsāya phāsuvihārāyā ti. (DN iii 206)

vihiṁsati

vihiṁsati: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: vihiṁsati, injures

A person who injures with a stick beings who [likewise] desire happiness

Sukhakāmāni bhūtāni yo daṇḍena vihiṁsati. (Uda 12)

vihiṁsa

vihiṁsa: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: vihiṁsa, troublesomeness

Properly reflecting, you should use almsfood not for fun, not for exuberance, not for the sake of comeliness and good looks, but just for the maintenance and nourishment of this [wretched human] body for restraining its troublesomeness, for supporting the religious life.

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso āhāraṁ āhāreyyāsi neva davāya na madāya na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāya yāvadeva imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā yāpanāya vihiṁsūparatiyā brahmacariyānuggahāya. (MN iii 134)

Illustration: vihiṁsa, troublesomeness

Aware of the troublesomeness of it, Brahmā, I did not preach the excellent and sublime teaching amongst men.

Vihiṁsasaññī paguṇaṁ na bhāsayiṁ dhammaṁ paṇītaṁ manujesu brahme ti. (Vin.1.7)

Illustration: vihiṁsati, troubles

One who troubles the Perfect One with abuse, a peaceful person with a peaceful mind, will see that abuse of him is ineffective.

Evameva tathāgataṁ yo vādena vihiṁsati
Samaggataṁ santacittaṁ vādo tamhi na rūhati. (Iti 86)

vihiṁsā

vihiṁsā: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: vihiṁsā, maliciousness, malicious

Because of the phenomenon of maliciousness, malicious mental imagery arises, malicious thought, malicious desire, malicious passion, malicious quests.

Vihiṁsādhātuṁ bhikkhave paṭicca uppajjati vihiṁsāsaññā. Vihiṁsāsaññaṁ paṭicca uppajjati vihiṁsāsaṅkappo. Vihiṁsāsaṅkappaṁ paṭicca uppajjati vihiṁsāchando. Vihiṁsāchandaṁ paṭicca uppajjati vihiṁsāpariḷāho. Vihiṁsāpariḷāhaṁ paṭicca uppajjati vihiṁsāpariyesanā. (SN ii 151)

vihiṁsakā

vihiṁsakā: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: vihiṁsakā, malicious; avihiṁsakā, compassionate

Others will be malicious; we will be compassionate

pare vihiṁsakā bhavissanti mayamettha avihiṁsakā bhavissāmā ti. (MN i 40-1)

vihiṁsāya

vihiṁsāya: (main article see: vihesā)

Illustration: vihiṁsāya, maliciousness; avihiṁsā, compassion

To abandon maliciousness, compassion should be developed.

vihiṁsāya pahānāya avihiṁsā bhāvetabbā. (AN iii 447)

Illustration: vihiṁsā, maliciousness

For this is the liberation from maliciousness, namely the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] compassion.

Nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ āvuso vihesāya yadidaṁ karuṇā cetovimutti. (DN iii 248)

vedagū

veda

Renderings

Introduction

Veda

Veda means:

1) singular: knowledge or scriptural knowledge

2) plural: the three Vedas (tiṇṇaṁ vedānaṁ)

The three Vedas: three canonical collections

PED calls the Vedas singular ‘canon.’

• the ‘brahmanic canon of authorised religious teaching.’

Webster’s dictionary calls them plural ‘collections’:

• the ‘canonical collections of hymns, prayers and liturgical formulas that comprise the earliest Hindu writings.’

The three Vedas are:

  • The Rig-Veda: the canonical collection of laudatory stanzas in praise of devas.
  • The Sama-Veda: the canonical collection of chants for the Soma sacrifice.
  • The Yajur-Veda: the canonical collection of chants for sacrificial rites.

Veda: scriptural collections of any religion

We will not call religious scriptures ‘canon,’ which only applies to authorised collections. And although Webster’s calls the Vedas ‘writings,’ texts were not originally written. So we will call them: ‘scriptural collections.’

Although PED says veda stands for ‘the three Vedas’ (tiṇṇaṁ vedānaṁ), veda means sacred literature of any religion, and vedehi at Snp 792 stands specifically for ‘the Buddhist scriptural collections.’

Vedasampanno and vedagū: the Buddhists

Veda was used by the Buddhists to mean profound knowledge, notably in two words:

1) vedasampanno, ‘endowed with profound knowledge’

2) vedagū, ‘blessed with profound knowledge’

Vedagū defined in terms of yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti

Vedagū is defined in terms of yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti as follows:

• In what way is a bhikkhu blessed with profound knowledge?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu vedagū hoti?

… When he discerns according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from the six senses

Yato kho bhikkhave bhikkhu channaṁ phassāyatanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti

… In this way a bhikkhu is blessed with profound knowledge

evaṁ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu vedagū hoti. (SN iv 83)

Vedagū defined in terms of vidita

Vedagū is defined in terms of vidita as follows:

• In what way is a bhikkhu blessed with profound knowledge?

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu vedagū hoti?

… Unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors that are defiling, and which lead to renewed states of individual existence, suffering, unpleasant karmic consequences, and future birth, old age, and death are completely understood by him.

Viditāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṅkilesikā ponobbhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṁ jātijarāmaraṇiyā.

… In this way a bhikkhu is blessed with profound knowledge.

Evaṁ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu vedagū hoti. (MN i 280)

Vidita: ‘completely understood’

Vidita is the past participle of vindati, meaning ‘known, found (out),’ says PED. Yet in the passage above we translated it as ‘completely understood.’ Rendering it with this stronger meaning is justified because in that passage vindati was used in a play of words to explain vedagū, which can be proved by considering other passages, where stronger verbs are elsewhere linked to vedagū:

1) Vedagū was defined in terms of yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti in a quote above.

2) Vedagū is associated with ‘having understood things through and through’ (parovarā samecca dhammā) in this quote:

• One for whom, having understood things through and through they are destroyed, they have vanished, they do not exist: he is blessed with profound knowledge. He has fulfilled the religious life.

Parovarā yassa samecca dhammā vidhūpitā atthaṅgatā na santi
Sa vedagū vusitabrahmacariyo. (AN ii 6)

Samecca is absolutive of sameti: ‘having acquired or learnt, knowing,’ says PED.

Vedasampanno and vedagū: the brahmans and others

For brahmans these words meant:

1) vedasampanno: ‘perfect in Vedic scriptural knowledge.’

2) vedagū: ‘knowledgeable,’ a synonym of dhīro.

• But if, by one’s own reckoning, one were knowledgeable and wise, then none among ascetics would be a fool.

Atha ce sayaṁ vedagū hoti dhīro na koci bālo samaṇesu atthi. (Snp 890)

Vedantagū: completed one’s scriptural education

Vedantagū means ‘reached the end of scriptural knowledge,’ but reads better as ‘completed one’s scriptural education,’ as here:

• One who has submitted to inward taming, completed his scriptural education, fulfilled the religious life.

damasā upeto vedantagū vusitabrahmacariyo. (Snp 463)

Illustrations

vedehi

vedehi: (main article see: veda)

Illustration: vedehi, Buddhist scriptural collections

A person attached to perception who undertakes religious practices of his own [conception] arises in various [states of individual existence].

Sayaṁ samādayaṁ vatāni jantu uccāvacaṁ gacchati saññāsatto

But one who is insightful, having understood the nature of reality through the [study of the] Buddhist scriptural collections, does not arise in various [states of individual existence]. He is one of extensive wisdom.

Vidvā ca vedehi samecca dhammaṁ na uccāvacaṁ gacchati bhūripañño. (Snp 792)

vedāni

vedāni: (main article see: veda)

Illustration: vedāni, scriptural collections; veda, scriptural knowledge; vedagū, one who is blessed with profound knowledge

Having investigated the entire scriptural collections,

Vedāni viceyya kevalāni

Both of the ascetics and the Brahmanists

Samaṇānaṁ yānidhatthi brāhmaṇānaṁ

Free of attachment to all sense impression,

Gone beyond all scriptural knowledge, he is blessed with profound knowledge

Sabbaṁ vedamaticca vedagū so. (Snp 529)

vedānaṁ

vedānaṁ: (main article see: veda)

Illustration: vedānaṁ, the Vedas

The brahman Doṇa said of himself

• I am a scholar [of the sacred texts]

• I know by heart the sacred texts

• I am a master of the three Vedas

tiṇṇaṁ vedānaṁ pāragū. (AN iii 223)

vedagū

vedagū: (main article see: veda)

Illustration: vedagū, one who is blessed with profound knowledge

Through completely understanding seven things one is blessed with profound knowledge.

sattannaṁ bhikkhave dhammānaṁ viditattā vedagū hoti.

1) the view of personal identity is completely understood

sakkāyadiṭṭhi viditā hoti

2) doubt [about the excellence of the teaching] is completely understood

vicikicchā viditā hoti

3) adherence to observances and practices is completely understood

sīlabbataparāmāso vidito hoti

4) attachment is completely understood

rāgo vidito hoti

5) hatred is completely understood

doso vidito hoti

6) undiscernment of reality is completely understood

moho vidito hoti

7) self-centredness is completely understood

māno vidito hoti

Through completely understanding these seven things one is blessed with profound knowledge.

Imesaṁ kho bhikkhave sattannaṁ dhammānaṁ viditattā vedagū hotī ti. (AN iv 145)

COMMENT:

On rendering vidita as ‘completely understood’ see Introduction.

vedasampanno

vedasampanno: (main article see: veda)

Illustration: vedasampanno, perfect in Vedic scriptural knowledge

Even if one obtained a hundred lifetimes repeatedly amongst human beings, all of them as a brahman, and was fully versed in Vedic scriptural knowledge, perfect in Vedic scriptural knowledge,

Yo ca jātisataṁ gacche sabbā brāhmaṇajātiyo
Sottiyo vedasampanno manussesu punappunaṁ.

And was a scholar [of the sacred texts], a master of the three Vedas, one would not deserve a fraction of the respect that is due [to Venerable MahāKassapa].

Ajjhāyako pi ce assa tiṇṇaṁ vedānaṁ pāragū
Etassa vandanāyetaṁ kalaṁ nāgghati soḷasiṁ. (Tha 1170-1)

Illustration: vedasampanno, endowed with profound knowledge

Formerly I was Brahmā’s offspring, today I am a true Brahman, a master of the three final knowledges, endowed with profound knowledge, fully versed in profound knowledge, spiritually cleansed.

Brahmabandhu pure āsiṁ ajjamhi saccabrāhmaṇo
Tevijjo vedasampanno sottiyo camhi nahātako ti. (Thi 251)

vedayita

vedanā

Renderings

Introduction

Vedayita=vedanā

Vedayita is the past participle of vedeti, meaning ‘felt, experienced,’ says PED. In some circumstances, we accordingly call it ‘experienced.’ But it is otherwise to be treated as a synonym of vedanā, for which we provide the following evidence:

1) Bodhi treats them as synonyms. For example he calls vedayita ‘feeling’ at SN iv 144 and AN iv 409.

2) The suttas likewise treat them as synonyms, for example in these two quotes:

• For one who has attained the ending of perception and sense impression, perception and sense impression are ended.

Saññāvedayitaṁ nirodhaṁ samāpannassa saññā ca vedanā ca niruddhā honti. (AN iv 409)

• ‘If there were no sense impression in any way, would there be the thought “I am this”?’ ‘No, bhante.’ ‘Therefore this argument is invalid: Sense impression is not my [absolute] Selfhood. My [absolute] Selfhood is without sense impression.’

yattha panāvuso sabbaso vedayitaṁ natthi api nu kho tattha ayamahamasmī ti siyā ti. No hetaṁ bhante. Tasmātihānanda etenapetaṁ nakkhamati na heva kho me vedanā attā appaṭisaṁvedano me attā ti samanupassituṁ. (DN ii 67)

3) Both vedayita and vedanā have the same threefold division:

• Whatever sense impression that arises due to visual sensation―whether pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral―becomes manifest to him according to reality, as unlasting.

yampidaṁ cakkhusamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṁ sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā tampi aniccanti yathābhūtaṁ okkhāyati. (SN iv 144)

• Whatever sense impression he experiences, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral, he takes delight in that sense impression, he welcomes it, and persists in cleaving to it. In so doing, spiritually fettering delight arises.

yaṁ kiñci vedanaṁ vedeti sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā so taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati tassa taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandī. (MN i 266)

Vedanā and Phassa

The relationship between vedanā (‘sense impression’) and phassa (‘sensation’) is as follows:

• Dependent on the visual sense and visible objects, the visual field of sensation arises. The association of the three is sensation. Sense impression arises dependent on sensation.

Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṁ. Tiṇṇaṁ saṅgati phasso. Phassapaccayā vedanā. . (SN ii 74)

Illustrations: vedanā

Illustration: vedanā, sense impression

Experiencing a pleasant sense impression, he knows that it is unlasting; he knows that it is not cleaved to; he knows that it is not delighted in.

So sukhaṁ ce vedanaṁ vedeti. Sā aniccā ti pajānāti anajjhositā ti pajānāti anabhinanditā ti pajānāti.

Experiencing an unpleasant sense impression, he knows that it is unlasting; he knows that it is not cleaved to; he knows that it is not delighted in.

Dukkhaṁ ce vedanaṁ vedeti. Sā aniccā ti pajānāti. Anajjhositā ti pajānāti. Anabhinanditā ti pajānāti

Experiencing a neutral sense impression, he knows that it is unlasting; he knows that it is not cleaved to; he knows that it is not delighted in.

adukkhamasukhañce vedanaṁ vedeti sā aniccā ti pajānāti anajjhositā ti pajānāti anabhinanditā ti pajānāti (MN iii 244)

Illustration: vedanā, sense impression

Bhikkhus, when the ignorant Everyman is affected by an unpleasant sense impression, he grieves, suffers, and laments, weeps beating his chest, and falls into bewilderment.

assutavā puthujjano dukkhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno socati kilamati paridevati urattāḷiṁ kandati sammohaṁ āpajjati

He experiences two sense impressions—a bodily one and a psychological one.

so dve vedanā vediyati kāyikañca cetasikañca.

Being affected by that unpleasant sense impression, he has feelings of repugnance for it.

Tassāyeva kho pana dukkhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno paṭighavā hoti.

When he has feelings of repugnance for unpleasant sense impression, the proclivity to repugnance towards unpleasant sense impression lurks within him.

Tamenaṁ dukkhāya vedanāya paṭighavantaṁ yo dukkhāya vedanāya paṭighānusayo so anuseti

When affected by an unpleasant sense impression, he longs for sensuous pleasure. For what reason?

so dukkhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno kāmasukhaṁ abhinandati. Taṁ kissa hetu

Because the ignorant Everyman does not discern any deliverance from unpleasant sense impression other than through sensuous pleasure.

na bhikkhave pajānāti assutavā puthujjano aññatra kāmasukhā dukkhāya vedanāya nissaraṇaṁ. (SN iv 208)

Illustration: vedanā, sense impression

He knows that: ‘There has arisen in me an unpleasant sense impression. Now that is dependent, not self-sufficient. Dependent on what? Dependent on sensation. But sensation is unlasting, originated, dependently arisen. So when an unpleasant sense impression has arisen dependent on sensation, which is unlasting, originated, dependently arisen, how could it be lasting?'

so evaṁ pajānāti; uppannā kho myāyaṁ dukkhā vedanā sā ca kho paṭicca no apaṭicca kiṁ paṭicca: imameva phassaṁ paṭicca ayaṁ kho pana phasso anicco saṅkhato paṭiccasamuppanno aniccaṁ kho pana saṅkhataṁ paṭiccasamuppannaṁ phassaṁ paṭicca uppannā dukkhā vedanā kuto niccā bhavissatī ti. (SN iv 213-4)

Illustration: vedanā, sense impression

Experiencing a pleasant sense impression, he knows that it is unlasting; he knows that it is not cleaved to; he knows that it is not delighted in.

So sukhaṁ ce vedanaṁ vedeti. Sā aniccā ti pajānāti anajjhositā ti pajānāti anabhinanditā ti pajānāti.

Experiencing an unpleasant sense impression, he knows that it is unlasting; he knows that it is not cleaved to; he knows that it is not delighted in.

Dukkhaṁ ce vedanaṁ vedeti. Sā aniccā ti pajānāti. Anajjhositā ti pajānāti. Anabhinanditā ti pajānāti

Experiencing a neutral sense impression, he knows that it is unlasting; he knows that it is not cleaved to; he knows that it is not delighted in.

adukkhamasukhañce vedanaṁ vedeti sā aniccā ti pajānāti anajjhositā ti pajānāti anabhinanditā ti pajānāti (MN iii 244)

Illustration: vedanā, sense impression

</blockquote>Without sense impression, there is no craving. With the ending of sense impression comes the ending of craving.

vedanāya kho asati taṇhā na hoti vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho ti. (DN ii 34)

</blockquote>

Illustration: vedanā, sense impression

Bhikkhus, just as various winds blow in the sky: winds from the east, winds from the west, winds from the north, winds from the south, dusty winds and dustless winds, cold winds and hot winds, mild winds and strong winds; so too, various sense impressions arise in this [wretched human] body:

Evameva kho bhikkhave imasmiṁ kāyasmiṁ vividhā vedanā uppajjanti

• a pleasant sense impression arises,

sukhāpi vedanā uppajjati

• an unpleasant sense impression arises

dukkhāpi vedanā uppajjati

• a neutral sense impression arises.

adukkhamasukhāpi vedanā uppajjatīti. (SN iv 218)

Illustration: vedanā, feelings; vedanā, pains

• Strong painful feelings are increasing in me

bāḷhā me dukkhā vedanā abhikkamanti. (SN iv 56)

With the Buddha, dukkhā is often omitted, and vedanā means dukkhā vedanā:

• Strong, deadly pains assailed him.

Bāḷhā vedanā vattanti māraṇantikā. (DN ii 99)

• Severe pains assailed the Blessed One

bhusā sudaṁ bhagavato vedanā vattanti. (SN i 27)

Illustration: vedanā, feeling

Having passed beyond the rapture of physical seclusion, having passed beyond unworldly pleasure, having entered [sublime] neutral feeling, he abides therein.

pavivekāya pītiyā samatikkamā nirāmisassa sukhassa samatikkamā adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ upasampajja viharati

He thinks, ‘This is peaceful, this is sublime, namely: having entered [sublime] neutral feeling I am abiding therein.’

Etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ yadidaṁ adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ upasampajja viharāmī ti. (MN ii 237)

Illustrations: vedayita

vedayita

vedayita: (main article see: vedanā)

Illustration: vedayita, experienced

These three types of sense impression have been spoken of by me: pleasant sense impression, unpleasant sense impression, and neutral sense impression. These three types of sense impression have been spoken of by me.

tisso imā bhikkhu vedanā vuttā mayā sukhā vedanā dukkhā vedanā adukkhamasukhā vedanā imā tisso vedanā vuttā mayā

And I have also said: ‘Whatever is experienced is intrinsically unsatisfactory.

Vuttaṁ kho panetaṁ bhikkhu mayā yaṁ kiñci vedayitaṁ taṁ dukkhasmin ti. (SN iv 216)

Illustration: vedayita, experienced

That which is experienced by body or mind as pleasant or enjoyable is called a pleasant sense impression.

Yaṁ kho āvuso visākha kāyikaṁ vā cetasikaṁ vā sukhaṁ sātaṁ vedayitaṁ ayaṁ sukhā vedanā. (MN i 302)

Illustration: vedayita, sense impression

When the ignorant Everyman is affected by sense impression born of sensation and uninsightfulness into reality, craving arises.

avijjāsamphassajena bhikkhave vedayitena phuṭṭhassa assutavato puthujjanassa uppannā taṇhā. (SN iii 96)

Illustration: vedayita, sense impression

Seeing thus the learned noble disciple is disillusioned with the visual sense, visible objects, the visual field of sensation, visual sensation, and whatever sense impression that arises due to visual sensation―whether pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral;…

Evaṁ passaṁ bhikkhu sutavā ariyasāvako cakkhusmimpi nibbindati rūpesupi nibbindati cakkhuviññāṇepi nibbindati cakkhusamphassepi nibbindati yampidaṁ cakkhusamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṁ sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā tasmimpi nibbindati. (SN iv 171)

Illustration: vedayita, sense impression

With the demise of the body at death, and with the ending of life, he knows that all sense impressions, being not delighted in, will be dissipated right here in this world.

Kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā uddhaṁ jīvitapariyādānā ideva sabbavedayitāni anabhinanditāni sītibhavissantī ti pajānāti. (MN iii 245)

vera

Renderings

Illustrations

averā

averā: (main article see: vera)

Illustration: averā, free of unfriendliness; averino, uncordiality

May we abide free of unfriendliness, violence, enmity, hostility, and uncordiality

averā adaṇḍā asapattā avyāpajjhā viharemu averino ti. (DN ii 276)

verāni

verāni: (main article see: vera)

Illustration: verāni, unfriendly deeds (plural); verena, unfriendliness

Unfriendly deeds do not in any way cease in this world through unfriendliness. They cease through friendliness. This is a timeless truth.

Na hi verena verāni sammantīdha kudācanaṁ
Averena ca sammanti esa dhammo sanantano. (MN iii 154)

Comment:

The singular/plural switch has proven problematic.

  • Horner says ‘wrathful moods’: ‘not by wrath are wrathful moods allayed’
  • Bodhi misplaces the plural: ‘Hatred is never allayed by further acts of hate.’

Illustration: verāni, unfriendly deeds (plural); veraṁ, unfriendliness

[Fault-finding devas:]

‘If one does not grant pardon to those who confess their transgressions, being inwardly angry, intent on hatred, one strongly harbours unfriendliness.’

Accayaṁ desayantīnaṁ yo ce na paṭigaṇhati
Kopantaro dosagaru sa veraṁ paṭimuccati.

[The Buddha:]

‘If there was no transgression, if here there was no going astray, and if one’s unfriendly deeds were stopped, through this one would be excellent in this world.’

Accayo ce na vijjetha no cidhāpagataṁ siyā
Verāni ca sammeyyuṁ tenīdha kusalo siyā. (SN i 24)

verānaṁ

verānaṁ: (main article see: vera)

Illustration: verānaṁ, unfriendly deeds

For two good reasons the Perfect One establishes training rules for his disciples.

Dveme bhikkhave atthavase paṭicca tathāgatena sāvakānaṁ sikkhāpadaṁ paññattaṁ. Katame dve?

• To restrain unfriendly deeds (i.e. the bhikkhu’s own deeds) in this lifetime,

diṭṭhadhammikānaṁ verānaṁ saṁvarāya

• and to ward off unfriendly deeds (i.e. acts of retribution?) in the hereafter.

samparāyikānaṁ verānaṁ paṭighātāya. (AN i 98)

verā

verā: (main article see: vera)

Illustration: verā, unfriendly deed (plural); veraṁ, unfriendliness

[Prince Dīghāvu, to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, who executed Dīghāvu’s father:]

‘Concerning that, Your Majesty, which my father said to me at the time of his death:

• “not far” means: Do not sustain unfriendliness long.

mā dīghan ti mā ciraṁ veraṁ akāsī ti

• “not close” means: Do not hastily break with a friend.

mā rassan ti mā khippaṁ mittehi bhijjitthā ti

• “Unfriendly deeds are not stopped by unfriendliness. Unfriendly deeds, dear Dīghāvu, are stopped by friendliness” means:

na hi tāta Dīghāvu verena verā sammanti. Averena hi tāta dīghāvu verā sammantī ti

‘My parents were killed by a king. But if I were to deprive the king of life those who desired the king's well-being would deprive me of life and those who desired my well-being would deprive these of life. Thus that unfriendly deed would not be settled by unfriendliness.

devena me mātāpitaro hatā ti sacāhaṁ devaṁ jīvitāvoropeyyaṁ ye devassa atthakāmā te maṁ jīvitā voropeyyuṁ. Ye me atthakāmā te te jīvitā voropeyyuṁ. Evaṁ taṁ veraṁ verena na vūpasameyya

‘But now that life is granted me by a king, and life is granted a king by me, thus is that unfriendly deed settled by friendliness.’

idāni ca pana me devena jīvitaṁ dinnaṁ. Mayā ca devassa jīvitaṁ dinnaṁ. Evaṁ taṁ veraṁ averena vūpasantaṁ. (Vin.1.348)

Illustration: averā, unfriendliness

May these creatures sustain themselves happily, and be rid of unfriendliness, hostility, and spiritual defilement.

ime sattā averā avyāpajjhā anīghā sukhi attānaṁ pariharantū ti. (MN i 288)

Illustration: verā, unfriendliness

He who wants his own happiness through causing others suffering, in embroiling himself in unfriendliness, from unfriendliness he will not be released.

Paradukkhūpadhānena attano sukhamicchati
Verasaṁsaggasaṁsaṭṭho verā so na parimuccati. (Dhp 291)

veraṁ

veraṁ: (main article see: vera)

Illustration: veraṁ, unfriendliness

Then Prince Dīghāvu, having stroked the head of Brahmadatta, the King of Kasi, with his left hand, having drawn his sword with his right hand, spoke thus to Brahmadatta, the King of Kasi:

• I, Your Majesty, am Prince Dīghāvu, that son of Dīghāvu, the King of Kosala. You have done us much mischief. Our troops, vehicles, territory, storehouses and granaries were stolen by you, and my parents were killed by you. This could be a time when I could show my unfriendliness

ayaṅkhavassa kālo yvāhaṁ veraṁ appeyyan ti. (Vin.1.347)

averaṁ

averaṁ: (main article see: vera)

Illustration: averaṁ, freedom from unfriendliness

A noble disciple abandons and refrains from killing. In doing so, to limitless beings he gives freedom from fear, unfriendliness, and hostility.

Idha bhikkhave ariyasāvako pāṇātipātaṁ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti. Pāṇātipātā paṭivirato bhikkhave ariyasāvako aparimāṇānaṁ sattānaṁ abhayaṁ deti. Averaṁ deti. Avyāpajjhaṁ deti.

Having done so, he partakes of limitless freedom from fear, unfriendliness, and hostility.

Aparimāṇānaṁ sattānaṁ abhayaṁ datvā averaṁ datvā avyāpajjhaṁ datvā aparimāṇassa abhayassa averassa avyāpajjhassa bhāgī hoti. (AN iv 246)

averena

averena: (main article see: vera)

Illustration: averena, free of unfriendliness

We shall abide pervading the whole world [of beings] with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill, vast, exalted, unlimited, free of unfriendliness and hostility.

Tadārammaṇañca sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena avyāpajjhena pharitvā viharissāmāti. (MN i 126)

veraṁ

veraṁ: (main article see: vera)

Illustration: veraṁ, unfriendliness

One whose mind all day and night takes delight in harmlessness, has [unlimited] goodwill for all beings and unfriendliness with none.

Yassa sabbamahorattaṁ ahiṁsāya rato mano
Mettaṁ so sabbabhūtesu veraṁ tassa na kenacī ti. (SN i 208)

Illustration: veraṁ, unfriendliness

Victory begets unfriendliness.

Jayaṁ veraṁ pasavati. (SN i 83)

Illustration: veraṁ, unfriendliness

The killer, in killing, begets danger and unfriendliness in this lifetime.

Yaṁ gahapati pāṇātipātī pāṇātipātapaccayā diṭṭhadhammikampi bhayaṁ veraṁ pasavati. (SN ii 68)

verāni

verāni: (main article see: vera)

Illustration: verāni, deeds that beget unfriendliness

Having not abandoned five deeds that beget danger and unfriendliness one is called unvirtuous, and is reborn in hell. Which five? Killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and drinking.

Pañca gahapati bhayāni verāni appahāya dussīlo iti vuccati. Nirayañca upapajjati. Katamāni pañca: pāṇātipātaṁ adinnādānaṁ kāmesu micchācāraṁ musāvādaṁ surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānaṁ. (AN iii 204)

Illustration: vera, deeds that beget unfriendliness

One for whom attachment, hatred, and uninsightfulness into reality are discarded, they call him spiritually developed, a perfect one become supreme, enlightened, one who has left behind deeds that beget danger and unfriendliness, one who has abandoned the whole [phenomenon of attachment].

Yassa rāgo ca doso ca avijjā ca virājitā taṁ bhāvitattaññataraṁ brahmabhūtaṁ tathāgataṁ
Buddhaṁ verabhayātītaṁ āhu sabbappahāyinan ti. (Iti 56)

vossagga

Renderings

Introduction

The meaning of vossaggapariṇāmiṁ

In the formula of the seven factors of enlightenment, vossaggapariṇāmiṁ (‘results in relinquishment’) is said to be the result of that practice:

• In this regard a bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness which conduces to seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], to non-attachment [to originated phenomena], to the ending [of originated phenomena], and which results in vossagga.’

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu satisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti vivekanissitaṁ virāganissitaṁ nirodhanissitaṁ vossaggapariṇāmiṁ.

But the goal of the seven factors of enlightenment is also said to be 1) bodha 2) taṇhakkhaya, and 3) vijjāvimutti, all of which imply nibbāna:

1) They lead to enlightenment, therefore they are called factors of enlightenment

Bodhāya saṁvattantīti kho bhikkhu tasmā bojjhaṅgāti vuccanti. (SN v 83)

2) And what is the path and practice leading to the destruction of craving? It is the seven factors of enlightenment.

Katamo ca bhikkhave maggo katamā ca paṭipadā taṇhakkhayāya saṁvattati: yadidaṁ satta bojjhaṅgā. (SN v 86)

3) The seven factors of enlightenment, when developed and cultivated, bring to perfection insightfulness into reality and liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

satta bojjhaṅgā bhāvitā bahulīkatā vijjāvimuttiṁ paripūrenti. (SN v 329)

Because bodha, taṇhakkhaya and vijjāvimutti imply nibbāna it would be congruous if vossagga was understood in the same way. How, then, should it be rendered? Let us consider its synonyms, cāgo and paṭinissaggo, which are likewise equivalent to nibbāna in the following sense:

• For this, bhikkhu, is the supreme noble relinquishment, namely the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment.

Eso hi bhikkhu paramo ariyo cāgo yadidaṁ sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo. (MN iii 245)

That sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo is a synonym of nibbāna is demonstrated here:

• This is indeed a matter difficult to realise, namely the quelling of all originated phenomena, the relinquishment of the whole phenomenon of attachment… the Untroubled.

Idampi kho ṭhānaṁ duddasaṁ yadidaṁ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhakkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānaṁ. (Vin.1.5)

Thus, to be equivalent to bodha, taṇhakkhaya and vijjāvimutti, vossaggapariṇāmiṁ should be rendered as ‘results in the relinquishment [of the whole phenomenon of attachment].’

Vossagga in other contexts

Having established that the object of vossagga is upadhi, we take this as its object elsewhere where an object is needed, most importantly in the phrase:

• Having made the relinquishment [of attachment] the basis [for spiritual development]

See full quote below.

Illustrations

Illustration: vossagga, generosity

She dwells at home with a mind unblighted by stinginess, freely generous, liberal, taking delight in generosity, devoted to charity, delighted in giving and sharing.

vigatamalamaccherena cetasā agāraṁ ajjhāvasati muttacāgā payatapāṇī vossaggaratā yācayogā dānasaṁvibhāgaratā. (SN v 396-7)

Illustration: vossagga, relinquishment [of attachment]

And what is the faculty of inward collectedness?

Katamañca bhikkhave samādhindriyaṁ

In this regard, the noble disciple, having made the relinquishment [of attachment] the basis [for spiritual development], gains inward collectedness, gains mental concentration.

idha bhikkhave ariyasāvako vossaggārammaṇaṁ karitvā labhati samādhiṁ labhati cittassa ekaggataṁ. Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave samādhindriyaṁ. (SN v 197)

vossajja

vossajja: (main article see: vossagga)

Illustration: vossajja, relinquishing [attachment]

He should live the religious life relinquishing [attachment].

COMMENT:

Careyya: ‘should live the religious life.’ See Glossary sv Eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

vossaṭṭha

vossaṭṭha: (main article see: vossagga)

Illustration: vossaṭṭha, relinquish [attachment]

Bhante, what is the cause and reason why some egg-born nāgās here observe the Uposatha and relinquish [attachment to] their bodies?

ko nu kho bhante hetu ko paccayo yenamidhekacce aṇḍajā nāgā uposathaṁ upavasanti vossaṭṭhakāyā ca bhavantī ti. (SN iii 241)

Comment:

Nāgās can undertake the precepts of virtue on the Uposatha days and even resolve to uphold the precepts at the cost of their lives (CDB p.1101 n.285).

vossajja

vossajja: (main article see: vossagga)

Illustration: vossajja, relinquishing

Recognising this danger, that suffering arises dependent on spiritual instability, therefore having relinquished spiritual instability and ended karmically consequential deeds, imperturbable and free of grasping, the bhikkhu should mindfully fulfil the ideals of religious asceticism.

Etamādīnavaṁ ñatvā dukkhaṁ iñjitapaccayā
Tasmā hi ejaṁ vossajja saṅkhāre uparundhiya
Anejo anupādāno sato bhikkhu paribbaje ti. (Snp 751)

vossaggena

vossaggena: (main article see: vossagga)

Illustration: vossaggena, grant leave

A master should serve his servants and employees by occasionally granting them leave.

Illustration: vossaggena, delegate

A husband should serve his wife by delegating authority to her

vossajjitvā

vossajjitvā: (main article see: vossagga)

Illustration: vossajjitvā, delegated

Completely delegated all our responsibilities

sabbakiccāni sammā vossajjitvā. (DN ii 231)

Alas! At the very moment we had completely delegated all our responsibilities to Govinda the brahman, and we, provided with and possessed of the five varieties of sensuous pleasure, were enjoying ourselves, Govinda the brahman passed away.

yasmiṁ vata bho mayaṁ samaye govinde brāhmaṇe sabbakiccāni sammā vossajjitvā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappitā samaṅgībhūtā paricārema tasmiṁ no samaye govindo brāhmaṇo kālakato ti. (DN ii 231)

vyāpajjati

Renderings

Illustrations: vyāpajjati

Illustration: vyāpajjati, troubled

In this regard, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense, a bhikkhu is not intent upon an agreeable visible object, nor troubled by a disagreeable visible object.

Idha bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā piyarūpe rūpe nādhimuccati appiyarūpe rūpe na vyāpajjati. (SN iv 119)

avyāpajjamāno

avyāpajjamāno: (main article see: vyāpajjati)

Illustration: avyāpajjamāno, untroubled

Having [unlimited] compassion, Brahman, explain the teaching about seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors], which, when I understand it, then, as untroubled as space, I can live the religious life inwardly at peace, and free of attachment.

Anusāsa brahme karuṇāyamāno vivekadhammaṁ yamahaṁ vijaññaṁ;
Yathāhaṁ ākāsova avyāpajjamāno idheva santo asito careyyaṁ. (Snp 1065)

Illustration: vyāpajjati, upset

He takes offence, becomes angry, upset, and resentful. He evinces anger, hatred, and irritation.

abhisajjati kuppati vyāpajjati patitthīyati kopañca dosañca appaccayañca pātukaroti. (AN iii 181)

vyāpajjeyya

vyāpajjeyya: (main article see: vyāpajjati)

Illustration: vyāpajjeyya, upset

I may stumble and fall. The food I have eaten may upset me.

Upakkhalitvāvāhaṁ papateyyaṁ bhattaṁ vāpi me bhuttaṁ vyāpajjeyya. (AN iii 306)

vyābajjhā

vyāpajjha

Renderings

Introduction

Considerable confusion: BJT editor astonished

That vyāpajjha and vyābajjha are hopelessly confused is expressed in the digital edition of the Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tripiṭaka, where the editor comments on this quote:

• Properly reflecting, he uses therapeutic requisites simply to ward off troublesome feelings that have arisen and for maximum freedom from affliction.

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṁ paṭisevati yāvadeva uppannānaṁ veyyābādhikānaṁ vedanānaṁ paṭighātāya avyābajjhaparamatāya.

However, at MN i 10 an alternative spelling occurs: avyāpajjhaparamatāya, about which the BJT editor has this to say:

• We correct the 'p' in avyāpajjha of the BJT text to 'b' in agreement with the PTS M1 and Nld readings. We regard avyābajjha as the correct reading because it is derived from the basic Pāli word vyābādha vyābādhya vyābajjha. In view of this process of derivation, we opt the final reading to be avyābajjha. At the same time it is astonishing to find the derivative from the Pāli word vyāpāda written as vyāpajjha. The two words appear to be the result of a considerable amount of mutual confusion.

Bodhi: similar correction

A vacillation between savyābajjhā and savyāpajjhā is seen in a passage at MN ii 130, which in 2001 Bhikkhu Bodhi translated as follows:

• Great king, those gods who are still subject to affliction come back to this [human] state, those gods who are no longer subject to affliction do not come back to this [human] state (Bodhi, 2001)

Ye te mahārāja devā savyābajjhā te devā āgantāro itthattaṁ ye te devā avyābajjhā te devā anāgantāro itthattan ti. (MN ii 130)

But in 2005, he adopted the alternative Pāli, and translated as follows:

• Great king, those gods who are still subject to ill will come back to this [human] state, those gods who are no longer subject to ill will do not come back to this [human] state (Bodhi, 2005).

Ye te mahārāja devā savyāpajjhā te devā āgantāro itthattaṁ ye te devā avyāpajjhā te devā anāgantāro itthattan ti. (MN ii 130)

Although either reading could be justified, the 2001 edition is preferable for two reasons:

1) Non-returners do not usually proclaim themselves in terms of freedom from ill will. More usually they proclaim themselves in terms of freedom from sensuous hankering:

• We, dear sir, who lived the religious life under the Blessed One Vipassī have been reborn here having discarded sensuous hankering for sensuous pleasures.

Te mayaṁ mārisa vipassimhi bhagavatī brahmacariyaṁ caritvā kāmesu kāmacchandaṁ virājetvā idhūpapannā ti. (DN ii 51)

2) It is in accordance with other suttas to define non-returnership in terms of non-affliction because non-returners have demolished all demerit in their lifetime, and therefore the associated affliction to be experienced:

• Whatever demeritorious karmically consequential conduct was previously undertaken by this [wretched human] body born of deeds, all [the consequences of] that must be experienced now [in this lifetime]; it will not [be able to] arise hereafter.’ Thus developed, the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] goodwill leads to non-returnership for a wise bhikkhu here who has not penetrated to a more exalted liberation.

yaṁ kho me idha kiñcī pubbe iminā karajakāyena pāpakammaṁ kataṁ sabbaṁ taṁ idha vedanīyaṁ na taṁ anugaṁ bhavissatī ti. Evaṁ bhāvitā kho bhikkhave mettācetovimutti anāgāmitāya saṁvattati idha paññassa bhikkhuno uttariṁ vimuttiṁ appaṭivijjhato. (AN v 300)

Confusion noted in PED

The source of the confusion between the spellings can be seen in PED’s comments:

1) Vyābādha (& byābādha) [fr. vi + ā + bādh, but semantically connected with vi + ā + pad, as in vyāpāda & vyāpajjha

2) Avyāpajjha1 (abyābajjha) (nt.) [a + vyapajjha or bajjha, a confusion between the roots bādh or pad]

3) Avyāpajjha2 (abyābajjha) adj.) [either a + vyāpadya or more likely a + vyābādhya]

Resolving the confusion

We resolve the confusion as follows:

1) All bya- prefixes are spelt here as vya-

2) We spell vyāpajjha with ‘h.’ We regard vyāpajja as a misspelling. PED likewise does not recognise this as a word.

3) Vyāpajjha (‘hostility’) is commonly associated with veraṁ (‘unfriendliness’), implying that the words are synonyms. In the context of veraṁ we therefore regard vyābajjhā (‘affliction’) as a misspelling, and correct it to vyāpajjhā. For example, consider this passage:

• To limitless beings he gives freedom from fear, unfriendliness, and hostility.

aparimāṇānaṁ sattānaṁ abhayaṁ deti. Averaṁ deti. Avyāpajjhaṁ deti.

… In doing so, he partakes of limitless freedom from fear, unfriendliness, and hostility.

Aparimāṇānaṁ sattānaṁ abhayaṁ datvā averaṁ datvā avyāpajjhaṁ datvā aparimāṇassa abhayassa averassa avyāpajjhassa bhāgī hoti. (AN iv 246)

A misspelt variant reading is given in VRI, as follows:

Aparimāṇānaṁ sattānaṁ abhayaṁ datvā averaṁ datvā avyābajjhaṁ datvā aparimāṇassa abhayassa averassa avyābajjhassa bhāgī hoti.

Illustrations: vyāpajjhaṁ

vyāpajjhaṁ

vyāpajjhaṁ: (main article see: vyāpajjha)

Illustration: vyāpajjhaṁ, hostility

Freedom from hostility in the world is happiness, and being restrained [in conduct] towards living beings

Avyāpajjhaṁ sukhaṁ loke pāṇabhutesu saṁyamo. (Uda 10, Vin.1.3)

Illustration: vyāpajjhaṁ, hostility

A bhikkhu develops a mind of [unlimited] goodwill which is free of unfriendliness and hostility.

bhikkhu averaṁ avyāpajjhaṁ mettacittaṁ bhāveti. (DN i 167-8)

Illustration: vyāpajjhaṁ, hostile

And what, Puṇṇa, is conduct that is dark with dark karmic consequences

kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ?

In this regard, some person undertakes a hostile karmically consequential deed by way of body… speech… mind

savyāpajjhaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ… vacīsaṅkhāraṁ… manosaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkharoti.

Having done so, he is reborn in a hostile world (savyāpajjhaṁ lokaṁ upapajjati) where hostile sensations affect him (savyāpajjhā phassā phusanti) and he experiences hostile sense impressions that are exclusively unpleasant (savyāpajjhaṁ vedanaṁ vedeti ekantadukkhaṁ), as experienced by the beings in hell. (MN i 390)

avyāpajjhena

avyāpajjhena: (main article see: vyāpajjha)

Illustration: avyāpajjhena, free of hostility

We shall abide pervading the whole world [of beings] with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill, vast, exalted, unlimited, free of unfriendliness and hostility.

sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena avyāpajjhena pharitvā viharissāmāti. (MN i 126)

vyāpajjhaṁ

vyāpajjhaṁ: (main article see: vyāpajjha)

Illustration: vyāpajjhaṁ, hostile

If, bhante, an assumed individuality that is hostile is brought into being, unconducive to inner perfection, spiritually unwholesome factors flourish and spiritually wholesome factors fade in him.

savyāpajjhaṁ bhante attabhāvapaṭilābhaṁ abhinibbattayato apariniṭṭhitabhāvāya akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti kusalā dhammā parihāyanti. (MN iii 52)

avyāpajjhaṁ

avyāpajjhaṁ: (main article see: vyāpajjha)

Illustration: avyāpajjhaṁ, unhostile

One should develop an unhostile, beneficent attitude which leads to the world of the devas.

Avyāpajjhaṁ hitaṁ cittaṁ devalokāya bhāvaye. (AN iii 213)

avyāpajjhā

avyāpajjhā: (main article see: vyāpajjha)

Illustration: avyāpajjhā, without hostility

He has a benevolent mind and unhateful thoughts:

Avyāpannacitto kho pana hoti appaduṭṭhamanasaṅkappo

May these creatures sustain themselves happily, and be rid of unfriendliness, hostility, and spiritual defilement.

ime sattā averā avyāpajjhā anīghā sukhi attānaṁ pariharantū ti. (MN i 288)

Illustration: avyāpajjhā, non-hostility

The Perfect One takes pleasure and delight in non-hostility. In doing so, this thought often occurs: ‘By this behaviour I harm no one at all, whether weak or strong.’

Avyāpajjhārāmo bhikkhave tathāgato avyāpajjharato. Tamenaṁ bhikkhave tathāgataṁ avyāpajjhārāmaṁ avyāpajjharataṁ esova vitakko bahulaṁ samudācarati: imāyāhaṁ irīyāya na kiñci vyābādhemi tasaṁ vā thāvaraṁ vā ti. (Iti 31)

Illustrations: vyābajjhā

vyābajjhā

vyābajjhā: (main article see: vyāpajjha)

Illustration: vyābajjhā, affliction

Properly reflecting, he uses therapeutic requisites simply to ward off troublesome feelings that have arisen and for maximum freedom from affliction.

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṁ paṭisevati yāvadeva uppannānaṁ veyyābādhikānaṁ vedanānaṁ paṭighātāya avyābajjhaparamatāya. (AN iii 338)

vyābajjhaṁ

vyābajjhaṁ: (main article see: vyāpajjha)

Illustration: vyābajjhaṁ, affliction

The wise are reborn in a world of happiness that is free of affliction.

Avyābajjhaṁ sukhaṁ lokaṁ paṇḍito upapajjatī tī. (Iti 14-16)

avyābajjhaṁ

avyābajjhaṁ: (main article see: vyāpajjha)

Illustration: avyābajjhaṁ, affliction

The highest sweetness of sense impressions is freedom from affliction, I declare.

Avyābajjhaparamāhaṁ bhikkhave vedanānaṁ assādaṁ vadāmi. (MN i 89-90)

vyāpanna

vyāpāda

Renderings

Introduction

Etymology: vyāpanna

Vyāpanna is the past participle of vyāpajjati, and an adjective.

• He has an unbenevolent attitude

Etymology: vyāpāda

Vyāpāda and avyāpāda are nouns from vyāpajjati: ill will and goodwill.

Vyāpāda and avyāpāda: adjectives

Vyāpāda and avyāpāda are also adjectives: ‘unbenevolent’ and ‘benevolent’. For example:

• Because of the phenomenon of ill will, unbenevolent mental imagery arises.

vyāpādadhātuṁ bhikkhave paṭicca uppajjati vyāpādasaññā. (SN ii 151)

• Three spiritually wholesome ways of thought: unsensuous thought, benevolent thought, compassionate thought.

Tayo kusalasaṅkappā: nekkhammasaṅkappo avyāpādasaṅkappo avihiṁsāsaṅkapo. (DN iii 215)

Ill will: not malevolence

‘Ill will’ means ‘lack of well-wishing,’ but not necessarily ‘malevolence,’ as Horner calls it, which means the wish to harm, and would be difficult to distinguish from vihiṁsā, maliciousness.

Ill will is hatred

• ’What do you think, Sāḷha: is there hatred?’

Taṁ kiṁ maññatha sāḷhā atthi doso ti?

• ’Yes, bhante.

• ’I call it ill will, Sāḷha.

Vyāpādo ti kho ahaṁ sāḷhā etamatthaṁ vadāmi. (AN i 194)

Goodwill is non-hatred

• ’What do you think, Sāḷha: is there non-hatred?’

Taṁ kiṁ maññatha sāḷhā atthi adoso ti?

• ’Yes, bhante.

• ’I call it goodwill, Sāḷha.

Avyāpādo ti kho ahaṁ sāḷhā etamatthaṁ vadāmi. (AN i 195)

Illustrations: vyāpādo

vyāpādassa

vyāpādassa: (main article see: vyāpāda)

Illustration: vyāpādassa, ill will

There is the quality of repulsiveness. Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen ill will, and the increase and expansion of arisen ill will.

Atthi bhikkhave paṭighanimittaṁ. Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā vyāpādassa uppādāya uppannassa vā vyāpādassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya. (SN v 64)

vyāpādo

vyāpādo: (main article see: vyāpāda)

Illustration: vyāpādo, ill will

If the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] goodwill is developed and cultivated, it is impossible, out of the question, that ill will would plague your mind.

Aṭṭhānametaṁ āvuso anavakāso yaṁ mettāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya… atha ca panassa vyāpādo cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassatī ti. (DN iii 248-250)

Illustration: vyāpāda, unbenevolent

He does not tolerate an arisen unbenevolent thought…

Uppannaṁ vyāpādavitakkaṁ nādhivāseti (AN ii 16)

Illustration: vyāpāda, unbenevolent

Because of the phenomenon of ill will, unbenevolent mental imagery arises.

vyāpādadhātuṁ bhikkhave paṭicca uppajjati vyāpādasaññā.

Because of unbenevolent mental imagery, unbenevolent thought arises

vyāpādasaññaṁ paṭicca uppajjati vyāpādasaṅkappo.

Because of unbenevolent thought, unbenevolent desire arises.

vyāpādasaṅkappaṁ paṭicca uppajjati vyāpādacchando

Because of unbenevolent desire, unbenevolent passion arises

vyāpādacchandaṁ paṭicca uppajjati vyāpādapariḷāho

Because of unbenevolent passion, unbenevolent quests arise

vyāpādapariḷāhaṁ paṭicca uppajjati vyāpādapariyesanā

Engaged in unbenevolent quests, the ignorant Everyman conducts himself wrongly in three ways: by body, speech, and mind.

vyāpādapariyesanaṁ bhikkhave pariyesamāno assutavā puthujjano tīhi ṭhānehi micchā paṭipajjati kāyena vācāya manasā. (SN ii 151)

Illustrations: a/vyāpanna

avyāpanna

avyāpanna: (main article see: vyāpāda)

Illustration: avyāpanna, benevolent

He has a benevolent mind and unhateful thoughts:

Avyāpannacitto kho pana hoti appaduṭṭhamanasaṅkappo

May these creatures sustain themselves happily, and be rid of unfriendliness, hostility, and spiritual defilement.

ime sattā averā avyāpajjhā anīghā sukhi attānaṁ pariharantū ti. (MN i 288)

vyāpanna

vyāpanna: (main article see: vyāpāda)

Illustration: vyāpanna, unbenevolent; avyāpādo, goodwill,

One with an unbenevolent mind has goodwill to circumvent it.

Vyāpannacittassa purisapuggalassa avyāpādo hoti parikkamanāya. (MN i 44)

avyāpannacitto

avyāpannacitto: (main article see: vyāpāda)

Illustration: avyāpannacitto, benevolent

Abandoning ill will and hatred he abides with a benevolent mind, tenderly concerned for the welfare of all living beings.

Vyāpādapadosaṁ pahāya avyāpannacitto viharati sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī. (DN i 71)

vyābādha

Renderings

Illustrations: vyābādha

vyābādhiyiṁsū

vyābādhiyiṁsū: (main article see: vyābādha)

Illustration: vyābādhiyiṁsū, troubled

A certain bhikkhu ate garlic, and sat down at a distance, thinking: “May the bhikkhus not be troubled [by the stench of garlic].”

Aññatarena bhikkhunā lasunaṁ khāyitaṁ hoti. So mā bhikkhū vyābādhiyiṁsū ti ekamantaṁ nisīdi. (Vin.2.140)

veyyābādhikānaṁ

veyyābādhikānaṁ: (main article see: vyābādha)

Illustration: veyyābādhikānaṁ, troublesome

Properly reflecting, he uses therapeutic requisites simply to ward off troublesome feelings that have arisen and for maximum freedom from affliction.

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṁ paṭisevati yāvadeva uppannānaṁ veyyābādhikānaṁ vedanānaṁ paṭighātāya avyābajjhaparamatāya.

Comment:

Veyy- is a phonetic diaeretic form of vy- (PED).

vyābādhāya

vyābādhāya: (main article see: vyābādha)

Illustration: vyābādhāya, harm

This sensuous thought has arisen in me, but it leads to my own harm, the harm of others, the harm of both.

uppanno kho me ayaṁ kāmavitakko. So ca kho attavyābādhāyapi saṁvattati paravyābādhāyapi saṁvattati ubhayavyābādhāyapi saṁvattati. (MN i 115)

vyābādhāya

vyābādhāya: (main article see: vyābādha)

Illustration: vyābādhāya, harm

Because of attachment he is intent upon his own harm, upon the harm of others, upon the harm of both.

rāgādhikaraṇaṁ attavyābādhāyapi ceteti paravyābādhāyapi ceteti ubhayavyābādhāyapi ceteti. (SN iv 339-340)

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